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No. 1.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., March 11, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


OCTOBER,  1843.

Sunday, October 1. -- I copy the following from the Times and Seasons of this date...

Thursday, 5. -- This morning I rode out with Esquire Butterfield to the farm, &c.

In the afternoon rode to the prairie to show some of the brethren some land. Evening, at home, and walked up and down the streets with my scribe. Gave instructions to try those persons who were preaching, teaching, or practising the doctrine of plurality of wives; for, according to the law, I hold the keys of this power in the last days, for there is never but one on earth at a time on whom the power and its keys are conferred -- and I have constantly said no man shall have but one wife at a time, unless the Lord directs otherwise.

Friday, 6. -- I attended special conference; but as few people were out in consequence of the weather proving unfavorable, the organization of the conference was adjourned until to-morrow, or the first pleasant day.

After giving notice that President Rigdon's case would be considered, &c., I walked towards home, and gave instructions to my scribe to cause all the papers relating to my land claims in the Half Breed Tract in Iowa, to be placed in the hands of Esquire Butterfield.

Saturday, 7. -- I attended conference.

Sunday, 8. -- Slight frost last night. Conference convened in the morning, but, as it rained, adjourned till Monday, at 10 a. m.

Prayer meeting at my house in the evening; quorum present; also, in addition, sisters Adams, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, my aunt Clarissa Smith, and my mother.

My brother Hyrum and his wife were blessed, ordained, and anointed.

The Twelve arrived at Pittsburgh at 10 a. m., and again left by the steamer "Raritan," at 11 a. m., en route for Nauvoo...

Note 1: Scott H. Faulring, in his An American Prophet's Record, records Joseph Smith, Jr.'s Nauvoo Diary for the year 1843, and on page 116 (p. 417 of Faulring), transcribes the entry for October 5th, thusly: "Walked up and down St with Scribe and gave instructions to try those who were preaching, teaching, or practicing the doctrine of plurality of wives on this Law. Joseph forbids it and the practice thereof. No man shall have but one wife." Compare this reading with the Deseret News text, and with the comments of Richard S. Van Wagoner, that the original 1843 text records Smith's "most pointed denial of plural marriage." According to Van Wagoner, "Willard Richards wrote in Smith's diary that Joseph 'gave instructions to try those who were preaching, teaching, or practicing the doctrine of plurality of wives.... Joseph forbids it and the practice thereof. No man shall have but one wife.' (in his Sidney Rigdon, p. 292)

Note 2: A subsequent (Nov. 25, 1843) problem with Priest Harrison Sagers is recorded in LDS History of the Church, VI:81: "In the evening the High Council sat on the case of Harrison Sagers, charged with seduction, and having stated that I had taught it was right. Charge not sustained. I was present with several of the Twelve, and gave an address tending to do away with every evil, and exhorting them to practice virtue and holiness before the Lord; told them that the Church had not received any permission from me to commit fornication, adultery, or any corrupt action; but my every word and action has been to the contrary. If a man commit adultery, he cannot receive the celestial kingdom of God. Even if he is saved in any kingdom, it cannot be the celestial Kingdom. I did think that the many examples that have been made manifest, such as John C. Bennett's and others, were sufficient to show the fallacy of such a course of conduct. I condemned such actions in toto, and warned the people present against committing such evils; for it will surely bring a curse upon any person who commits such deeds." According to Mormon sources, on Apr. 13, 1844, "A charge was preferred against Harrison Sagers for teaching spiritual wife doctrine and neglecting his family, which was handed over to the High Council to act upon." LDS History of the Church, VI:333; cf. Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844: "Whereas my husband, the Rt. Rev. W. H. Harrison Sagers, Esq., has left my bed and board without cause or provocation, this is to notify the public not to harbor or trust him on my account, as I will pay no debts of his contracting. More anon. Lucinda Sagers."

Note 3: Quite likely the Nov. 1843 W. H. Harrison Sagers case was the problem that Joseph Smith, Jr. had on his mind, when he wrote his Diary entry for Oct. 5, 1843, mentioning "instructions to try those who were preaching, teaching, or practicing the doctrine of plurality of wives." And yet, the first appearance of Sagers before the Nauvoo High Council resulted in his discharge. Here is what an eye-witness to Sagers' first trial had to say in 1844: "Being in that city (Nauvoo), last December, I heard considerable talk of the doctrine of Spiritual Wives... I was happy to learn that there was to be a trial of one of their Priests, not for teaching said doctrine, but for teaching it too publicly... I watched their proceedings... seeing that it was fixed and settled between Smith and the accused (the trial merely being got up for effect,)... Joseph Smith, complainant, Harrison Sagers, defendant... after a short address from the Prophet, which was more to screen himself and brother, than to chastize, the said Sagers was discharged by the Prophet..."

Note 4: One possible reconstruction of the Oct.-Dec. 1843 events, is that Joseph Smith felt a need to distance himself from public reports of open polygamy going on at Nauvoo (in such cases as Priest Sagers), and so went about the streets of Nauvoo, On Oct. 5, 1843, denouncing the doctrine -- for public effect only. When the time time arrived for Sagers' first trial on these charges, Joseph Smith, Jr. took the opportunity to demonstrate in open court, that such unauthorized polygamy was illegal in Nauvoo. However, since Smith was himself then practicing and preaching the doctrine secretly, Priest Sagers was discharged, without loss of his LDS priesthood office or any other penalty being inflicted upon him. Later, during the mid-1850s, Willard Richards and other historical editors at Great Salt Lake City, expanded the Oct. 5, 1843 Diary entry to reflect the true state of things at Nauvoo -- that Sagers was tried "not for teaching said doctrine, but for teaching it too publicly," and that Smith's teachings were, "no man shall have but one wife at a time, unless the Lord directs otherwise."



No. 4.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., April 1, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


...Saturday, 25. [1843]

I received a letter signed by George B. Wallace and six other Elders, requesting permission for Elder John E. Page to remain in Boston the ensuing winter. Also a letter from John E. Page, giving his assent to the petition, to which the Twelve Apostles wrote the following reply: --

Letter: Brigham Young in Behalf of the Twelve to Elder John E. Page, Appointing him to go to Washington.

"Elder Jonn E. Page: --
      Beloved Brother: -- Your letter, dated at Boston, in connection with some one hundred and fifty of the brethren, is received, and we proceed to reply. Your letter is not before us this moment, consequently you must excuse a reference to dates and names which have escaped our recollection; but the subject is fresh, and the letter was read in a council of Presidents Joseph, Hyrum, and the Twelve, when the word of the Lord came through Joseph the Seer thus: -- 'Let my servant John E. Page take his departure speedily from the city of Boston, and go directly to the city of Washington, and there labor diligently in proclaiming my gospel to the inhabitants thereof; and if he is humble and faithful, lo! I will be with him, and will give him the hearts of the people, that he may do them good, and build up a church unto my name in that city.'

Now, brother Page, if you wish to follow counsel and do the will of the Lord, as we believe you desire to do, call the church at Boston together, without delay, and read this letter to them, calling upon them to assist you on your mission, and go thy way speedily unto the place which is appointed unto you by the voice of the Lord, and build up a church in the city of Washington, for it is expedient and absolutely necessary that we have a foot hold in that popular city. Let your words be soft unto the people, but full of the spirit and power of the Holy Ghost. Do not challenge the sects for debate, but treat them as brethren and friends, and the God of heaven will bless you, and we will bless you in the name of the Lord Jesus, and the people will rise up and bless you, and call you a sweet messenger of peace. You will pardon us for giving you such counsel, for we feel to do it in the name of the Lord.

When you have built a church at Washington, so as to warrant the expense, it will be wisdom for you to send or take your wife to Washington, so says President Joseph.

All things go on smoothly here; as to the reports circulated while we were in Boston, there is nothing of them. Brother Joseph has commenced living in his new house, and enjoys himself well. He has raised a sign, entitled 'Nauvoo Mansion,' and has all the best company in the city. Many strangers from abroad call on him, feeling perfect liberty so to do, since he has made his house public, and it is exerting a blessed influence on the public mind.

The Temple has been progressing rapidly until the recent frosts. The walls are now above the windows of the first story, and some of the circular windows are partly laid. The brethren of the Twelve have all arrived home, are tolerably well, and their families, except Sister Hyde, who has been very sick, and is yet, though at last report rather better. No prospect of any of the Twelve leaving home this winter, that we know of. Elder Snow has arrived with his company from Boston, &c., generally in good spirits.

The devil howls some -- may be you will hear him as far as Boston, for there cannot a blackleg be guilty of any crime in Nauvoo, but somebody will lay it to the servants of God. We shall give the substance of this communication to your wife same mail.

We remain your brother in the new and everlasting covenant, in behalf of the Quorum,
BRIGHAM YOUNG, President.        
W. Richards, Clerk."

Note: See also the "History of John E. Page" article featured in the Deseret News of June 16, 1858.



No. 11.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., May 20, 1857.                    Vol. VII.

Impositions Upon Utah.

Much has been said and written in by gone days, about the conduct of Great Britain towards her colonies in North America and the patience with which the people bore it, until they were compelled to revolt and assert their rights; which resulted in their Independence; but if the colonists were never imposed upon, insulted and abused, more than the people of Utah have been since the organization of the Territory, we do not know when it was done, nor where the record of it can be found.

It is not our business now to recite in detail the abuses that have been heaped upon the people of this Territory as we have not time nor inclination, but simply wish to refer to the appointment of the officers that have been sent here to execute the laws of the United States and the Territory, and especially the Judges.

How may of the class in question, have been appointed, from time to time we do not know, but their number is 'Legion' though only eight have ever come to the Territory. Of those a few have been respectable men, but the majority of them have been men of the most corrupt, wicked and abominable practices that could be found, or that ever disgraced the human race.

The following extracts of a letter written by Mrs. Drummond to her sister in this county [sic, country?] shows the predelection of one of the Judges and the author of many of the scandalous reports that have been published against the 'Mormons;' clothed with the sanctity of 'Judicial charges against polygamy,' and other robes of hypocrisy, for the 'scarlet lady' or one of her daughters, which he brought here and passed off as his wife, and who sat with him on the Judicial Bench, when sitting in jusgment upon offenders against the penal Statutes of this Territory, and of the United States, and places the creature, as he cannot be called a gentleman, in no very desireable position as an officer of the government invested with the Judicial ermine; neither as a man of truth. We publish it by request for the benefit of those concerned, and for the reason that the individual in question, is a fair sample of most of the other Judges sent here, and of all who have howled so long and loud about the 'peculiar' institutions of Utah.

With such men we never had, and do not wish to have much to do, and when we get to thinking about the damnable impositions practiced upon Utah, by the apointment of such men to execute judgment and justice among the people, we feel like praying that all those who have been instrumental in sending them here may be politically and eternally damned:

                                "Oquawka, Henderson county, Ill.
                                               Sept. 4, 1856.

Dear Brother and Sister: --

I received your letter last night, and am now seated to answer you.

Mr. Drummond left here in April to start for Utah. We heard from him twice in April, and then we heard no more until August, and that was after he reached Utah.

We read once in the paper that he had a woman with him; he got her in Washington city, district of Columbia; her name is Ada Caroll. He never was married to her, while he was in the States. As to living in Chicago, I do not, nor never did. We were living in Oquawka when he went away, and instead of leaving us plenty, he left us but little.

He sent me a draft a few days ago from California. He was in Sacramento city, but said that he was going to Utah to hold courts in September.

I never have nor never will get a divorce from him; I never thought of such a thing in my life. We parted as husband and wife; he said he would return this fall, if he could.
                                                JEMIMA DRUMMOND."

(Tune: -- "O Susannah.")

Ye nations list! the men of God, from Zion now they come,
  Clothed with the Priesthood and the power to gather Israel home...

Some men would ask, 'why do you start with carts, come tell, I pray?'
  We answer when our Prophet speaks the Elders all obey;
Sure Brigham has the way laid out that's best for us, we'll try.
  Stand off you sympathetic fools, the hand carts now or die...
We'll bless the day that we were called to go with our hand cart...

Note 1: The Editor of the News calls Ada Caroll a "scarlet lady," and perhaps she indeed was a prostitute. The fact that Judge Drummond attempted to pass her off as his wife appears to indicate that they were living together under a fictitious marital avowal. Why the lady brought her daughters to Utah, and what eventually became of her and them, remains unclear. Supposing the worst possible interpretation of this delicate affair, Judge Drummond's reputation as a "man of truth" is obviously greatly damaged. It appears, however, that he continued to support his wife and Illinois and had intentions of returning to her. To what extent all of this impinges upon the veracity of the Judge's claims regarding the situation in Utah is unknown -- it is entirely possible that much of what the Judge had to report in his 1857 letter of resignation and elsewhere, remains at least partially reliable.

Note 2: Not long after the Mormons in Salt Lake were singing and blessing the day their emigrant compatriots were "called" to gather to Utah, using hand carts, an issue of the Norwalk Ohio Huron Reflector printed this eye witness observation of Mormons on their way to Utah: "It was certainly the most novel and interesting sight I have seen for many a day. We met two trains, one of thirty and the other of fifty carts, averaging about six to the cart... The road was lined for a mile behind the train with the lame, halt, sick, and needy. Many were quite aged, and would be going slowly along, supported by a son or daughter. Some were on crutches; now and then a mother with a child in her arms and two or three hanging hold of her, with a forlorn appearance."



No. 13.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., June 3, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


RUMBLINGS IN THE LOWER WORLD. -- Amid the large amount of printed matter by last mail, both new and old, printed and reprinted from Maine to Texas and from the Atlantic to the Frontiers, we learn how easy and common it is, with a few honorable exceptions, for those who have been courteously received and kindly treated in Utah, so long as their conduct and conversation savored in any degree of even common morality, to let disappointmed ambition and maddened prejudice cause them to pour their venom upon the heads of an innocent people, and how ready the great majority of editors are to print and commend their shallow and barefaced misrepresentations and downright falsehoods. We are also for the first time made acquainted with the astounding fact of the escape from our midst of so large a number of persons with their lives, all the more wonderful from the strangeness of such an occurrence, for usually in such extremely dangerous positions it is only a few, if any, who escape to tell the tale, but in this instance all have safely escaped. Is it not marvelous.

Bantering aside, it is not within the sphere of either time or space to minutely controvert statements so glaringly absurd, lies ressurected from a long burial and the vaporings of frenzied brains, for were we to carefuly and most truthfully expose the whole vile budget to the gaze of the world, the wicked and corrupt would howl on, for such a course best subserves their vitiated tastes.

For the consolation of the Saints we will further remark that the present anger of the wicked is a sure indication that the power and fear of our reformation and good works have reached far beyond the bounds of our isolated retreat, and, as says our Savior, "Blessend are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding gald; for great is your reward in heaven; for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you." Matthew v. 11 & 12.

ARRIVALS. -- Hon. J. M. Bernhisel, Hon. George A. Smith, Elder Truman O. Angel, Church Architect, Mr, Edward Boulnger of Berlin, Prussia, and Mr. William S. Conklin of Havanna, Cuba, arrived passengers with the mail on the 29th ult., all in good health...

Note: With John M. Bernhisel just returned from Washington, bringing with him a wealth of firsthand governmental and political news, it seems strange that the Deseret News would so clamor against the many public voices then speaking out against affairs in Utah Territory. Certainly by this date the top LDS leadership was aware that U. S. troops would inevitably end up in Salt Lake City and that some compromise must be reached with the U. S. Government in how Utah was to be administered. Rather than confronting any obvious falsehoods then being circulated in the popular press, the Deseret News falls back upon the old reassurance that God's chosen people are always "persecuted" by the wicked. This kind of religious rhetoric may have temporarily pacified the uneasiness of a few of the readers of the News, but it did nothing to prepare them for the eventual arrival of "Johnson's Army,"the necessary accommodation to the legal system of the United States, etc. Had the leadership admitted in public a few of their past lapses in probity and patriotism, and promised a better future relationship with "the Americans," perhaps the unhappy fate of a federal occupation might have been averted or greatly mitigated. The leadership, it seems, was incapable of admitting past errors in judgment -- or, of even documenting and controverting the "downright falsehoods" uttered against them, their administration, and their singular doctrines.



No. 15.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, June 17, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


By President Brigham Young,
Bowery, a. m. of June 7, 1857.



I am thankful for the privilege of assembling with the congregation of the Saints on another day that is set apart to worship God. I delight in hearing the servants of the Lord speak of those things that pertain to life and salvation....

I bless you and your substance, with all that pertains to you, and if I could, I would so bring the Spirit of God upon your that you might have eyes to see, and be able to know the mind and will of God for yourselves.

We are in the happiest situation of any people in the world. We inhabit the very land in which we can live in peace, and there is no other place on this earth that the Saints can now live in without being molested. Suppose, for instance, you should go to California. Brs. Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich went and made a settlement in South California, and many of the brethren were anxious that the whole Church should go there.

If we had have gone there, this would have been about the last year in which any of the Saints could stay there. They would have been driven from their homes. It is about the last year that br. Amasa can stay there. Were he to tell you the true situation of that place, he would tell you that hell reigns there and that it is just as much as any 'Mormon' can do to live there, and that it is about time for him and every true Saint to leave that land.

Suppose that we should go South. A great many wanted to go to the Gila river; that was proposed when we first came to this valley. It was said to be a lovely country, and that men could live there almost without labor. What if we had gone there? You see what has followed us here, but what would have been the result, if we had gone there? Long before this time we would have been out-numbered by our enemies; there would have been more against us than for us in our community. Suppose we had gone to Texas, where Lyman Wight went? He tried to make all the Saints believe that Joseph wanted to take the whole church there. Long before this, we would have been killed, or compelled to leave that country. We could not have lived there, and it is as much as ever they can do to let us alone here.

As I have often said, I am thankful to a fulness that the Lord has brought us to these barren valleys, to these sterile mountains, to this desolate waste, where only Saints can or would live, to a region that is not desired by another class of people on the earth. When they come and have succeeded in getting our money, they will not stay any longer. When they have made all they can out of the Latter Day Saints, they wish to leave. And when you see a person who becomes tired of 'Mormonism' and falters in his path, backslides in his feelings, at once his eye is to the States, to California, or to some other place besides this. Though previous to their departure such persons will write to their friends and to newspapers abroad every conceivable misrepresentation, and even the majority of the officers that have been sent here are trying to make the Government believe that we are taking the country, that we are actually usurping power to ourselves with regard to the soil, that we are transgressing the laws of the United States, that we are treasoners in our feelings, alienated from our Government, and so on and so forth. They also declare that the 'Mormons' are getting out what little timber there is in the canyons, and that if the timber is used up this land is not worth one penny an acre.

In playing the game that they do, they give us nine out of ten. A gentleman by the name of Morrill wished to deliver a speech in the House of Representatives, on the 'Mormon' question, but his friends managed to prevent it; for they saw the light surface on which he rode while he was writing his speech. They saw that the delivery of his speech would do the 'Mormons' more good than harm, and they managed to head off its delivery by a motion to adjourn, which prevailed. He felt chagrined at losing the opportunity to make his speech, which he thought was full of thunder, and which occupies six and a half columns in a large newspaper, and much of it in nonpareil type. They did not want to hear it; every man of sense said, 'Mr. Morrill, this will destroy your influence with your constituents, and do the 'Mormons' more good than hurt, and ruin our cause.' No doubt his friends wished to seal it from him and let it have a still birth, but Mr. Morrill feels himself imposed upon, runs straightway to the Globe Office, and gets it stuck into the paper, much to our credit and advantage. That is the way all our enemies do, they overshoot the mark they are aiming at.

Another man has written and got published a long article, and I have really thought that I would like to have the speech which was never delivered, the long article, and some other articles of like character read before the public congregation. William Smith, brother to the Prophet, is the one suspected of having dictated the writing of the long article mentioned. He defies the United States to send a Governor here that can do anything with the 'Mormons,' except himself. He declares that no man can go to Utah but a man who is well acquainted with the 'Mormons,' and one who has as much influence among them as Brigham Young, and presents himself as the man. He also tells about the Danites, and asserts that they are in every town and city throughout the whole of the United States, and that their object is not known by the people. That they are all over the world; that there are thousands of them, and that the life of every officer that comes here is in the hands of the Danites. That even the President of the United States is not safe; for, at one wink from Brigham, the Danites will be upon him and kill him. After all this he says that no man can go there, and when he gets through with this story, sufficiently so to expose who he is, he says, in purport, 'I can go there, and if you do not believe me, try me; and if you think I cannot, give me the right to go there with a good large army.'

Judge Drummond comes out with death and thunder on the 'Mormons,' and that no other an ought to govern the 'Mormons' but Judge Drummond, the HORSE DEALER, and so it goes. And they publish that we have thousands and tens of thousands of men scattered over the world, full of fervor, integrity, and courage, and ready at a moment's warning. Just one word from Brigham, and they are ready to slay all before them; and then they turn round and proclaim that the 'Mormons' ought to be used up, and that you can do this and that with them. It is all a pack of nonsense, the whole of it....

Pray that our enemies may have no power over us; pray for the Spirit of the gospel, that the Lord may strengthen the Elders, and keep them in the spirit of humility while they are out preaching the gospel; pray for the anointed of the Lord, for the house of Israel, those poor degraded Lamanites, that light and truth may spring up among them more and more. They begin to improve greatly, pray that it may continue, that they may come to a knowledge of the truth and help to build up Zion, and they will be a shield to us in the day of trouble. All this and a great deal more, I feel to say, but, for the present, I will give way. May God bless us all. Amen.

Facts and Suggestions.

Great Salt Lake City is nearly one thousand miles, by any known practicable route, from any important point of trade on navigable waters, and Utah has not a single stream of sheet of water valuable for navagation within her borders. Proof, all of the most correct maps published. Is such an isolated region, aside from other more forbidding peculiarities, desirable for settlement by this money, pleasure, and trade worshipping generation? No, for they never have settled in it, neither could those of them who have seen it, be cheaply even hired to occupy it. Is it good policy in our Government to have its extensive domain improved by her own subjects, and by those who design to become naturalized as fast as the laws will permit? Most assuredly, yes. Then why such a general and most unwise howling by priests, politicians, editors and people, concerning the settlement of Utah by the most virtuous, industrious, peacefuk, united and law-abiding population that there is in the whole Union? The devil is too cunning to answer that question...

Strangers may be tempted to question the correctness of the above brief, outlined sketch of Utah, and the contrast between her rugged uninviting features and the beautiful, smiling countenances of the States, and may enquire, 'who knows concerning the truth of these statements?' Capt. Howard Stansbury, the late Capt. J. W. Gunnison, and All who have ever traversed the country with eyes and brains in their heads, and with judgment and candor enough to fairly represent facts as they do exist.

And yet the howlers in pulpit, rostrum, and press, so far outnumber the intelligent, candid and truth seeking, that strictly accurate statements about Utah find comparatively but few speakers, writers, publishers, or readers, in their behalf. But what do the howlers propose by their foul onslaught of steady, high-handed, bare-faced vilification? Do they wish to forcibly occupy the houses and fields built and opened in so remote and forbidding a region, where scarcely a faint whisper of their hoarse howlings is undulated across desert plains and lofty peaks? The distance is too great, the locality too secluded, the toll for a livelihood to severe for that weak-backed, world-serving, pusillanimous class of inter-medlers, as they can learn without the trouble, expense and disappointment of bitter experiment, if they will but turn their attention to the information contained in truthful articles like this...

... some may deem it a better plan to send officers and troops here, with the sole view of sowing dissension and corruption in the most united and right-seeking community in the Nation. Such persons appear to have forgotten what their mothers learned them, that water and oil are not easily mixed. They also fail to comprehend, in spite of all our plain and philanthropic teachings, that the corrupt, the indolent, the sycophantic, the ease-hunting, fictitious worldly popularity-seeking, &c., &c., are all out of place in Utah, and would soon leave for their congenial climes and society in the cities of the States, and thus sorely chagrin and disappoint their sanctimonious aiders and abbetors.

Possibly there are quite a number who are too zealous in good (?) works to await the slow progress of attempts to sow corruption in so uncompromising a field, or to be satisfied with the risk of the more rapid policy of again murdering and scattering, and would doubtless far prefer the absolute extermination of a great and noble people. It is not a subject for reflection by those who think, to know that there are many in this boasted Republic, raised amid Bibles and professed enlightenment, who are burning with madness...

In view of the above facts and comments, we must respectfully and kindly suggest to editors, priestly politicians, and people that, inasmuch as we live in a land where perfect freedom of conscience and worship are guaranteed by the Constitution and Statutes at Large, and inasmuch as dragooning, wrong, and violence change no true man's faith but rather cause it to strengthen and increase, they cease exposing their folly and really strive to learn to do good.

We also humanely suggest that the rabid be not tempted to leave their comfortable homes in a pleasant land, to cross desert plains and craggy mountains solely to molest a people who are peacefully and most beneficially occupying a dreary waste which none of them would ever improve, unless through compulsion; and take the liberty of exhorting and advising each accountable dweller within the extended borders of the United States, who really loves his country and her free institutions, to observe the Mormon motto of 'mind your own business,' and not only to permit all others to observe wholesome laws, do good, and worship Jehovah as shall best please each individual, but aid all in so doing, so far as may be possible.

Note 1: Brigham Young's remarks regarding William Smith and "the long article" supposedly written by Smith, do not ring true. By 1857 William had almost certainly given up any idea of relocating to Utah and had even published to the world that he was no longer a Mormon. Still, President Young and Apostle George A. Smith must have felt some tinge of a threat coming from William's direction at that time. See Apostle Smith's remarks of Aug. 2, 1857 as well as William's letters to the New York Tribune, published on May 28, 1857 and June 23, 1857. It is possible that Young fabricated the report of his seeing "the long article," so as to produce a reasonable excuse to publically condemn Joseph's brother in the ears of his Salt Lake audience. On July 26th Brigham took the trouble to speak out against William's assertion that he (Brigham) "was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel."

Note 2: As is the case in several of the editorial offerings in the Deseret News of this period, the "Facts and Suggestions" writer seems unwilling (or unable) to admit that decent, sincere Americans might occasionally criticize some aspects of Mormon rule in Utah, unmotivated by base desires. The yearly emigrant flow, through and past Utah, to California and Oregon was a sure sign that the Mormons were not the only people tough enough to emigrate to the west, or upright enough to found viable colonies in the American wilderness. Sooner or later non-Mormons were sure to outnumber the Saints in the regions round about their remote "Zion," and the knowledgeable, forward-thinking residents of Utah might well have have pondered and planned for that emerging future. Instead, by the second half of 1857, the Mormon leadership appears to have been seriously entertaining the futile prospect of establishing a truly independent theocracy in the American west. The modern student of history can only speculate as to how much easier things would have been for all concerned, if Brigham Young had ruled Utah with just a little more wisdom and magnanimity.



No. 17.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., July 1, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


REPORTED ASSASSINATION. -- We have seen a short article in the Missouri Republican of May 25, copied from the Van Buren (Arkansas) Intelligencer of May 15, in which it is stated that Parley Parker Pratt was shot by one Hector H. McLean on the 13th of May, and some eight miles from Van Buren. It is also stated that Mr. Pratt lived about two hours after he was shot.

Having no fully reliable information upon the subject and no details, except the meager ones in the article above cited, we are obliged to waive further comment for the present...

ADVICE TO PRESIDENT BUCHANAN AND CABINET. -- What, from Utah? Ay, from Utah. And it can come from no better source, save one, and that one other the world do not seem to be very ready to hearken unto.

Editors and office hunters are constantly dinning the ears of the President with the cry that. 'the Mormon problem is a knotty one,' 'the matter becomes exceedingly complicated,' 'the Mormon question is assuming a shape that will not permit its solution to be much longer delayed,' 'something,' hit or miss, right or wrong. 'must be done with the Mormons,' and so forth and so on.

Now it is notorious to all who read and fairly think, that this noise and smoke are raised without the first shadow of occasion given by the people of Utah, who are quietly pursuing their peaceful and legitimate occupations, breaking no applicable law human or divine. But the universal yell is, 'President Buchanan must do something with the Mormons.' Not yet knowing how long and how well he will be able to withstand the terribly clamorous and unjust outside pressure, and we being known to be on the side of economy as well as justice, we most respectfully suggest, in case he can not withstand the pressure, that he select one or more civilians unbound by any ism or isms, if such can be found, also intelligent, strictly honorable, upright and gentlemanly in the true sense of those terms, and send them to Utah on a short visit to look around and see what they can see, and return and report.

This is certainly fair, is very economical, and should be perfectly satisfactory to the most rabid 'Mormon' eaters. But in case that should not suit the fire-eating, blood-and-thunder, hell-and-fury, spoils-seeking, office-hunting and black-mail-levying portion of the community, we suggest to them that they send a committee from their own clans, and so long as they behave at all as white men should, we will guarantee that Governor Young and the people of Utah will treat them with more true courtesy and kindness than they have ever met with.

Note: Apostle Wilford Woodruff recorded in his Journal, on June 23, 1857: "The Eastern mails arived... We also are informed that Elder Parley P. Pratt was murdered by [Mr.?] Mclain who shot him Arkansas. This was painful news to his Family." Two days later Woodruff added this information: "When in the President's office on the 23d President Young asked G. A. Smith if it was not hard to acknowledge the hand of God in the death of Parley P. Pratt by as wicked a man as McLain. Yet we will have to do it." As it turned out, very little was "acknowledged" in the Deseret News, regarding the passing of Apostle Pratt -- no black-draped columns; no stirring eulogy from Eliza R. Snow; not even a proper obituary summarizing the man's life and noticing the names of his surviving descendants. Brigham Young reportedly said, "Nothing has happened so hard to reconcile my mind to since the death of Joseph," but he evidently did not care to reveal the thoughts of his mind, in the Deseret News. The modern reader must turn to the pages of the Millennial Star, the New York City Mormon and the San Francisco Western Standard to locate substantial LDS commentary on the affair. For more on the murder of Elder Pratt, see the May 26, 1857 issue of the Missouri Republican and the May 28, 1857 issue of the New York Times, also the Steven Pratt article, "Eleanor McLean and the Murder of Parley P. Pratt" in BYU Studies 15 (Winter 1975), pp. 225-56.



No. 18.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., July 8, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


By President Brigham Young, Bowery, June 28, 1857.


I arise to express some of my feelings in relation to the brethren who may address the Saints from this stand from time to time....

This is the kingdom of God; and no man can understand it, except by the Spirit of God. We are enjoying the blessings of our Father in Heaven. No person can understand these blessings, except by the Spirit of revelation. When that Spirit has gone from the hearts of individuals, these valleys cease to be the valleys of peace to them, cease to be the valleys of comfort and joy to them, and they seek for other climes. They first wander from the Saints and from their religion in their feelings, and finally they wander in person.

This people are blessed, and are a blessed people. When I meditate upon our present circumstances, and view the situation of the people, I can feel nothing in my heart only to say, "God bless them." They are a God blessed people.... But the people of the Most High God must be tried. It is written that they will be tried in all things, even as Abraham was tried. If we are called to go upon mount Moriah to sacrifice a few of our Isaacs, it is no matter; we may just as well do that as anything else. I think there is a prospect for the Saints to have all the trials they wish for, or can desire. Do not be discouraged when you hear of wars, and rumours of wars, and tumults, and contentions, and fighting, and bloodshed; for behold they are at the thresholds of our doors. Now, do not let your hearts faint; for all this will promote the kingdom of God, and it will increase upon the earth....

The world are determined to destroy the kingdom of God upon the earth: they wish to obliterate it. The kingdoms of darkness are determined to destroy this kingdom. In their feelings they are fighting you and me, and do not know that they are contending against Jehovah. They have not the least idea of that, but think they are contending against the "Mormons." They, are not contending against you and me -- they are contending against the God of heaven. Do you think he can manage his own affairs....

There is a great deal said by our enemies with regard to destroying us. ... The kingdom rises, increases, and spreads out to the right and left-it goes to the east, to the west, to the north, and to the south; and when the Gentiles are faithfully warned by the words of life freely given to them, and they utterly reject them, you will then find that the blood of Abraham that is scattered upon the islands of the sea and on this continent, will come like doves to the windows, and like clouds before a mighty torrent of wind. They will come and acknowledge the truth, though not at once, and they will greatly increase in the knowledge of their fathers. We can say to the praise of God's name, and to the praise of the industry of the Saints, that this will commence, and hundreds and thousands of them begin to turn from their wickedness, forsake their folly and their loathsome degradation, wash themselves, and begin to live more as men and women should, and to learn at the hands of the servants of God. They will go into the waters of baptism, confessing their sins, and taking upon them the new and everlasting covenant, by thousands; and it will increase; and many generations will not pass away before they becomes white and delightsome people.

The nation that gave me and many of you birth is very nigh to the hours of sorrow. Their cup is very nigh filled to the brim. They reject the servants of God; they reject the Gospel of salvation; they turn away from the principles of truth and righteousness; and they are sinking in their own sins and corruptions. I would that they would have mercy on themselves. I will pray the Lord to have mercy on them, but I pray them to have mercy on themselves to return to the Lord, forsake their wickedness and learn righteousness, and then God would have mercy on them, and bestow His blessing upon them, if they would receive them. But they harden their hearts, shut their ears, stop them up tight, close their eyes, and are determined to hear nothing that is true concerning this people, or the doctrines we preach. But every lie they can hear, imagine, or hatch up, they publish to the world, and it is drank down; they roll it under their tongue as a sweet morsel. They reject the truth and receive lies, until their cup is nearly full to the brim.

The Lord's time is not for me to know; but He is kind, long-suffering, and patient, and His wrath endureth silently, and will until mercy is completely exhausted, and then judgment will take the reins. I do not know how, neither do I at present wish to know....

There is one principle that I wish the people would understand and lay to heart. Just as fast as you will prove before your God that you are worthy to receive the mysteries, if you please to call them so, of the kingdom of heaven -- that you are full of confidence in God -- that you will never betray a thing that God tells you that you will never reveal to your neighbour that which ought not to be revealed, as quick as you prepare to be entrusted with the things of God, there is an eternity of them to bestow upon you....

The world may howl around you and plead for the secrets of the Lord Which he has given you, but they will not get them. When the Lord has proved His children true to what He has given into their charge, and that they will do His bidding, He will tell such persons anything that they should know. A great many desire just enough of knowledge to damn them and it does damn a great many....

I will tell you a truth; it is God's truth; it is eternal truth: neither you nor I would ever be prepared to be crowned in the celestial kingdom of our Father and our God, without devils in this world. Do you know that the Saints never could be prepared to receive the glory that is in reserve for them, without devils to help them to get it? Men and women never could be prepared to be judged and condemned out of their own mouths, and to be set upon the left hand; or to have it said to them, "Go away into everlasting darkness," without the power both of God and the devil. We are obliged to know and understand them, one as well as the other, in order to prepare us for the day that is coming, and for our exaltation. Some of you may think that this is a curious principle, but it is true. Refer to the Book of Mormon, and you will find that Nephi and others taught that we actually need evil, in order to make this a state of probation. We must know the evil in order to know the good. There must needs be an opposition in all things.... And I say further, let every man on the face of this earth that curses this people be cursed. (Many voices, "Amen.") And every man that blesses them shall be blessed. (Many voices, "Amen.") And those who oppose this religion, and feel to destroy it from the earth, shall go down to hell. (Many voices, "Amen.") And their time is very short: they will find it plenty short enough.

Suppose that the wicked kill us, who cares? They never will kill any, but what it will swell the kingdom a little faster. And if my blood is required to enlarge this kingdom, and build it up, and increase the speed of it on the earth, I do not ask but one thing, and that is, that the grace of God may be sufficient for me at the moment...

UTAH, JULY 7, 1857.

Peace and increasing union, Constitution and law abiding, hatred of all wickedness and its followers (and at present the prospect of an abundant harvest) are characteristic of the regions within our borders.

This most truthful report is a bitter pill for those who have published barefaced lies and misrepresentations, and for those who have written base anonymous letters. And its very truthfulness for the whole period of the past nearly ten years since the Saints began to turn these dreary wastes into pleasant places, renders the going forth thereof a vexation to the ungodly, for in all that time it has been equally true, as testified of by all Saints and honorable men, except in the matter of an occasional outbreak by bad Indians, an occasional remissness in spiritual life on the part of some, the annual apostacy of a few professed brethren, and the blackguardian, traducing and other meanness of now and then a miserable, righteous-hating brief sojourner in our midst.

Being strict lovers of all social, moral, civil, political, truly philosophical and religious advancement, and of the just rights, privileges and welfare of the human family, it would be highly gratifying to our natural feelings to be able to avoid administering the (to many) bitter does called TRUTH, but we see no help for the matter, unless the makers, publishers and [layers] of lies, cease to do evil and learn to do good.

Some may query why we do not formally and in detail refute their solid columns of lies. That is easy to do, but we have not the space and are too far from the points where they come to light, hence The Standard and The Mormon have to labor in that field, as they do most effectually, without much of our assistance. We trust that this answer will prove satisfactory, at least until circumstances materially change.

As No. 17 of the 'News' contained most fair and candid 'Advice to President Buchanan and Cabinet' and the items of home and foreign news then currently interesting, we have deemed it no more than an act of simple justice to furnish our California brethren, both those in the Church, and after the order of Adam, this report of the actual conditions of affairs in the mountains, at the latest moment of going to press, and just as the California mail is closing. And since we have considerably hurried the office boys to get out this number to be in time for the mail south, we trust that our co-laborers with pen and scissors in California will do themselves and readers the justice to copy this article, that they may understand the beauty there is in variety when the truth is contrasted, even though in small doses, with the voluminous array of misrepresentation.

For the comfort and encouragement of our civilized (?) Christian neighbors (?), we will add that the fire of the reformation has caused fearfulness to surprise the hypocrites in Zion, and is making Utah's soil too warm for the footsteps of those who wish to trample upon the Constitution and laws of our common country and the saving, wise, good and wholesome laws and domestic institutions and regulations of our Basin Territory. Who can object to this movement, or rather, who will not rejoice in the report that righteousness and salvation are beginning to redeem even a small and wild portion of mother Earth, except it be those who are actually opposing true human progress, either knowingly or ignorantly?

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 21.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., July 29, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


By President Brigham Young, Bowery, July 19, 1857.


I am heartily delighted with what has been said here this morning... This is a marvellous work and a wonder. Do not the people think it is? What a stir this people make in the world! The sound thereof has gone forth almost, if not entirely, to the uttermost parts of the earth. Our Elders have been round the world and round the world again. They have been to the most noted nations, and to a great many isolated tribes and islands. I do not know but what the sound of "Mormonism" has gone forth into all the earth, and it makes a great stir wherever it goes....

You will hear some of the brethren say, as brother Carrington as just said, that there are times when the blood courses like lightning, upon seeing men who are opposed to us -- who are striving with all their powers to destroy this people. Can they destroy us? No, they cannot. There are a great many in this congregation who are witnesses that the Devil has been warring, with all his imps arrayed against this work, ever since the organization of this Church, and trying to obliterate it from the earth...

Do you not think that those spirits knew when Joseph Smith got the plates? Yes, just as well as you know that I am talking to you now. They were there at the time, and millions and millions of them opposed Joseph in getting the plates; and not only they opposed him, but also men in the flesh. I never heard such oaths fall from the lips of any man as I heard uttered by a man who was called a fortune-teller, and who knew where those plates were hid. He went three times in one summer to get them, -- the same summer in which Joseph did get them. Baptist, Presbyterian, and Methodist priests and deacons sent for him to tell where those plates were, and to get them out of the hill where they were deposited; and he had not returned to his home from the last trip he made for them more than a week or ten days before Joseph got them. Joseph was what we call an ignorant boy; but this fortune-teller, whose name I do not remember, was a man of profound learning.

He had put himself in possession of all the learning in the States, -- had been to France, Germany, Italy, and through the world, -- had been educated for a priest, and turned out to be a devil. I do not know but that he would have been a devil if he had followed the profession of a priest among what are termed the Christian denominations. He could preach as well as the best of them, and I never heard a man swear as he did. He could tell that those plates were there, and that they were a treasure whose value to the people could not be told; for that I myself heard him say. Those spirits driven from heaven were with him and with others who tried to prevent Joseph's getting the plates; but he did get and secrete them, though he had to knock down two or three men, as he was going home, who were waylaying him to kill him. From that day to this, a part of the hosts of heaven made mention of in the Bible, with the cursed corrupt priests and the cursed scoundrelly Gentiles with them, have been trying to put down this work...

Will troops come here and inquire into my just rebukes of such characters and conduct? "Oh!" says one, "I am afraid they will come; and what shall I do?" They have been with us many a time. We have been accustomed to seeing a hundred to our one, with their guns to shoot us, and their knives to cut our throats. Do people imagine that they can kill "Mormonism?" I may die for my religion, and who cares for that? Brother Carrington has told you that God can carry on his own work, and the spirit of Joseph which fell upon me is ready to fall upon somebody else when I am removed....

They may shoot, and they will see Brigham a little to one side, and Heber in another place, and fire away -- at what? At shadows. We shall live as long as the Lord wants us to. They may lie and write lies, and they may stay here, if they behave themselves; but if they do not stop their devilish conduct they will be overtaken; for we will make their words true in regard to their being in danger, if they persist in their efforts to bring destruction upon us...

A Fair Proposal and a few Plain Truths.

In the latest report from the States we learn that there is a wonderful uproar about the 'Mormons,' notwithstanding their great remoteness from all neighbors of the class commonly termed civilized and Christianized...

It has been iterated and reiterated abroad that there are many in our midst who would [like] to get away from here, if they could only be assured that they would not be destroyed upon attempting to leave. And it is well known that there are thousands in the States who are extremely anxious to come here, but are prevented from so doing by want of means for their transportation. It is also most generally understood that the people in the States, and in all the Territories except Utah have had the untrammeled privelege of living in places of their own choosing, while the Mormons inhabit a region so uninviting [that no] others had ever made an attempt to [enter?] it, neither would they now accept of it as a precious gift, with all its hard earned improvements, should the Mormons vacate in their favor. Under these circumstances it is [------ly] and frankly proposed by the Saints... [illegible lines follow]

How much better it would be, even solely in a political point of view, for the Government of the United States to grant lands and extend aid and encouragement to those hardy settlers who are turning the barren wastes into smiling fields, than to harrass a portion of her citizens who are patriotic and loyal above all others, who have withdrawn themselves far from other settlements and have joyfully unfurled the stars and stripes, the insignia of equal rights, in the tops of her mountain fastness..But no, priestcraft is in danger, politicians are hungry for office and spoils, editors must print spicy articles to increase the circulation of their papers and all hell must be stirred up for the extermination of the Latter Day Saints and the reversion of smiling fields and happy homes to dreary wastes and the habitations of buzzards and wolves.

Speculators and politicians, reckless of the lives of innocent persons, indifferent to the interests of the Government, caring naught for the welfare and proper employment of officers and troops, in short regarding nothing but the accomplishment of their own wickedly selfish purposes, have laid a plan to deplete the well filled coffers of our Treasury and scatter some of its millions among miserably corrupt scoundrels. And what, think you, is the plan? By carefully working the wires of slander and exaggerating the influence of paltry howlings of priests and editors, they have induced President Buchanan and his Cabinet to order a body of troops to proceed at vast expense to a countrt and people where all is and ever has been so orderly, proper and law-abiding that no troops are nor ever have been needed....

No mob has ever yet been able to successfully cope with the Saints, until they could come against them with a show of legal authority. This our enemies well understand, and therefore they are cunning enough to trump up accusations to induce some action on the part of those legaly in power, and thus cover their nefarious plans with the shadow of what appears to be law in the eyes of the masses who do not reflect. But it is really a pity that those who excite and urge hostile operations towards us do not themselves come. If any are to come to fight us, why not send the priests, the editors, the letter writers, the politicians and speculators, those who are at the bottom of all the present uproar in the States about us? We should be much pleased to see them on their errand of extermination...

And as to the officers appointed by Government for Territories, though such appointments are but arbitrary and unconstitutional relics of colonial usuage, still should any come to Utah and demean themselves like true gentlemen and confine their official acts to their legitimate channels, they will find their offices to partake more of the nature of [more sinecures] than in any place they have ever seen... But poor, miserable curses are not wanted here, and all such characters will find the mountain retreats of the Saints too hot for their comfort, for we have already endured their insults, abuse and corruptions as long as human beings can bear.

Note: The "fortune-teller" mentioned by Brigham Young was evidently Dr. Luman Walters, who lived at Pultneyville (25 miles from the Smith farm), New York when Joseph Smith, jr. was growing up in that state. See also Young's discourse of Feb. 18, 1855, where he speaks of the same "fortune-teller" attempting to obtain Smith's golden plates. Also, in a speech Young gave on Apr. 6, 1850 at Great Salt Lake City, he said: "I remember once at the commencement of the church, a necromancer embraced it, but he could not be satisfied; he came and said he had fingered and handled the perverted priesthood so much, the course I have taken is downwards, the devil has too fast hold of me, I cannot go with you" (Millennial Star, Sept. 15, 1850)



No. 22.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., August 5, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


By President Brigham Young, Bowery, July 26, 1857.


I will read a portion of the writings of the prophet Daniel, commencing at the 27th verse of the 2nd chapter of the book of Daniel.... These verses are of themselves a text and texts, a sermon and sermons.... The dream of King Nebuchadnezzar and its interpretation by David are as plain to the man and woman filled with the power of the Holy Ghost, as are the most common lessons to the school-children: they most clearly understand the interpretation. Daniel saw that in the latter days the God of heaven was going to set up his kingdom upon this his earth. He has set that kingdom up, as you who are here this day are witnesses.

What brought you from the States and other regions to these mountains? What caused the men and women before me to leave their good farms, their good houses, their merchandize, and all the luxuries and comforts of life so dear to the natural man? What caused many women to leave their husbands, their children, their parents? What caused all this? What is the reason of such conduct? Can any man tell? The world are trying to; but they are even more ignorant about it than they are of the present movements and designs of the President of the United States. They know not the reason why the people are assembled here; for they cannot and will not see and understand anything only as they discern it by the powers of the natural man.

I have told them many times, and I can now tell them again, if the whole world could hear my voice, they are to be pitied; and I pray for them. We have traversed the earth to preach the Gospel to them. We have often started upon our missions almost destitute, without hats, nearly without shoes and any of the comforts of life, to travel thousands and thousands of miles to preach the Gospel to the people. If they will not be benefited, our skirts are clear of their blood, and they must bear the blame.

Can they tell the cause of this people's being here to-day? Can they give the cause for the influence I have over the Latter-day Saints? They cannot. If this was not the kingdom of God upon the earth, do you suppose that the world would be arrayed against it? No....

There is not a king, governor, or ruler, but what desires, and is endeavouring to obtain the influence that I and my brethren possess and are lawfully striving to obtain. ...

It is the priests and elders of Christendom who have the power of hell in them which causes the trouble that you see, and that you have seen and borne for many years. They are like that unruly member, the tongue, which sets on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire of hell....

God has commenced to set up his kingdom on the earth, and all hell and its devils are moving against it. Hell is yawning and sending forth its devils and their imps. What for? To destroy the kingdom of God from the earth. But they cannot do it.

The God of heaven showed Nebuchadnezzar that this kingdom would never be destroyed; and that is my testimony. This is the kingdom of heaven -- the kingdom of God which Daniel saw -- the kingdom that was revealed to King Nebuchadnezzar and interpreted to him by the Prophet Daniel. This is the kingdom that was to be set up in the last days....

Why I testify of these things is because they are revealed to me, and not to another for me. They were not revealed to Joseph Smith for me. He had the keys to get visions and revelations, dreams and manifestations, and the Holy Ghost for the people. Those keys were committed to him; and through that administration, blessed be the name of God. I have received the spirit of Christ Jesus, which is the spirit of prophecy....

When they killed Joseph, they were talking about killing a great many others. Would you believe that the apostates say that I was the instigator of the death of Joseph and Hyrum? And William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel, when brother Woodruff, who is here today, knows that we were waiting at the depot in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time, aud Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died, and I am blamed as the cause of his death. We did not hear of the death of Joseph until some three or four weeks after he was basely martyred.

What is now the news circulated throughout the United States? That Captain Gunnison was killed by Brigham Young, and that Babbitt was killed on the Plains by Brigham Young and his Danite band. What more? That Brigham Young has killed all the men who have died between the Missouri river and California. I do not say that President Buchanan has any such idea, or the officers of the troops who are reported to be on their way here; but such are the newspaper stories. Such reports are in the bellows, and editors and politicians are blowing them out....

I will make this proposition to Uncle Sam. I will furnish carriages, horses, the best of drivers, and the best food I have, to transport to the States every man, woman, and child that wishes to leave this place, if he will send on at his own expense all those who want to come to Utah; and we will gain a thousand to their one, as all who understand the matter very well know. It would have been much better to have loaded the waggons reported to be on the way here, with men, women, and children than with provisions to sustain soldiers; for they will never get here without we help them; neither do I think that it is the design of President Buchanan that they should come here.

I am not going to interpret dreams; for I don't profess to be much a Prophet as were Joseph Smith and Daniel; but I am a Yankee guesser; and I guess that James Buchanan has ordered this Expedition to appease the wrath of the angry hounds who are howling around him. He did not design to start men on the 15th of July to cross these Plains to this point on foot. Russell and Co. will probably make from eight to ten hundred thousand dollars by freighting the baggage of the Expedition. What would induce the Government to expend that amount of money for this Territory? Three years ago they appropriated $45,000 for the purpose of making treaties with the Utah Indians. Has even that diminutively small sum ever been sent here? It is in the coffers of the Government to this day, unless they have stolen it out, or improperly paid it out for some other purpose.

Have they ever paid their debts due to Utah? No. And now they have capped their meanness by taking the mail out of the hands of Hiram Kimball, simply because they knew that he was a member of this Church. If he had only have apostatized in season and written lies about us, it is not probable that his mail contract would have been taken from him without the least shadow of right, as has now been done. He was to have $23,000 for carrying the mail from Independence to this city once a month, which was the lowest bid; but because he is a "Mormon," the contract must be disannulled, and that, too, after he had put by far the most faithful and and efficient service on the route that there ever has been, as is most well known at Washington. If I thought that my prayer might be answered, I would pray that not another United States' mail may come to this city; for until Mr. Kimball began his service it has been a constant source of annoyance, disappointment, and to us loss. We can carry our own mails, raise our own dust, and sustain ourselves.

But woe, woe to that man who comes here to unlawfully interfere with my affairs. Woe, woe to those men who come here to unlawfully meddle with me and this people. I swore in Nauvoo, when my enemies were looking me in the face, that I would send them to hell across lots, if they meddled with me; and I ask no more odds of all hell to-day. If they kill me, it is all right...

Note 1: William Smith's initial accusations against Brigham Young and the Twelve Apostles -- that some of them had a hand in the sudden and mysterious death of Samuel H. Smith -- were made long before the occasion on which President Young chose to address them. As early as Oct. 1849 William published this statement: "Samuel H. Smith, Brother of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, who died from the effects of poison administered to him. He died within one month after the martyrdom of his brother. Further particulars concerning this matter will appear hereafter. These are all martyrs, and have sealed their testimony with their blood, besides many more whose days have been shortened by the persecutions that they have endured."

Note 2: William sharpened his public accusations against the Brighamites in his letter of May 28, 1857, when he said: "I have good reason for believing that my brother Samuel H. Smith, died of poison at Nauvoo, administered by order of Brigham Young and Willard Richards, only a few weeks subsequent to the unlawful murder of my other brothers, Joseph and Hiram Smith, while incarcerated in Carthage jail. Several other persons who were presumed to stand between Brigham Young and the accomplishment of his ambitions and wicked designs, mysteriously disappeared from Nauvoo about the same time, and have never been heard from since." William's sister Katherine added her own charges against the Brighamite Twelve Apostles, during the course of her May, 1894 interview with Gay Davidson: "I shall never forget that Saturday, June 23, 1844, when I last saw my brothers alive. Joseph had preached a sermon to the largest crowd I have ever seen. It was his last sermon. I might say that it was more in the nature of a prophecy than a sermon, for he said, turning on the platform where he stood and facing some of the high priests and Elders sitting there: 'There are those among you who will betray me soon; in fact, you have plotted to deliver me up to the enemy to be slain.' The truth of this prophecy is of history. He was betrayed, and by his own alleged best friends. These same fellows attempted to assume the reigns of the church at his death." RLDS member James Whitehead hinted at this 1844 apostolic betrayal in a testimonial given at the 1895 RLDS General Conference: "He spoke of the treachery of certain parties at the time Joseph Smith was assassinated and, as a climax, he said: 'I knew the traitors then, and I know them now, too.'"



No. 23.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., August 12, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


May, 1844.

Wednesday, 8. -- Returned home. At 10 a.m. went before the municipal court on the case "Francis M. Higbee vs Joseph Smith." I insert the report of the trial as published by direction of the court:


                                                 CITY OF NAUVOO, Illinois.
Third Day, Regular Term, May 8, 1844.

... Mr. George P. Stiles then said: The petition and papers have been read in your hearing; it is a petition for a writ of habeas corpus on the grounds -- 1st, the insufficiency of the writ, and other causes assigned. The insufficiency of the writ is sufficient to discharge the prisoner...

The habeas corpus is granted on the testimony of the petitioner. It is the law in Blackstone that where no other matter is in existence and the prisoner swears he is innocent, and his character for truth is supported by good testimony, he must be discharged and he then goes away as free as the proud eagle. If I have the privilege of testimony under oath to the facts that they make slander of, then they cannot do anything with it

Suppose that I am an eye witness to the crime of adultery or any other crime and know verily for myself self that the man is guilty of adultery, or other crime and I speak of it, the man may sue me for damages although I know him to be guilty; but if I swear to it in a court he be cannot hurt me.

If I have the privilege of giving testimony under oath, they can never do anything with me; but if you discharge me on the insufficiency of the writ, they can prosecute me again and again; but if you give me a fair hearin hearing they cannot prosecute me again. I want the oath to go to the world; I must make statements of facts in order to defend myself. I must tell the story in its true light under oath; then I can be for ever set free. May I not have the privilege of being protected by law? The peace of myself, my family, my happiness and the happiness of this city depend upon it.

The court allowed him to proceed with the case.

Mr. Stiles said: This is a malicious prosecution, and we have averred that it is malicious, and have a right to prove it. There is an insufficiency in the writ; the writ did not show any crime had been committed, and we can show that we are not guilty of any plea in the case. There is no charge or case against us and the whole matter is corrupt and malicious and wicked.

JOSEPH SMITH sworn -- said: I must commence when Francis M. Higbee was foaming against me and the municipal court in my house. Francis M. Higbee said be he was grieved at me, and I was grieved at him. I was willing on my part to settle all difficulties, and he promised if I would go before the city council and tell them, he would drop everything against me for ever.

I have naver never mentioned the name of Francis M. Higbee disrespectfully from that time to this but have been entirely silent about him; if any one has said that I have spoken disrespectfully since then, they have lied; and he cannot have any cause whatever. I want to testify to this court of what occurred a long time before John C. Bennett left this city. I was called on to visit Francis M. Higbee; I went and found him on a bed on the floor.

{Here follows testimony which is too 1indelicate for the public eye or ear; and we would here remark that so revolting, corrupt and disgusting has been the conduct of most of this clique, that we feel to dread having anything to do with the publication of their trials. We will not however offend the public eye or ear with a repetition of of the foulness of their crimes any more more.}

Bennett said Higbee pointed out the spot where he had seduced a girl, and that he had seduced another. I did not believe it; I felt hurt and labored with Higbee about it; he swore with uplifted hands that he had lied about the matter. I went and told the girl's parents when Higbee and Bennett made affidavits, and both perjured themselves; they swore false about me so as to blind the family. I brought Francis M. Higbee before Brigham Young, Hyrum Smith and others; Bennett was present, when they both acknowledged that they had done these things, and asked us to forgive them. I got vexed, my feelings had been hurt; Higbee has been guilty of adulterous communication, perjury, &c.; which I am able to prove by men who heard them confess it.

I also preferred charges against Bennett -- the same charges which I am now telling; and he got up and told them it was the truth, when he pleaded for his life, and begged to be forgiven. This was his own statement before sixty or seventy men; he said the charges wese true against him and Higbee.

I have been endeavoring to throw out shafts to defend myself because they were corrupt, and I knew they were determined to ruin me. He has told the public that he was determined to prosecute me because I slandered him, although I tell nothing but the truth.

Since the settlement of our difficulties I have not mentioned his name disrespectfully; he wants to bind up my hands in the circuit court and make me pay heavy damages for telling the truth.

In relation to the conspiracy, I have not heard Francis M. Higbee say he would take away my life, but Chauncey Higbee, Charles A. Foster, and Dr. Foster, said they would shoot me; and the only offence against me is telling the truth. I did say that Dr. Foster stole a raw hide. These are the things that they now want to ruin me for -- for telling the truth.

When riding in the stage, I have seen him put his hand in a woman's bosom, and he also lifted up her clothes. I know that they are wicked, malicious adulterous, bad characters; I say it under oath; I can tell all the particulars from first to last...


Powerful in numbers and wealth, extensive in domain, learned and practical in mechanical arts and the exact sciences, and possessing a land choice above all others, the United States had it in their power to become the most free, enlightened and happy government ever instituted by man... But alas for human wisdom, when man rejects the counsels and servants of Jehovah! ...

Place hunters and spoilsmen, with a hireling clergy and reckless editors to bolster corrupt systems and lash unbridled licentiousness [and fury], have the Executive of our nation fast bound hand and foot, and turn him like a weathercock, to subserving their nefarious purposes, to the utter overthrow of equal laws, of justice and humanity, principles so revered and respected in the early administration of our government....

(under construction


By Elder George A. Smith, Bowery, Sunday Afternoon, August 2, 1857.


I suppose that my brethren and sisters are acquainted with George A., and whenever he presents himself in the presence of the Saints and attempts to entertain them or amuse them with his chin-music, they expect that he will say something funny.

I have been interested to-day very much in listening to the instructions of br. Elias, and br. Kimball, and the President. I have been interested, amused, and instructed, and I may say chastened and reproved, perhaps, all at the same time; and I hope that the instructions of the forenoon will be of lasting benefit to me. In every part of the Territory, and in every other place where I have been, I have taken a good deal of pleasure in endeavouring to talk to the people, to preach to them; but whenever I have been in Great Salt Lake City, I have felt disposed to listen and to take counsel from my brethren; and I have felt that there were many others whose appearance in addressing the Saints would be much more acceptable; and hence I have felt to hold my tongue.

My father, late Patriarch John Smith, was the sixth son of Asahel Smith, and was born in New Hampshire. Joseph Smith, the father of the Prophet, and second son of Asahel, was born in Topsfield, Massachusetts. The second Asahel Smith, the father of Elias who addressed you this forenoon, was the third son of my grandfather.

I merely name this fact because, as brother Kimball and brother Young remarked, so very few of that family have been valiant for the truth. There are but few comparatively of their numerous posterity that have been valiant for the truth.

After the family of Joseph Smith senior, was destroyed, there were but few left to stand up for the truth of the Gospel, of all that numerous family. My father's elder brother was the father of a numerous posterity, and was a bitter enemy to the truth and his descendants remain so to the present time. The only remaining brother of the Prophet, William, has done all that he could do-all that was in his power, I may say, from the time of the Prophet's death, to annihilate and destroy the principles which the Prophet taught to the nations of the earth.

My uncle Silas Smith, the fourth son of Asahel, died on his way to Missouri, or rather on his return from there, being driven from that State in 1839, in Pike County, Illinois. He had been in the Church some years, and had been faithful.

Asahel Smith, the father of Elias, was a man of an extraordinary retentive memory, and possessed a great knowledge of the Bible, so much so that he could read it as well without the book as with it; and after he embraced "Mormonism," nobody could oppose him successfully, for all their objections were answered from the Bible immediately, giving chapter and verse. He died on his way to the Valley, in the State of Iowa, in 1848. He was a Patriarch in the Church, and bore a faithful testimony to the truth.

Of my grandfather's family there is but one living -- an old lady by the name of Waller, residing in the city of New York, and she is 90 years of age, and remembers all that has transpired during the last eighty years just as well as if it had all just occurred. I visited her when I was last back there, and in talking with me she would talk of things that had transpired many years back, as though they had occurred within a year. She is sanguine in relation to the truth of "Mormonism," although she has never embraced it; and, to use the language of her son, she preaches it all the time.

My grandfather, Asahel Smith, heard of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and he said it was true, for he knew that something would turn up in his family that would revolutionize the world. The news came to us in 1828: we then lived in New York. The four brothers were there, Asahel, Silas, Jesse, and John; the old man, my grandfather, living with them.

We received the news that some place had been discovered containing plates of gold. The old man, as I remarked, said that it was true, although his oldest son felt disposed to ridicule it. He lived till the Book of Mormon was brought to him, and died when he had read it about half through, being 87 years of age.

The congregation will excuse me for naming this; but I was so disgusted with the conduct of William, that, when I was in the Eastern States, I almost took pains to obliterate the fact from the earth that my name was Smith; for I considered it was the worst thing a man could do to endeavour to build himself up on the merits of others, and I feel so yet; and for cousin William to go and endeavour to pull down the work of his brother, I feel that he has disgraced the family and the name.

I have never suffered one single exertion to be omitted on my part that would in any way tend to sustain the principles and doctrines of the Holy Gospel, and aid in the development of the Holy Priesthood which God has revealed. I have endeavoured all the time to preserve as perfect a history of the Prophet and those connected with him, from the organization of the Church to the present time, as I possibly could.

The Saints could have carried William upon their shoulders; they could have carried him in their arms, and have done anything for him, if he would have laid aside his follies and wickedness, and would have done right. It is like the Latin figure -- but I beg your pardon, I never studied Latin; but suffice it to say, the husbandman found a rattlesnake cold and frozen, and he took it, and he put it in his bosom, and kept it there till it was warm; and then the snake coiled about the husbandman and destroyed his life.

This was the conduct of William Smith in the days of Joseph and afterwards, up to the present time. The principle that a man should stand upon in this world is simply this -- He should do right himself, and thereby set an example to others. But for a man to have good blood in his veins, and then to go and disgrace that blood, is perhaps a double responsibility.

If we descended from Abraham, or from Joseph, or from any other virtuous, good, upright man, and we do not emulate his deeds and follow his example, the greater will be our shame.

When I was about eleven years old, my grandfather received letters containing the news that Joseph, the son of uncle Joseph, had discovered, by the revelations of the Almighty, some gold plates, and that these gold plates contained a record of great worth.

It was generally ridiculed and laughed at. A short time after this, another letter came, written by Joseph himself, and this letter bore testimony of the wickedness and the fallen condition of the Christian world. My father read the letter, and I well remember the remark he made about it. "Why," said he, "he writes like a prophet."

Some time in August 1830, my uncle Joseph Smith and Don Carlos Smith came some two hundred and fifty miles from where the Prophet was residing in Ontario County, New York, and they brought a Book of Mormon with them. I had never seen them before, and I felt astonished at their sayings.

Uncle Joseph and Don Carlos were anxious to get to Stockholm to see grandfather. Accordingly they started, and my father went to carry them. I and my mother spent the whole of Saturday, all day Sunday, and Sunday night in reading the Book of Mormon; and I believe I read and studied it more then than I have done ever since. I studied it attentively and penned down what I considered to be serious objections. Although I was but thirteen years of age, yet I considered the objections I had discovered to be sufficient to overthrow it.

About five o'clock in the evening the neighbours came in and wanted to see the book. They took hold of the book, and some of them were professors of religion, and they began to raise their objections, to find fault with and ridicule the book, and there was no one to defend it; so I thought I would try. I commenced to argue in favour of the book, and answered one objection after another, until I came off victoriously and got the compliment of being a very smart boy. No one brought the objections to the book that I had: mine were geographical objections. I had studied geography a few weeks, but that few weeks' study made me think that I knew a good deal about it.

It is like a man that studies the Hebrew language; he has to drink deep before he can do much with it, and I thought I could confound them. In a few days I saw my uncle and talked with him, and in about half-an-hour all my learned objections to the Book of Mormon were dispensed with, and I found myself in the same position as my neighbours; and from that day to this I have been an advocate of the Book of Mormon, and have never suffered it to be slandered nor spoken against without saying something in its favour, with one exception, and then I said something.

I had been the favourite of my uncle Jesse, and he was a religious man -- a "Covenanter;" and I thought what he did not know was not worth knowing. He came out with all his strength against it, and exerted the most cruel tyranny over his family, prohibited my uncle Joseph from talking in his house, and threatened to hew down with his broad axe any who dared to preach such nonsense in his presence.

I went to visit him, and he abused me because I had become favourable, and because uncle Joseph had a private conversation with me. I had always treated him with the greatest respect, and entertained a very high opinion of him. He was a man of good education, and had considerable display; and, being the elder of the family, he naturally elicited from us more or less respect.

Finally, in conversation upon various subjects, he turned and talked about that private conversation, and he said, "Joe dare not talk in my presence." Then says he, "the Devil never shut my mouth." I replied, "Perhaps he opened it, uncle." I thought I should have lost my identity: he gave me to the Devil instanter. I went and told uncle Asahel what had transpired, and the old gentleman laughed; and I then went to see uncle Silas and told him; and he said, "If old men begin to talk with boys, they must take boys' play." And from that day to the present, if I have said anything, I have said what I have thought.

During the fall of 1830, a gentleman who lived in our neighbourhood went to Western New York and saw the Prophet, got baptized and ordained an Elder; and that was Elder Solomon Humphrey. Very few knew the old gentleman: he died in Missouri in 1835. He was a very faithful man. Previous to joining the Church he was a Baptist exhorter. He came back to our place of residence in company with a man named Wakefield, who is named in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. They came and preached and baptized for the remission of sins.

I had been raised a Presbyterian, and my mother was a very pious woman. The Reverend Elijah Lyman, her uncle, who lived in Brookfield, Vermont, was the standard of religion in that country, and he had bestowed upon her the greatest care, that her religion might be of the best kind; and of course I had a great deal of this religion in me, which I had learned from her.

I wanted to know what I should do to be saved; so I went to a Presbyterian revival meeting to get religion, that I might be prepared to join the Latter-day Saints, or "Mormons," as they are termed.

At the time, my father was sick with the consumption and given up to die. I had a herd of cattle to take care of; but, notwithstanding my numerous duties, I went to the protracted meeting, and took a load of persons with me; I carried them there and brought them back every day. They had a fashion of religion that I had never heard of, and it was one that was not known in the days of the Apostles; and even John Wesley, nor any of the old reformers had got such a thing into their heads, -- that of converting souls by machinery.

The process was like this: All who desired to be prayed for were to take certain seats, and then one of the ministers preached to them and depicted the miseries of hell and the duration of eternity. Then those people were taken to a praying establishment, where praying was carried on night and day. Then, after a certain time, they were brought back and preached to again, the ministers keeping before their eyes the untold miseries of hell and the duration of eternity. When the ministers got them to feel anxious, they would sing with them, and then pray again. When a man by this process was declared to be converted, then he was required to get up and formally renounce the world, the flesh, and the Devil, and to tell his experience. This was about the process as near as I can recollect. I did not go to the anxious seat myself, for I was not yet under conviction.

During this time of going to the protracted meeting, I had firewood to cut, my sick father to attend to, and to take care of our stock; but still I endeavoured to attend meetings, partly to accommodate my friends, and partly because I desired to be present myself. Subject to these circumstances I was under the necessity of returning home every evening, and hence I could not stay as late as many of them.

While at the protracted meeting, however, I had the satisfaction of hearing some of my own comrades who had got converted formally renounce the world, the flesh, and the Devil, and promise henceforth to be Christians.

In the midst of all this, you may depend upon it that, if ever a poor soul asked God to show him the way of life, I did, -- and that, too, with all my might, mind, and strength. I could not be a hypocrite; and to say I was afraid of damnation, when I had no fear of it at all, that was what I could not do.

I always had the credit of being the greatest coward in the family, and hence the others used to take pleasure in ridiculing what they termed my cowardice. It is also well known that whenever there has been anything the matter in the shape of Indian difficulties, I have had the character of being the greatest coward in the country, especially in the southern part of this Territory; and yet I was not afraid of hell, when all its miseries were painted before my eyes, neither would I say that I was under conviction when I was not.

This meeting was a great one, and the progress made in converting souls was also great; and they made hell look so terrible to nearly all present, that they burnt out and frightened about all the sinners in the place, except myself. At one time they had two hundred sinners under conviction; and such crying, groaning, sighing, and lamentation for sins I never heard either before or since: they were so forcible and terrific, that they are indelibly written on my memory.

I soon found myself alone; not a soul except myself but was either converted or awfully on the way. Mr. Cannon, our minister, pointed his finger at me as I sat alone; for there was not a sinner in the gallery except myself; and he said, "O sinner, I seal you up to eternal damnation, in the name of Jesus Christ." He repeated it three times over, and concluded by saying, "O sinner, may your blood be upon your own head."

I went home that evening and scattered my friends about, leaving the girls at their respective homes; for I, like my brethren, am very fond of the ladies; therefore I carried a goodly proportion of them to meeting everyday. I thought a good deal upon what I had heard, and scarcely knew whether to go again or not, but finally concluded that I would go; therefore the next morning I gathered up my load of passengers, and carried them to meeting again.

When on the way to meeting, a young man by the name of Cary asked me where I was going to sit that day. I told him I was not very particular. "Well," said he, "suppose you sit with me." I said, "Agreed." I had heard this same young man in a previous meeting formally renounce this world, the flesh, and the Devil.

When we arrived at the place of meeting, according to agreement, I followed him with the intention of sitting with him. I had a decided objection against being driven to heaven, but I found he was actually leading me to the anxious bench; and I considered that if the priest the day before, who had sealed me up to eternal damnation, had any authority, it was very little use in my going to the anxious bench.

I did not discover where friend Cary was leading me to till I got near by the minister. He looked at me, when I turned away from the anxious bench, and he again walked into the pulpit, and pronounced the solemn sealing of eternal damnation upon me, and again appended to it that my blood was to be upon my own head.

On that day, the Reverend Mr. Williams delivered an address on the untold miseries of hell and the duration of eternity. Whether my mind was then agitated in consequence of the solemn woes pronounced upon me by the other minister, or whether the address was such a very eloquent one, I cannot now say; but, of all the discourses describing hell, eternal damnation, and the complication of miseries to which damned souls were subjected, it seemed to me that his address was the most terrific. I admired it for its sublimity and the beautiful descriptive powers that were exhibited throughout the whole discourse; and where he got it from I did not know, and of course could not tell.

At the conclusion of the meeting, I gathered up my passengers, took them home, and distributed them about, and told them that I had no idea of going any more to the protracted meeting; for, said I, I have been sealed up nine times to eternal damnation, and hence, if the priest had any authority, it is no use in my going any more; but, said I, if he indeed had any, he would not act the infernal fool.

(Elder O. Hyde blessed the sacramental cup.)

I have, no doubt, wearied you with so minute a detail of my experience; but it is at least a gratification to me to relate it; and hence, I trust, you will excuse my being so minute in detail.

A short time after this, the Elders of Israel preached in our neighbourhood the doctrines of repentance and baptism for the remission of sins, precisely as preached by the Apostle Peter and by our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. These doctrines I was pleased to hear. I believed them and received them in my heart.

Now, you are all aware how I was formerly sealed up to eternal damnation. Notwithstanding this, I was waited upon by the agent of the "Presbyterian Young Man's Society," and told that if I would abandon my father, and pledge myself never to become a "Mormon," they would give me seven years' education; and then, at the expiration of that time, I might study divinity, and become a minister of the Presbyterian order.

But, said I, Mr. Cannon sealed me up to eternal damnation, and hence it would not do for me to become a minister. He replied, "Oh, that don't make any difference." Well, then, said I, if that is all the force your religion and your ministers have, I will not have anything to do with them. Then he concluded they would not require me to preach, but he said they would give me seven years' education, and then I might choose what profession I liked.

I told him I was required to honour my father, and as he was sick, I should attend to him at present, however much I might desire an education.

As soon as I had got baptised, all the folks in the neighbourhood commenced imposing upon me. The idea that they had of a religious man was this -- If he would stand still to be spit upon, to be mocked, and abused, then he was religious; but if he resented any of these insults, then they considered that he had no religion.

I was very large of my age, but I had not strength in proportion to my size, and I was always very clumsy; but finally I told the boys who were imposing upon me, that it was part of my religion to fight, and I pulled off my coat and flogged the whole school, and from that day I was respected so long as I stayed in the neighbourhood.

It was with a good deal of reluctance, however, that many of the boys who had previously been able to handle me would yield; for some of them were four or five years older than I was: but in two days it was all finished up, and I had peace.

That winter I commenced to study arithmetic. I had previously studied geography, as you have already learned and during that winter I worked at arithmetic until I got to "Vulgar Fractions," but I could not find out what vulgar fractions were, and don't know yet, and hence I do not think I am entitled to much credit for the proficiency attained in my education.

I always took great pleasure in reading history, both religious and profane; but as to getting an education such as is requisite for a professional man in the world, I did not have the chance, excepting the one before alluded to, and that I did not choose to accept of.

In 1833 I moved to Kirtland with my father, and went to work on the Temple, doing whatever I was able to do.

I will here digress from the subject of my experience, and remark that I have asked a great many if they could tell who those twenty-four Elders were who laid the foundation of that Temple; but I have never yet got the information: and if there are any who can give it, they are smarter than me, and I was there and looked on. If there are any of the brethren who have this information, they should hand it in to the Historian's Office, where it can be preserved in the archives of the Church.

It is proper here to say that I went to work at the first principles, and that you know is necessary for every one to do. I went to work at quarrying rock, then hauling rock, tending mason, and performing such other work as I was considered capable of doing in my bungling way.

We were a pious people in those days; but, notwithstanding our piety, our neighbours soon talked of mobbing us. They had already tarred and feathered the Prophet Joseph and Sidney Rigdon, and they threatened us with mobbing and expulsion. As I remarked, we were then very pious, and we prayed the Lord to kill the mob.

It was but a little time before the Saints were driven out of Jackson county, Missouri, the printing press destroyed, men tarred and feathered, women ravished, and men, women, and children scattered to the four winds of heaven, all in consequence of our religion.

Now, I am never afraid when I do not think anything is going to hurt me. When I am certain that there is no danger, then I am not the least afraid. The reason I have been called a coward has been from the fact that, whenever I believed there was any danger, I have always gone in for providing for it, and used my ingenuity to thwart that danger; and hence I have been called a coward by some.

With my brethren who have addressed you, I have lain by the side of the Prophet, in Kirtland, to guard him half of each night for a whole winter, so that, if anything occurred, I could give notice to all the brethren in a very short time.

I have been by those cross roads that some of the brethren remember, and have seen our enemies pass by so near that I could have knocked them down with a stick. Things were so arranged that, if a considerable number came along, I was prepared to communicate it to the brethren. I have had considerable experience, and I have learned that, curious as it may appear, whenever a man becomes a Latter-day Saint, the Devil wants to kill him.

As I have told you, I was raised in the northern part of New York, a rough country, where, instead of going to get poles to fence with, we used to cut down hemlock trees, and split them up into rails.

East is said to be the quarter for light: hence it may be admitted that I have acquired a little. I once strayed as far as Massachusetts, and in a town where there were several Baptist priests. I endeavoured to preach the Gospel; but they sent their sons into the meeting-house, who smoked out the congregation with brimstone; and that is a specimen of what would be poured out upon the Saints by the whole Christian world, if they had the opportunity.

In an address delivered some years ago, I spoke of Maryland as a State of liberty; but our reporters made me say Massachusetts,-though they are not to blame, for they are raw Englishmen, and therefore the fault must have been with the Editor.

I said that Massachusetts was the hotbed of superstition and religious intolerance, and that Maryland was the first State that by her laws and institutions allowed men to worship God as they pleased. Whether this mistake was accidental or not, I cannot say, but I wish now to correct it; for I do believe Massachusetts to be the very hotbed of superstition and religious intolerance.

In the progress of this Church, mobs gathered around us, and continued to grow thicker till our history brought us to Far West, where the Governor ordered out seventeen thousand troops to exterminate the "Mormons," and a great many were marched on to the ground preparatory to being shot by the order of Major Clark.

There are a great many men alive that were there, and lived through the operation, and who were finally driven from Missouri, not to say anything of the hundreds and thousands and tens of thousands who are dead, whose deaths were more or less caused by the sufferings and distress that were brought upon them by their extermination.

It was a free State, it was a free country, it had a constitution that guaranteed liberty, at least to every white man. All religions were tolerated by their laws, but we must be exterminated from the State, because we were that kingdom which had been spoken of.

The result was that Prophets and High Priests were arrested and put in prison, numbers of them were murdered, women were ravished, goods and property stolen, houses burnt, and children butchered, and every possible cruelty was invented to cure men of their religion.

I told Mr. Morril, of Vermont, last winter, that it was utterly impossible by law to change men's opinions. If a man believes a thing you may whip him and he will believe it still.

Men and women are as apt to be tenacious as the old lady was down in the country where men have but one wife. She got quarrelling with her husband, and called him "cracklouse;" he told her that if she called him that any more, he would drown her; she repeated it again and he took and put her in the river, then took her out and she said, "cracklouse;" so he put her in again and held her down awhile till she was almost gone, then he took her out again and she could hardly speak, but finally she made out to say, "c-r-a-c-k-l-o-u-s-e!" He was determined to use her up so he put her down and held her under till she was dead, but she came up with her finger nails clenched, or rather in the position required for cracking a louse; so, you see, she stuck to it to the last moment.

So it is with our Uncle Sam -- our dear, infirm, old Uncle; although he has got very rich and has got several millions of money in the Treasury that he scarcely knows what to do with he wants to expend some of it in bringing us to the standard of virtue and righteousness according to their notions. To this end he is sending out 2500 troops, with ministers and schoolmasters to regulate things in Utah. Notwithstanding all this he may possibly find some instances where people may be as determined and stern in their notions as the old lady was of whom I have been speaking.

Now, a religion that is not worth living for is not worth having; if religion is not worth living for I am sure it is not worth dying for, and of course if we are not willing to stand the test our religion is of very little use. Our enemies judge us by themselves, for they know that the best of them will renounce their religion for the sake of self interest. They treat it as a mere work of time.

A gentleman once asked another why he turned from the reformed Methodists to the Episcopalians, and he said, in reply, a good fat living will change any of us. If we can be changed in our religious views by a few soldiers or a few threats we certainly made a great blunder in coming out here, that we may have the privilege of turning a little, and of giving a little change into the bargain. Our dear old Uncle has had a desire to give us a little of the change from the time we came here. Soon after we arrived we began to turn this desert into a garden; here came a captain with troops into this city, they were a specimen of the virtue and morality of the United States.

They came here and began to insult the people, and then tried to cover up their wickedness by the dignity of Uncle Samdom. Passing along they came to a lone house, and there undertook to ravish a woman in open daylight, and the brother who interfered to prevent this villanous outrage was most shamefully maltreated by them, and got some of his bones broken. After this outrage the officers of the company were soon told that if they did not take their troops out of the city, the "Mormons" would cut all their damned throats; and that was the last we had of them here.

I may be a little mistaken as to the precise language made use of, but this subject follows up so close to what I had in my mind, that I wanted to ask myself what I was now going to do in case the soldiers come here.

From year to year we have had companies of these gentry visiting us and remaining for a season and then going away. The government have tried year after year to establish garrisons, and get troops into these valleys. They have had troops at Laramie, at Fort Hall, and several other points, but circumstances so turned that they soon marched unto Oregon.

The talk now is that they are going to bring 2500 soldiers into this Territory, that is not a peace establishment, for twenty-five hundred men are not enough to obtain peace in an Indian country. These troops we are informed are to be furnished with fifteen months provisions, to be delivered in this city this fall, and twelve months provisions to be lodged on the other side of the mountain. They are to have four hundred mule teams for hauling their extra baggage, and they are to be provided with judges and a full corps of territorial officers and these soldiers are sent along to enforce their rule. This is what we understand from those channels which have been opened to us.

Whether it is done with the intention of making a disturbance here and taking the lives of our leaders, the facts in the case being known to the government of the United States, is not for me at present to say. The mail is stopped, and no more permitted to run because, they say, of the unsettled state of affairs in Utah.

Now I am a "Mormon," and a descendant of the old puritanical stock that descended from the old Anglo-Saxon reformers, and hence I feel all the sentiments of resentment that any man could feel during the rise against the mother country, when our forefathers were determined to break off the yoke of bondage and be free. When I see men, the descendants of those worthy sires who were the first to stand forth and create the resolution of the colonies, and to break loose from the King of Great Britain, I say, when I realize that my own country and nation are disposed to hold the sword over my head and to threaten me with extermination, I feel to say, let them send who they please. They are determined to send who they please for Governor, who they please for Judges, and who they please for our territorial Officers, and to permit those men whom they send to place their interpretation upon the acts of our Territorial Legislature, and upon the condition of things as they surround us, and I care but little what comes next.

They will send men here who are ignorant of the circumstances that surround us, men who are totally ignorant of the irrigation of the land by mountain streams, they will permit them to interfere with the rights of the people of this Territory, with fifteen hundred or two thousand bayonets to back them up.

Under these circumstances, as big a coward as I am, I would say what I pleased, and for one thing I would say that every man that had anything to do with such a filthy, unconstitutional affair was a damned scoundrel. There is not a man from the President of the United States to the Editors of their sanctorums, clear down to the low-bred letter-writers in this Territory but would rob the coppers from a dead nigger's eyes, if they had a good opportunity. If I had the command of thunder and lightning, I would never let one of the damned scoundrels get here alive.

I have heretofore said but very little about the gentiles, but I have heard all that Drummond has said, and I have read all his lying infamous letters, and although I have said but little, I think a heap. You must know that I love my friends, and God Almighty knows that I do hate my enemies. There have been men and women and children enough who have died through the oppression and tyranny of our enemies to damn any nation under heaven; and now a nation of 25,000,000 of people must exercise its wealth in violation of its own principles, and the rights guaranteed by the blood of their fathers, blood that is more sacred than their own heart springs, and this they are doing to crush down a little handful who dwell in the midst of these mountains and who dare to worship God as they please, and who dare to sing, pray, preach, think, and act as they please.

All I have to say is just go ahead and burst your boiler. (Voice: They will.) This is the way the thing shapes itself in my mind, and if I were not afraid to die, I would fight as long as there was a finger left, yes, if I were not afraid to die, I would fight till there was not as much left of me as there was of the Kilkenny cats. Just look at him, view his conduct towards this people, besides his being my Uncle, he has acted most shamefully mean. When I told my Uncle I was afraid he only laughed at me, but I now tell you that if I were not such a well known coward, I would die like a man of war. The very idea that a man has been awed down by the bayonet is something that I cannot stand. It will do very well for the Emperor of France, and it may do for the Autocrat of Russia, but it don't do for freeborn men, and if asked which we will prefer slavery or death, we should be very apt to answer in the language of a Roman Senator, if we had any voice in this matter, who, when this question was once put in the days of Julius Caesar and Pompey, promptly answered we prefer death to slavery. But you know we are Latter Day Saints, we are "Mormons," and hence we cannot be treated as free men.

Report says that the plan is deep, and it is laid with the intention of murdering every man that will stand up for "Mormonism," but the evil which they design towards us will fall upon their own heads, and it will grind them to powder. The men that have been living in these valleys, living their religion, and serving their God, they will laugh at their calamities, and mock when their fear cometh.

We must die like the Irishman, and then we shall do well enough. An old parson was riding along one day and met with an Irishman, and said, "sir, have you made your peace with God?" Pat replied, "faith, an I've never had a falling out." The parson seemed very much surprised at the answer, and very piously said, "you are lost, you are lost!" The Irishman very quaintly answered, "Faith and how can I be lost right in the middle of a great big turnpike?" The moral which I wish to deduce from this is that if we have not had a falling out with our God we are in the middle of the great turnpike. They may cut off our supplies of tobacco and tea. (Voice: What a pity.) Why bless you there are young men in Israel who would suffer far more if deprived of their tobacco than the ladies would if their ribbons had to be stripped off right in the public meeting, and therefore I advise them to go to work and plant tobacco for if they were deprived of it, it would take away their peace and happiness, and they could not nasty and besmear everything within a mile of them, and when they wanted to come and get counsel they would not be able to let out of their mouths a stench that would drive away a skunk.

I feel great pity for those young men, and I would like to discipline them as a certain lieutenant did the cabin boy on a steam packet. He said, "boy, there is something the matter with your mouth," whereupon he ordered one of the sailors to bring him a pair of tongs, and ordered the boy to open his mouth and with the tongs took out a large quid of tobacco. He then called for some canvas and sand and scoured the boy's mouth out, and told him that when he got sick and needed that again he was to call on him and he would give him another dose.

I consider it a disgrace to any young man under 35 years of age to use tobacco. (Voice: 40 is the age.) That is my age, I was thinking I was 35.

Brethren and sisters, I am a Latter Day Saint, and I know that this is the people of God; I know that this people have the Priesthood, and that Brigham Young is as much an inspired man as was Moses or any other man that ever lived upon the earth.

This is my testimony, and I believe that if I were cut in pieces, though I never was killed and of course don't know how it feels, but I do not believe that it would alter my testimony.

I am a good deal like the man in the old world where they have but one wife; he was shaving, and at the same time having some unpleasant words with his wife, finally he said he would cut his throat if she did not hold her noise. She replied, "cut away, I am young and handsome." "I would if I did not think it would hurt so damned bad," and I don't know but it would feel so very bad to be killed that I am really afraid where there is any danger, but just so long as I think there is no danger I shall go ahead.

Brethren and sisters, pardon me for detaining you so long, and may the Lord God of Israel bless you, and may he curse and damn every scoundrel that would bring misery and injury upon this innocent people. Amen.

Note 1: Foster's purported indecencies with the lady in the stage coach, as mentioned in the above historical excerpt, were deleted from the reprint of the account, as published in the LDS History of the Church; -- see Jerald and Sandra Tanner's Mormonism -- Shadow or Reality? chapter 7, for these remarks: "When Joseph Smith’s History was first printed, some important testimony by Joseph Smith against Dr. Foster was included. This testimony was taken from the Nauvoo Neighbor for April 15, 1844. In the Nauvoo Neighbor Joseph Smith was quoted as saying: 'I did say that Dr. Foster did steal a raw hide, I have seen him steal a number of times: these are the things that they now want to ruin me for; for telling the truth. When riding in the stage, I have seen him put his hand in a woman’s bosom, and he also lifted up her clothing. I know that they are wicked, malicious, adulterous, bad characters; I say it under oath; I can tell all the particulars from first to last.' (Nauvoo Neighbor, May 15, 1844) -- The fact that Joseph Smith was able to tell 'all the particulars' almost makes him an accessory to the crimes. If he had seen Foster steal 'a number of times' why hadn’t he reported this? Why did Foster feel so free to carry on in the manner he did in the stage in front of the Prophet Joseph Smith? The Mormon leaders could apparently see that these statements by Joseph Smith cast a shadow of doubt upon his character. The film of the Nauvoo Neighbor from the [LDS] Historian’s Office reveals that even in Brigham Young’s time the Mormon Historians realized that Joseph Smith’s testimony could not stand as originally published. The words 'I have seen him steal a number of times' were crossed out in their copy of the Nauvoo Neighbor and were deleted without indication when Joseph Smith’s History was first published in the [Deseret News and reprinted in the] Millennial Star: 'I did say that Dr. Foster stole a raw hide. These are the things that they now want to ruin me for -- for telling the truth.' (Millennial Star, Vol. 23, page 454) -- Although this change made Joseph Smith look better, the Mormon leaders were still not satisfied. They probably felt that this whole proceeding threw too much light on Joseph Smith’s system of plural marriage. In modern editions of the History of the Church, they have deleted 3,742 words without any indication. This deletion, of course, includes the part concerning the carriage ride as well as the portion concerning Foster’s stealing (compare History of the Church, Vol. 6, page 360, with Millennial Star, Vol. 23, pages 439, 440, 454, 455 and 456)."

Note 2: For a similar racy account of Dr. Foster's alleged promiscuous activities with certain women (which was also deleted in subsequent LDS reprints), see the June, 1844 "History of Joseph Smith," segment published in the Deseret News of Sept. 23, 1857

Note 3: George A. Smith's attack upon William Smith followed a similar verbal assault upon the brother of the late Joseph Smith, Jr.,from George's ecclesiatical superior, Brigham Young, in a Great Salt Lake City discourse delivered on June 17, 1857 -- Brigham said: "Another man has written and got published a long article... William Smith, brother to the Prophet, is the one suspected of having dictated the writing of the long article mentioned. He defies the United States to send a Governor here that can do anything with the Mormons, except himself. He declares... in purport, 'I can go there; and if you do not believe me, try me; and if you think I cannot, give me the right to go there with a good large army.'"

Note 4: For some examples of letters that William Smith was writing at this time, see the New York Tribune's issues of May 28, 1857 and June 23, 1857.



No. 24.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., August 19, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


By President Brigham Young, Bowery, August 9, 1857.


So far as I am concerned, with regard to the performance of duties by the Elders of Israel -- the duties which have been placed upon them and required at their hands upon their missions -- for the gratification of the brethren just referred to by Elder Taylor, I will say, If there has been nothing hitherto expressed here manifesting the feelings of the First Presidency of the Church and the members in general on this point, I can answer for the people, by asking and answering a question.

Brother Taylor, brother George A. Smith, and brother Bernhisel, did you do your duty in Congress in reference to presenting our petition for a State? I think that I can answer for this Committee, as well as for the people, and say that they discharged their duty manfully and satisfactorily to their God and to their brethren. I can answer for the people, and say that they are most perfectly satisfied with the labours of our Committee. When a man can say of a truth, "I have done the very best that I could in my mission," the heart of every Saint on earth acquainted with the circumstances, the angels in heaven, and our heavenly Father are all satisfied. There is no more required of us than we are capable of performing. The First Presidency are satisfied, and I can say that the people are satisfied.

With regard to the labours of brother Taylor in editing the paper called The Mormon, published in the city of New York, I have heard many remarks concerning the editorials in that paper, not only from Saints, but from those who do not profess to believe the religion we have embraced; and it is probably one of the strongest edited papers that is now published. I can say, as to its editorials, that it is one of the strongest papers ever published, so far as my information extends; and I have never read one sentence in them but what my heart could bid success to it and beat a happy response to every sentence that I have read or heard read. Brother Taylor, that is for you; and I believe that these are the feelings and the sentiments of all in this community who have perused that paper....

One grand cause of the enmity entertained towards its by officials sent here by the General Government has simply been, that I take the liberty of telling men where they do wrong and wherein they do wrong, -- both those who are in the Church and those who are out of it...

I shall take the liberty of talking as I please about the President of the United States, and I expect that I know his character better than he knows it himself. I will tell you in a few word a little of it. James Buchanan, who is now sitting in the chair of state, and presiding over this great Republic, is naturally a passive, docile, kind, benevolent, and good man, that is his natural disposition, I will venture. Arouse him, and he has been a man who could make flaming speeches. He is now bound up; they have the fetters upon his feet; he is handcuffed; his elbows are pinioned; he is bound on every side, and they make him do as they please. Is he obliged to do so? No.

Is a man fit to be President of the United States, who will bow and succumb to the whims of the people? No... Do you think that we shall be called treasoners, for rebuking him in his sinful course? Yes....

Are you going to contend against the United States? No. But when they come here to take our lives solely for our religion, be ye also ready.

Do I expect to stand still, sit still, or lie still, and tamely let them take away my life? I have told you great many times what I have to say about that. I do not profess to be so good a man as Joseph Smith was. I do not walk under their protection nor into their prisons, as he did. And though officers should pledge me their protection, as Governor Ford pledged protection to Joseph, I would not trust them any sooner than I would a wolf with my dinner; neither do I trust in a wicked judge, nor in any evil person. I trust in my God, and in honest men and women who have the power of the Almighty upon them. What will we do? Keep the wicked off as long as we can, preach righteousness to them, and teach them the way of salvation....

I recollect saying to a certain official here -- one who wanted a few Indians for killing Gunnison, 'If you want them, I will put them into your hands.' They were presented to him, but he dared not take them. I told him at the time of the conversation, that there might be some thirty of those Indians; but, if the United Stated should send 50,000 of their troops here they could not get one of them, if they had a mind to keep out of the way; and he believed it....

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 26.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., September 2, 1857.                    Vol. VII.

"The Remarks of Hon. Stephen Arnold Douglas

Delivered in the State House at Springfield, Illinois,
on the 12th June, 1857, and Printed in
the Missouri Republican of June 18.

In compliance with a request, Senator Douglas remarked at some length upon the three following 'points':

"1st. The present condition and prospects of Kansas.

2nd. The principles affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott case.

3rd. The condition of things in Utah, and the appropriate remedies for existing evils."

The Senator's remarks upon his 1st abd 2nd points will be passed over very briefly, as the past and present condition of affairs in Kansas are very well understood, and it is not probable that either the pro or anti slavery party will cease wrangling, though ever so wise a policy were pointed out to them. Yet, since there may be many who do not know the main question decided in what is called the Dred Scott case, nor the opposition which that decision has raised, the two last paragraphs in the remarks upon the 2nd point are here quoted: --

"The Supreme Court of the United States have decided that under the Constitution, a negro is not and cannot be a citizen.

The Republican or Abolition party pronounce that decision cruel, inhuman and infamous, and appeal to the American people to disregard and refuse to obey it. Let us join issue with them, and put ourselves upon the country for trial." '(Cheers and applause.)'

Grant that a negro is not a citizen of the United States, but goods, chattles, or stock in trade, yet we see that not far from 131,000 chattles send a Representative to Congress; how do you reconcile this, Mr. Senator? How many black, grizzled, gray, spotted and yellow horses, mules, jacks, jinnies and horned cattle would it take to send another Representative to Congress? You can answer that question at your pleasure. Was Mr. Brocket, who caned Senator Sumner, a Representative sent by the blacks or by the whites?

If the present rule of apportionment for negroes in slave states is persisted in, Congress, in justice, should arrange that apportionment upon a sliding scale, to fairly keep pace with the whitening process so rapidly going on through amalgamation.

There is an inconsistency in the Representative apportionment that should be remedied, but did Mr. Douglas allude to that inconsistency, or point out a statesmanlike method for obviating it and, by meteing out an even handed justice to black as well as white, strive to allay the storm that is so rapidly rising on account of injustice and oppression? Such a course, wisely pursued, would have been worthy his position; but he evades that point, as one that might risk votes, and frothily explains, "Let us join issue with them and put ourselves upon the country for trial." What so you mean by these expressions? How will you join issue and in what manner shall the trial be conducted? for you have not told us; and an ignorant populace know no better than to cheer a speaker for unmeaning sentences.

By the Senator's own statement, a very numerous 'political organization' is fast tending to rebellion, if not already fairly in that position. And he did not pitch his voice to its sternest tones and rebuke in his severest manner a course soobviously treasonable, neither did he pour forth counsel like a line of light and truth, the observance of which every patriot is bound to sustain. Such a course would have cost too much political capital, therefore we find him collapsing, like a broken soap bubble, and cringingly leaving the field.

It is an old saying, that it takes nine tailors to make a man; now, five negroes make three men. How many cabinet-makers it takes to make a wise statesman, we do not know; but of scrub-pettifoggers and picayune-job-lawyers, we never knew enough.

In his '3rd point' Mr. Douglas turns fiercely upon Utah, for at present she has hosts of enemies and no Presidential votes, and strenuously lends his aid to further the oppression of a numerous class of American citizens, and to excite beyond control a frenzied thirst for the blood of the innocent. That course was popular, and since the speaker's peculiar forte in chicanery, trickery, misrepresentations, dodging and shifting is most clearly exhibited in his '3rd. point,' the quotations therefrom must be more numerous, that the public may know in what manner a United States Senator, upon a foundation of 'rumors and reports,' rears a superstructure for the ungodly extermination of fellow citizens.

After finishing the three first periods with a goodly show of fairness and correctness, with the exception of the word 'supposition' in the first sentence and the word 'hope' in the third, which were placed as they are for the purpose of fixing a plausible starting point, he at once, hound like, gave full tongue and joined in the popular hue and cry as follows: --

"If we are permitted to place credence in the rumors and reports from that country, (and it must be admitted that they have increased and strengthened and assumed consistency and plausibility by each succeeding Mail,) seven years experience has disclosed a state of facts entirely different from that which was supposed to exist when Utah was organized."

Have we not fallen upon evil times, when a would-be-leading politician, once Judge in Supreme Court and now Senator in Congress, ilegally and unconstitutionally accuses, tries, and condemns to destruction a large class of American citizens, and that too upon mere 'rumors and reports,' the most if not all of which were gathered from anonymous letters written by persons to dastardly to sign their names to their infamous lies.

The Senator knew, or should have known, something of the character of the authors of those 'rumors and reports.' If he did know their character, then by using their lies as testimony he has fallen to a lower depth than we had supposed him to be so soon prepared for. And if he did not know their character, upon what principle did he assume their 'rumors and reports' for the basis of such a tirade of foul slander aimed at tyrannically depriving us of our indisputable rights?

It is but just to inform the public of the character of the witnesses so unblushingly produced and relied upon by Senator Douglas, that all may understand what miserable shifts politicians will resort to in their reckless pursuit of notorietyty and spoils. The 'rumors' have proceeded from the ignorant, the corrupt, the prejudiced, and the anonymous letter writers. Would the Senator like to risk so much as the chance of only his own life, with such wittnesses arrayed against him? Would he not rightly and most strenuously object to their being heard? Then why adduce them in a studied effort to jeopardize the lives of a whole community? The reports have been furnished by disappointed politicians and others who never know us, but had formed a prejudice against us on account of our religion, and whom the speaker knew, or ought to have known, had been [soured] and maddened by disappointmemt in their senseless quest for office, by being thwarted in their corrupt desires and practices, by being reproved for transcending the bounds of well defined duties while leaving those duties unattended to, and, in short, by learning that they had been weighed in a correct balance and found wanting and were in a region where lies, whoredoms, and all other abominations of modern civilization are very unpopular. To specify names and detail proof for those assertions would be an easy, though lengthy task, hence they will for the present be delivered to the already published, able and ample rebutting testimony of such men as Gen. John Wilson, Capt. Howard Stansbury, Chief Justice Lazarus H. Reed and Chief Justice John. P. Kinney, and to that of every honorable, correct observing and truth speaking man really acquainted with the political, moral, social, and religious manners and customs of the inhabitants of Utah; to which is added a Petition to Franklin Pierce, while President, for the re-appointment of Governor Brigham Young, all the signers to which, except eight, are what you call gentlemen, and many of them civil and military officers of the United States.

[Petition to President Pierce follows]

... Would not such a course have been far more pacific, honorable, lawful, and consistent with the fair usage each human being has a right to exepct from his fellows? But no, fury, fire, and destruction for the 'Mormons' is the watchword and party cry of our enemies, though they wade through the torments of the damned, in their mad efforts to overturn the correct principles of our Government.

From the word 'organized,' as above quoted, the Senator continued: 'These rumors and reports would seem to justify the belief that the following facts are susceptible of proof.' -- Waiving comment upon his singular connection of the words 'seem,' 'belief,' and 'facts,' when founded upon 'rumors and reports' from which he has not quoted, neither given names nor dates, what he has termed 'the following facts' will be quoted and considered in the historical order of the divisions he has given them.

"1st. That nine-tenths of the inhabitants are aliens by birth, who have refused to become naturalized, or to take the oath of allegiance, or do any other act recognizing the government of the United States as the paramount authority of that Territory."

That short sentence contains only four gross and palpable lies, for there are not nine tenths of our population who are aliens, and those who are aliens have not refused to become naturalized, have not refused to take the oath of allegiance, and have not not committed nor so much as desired to commit a single act contrary to the Constitution and laws of the United States, or to their paramount authority in the broadest fair construction. So much for the speaker's untruthfulness, or ignorance, whichever he prefers. But it is surely rather curious that a Senator in this boasted asylum for the oppressed from every clime should object to foreigners' settling upon fertile acres which in millions upon millions are inviting the improving hand of industry, or should so soon forget the channel of his own pedigree and the noble deeds enacted upon our soil by foreigners from the days of La Fayette until now. Has the Senator become so contracted and biogted in his views, as to confine worth and rights to place of birth rather than to true merit? No, that miserable fling at foreigners, who are making homes under the Constitution, must be placed to the credit of an intense desire to win Senatorial and Presidential votes; for his term as Senator shortly expires, his State is rapidly changing from Democracy to Black Republicanism, and the glitter of the White House in Washington is luring him to desperate efforts for the Presidential campaign in 1860. But really how is it about the foreign population in Utah? Without being fully in possession of the statistical information requisite, it is safely within bounds to state that foreigners bear a very much smaller proportion of the number of native born and naturalized citizens in Utah than they do in many, if not all the principal cities in our Union and the small proportion that is here have, almost to a man, applied for their naturalization papers. the latest report which our liberal minded administrators of a free form of government have permitted to reach here, places the American portion of the citizens of St. Louis at only a trifle above one fourth part of the whole number. What appropriate remedy will the Senator apply to that 'evil' in St. Louis. Again, the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is and ever has been composed of NATIVE BORN Americans, and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, the Presidents of the High Priests' Quorum, the seven First Presidents of the Seventies and the Presiding Patriarchs are and ever have been, with but one exception, native born Americans. And the Territorial Assemblies and the Territorial officers have invariably been filled, with very few exceptions, with NATIVE BORN Americans. Can that be said of the same number of people in any other part of our country, or even of Congress? Verily no, as should have been well known before making an attack so unwarrantable, and one in a channel so contemptible. And aside from all that, the foreign population in Utah have ever evinced and carried out a desire to become naturalized and take the oath of allegiance, even under a Government where of late, sympathy of its administrators have proven to be on the side of the would-be stiflers of almost every Republican principle; and they never have so much as offered to do an act which did not recognize the government of the United States as the paramount (civil, for the Constitution grants no religious,) authority in that Territory.

"2nd. That all the inhabitants, whether native or alien born, known as Mormons, (and they constitute the whole people of the Territory,) are bound by horrid oaths and terrible penalties, to recognize and maintain the authority of Brigham Young, and the government of which he is the head, as paramount to that of the United States, in civil as well as in religious affairs; and that they will, in due time, and under the direction of their leaders, use all the means in their power to subvert the government of the United States, and resist its authority."

No, Mr. Douglas, it is you and such men as you are, who are sapping the foundation of our government and every good institution thereof. Giving ear to 'rumors and reports,' concocted by spirits kindred to your own, has caused you to be almost as wide of the truth in your 2nd. statement of what you term 'facts' as you was in your 1st. To plainly reply in order, again requires re-quoting: '(and they the 'Mormons') constitute the whole people of the Territory,)' a remark which is very nearly true. But how happened it that we are nearly all 'Mormons?' Through tyrannical oppression and violence most inhumanely and illegally meted out by professedly civilized and Christianized citizens of our Republic. That treatment successively expelled the Saints in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, and undertook their destruction by a draft for a battalion of 500 men while they were within the then Indian country. Yielding before the ruthless persecution of their enemies, they sought out and peopled the dreary wastes of this great American desert, which they gained by conquest in connection with their American brethren in the war with Mexico, and where many of them fondly anticipated that they would be left unmolested to the observances of wholesome Constitutional laws. They were a thousand miles from their persecutors and invited none but the upright and good to participate in their barren and lonely retreats, and fondly hoped that all others would be deterred by the uncongenial and uninviting position. But after the roads were made, the snakes killed, and the bridges built, and when wealth and comfort began to smile where all had been desolute, men, whose godes are office, spells, gold and corruption, began to follow on our track, spy out our liberties and settle in our midst, and some of them are here to this day. How like you, Senator Douglas, that portion of the true why of our population's being so nearly all 'Mormons' and located in so barren and rock-bound a region? The devil proclaimed that we could not tarry in Ohio, nor in Missouri, nor in Illinois, and we did not. Please mark that he prophecied truly in those three instancews, and now what think you, when he has seclared that 'all hell cannot drive the Mormons out of the Mountains'? If humanity and a decent respect for the rights of others have no weight with the Senator, and when he has rejected all the prophecies of the God of Heaven, it would seem that he might listen to the prophecies of his father the devil, and wisely adapt the non-intervention policy. Inasmuch as he will not act lawfully and justly towards Utah.

It is not so very strange that the Senator placed lies for truth, throughout the entire balance of his 2nd batch of what he calls 'facts,' for all his information under that head was derived from kiars, yet one might suppose that an old lawyer would have been a little more shy than to trust broad assertions upon the testimony of such false witnesses. But the hue and cry was up fierce against Utah, and the love of political preferment so engrossing that he again blindly ventured upon the unstable bogs ever occupying the regions of misrepresentation. As to 'horrid oaths and terrible penalties,' suffice it to say that all Saints under the just rights guaranteed by the Constitution, 'recognize and maintain', and upheld by their faith, means, and prayers, 'the authority of Brigham Young as President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, as do, or should, in accordance with their professions, and with such rites and ceremonies as they please, every so-called Christian denomination and Masonic institution recognize and maintain the authority of those they have elected to be their guides in salvation and morality. What is there wrong in that? What Roman Catholic, Masonic, or other Christian or moral denomination, have you ever dared to so much as talk of dragooning] for the practice of their religious rites and ceremonies], which only concern themselves. In compliance with a vital principle of our faith, President Brigham Young and every Latter Day Saint teach and practice, and ever have, the paramount civil authority of the Constitution and laws of the United States, and are at the defiance of earth and hell to truthfully show one particle to the contrary. And so far from the truth is the statement that the 'Mormons' will 'use all the means in their power to subvert the Government of the United States, and resist its authority, that they will be found upholding the Constitution and Constitutional laws of our Republic when such men as Senator Douglas are rending it to pieces, and when he shall have sunk so far in political degradation that the glorious light of the Constitution is perfectly obliterated from his sight.

"3rd. That the Mormon Government, with Brigham Young at its head, is now forming alliances with Indian tribes in Utah and adjoining Yerritories -- stimulating the Indians to acts of hostility -- and organizing bands of his own followers under the name of 'Danites or Destroying Angels,' to prosecute a system of robbery and murders upon American citizens, who support the authority of the United States, and denounce the infamous and disgusting practices and institutions of the Mormon government."

Your frenzy for office has at last placed you, with no backing, save false 'rumors and reports,' barefacedly and undeniably in the ranks of the foul libelers and maligners of a people loyal and patriotic far beyond the short ken of your dark and feeble comprehension, for your '3rd' division, from beginning to end, is a most unmitigated tissue of lies hurled forth with all the concentrated venom you could then command, solely with a view to urge on the ardently desired extermination of innocent men, women and children, so you could thereby, as you fondly imagined, pave your way to a much coveted Senatorial re-election and a prospective seat in the Presidential chair. It is well known that the wicked are rapidly 'waxing worse and worse,' but when such a lying, murderous attack can be publicly and with impunity made by a Senator of Congress upon a Governor and Ex-Officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs, who has honorably magnified the office above all precident, and upon a people whose generous acts and kind deeds, even to their enemies, are above all praise and are a goodly example to all nations, the observing can but think that the time is at hand when the Almighty will vex our nation with a sore vexation.

When, where, and with whom has an 'alliance with Indian tribes in Utah, and adjoining Territories' been formed by Governor Young? except certain friendly talks, parental counsels, mutual lawful agreements, and present makings, all enjoined by the Government duties of his office, and for which he has been justly and highly commended by the Hon. George W. Manypenny, late Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as the Senator could have reliably learned in a short examination of authentic documents in that Department. Who suppressed the publication of most of the documents forwarded by Governor Young to the Departments? Such men as you, lest their publication should give him that influence and power in the nation that a wise and strictly Constitutional course should ever command. Who could have dreamed that a faithful official compliance with the requirements of the Indian Department at Washington, wisely designed for the well being of all parties, would ever have been construed as outrageously perversely? The wantonly abusing and slaughtering of Indians in Oregon and Washington Territories can be rewarded with hundreds of thousands of dollars of Government money, but the kindest and most conciliatory treatment towards them in Utah, strictly in compliance with Department instructions, and with a greater trial of patience and expenditure of private means than has ever been practiced elsewhere, meets with the vilest misrepresentation by a Senator of these United States. But Senator Douglas has placed his witches' caldron in the seven-fold heated furnace of party politics and, to further his wild incantations for political advancement, is casting therein stately buildings and fair fields now gladdening regions so lately waste, the salvation of his own soul, the safety of our Union, and the lives of a whole innocent and law-abiding community.

That the citizens of Utah have formed alliances, as asserted by the Senator, is a lie too absurd to deserve even a denial, for the citizens of Utah know their rights and duties too well to transcend their bounds, neither have they a desire or occasion for transcending them, either in this or any other matter.

If there is or ever has been a Danite or Danite society, in Utah, according to Senator Douglas' representation and that of others, we do not know it. And, moreover, if any such person or persons are here, they must have been exceedingly slack in the performance of the duties assigned them by the Senator, for of all our enemies who have passed and repassed, tarried, traded, lied, drank, plotted our destruction, &c., &c., they have all escaped to tell the horrible tale about the 'Mormons.' Senator Douglas, it may be well to inform you that had there been a band of the character you asert, and had they persued the line of duty you have marked out for them, you would probably never have seen or heard the 'rumors and reports' your remarks are based upon, and might not have had the opportunity of making those remarks. Therefore, on this point you are again, in your hot fury for office, found lying so grossly that you defeat yourself.

No doubt there are 'Destroying Angels,' but they do not reside in Utah at present. They are on another planet, waiting for permission from the Father to go and reap down the earth. When they appear, such men as you will feel that power.

When and where have Latter Day Saints, under any name, 'prosecuted a system of robbery and murders upon American citizens'? Never, and nowhere. On the contrary, they have ever striven for the just protection of the lives and rights of all, so far as in their power, else, as before remarked, 'rumors and reports' would not have been so numerous.

What 'practices and institutions of the Mormon government' are 'infamous and disgusting'? for you have not told us. We do not get drunk, for that is a civilized and Christianized 'practice and institution' and we lay no claim to it. So also of whoredom, fornication, adultery, profane swearing, lying, duelling, cane-breaking, gambling, law-breaking, murder and the whole dark catalogue of civilized and Christianized 'practices' and 'institutions' so popular and prevalent in the world. It is difficult to even guess at what the Senator calls 'infamous and disgusting practices and institutions,' unless they consist in the utter abhorence of the above list of popular crimes and in a strict effort to practice and cultivate every pure, virtuous, noble and upright principle pertaining to moral, philosophical, civil and religious advancement.

An apology is, perhaps, due the public for having condescended to so minutely follow the Senator in his low, inhuman, tortuous and slimy path throughout his three divisions of what he calls 'facts,' all of which are palpable lies, to our certain knowledge; the only statement, anything like truth, being the one in which he says that he whole people of the Territory are 'Mormons.' But as those three divisions were made the platform of his 'remarks' upon his '3rd point,' it will be obvious that fully canvassing the false pretensions in the three divisions, was the shortest method for disposing of 'remarks' so disgusting and treasonable. Yet, although taking so short a course, the task is still not completed.

After giving another stab under cover of an 'if', and after advancing his opinion of the duty of the President towards Utah 'under this (his) view of the subject,' he then whips into the ranks of the dogs who are howling for our extermination and, in order that all politicians might know that he was a dog with them, barks as follows: --

"When the authentic evidence shall arrive, if it shall establish the facts which are believed to exist, it will become the duty of Congress to apply the knife and cut out this loathsome, disgusting ulcer. (Applause.) No temporizing policy -- no half way measures will then answer."

In three short paragraphs, two of which contain 'ps' of precisely the same character, a Senator is found, under one 'if' advocating the old English colonial policy for officering a people at the point of the bayonet, and in the next breath, and under the same character of 'if,' recommends the extermination of that people. Who cannot see that reason and mercy have left him, (if he ever had any,) in his mad and wickedly truckling career after popularity and office.

After such an exhibition of crazy inconsistency and treasonable advice, it hardly excites wonder that, in the very next paragraph, after several lines of foolish and slanderous twaddle, prefaced by another 'if' of precisely the same character as the two which preceeded it, the Senator advises a third course as follows:

"In my opinion the first step should be the absolute and unconditional repeal of the organic act -- blotting the Territorial government out of existence -- upon the ground that they are alien enemies and outlaws, denying their allegiance and defying the authorities of the United States." (Immense applause.)

It must be conceded that undertaking to ride three nags of so different a color with the same bridle of 'ifs' and before an audience of American citizens was a circus feat in the [grand] and lofty tumbling of politics at which the most brazen and abandoned stagger might well have stood aghast. But what simple point of discretion and Constitutional policy will the devil permit a thorough-paced politician to advocate and follow, when the inhabitants of Utah are in question? Not one, for we find a should-be grave Senator advocating the sending of a large, armed force with a class of officers to a Territory where all such officers have always been courteously received, as they will testify before the world, if they will tell the truth, and gentlemanly and hospitably treated, often far beyond what the conduct of some of them would warrant. What need then of standing troops with these officers? Not the least. Would such a useless waste of treasure have been recommended for any other Territory, where all had ever been and were peaceful and law-abiding? No. Would an 'if,' even under a pile of 'rumors and reports,' [mountain-high], have passed current as a cover for such a recommendation? No. Would any American dare risk advising, under a like 'if,' the wholesale extermination of any class of our citizens other than 'Mormons,' even though their acts had proceeded to the extent of civil war, as in Kansas? No. Would any sane man, under an 'if,' have counseled 'the absolute and unconditional repeal of the organic act' of any Territory except Utah, or of that of Utah, were it not inhabited by 'Mormons'? No. It is, therefore, easy to discern that the Senatpr's shafts of oppression and destruction are not aimed at us because of any illegal or unconstitutional act of ours, for there is and has been no act of that description, but solely because we are Latter Day Saints abd he expects to make political capital bu assailing us, since that course is at present, through the prevalence and predominance of lies, so very popular.

Another singular feature in the case is that a frenzied love of office should so soon cause the Senator to steal thunder from the old-line Whigs, and, at the first breeze of mere 'rumors and reports.' abandon the only enlightened and liberal policy for the government of Territories. Such being the fact, it is no matter of surprise that, after counselling the 'absolute and unconditional repeal of the organic act,' he starts off with asserting as truth a gross legal, follows that a ssertion with trying to make black look white and white look black, (by being all things to all parties, that thereby he may catch votes,) parades instances and suppositions entirely foreign to the question, in his zeal to place Utah under military despotism, and after thus floundering through two long paragraphs at length, brings up with,

"I am free to say that in my opinion there is no moral right to repeal the organic act of a Territory, and abolish the government organized under it, unless the inhabitants of that Territory, as a community, have done such acts as amount to a forfieture of all rights under it -- such as becoming alien enemies, out-laws, disavowing their allegiance, or resisting the authority of the United States."

It is certainly a great relief to at last find one clearly expressed truth, in that portion of the Senator's remarks more particularly under examination. And since the inhabitants of Utah never have been, are not, and never expect to be, 'alien enemies,' nor 'out-laws,' nor 'disavowing their allegiance,' nor 'resisting the authority of the United States,' in any Constitutional construction of those expressions, it is to be hoped that the Senator will see the folly of stealing Whig thunder, the eventual poor pay attending the trimming of his stile to catch every breeze arising from the rabble, the certainty of his coming to the ground in his effort to sit up a Three stools when two are proverbally fatal, and utter so ridiculous a political sommerset, again settle his brains and once more advocate, as an American always should, an enlightened and liberal policy towards Territories.

When have you, Senator Douglas, lifted your voice to bring the murderers of Joseph and Hyrum Smith to justice? They were murdered in prison, and that too in your own State and in your own judicial district. had they done anything worthy of death? Did you not hear their murderers exclaim, 'the law cannot reach them, but powder and ball must." Now you have joined in the hue and cry, 'exterminate the Mormons,' 'cut out this loathsome, disgusting ulcer.'

In your last paragraph you say, 'I have thus presented to you plainly and fairly my views of the Utah question;' with at least equal plainness and with far more fairness have your 'views' now been commented upon. And inasmuch as you were well acquainted with Joseph Smith, and this people, also with the character of our maligners, and did know their allegations were false, but must bark with the dogs who were snapping at our heels, to let them know that you were a dog with them; and also that you may have a testimony of the truth of the assertion that you did know Joseph and his people and the character of their enemies, (and neither class have changed, only as the Saints have become Better and their enemies Worse,) and also that you may thoroughly understand that you have voluntarily, knowingly, and of choice sealed your damnation, and by your own chosen course have closed your chance for the Presidential chair, through disobeying the counsel of Joseph, which you formerly sought, and prospered by following, and that you in common with us, may testify to all the world that Joseph was a true Prophet, the following extract from the 'History of Joseph Smith' is again printed for your benefit, and is kindly recommended to your careful perusal and most candid consideration: --

(From the Deseret News, Sep. 21, 1856)

Thursday, May 18, 1843 -- We left Macedonia about 8 1/2 a. m., and arrived at Carthage at 10.

The following brief account is from the journal of William Clayton, who was present: --

"Dined with Judge Stephen A. Douglas, who is presiding at court. After dinner Judge Douglas requested President Joseph to give him a history of the Missouri persecution, which he did in a very minute manner, for about three hours; he also gave a relation of his journey to Washington city, and his application in behalf of the Saints, to Mr. Van Buren, the President of the United States, for redress and Mr. Van Buren's pusillanimous reply, 'Gentlemen, your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you;' and the cold, unfeeling manner in which he was treated by most of the senators and representatives in relation to the subject, Clay saying, 'You had better go to Oregon,' and Calhoun shaking his head solemnly, saying, 'It's a nice question, a critical question, but it will not do to agitate it.'

The judge listened with the greatest attention and spoke warmly in depreciation of the conduct of Governor Boggs and the authorities of Missouri, who had taken part in the extermination, and said that any people that would do as the mobs of Missouri had done ought to be brought to judgment: they ought to be punished.

President Smith, in concluding his remarks, said that if the government, which received into its coffers the money of citizens for its public lands, while its officials are rolling in luxury at the expense of its public treasury, cannot protect such citizens in their lives and property, it is an old granny anyhow; and I prophesy in the name of the Lord God of Israel, unless the United States redress the wrongs committed upon the Saints in the State of Missouri and punish the crimes committed by her officers that in a few years the government will be utterly overthrown and wasted, and there will not be so much as a potsherd left, for their wickedness in permitting the murder of men, women and children, and the wholesale plunder and extermination of thousands of her citizens to go unpunished, thereby perpetrating a foul and corroding blot upon the fair fame of this great republic, the very thought of which would havecaused the high-minded and patriotic framers of the Constitution of theUnited States to hide their faces with shame. Judge, you will aspire to the Presidency of the United States; and if ever you turn your handagainst me or the Latter Day Saints, you will feel the weight of the hand of Almighty upon you; and you will live to see and know that I havetestified the truth to you; for the conversation of this day will stick to you through life.

He appeared very friendly, and acknowledged the truth and propriety of President Smith's remarks."

Note 1: This was a seminal speech. made by Senator Douglas made, in the run-up to the 1860 Presidential elections. This speech was also published in the June 23, 1857 issue of the New York Times. At the beginning of 1857 Douglas was replaced as Chair of the important Senate Committe on Territories and probably felt compelled to comment upon President Buchanan's lack of action against what many in Washington felt was a rebellion in Utah. However, even as Douglas was advising possible military action against the LDS leaders in the west, Buchanan was assembling an expeditionary force for that very purpose. Douglas knew, before he wrote his speech, that the use of federal force had already been decided upon and that the troops were beginning to move, to quell the so-called "Utah rebellion." Douglas had previously advised the Utah leaders to go slow in pressing their claim for statehood -- a political decision which led to his eventual severing of ties with old LDS friends. Apparently the critical event in this political uncoupling came during some unchronicled meeting between Douglas and one or more of the Mormon lobbyists for statehood (John M. Bernhisel, George A. Smith and John Taylor). Douglas advised the Mormons to put off their lobbying for a state government until his own fading drive for "popular sovereignty" in the territories could be revitalized. At about the same time Douglas' political rivals, the Republicans, were demanding that Congress "prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism -- polygamy and slavery." Faced with the choice of almost certain political defeat (by tacitly supporting polygamy) or co-opting the current Republican polemics against the Utah leadership, Douglas opted for the latter course, and soon came out in public as an active opponent of the Mormon agenda.

Note 2: The Deseret News of Sept. 2, 1857 only published selected excerpts from Senator Douglas' Springfield speech and it is difficult to comprehend its full content by merely reading the publicized LDS rebuttal. The prophetic prediction inserted at the end of the LDS editor's comments was supposedly made in 1843, but its publication in the "History of Joseph Smith," in the Deseret News of Sept. 24, 1856 marks its first known apperance in print. In later years the Mormons would claim that Douglas' failure to gain the U. S. Presidency in 1860 was a result of the prophetic curse placed upon him by Joseph Smith, jr. on May 18, 1843. Smith's purported "prophecy," in regard to the eventual fate of Mr. Douglas, was first published on Sept. 24, 1856 -- evidently as a sort of warning to the Senator, who was by then advising against a quick political program for Utah Statehood. When the text of his Sept. 2, 1857 speech reached Utah, Editor Carrington showed no mercy in condemning the Saints' old political partner and his advice on possibly subjecting Utah to federal force and territorial dissolution.

Note 3: The 1843 "prophecy" is not known from any pre-1856 source, including the actual journals of William Clayton, from which its wording was supposedly taken. That wording has Smith saying to Douglas, "you will aspire to the Presidency of the United States" (a fact known by Sept. 24, 1856), but does not say whether or not Douglas would eventually be successful in that quest (a possible development that was still very much uncertain on Sept. 2, 1857). The relevant portion of the actual Clayton entry (where Douglas is mentioned in connection with a prediction) reads: "The Prest. said 'I prophecy in the name of the Lord God that in a few years this government will be utterly overthrown and wasted so that there will not be a potsherd left' for their wickedness in conniving at the Missouri mobocracy. The Judge appears very friendly & acknowledged the propriety of the prest's. remarks."



No. 27.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., September 9, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


May, 1844.

... The High Council having directed the following testimony to be published in the Neighbor, I copy it with the editors remarks to shew the character of the men who are now seeking to destroy my life and usefulness, and overthrow the work of the Lord which be he has commenced through my instrumentality: --

"Testimony of Margaret J. Nyman, vs Chauncey L. Higbee, before the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in the city of Nauvoo, May 21st, 1842.

Some time during the month of March last, Chauncey L. Higbee came to my mother's house early one evening, and proposed a walk to a spelling school. My sister Matilda and myself accompanied him; but changing our design on the way we stopped at Mrs. Fuller's. During the evening's interview, he, (as I have since learned) with wicked lies proposed that I should yield to his desires, and indulge in sexual intercourse with him, stating that such intercourse might be freely indulged in and was no sin; that any respectable female might indulge in sexual intercourse intercouse, and there was no sin in it, providing the person so indulging keep the same to herself; for there could be no sin where chere there was no accuser; -- and most clandestinely with wicked lies, persuaded me to yield by using the name of Joseph Smith; and as I have since learned totally false and unauthorized; and in consequence of those arguments I was influenced to yield to my seducer, Chauncey L. Higbee.

I further state that I have no personal acquaintance with Joseph Smith, and never heard him teach such doctrines as stated by Chauncey L. Higbee, either directly or indirectly. I heartily repent before God asking the forgiveness of my brethren.

"State of Illinois, County of Hancock,} ss.
            City of Nauvoo.             }
        Nauvoo, May 24th, 1842.    

Personally appeared before me, George W. Harris, alderman, of the city aforesaid, Margaret J. Nyman, the signer of the above instrument, and testified, under oath, that the above declaration is true.
GEO. W. HARRIS, Alderman."   

Nauvoo, May 21, 1842.   
During this spring Chauncy L. Higbee, kept company with me from time to time, and, as I have since learned, wickedly deceitfully, and with lies in his mouth, urged me vehemently to yield to his desires; that there could be no wrong in having sexual intercourse with any female that could keep the same to herself; most villianously and lyingly stating that he had been so instructed by Joseph Smith, and that there was no sin where there was no accuser; also vowing he would marry me.

Not succeeding, he, on one occasion, brought one, who affirmed that such intercourse was tolerated by the heads of the Church. I have since found him also to be a lying conspirator against female virtue and chastity, having never received such teachings from the heads of the church; but I was at the time partially influenced to believe in consequence of the source from whom I received it.

I yielded and become subject to the will of my seducer, Chauncey L. Higbee: and having since found out to my satisfaction, that a number of wicked men have conspired to use the name of Joseph Smith, or the heads of the Church, falsely and wickedly to enable them to gratify their lusts, thereby destroying female innocence and virtue, I repent before God and my brethren and ask forgiveness.

I further testify that I never had any personal acquaintance with Joseph Smith and never heard him teach such doctrines as Higbee, stated either directly or indirectly.

"State of Illinois, County of Hancock,} ss.
            City of Nauvoo.             }
        Nauvoo, May 24th, 1842.    

Personally appeared before me, George W. Harris, alderman, of said city, Matilda J. Nyman, the signer of the above instrument, and testified, under oath, that the above declaration is true.
GEO. W. HARRIS, Alderman."   

Nauvoo, May 24th, 1842.   
Some two or three weeks since, in consequence of brother Joseph Smith's teachings to the singers, I began to be alarmed concerning myself, and certain teachings which I had received from Chauncey L. Higbee, and questioned him (Higbee) about his teaching, for I was pretty well persuaded from Joseph's public teachings that Chauncey had been telling falsehoods; but Chauncey said that Joseph now taught as he did through necessity, on account of the prejudice of the people, and his own family particularly, as they had not become believers in the doctrine.

I then become satisfied that all of Chauncey's teaching had been false, and that he had never been authorized by any one in authority to make any such communication to me.

Chauncey L. Higbee's teaching and conduct were as follows: -- When he first came to my house soon after the special conference this spring, Chauncey commenced joking me about my getting married, and wanted to know how long it had been since my husband died, and soon removed his seat near me; and began his seducing insinuations by saying it was no harm to have sexual intercourse with women if they would keep it to themselves, and continued to urge me to yield to his desires, and urged me vehemently, and said he and Joseph were good friends, and he teaches me this doctrine, and allows me such privileges, and there is no harm in it and Joseph Smith says so.

I told him I did not believe it, and had heard no such teaching from Joseph, nor from the stand, but that it was wicked to commit adultery, &c.

Chauncey said that did not mean single women, but married women; and continued to press his instructions and arguments until after dark, and until I was inclined to believe, for he called God to witness of the truth, and was so solemn and confident, I yielded to his temptations, having received the strongest assurance from him that Joseph approved it and would uphold me in it. He also told me that many others were following the same course of conduct.

As I still had some doubts, near the close of our interview, I again suggested my fears that I had done wrong, and should lose the confidence of the brethren; when he assured me that it was right, and he would bring a witness to confirm what he had taught.

When he come again, I still had doubts, I told him I understood he (Higbee), had recently been baptized, and that Joseph, when he confirmed him, told him to quit all his iniquitous practices. Chauncey said it was not for such things that he was baptized for; 'do you think I would be baptized for such a thing and then go into it so soon again?'

Chauncey Higbee, said it would never be known, I told him it might be told in bringing forth [sic - a pregnancy/birth?]. Chauncey said there was no danger, and that Dr. Bennet understood it, and would come and take it away, if there was any thing.

"State of Illinois, County of Hancock,} ss.
            City of Nauvoo.             }
        Nauvoo, May 24th, 1842.    

There appeared Sarah Miller, the signer of the above instrument, and testified, and made oath, that the above declaration is true, before me.
GEO. W. HARRIS, Alderman."   

"Nauvoo, May 25th, 1842.   
Extract from the testimony of Catharine [Fuller] Warren, vs. Chauncey L. Higbee, before the High Council of the Church, &c.

I have had unlawful connexion with Chauncey L. Higbee. Chauncey Higbee, taught the same doctrine as was taught by J. C. Bennet, and that Joseph Smith, taught and practiced those things; but he stated that he did not have it from Joseph, but he had his information from Dr. John C. Bennet. He, Chauncey L. Higbee, has gained his object about five or six times, Chauncey L. Higbee, also made propositions to keep me with food if I would submit to his desires."

"We have abundance of like testimony on hand, which may be forth coming if we are compelled, at present the foregoing may suffice.
'Why have you not published this before?' We answer, on account of the humility and entreaties of Higbee, at the time, and on account of the feelings of his parents, who are highly respectable, we have forborne until now. The character of C. L. Higbee, is so infamous, and his exertions such as to destroy every principle of righteousness, that forbearance is no longer a virtue.

After all that this Chauncey L. Higbee has done, in wickedly and maliciously using the name of Joseph Smith, to persuade innocent females to submit to gratify his hellish lusts: and then blast the characters of the most chaste, pure virtuous, and philanthropic man on earth; he, to screen himself from the law of the land, and the just indignation of insulted people, and save himself from the Penitentiary, or whatever punishment his unparralled crimes merit; has entered into a conspiracy with the Laws, and others against the like of those, who are knowing to his abandoned conduct; thus hoping to save himself from the disgrace which must follow an exposure, and wreak his vengeance and gratify his revenge for his awful disappointments." ...

Sunday, 26. -- At 10 a. m. I preached at the Stand. The following synopsis was reported by Mr. Thos. Bullock, clerk of the steamer, "Maid of Iowa:" --

President Joseph Smith read the 11th Chap. II Corinthians. My object is to let you know that I am right here on the spot where I intend to stay. I, like Paul, have been in perils... It appears a holy prophet has arisen up, and he has testified against me; the reason is he is so holy. The Lord knows... Inasmuch as there is a new church, this must be old, and of course we ought to be set down as orthodox....

I had not been married scarcely five minutes, and made one proclamation of the Gospel, before it was reported that I had seven wives. I mean to live and proclaim the truth as long as I can.

This new holy prophet (William Law) has gone to Carthage and swore that I had told him that I was guilty of adultery. This spiritual wifeism! Why, a man dares not speak or wink, for fear of being accused of this....

As I grow older, my heart grows tenderer for you. I am at all times willing to give up everything that is wrong, for I wish this people to have a virtuous leader, I have set your minds at liberty by letting you know the things of Christ Jesus. When I shrink not from your defense will you throw me away for a new man who slanders you?..."

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 29.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., September 23, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


June, 1844.

I also insert a brief synopsis of the proceedings of the CITY COUNCIL of the city of Nauvoo, relative to the destruction of the press and fixtures of the "Nauvoo Expositor."

"City Council, Regular Session,}    
June 8th, 1844.     }    
In connection with other business as stated in last week's paper, the Mayor remarked, that he believed it generally the case that when a man goes to law, he has an unjust cause, and wants to go before some one who wants business, and that he had very few cases on his docket, and referring to Councilor Emmons, editor of the Nauvoo Expositor, suggested the propriety of first purging the City Council; and, referring to the character of the paper and proprietors, called up Theodore Turley, a mechanic, who being sworn, said that the Laws (Wm. and Wilson,) had brought Bogus Dies to him to fix.

Councilor Hyrum Smith inquired what good Foster, and his brother, and the Higbee's and Laws, had ever done; while his brother Joseph was under arrest from the Missouri persecution, the Laws and Robt. D. Foster, would have been ridden on a rail, if he had not stepped forward to prevent it, on account of their oppressing the poor.

Mayor said, while he was under arrest by writ from Governor Carlin, William Law sued him for $40.00 he was owing Law, and it took the last expense money he had to pay it.

Councilor H. Smith referred to J. H. Jackson's coming to this city, &c. Mayor said that William Law had offered Jackson $500 to kill him.

Councilor H. Smith continued, Jackson told him, he (Jackson) meant to have his daughter, and threatened him if he made any resistance. Jackson related to him a dream, that Joseph and Hyrum were opposed to him, but that he would execute his purposes; that Jackson had laid a plan with four or five persons to kidnap his daughter, and threatened to shoot any one that should come near, after he had got her in the skiff; that Jackson was engaged in trying to make Bogus, which was his principal business. Referred to the revelation read to the High Council of the Church, which has caused so much talk about multiplicity of wives; that said revelation was in answer to a question concerning things which transpired in former days. That when sick, William Law confessed to him that he had been 'guilty of adultery,' and 'was not fit to live,' and had 'sinned against his own soul,' &c., and enquired who was Judge Emmons? When he came here he had scarce two shirts to his back; but he had been dandled by the authorities of the city, &c., and was now editor of the 'Nauvoo Expositor,' and his right hand man, Francis M. Higbee, who had confessed to him that he had had the p--.

Washington Peck sworn, said Soon after Joseph H. Jackson came here, he came to witness to borrow money, which witness loaned him, and took some jewelry as security.

Soon after a man from across the river came after the jewelry. Jackson had stolen the jewelry from him.

At another time wanted to get money of witness; asked witness if he would do anything dishonorable to get a living. Witness said he would not. Jackson said witness was a damn fool, for he could get a living a deal easier than he was then doing, by making Bogus, and some men high in the Church, are engaged in the business.

Witness asked if it was Joseph? No, said Jackson, I dare not tell it to Joseph. Witness understood him the Laws are engaged in it. Jackson said he would be the death of witness if he ever went to Joseph or anyone else to tell what he had said.

AFTERNOON. -- Ordered by the Council that Sylvester Emmons be suspended until his case could be investigated, for slandering the City Council; that the Recorder notify him of his suspension, and that his case would come up for investigation at the next regular session of the Council. (The order is in the hands of the Marshal).

Councilor J. Taylor said that Councilor Emmons helped to make the ordinances of the city, and had never lifted his voice against them in the Council, and was now trying to destroy the ordinances and the charter.

Lorenzo Wasson sworn; said Joseph H. Jackson had told witness that Bogus making was going on in the city; but it was too damned small business. Wanted witness to help him to procure money, for the General (Smith) was afraid to go into it, and with $500 he could get an engraving for bills on the Bank of Missouri, and one on the State of New York, and could make money; said many times witness did not know him; believed the General had been telling witness something. God damn him, if he has, I will kill him; swore he would kill any man that should prove a traitor to him. Jackson said if he could get a company of men to suit him, he would go into the frontiers, and live by highway robbery; had got sick of the world.

Mayor suggested that the Council pass an ordinance to prevent misrepresentations and libelous publications and conspiracies against the peace of the city; and referring to the reports that Dr. Foster has set afloat, said he had never made any proposals to Foster to come back to the Church. Foster proposed to come back; came to Mayor's house, and wanted a private interview; had some conversation with Foster in the hall in presence of several gentlemen on the 7th inst.; offered to meet him and have an interview in presence of friends, three or four to be selected by each party; which Foster agreed to, and went to bring his friends for the interview; and the next notice he had of him was the following letter: --

To Gen. J. Smith:                                             'June 7th, 1844.
Sir: -- I have consulted my friends in relation to your proposals of settlement, and they as well as myself are of opinion that your conduct and that of your unworthy, unprincipled clan is so base that it would be morally wrong, and detract from the dignity of gentlemen to hold any conference with you; the repeated insults and abuses I, as well as my friends have suffered from your unlawful course towards us, demands honorable resentment. We are resolved to make this our motto.

Nothing on our part has been done to provoke your anger, but have done all things as become men; you have trampled upon everything we hold dear and sacred; you have set all law at defiance, and profaned the name of the Most High to carry out your damnable purposes; and I have nothing more to fear from you than you have already threatened, and I as well as my friends will stay here and maintain and magnify the law as long as we stay; and we are resolved never to leave until we sell or exchange our property that we have here.

The proposals made by your agent Dimick Huntington, as well as the threats you sent to intimidate me, I disdain and despise as I do their unhallowed author; the right of my family and my friends demands at my hand a refusal of all your offers. We are united in virtue and truth, and we set hell at defiance, and all her agents. Adieu.
Gen. J. Smith.'                                             R. D. FOSTER.'
Mayor continued: -- And when Foster left his house, he went to a shoe shop on the hill and reported that Joseph said to him, if he would come back, he would give him Law's place in the church, and a hat full of specie.

Lucien Woodworth sworn; said that the conversation as stated by the Mayor was correct: was at the Mansion June 7th, when Dr. Foster rode up and inquired if Gen. Smith was at home; Dr. Foster went into the house; witness followed. Dr. Foster was there, the General, and others, looking at some specimens of penmanship; something was said respecting a conversation at that time between the General and the Doctor, Gen. Smith observed to Foster, if he had a conversation he would want others present. The Doctor said he would have a word with him by himself, and went into the hall. Witness went to the door that he might see and hear what was passing. They still continued to talk on the subject of a conversation that they might have afterwards with others present, whom Mr. Smith and Foster might choose. Foster left, and went for those that he said he wanted present, and would return soon with them; he heard all the conversation; heard nothing about Gen. Smith's making any offers to Foster to settle; was present all the time. Dimick Huntington said he had seen Foster and talked with him.

Mayor said he wished it distinctly understood that he knew nothing about Dimick Huntington going to see Foster.

Woodworth said he sent Dimick Huntington to Foster, and Joseph knew nothing about it.

Councilor H. Smith said Dimick Huntington came to him on the 7th inst., and said he had had an interview with Dr. Foster, and thought he was about ready to come back, and a word from him or Joseph would bring it about.

Mayor said the conduct of such men, and such papers, are calculated to destroy the peace of the city; and it is not safe that such thing should exist, on account of the mob spirit which they tend to produce; he had made the statements he had, and called the witnesses to prepare the council to act in the case.

Emmons was blackguarded out of Philadelphia, and dubbed with the title of Judge (as he had understood from citizens of Philadelphia;) was poor, and Mayor helped him to cloth for a coat before he went away last fall, and he (Emmons) labored all winter to get the post office from Mr. Rigdon, (as informed.)

Mayor referred to a writing from Dr. Goforth, showing that the Laws presented the communication from the 'Female Relief Society' in the Nauvoo Neighbor to Dr. Goforth, as the bone of contention, and said, if God ever spake by any man, it will not be five years before this city is in ashes and we in our graves, unless we go to Oregon, California, or some other place, if the city does not put down everything which tends to mobocracy, and put down murderers, bogus makers, and scoundrels; all the sorrow he ever had in his family in this city has arisen through the influence of William Law.

Councilor H. Smith spoke in relation to the Laws, Fosters, Higbees, Editor of the Signal, &c., and of the importance of suppressing that spirit which has driven us from Missouri, &c.; that he would go in for an effective ordinance.

Mayor said, at the time Gov. Carlin was pursuing him with his writs, William Law came to his house with a band of Missourians for the purpose of betraying him. Came to his gate, and was prevented by Daniel Carn, who was set to watch; Law came within his gate and called, 'Mayor,' and the Mayor reproved Law for coming at that time of night with a company of strangers.

Daniel Carn sworn; said that about 10 o'clock at night, a boat came up the river with about a dozen men. William Law came to the gate with them; witness on guard stopped them. Law called Joseph to the door, and wanted an interview. Joseph said, 'Bro. Law, you know better than to come here at this hour of the night,' and Law retired. Next morning Law wrote a letter to apologize, which witness heard read, which was written apparently to screen himself from the censure of a conspiracy, and the letter betrayed a conspiracy on the face of it.

Adjourned at half-past 6 p. m., till Monday, 10th, 10 o'clock a. m.

Adjourned session, June 10th, 10 o'clock, a. m. Alderman Harris presiding.

Mayor referred to Dr. Foster, and again read his letter of the 7th inst., (as before quoted).

Cyrus Hills (a stranger) sworn; said one day last week, believed it Wednesday, a gentleman whom witness did not know, came into the sitting room of the 'Nauvoo Mansion,' and requested the Hon. Mayor to step aside, he wanted to speak with him. Mayor stepped through the door into the entry by the foot of the stairs, and the General (Mayor) asked him what he wished? Foster, (as witness learned since was his name) said he wanted some conversation on some business witness did not understand at the time; the General refused to go any farther, and said he would have no conversation in private, and what should be said should be in public; and told Foster if he would choose three or four men, he would meet him with the same number of men (among whom was his brother Hyrum.) And they would have a cool and calm investigation of the subject, and by his making a proper satisfaction, things should be honorably adjusted. Witness judged, from the manner in which Foster expressed himself that he agreed to the Mayor's proposals, and would meet him the same day in the presence of friends; heard no proposals made by Major to Foster for settlement; heard nothing about any offers of dollars, or money, or any other offer except those mentioned before; nothing said about Wm. Law. Was within hearing of the parties at the time conversation was going on.

O. P. Rockwell sworn; Some day last week saw Dr. Foster ride up to the Nauvoo Mansion and go in; witness went in and found the Mayor and Dr. Foster in conversation. Gen. Smith was naming the men he would have present, among whom was Hyrum Smith, William Marks, Lucien Woodworth, and Peter Hawes; and Dr. Foster had leave to call an equal number of his friends, as witness understood, for the purpose of having an interview on some matters in contention.

The Doctor's brother was proposed. General said he had no objections; wanted him present. Dr. Foster started, saying he would be back shortly. Before Dr. F. left, the men whom Gen. Smith had named to be present at the conversation were sent for.

Cross-examined; witness went into the house as Mayor and Dr. Foster were coming out of the bar room into the hall; nothing said by the Mayor to Dr. Foster about his coming back; made no offer to Foster about a settlement.

Mayor said the first thing that occurred to his mind, when he stepped into the hall with Foster was that he wanted to assassinate him; he saw something shining below his vest; Mayor put his finger on it and said, what is that? Foster replied, it is my pistol, and immediately took out the pistol, and showed it openly, and wanted the Mayor to go with him alone; Mayor said he would not go alone; Mayor never saw the pistol before; had a hook on its side to hang on his waist band.

Andrew L. Lamoreaux sworn; said that in 1839 or '40, while President Joseph Smith, Elder Rigdon, Judge Higbee, O. P. Rockwell, and Dr. R. D. Foster, while on their way to Washington, called at witness' house in Dayton, Ohio; that the evening was spent very agreeably, except some dissatisfaction on the part of certain females with regard to the conduct of Dr. Foster. On their return from Washington, witness informed President Smith of Foster's conduct. President Smith said he had frequently reproved Foster for such conduct, and he had promised to do better; and told witness to reprove Foster if he saw anything out of the way. That evening Foster refused to join the company, and walked through the town till about 8 o'clock, when he came in and interrupted Prest. Smith, who was expounding some passages of scripture, and changed the conversation. Soon after the company were invited to Mr. Brown's at the next door, whither they all repaired. While at Mr. Brown's, conversation was going on, and the room much crowded. Dr. Foster and one of the ladies he had paid so much attention to before, took their seats in one corner of the room; witness heard her state to Dr. Foster that she supposed she had been enciente for some time back, but had been disappointed and supposed it was on account of her weakness, and wanted Foster to prescribe something for her; Foster said he could do it for her, and dropped his hand to her feet, and began to raise it; she gave him a slight push, and threw herself close to the wall. He laid his hand on her knee, and whispered so low that witness could not hear; next morning witness went in while Foster and others were at breakfast, and related what he had seen; Foster denied it; Prest. Smith told him not to deny it, for he saw it himself, and was ashamed of it. Foster confessed it was true, and promised to reform.

Peter Hawes sworn; said that he came to Nauvoo before the Laws, and brought considerable property; it was a short time after the church had been driven out of Missouri, and had arrived in this place. The families having been robbed of all in Missouri were in a starving condition. By the council of the Presidency, witness converted his funds to feeding the poor, bringing in meat and flour, &c., and while thus engaged, drew upon the Laws, who were at that time engaged in merchandise, to the amount of some six hundred dollars, which, on account of expenditure for the poor, he was not able to pay within 70 or 80 dollars, which they pressed him for as soon as they wanted it, although he offered them good property at considerable less than the market value; as witness was obliged to leave the city on church business for a little season. William Law threatened and intimidated witness' family during his absence for the pay.

Dr. Foster made a public dinner on the 4th of July. Witness was obliged to be absent, and deposited meat, flour, &c., with Wm. Law to give to the poor at that dinner, and Law handed it out as his own private property. Witness carried a load of wheat to Law's mill to be ground; Law would not grind it only to give a certain quantity of flour in return by weight. Law used up the flour, promising from time to time he would refund it. As witness was about to start on a mission to the south with his valise in his hand, saw Law before his door talking with Hyrum Smith, called on Law, and told him he was going away, and his family wanted the flour; Law promised on the honor of a gentleman and a saint that his family should have the flour when they wanted.

Councilor H. Smith said he recollected the time and circumstance.

Hawes said, when he returned he found his family must have starved, if they had not borrowed money to get food somewhere else; could not get it of Law. And Law was preaching punctuality, PUNCTUALITY, PUNCTUALITY, as the whole drift of his discourses to the saints; and abusing them himself, and grinding the poor.

Mayor said if he had a city council who felt as he did, the establishment (referring to the Nauvoo Expositor) would be declared a nuisance before night; and then he read an editorial from the Nauvoo Expositor. He then asked who ever said a word against Judge Emmons until he attacked this council; or even against Joseph H. Jackson or the Laws, until they came out against the city? Here is a paper (Nauvoo Expositor) that is exciting our enemies abroad. Joseph H. Jackson has been proved a murderer before this council, and he declared the paper a nuisance, a greater nuisance than a dead carcass. They make it a criminality for a man to have a wife on the earth while he has one in heaven, according to the keys of the Holy Priesthood; and he then read a statement of William Law's from the Expositor, where the truth of God was transformed into a lie concerning this thing. He then read several statements of Austin Cowles in the Expositor concerning a private interview, and said he never had any private conversations with Austin Cowles on these subjects; that he preached on the stand from the bible, showing the order in ancient days. What the opposition party want, is to raise a mob on us and take the spoil from us, as they did in Missouri; he said it was as much as he could do to keep his clerk, Thompson from publishing the proceedings of the Laws, and causing the people to rise up against them; said he would rather die tomorrow, and have the thing smashed, than live and have it go on, for it was exciting the spirit of mobocracy among the people, and bringing death and destruction upon us.

Peter Hawes recalled a circumstance which he had forgot to mention, concerning a Mr. Smith who came from England and soon after died; the children had no one to protect them. There was one girl 16 or 17 years old, and a younger sister; witness took these girls into his family out of pity. Wilson Law, then Major General of the Nauvoo Legion, was familiar with the eldest daughter; witness cautioned the girl. Wilson was soon there again, and went out in the evening with the girl, who when charged by the witness's wife, confessed that Wilson Law had seduced her. Witness told her he could not keep her; the girl wept, made much ado, and many promises; witness told her if she would do right, she might stay; but she did not keep her promise. Wilson came again and she went out with him; witness then required her to leave his house.

Mayor said certain women came to complain to his wife, that they had caught Wilson Law with the girl on the floor at Mr. Hawes' in the night.

Councilor Hyrum Smith proceeded to show the falsehood of Austin Cowles in the 'Expositor,' in relation to the revelation referred to....


By Elder George A. Smith, Bowery,
Sunday Afternoon, September 13, 1857.


The last time, I believe, brethren and sisters, that I had the privilege of speaking from this stand, was the day previous to my starting for the southern country. We were then expecting a visit from a very formidable force, directly from the State of Missouri. It waked up in my mind the feelings that I used to have, say from ten to twenty years ago, in hearing the constant annoyance of an approaching enemy. And according to the report which has been published of my remarks I talked rather strong. But one thing is evident if I did not talk strong it was not because I did not feel strong on the occasion.

I left the next morning and wended my way southward. I visited the different settlements hurriedly until I reached Parowan in the county of Iron, the place of the first settlement in the southern part of the Territory. When I arrived there, it appeared that some rumor or spirit of surprise had reached them; for there were active operations going on, seemingly preparing for something that was near at hand. As I drove in at the gate, I beheld the military on the square exercising, and was immediately surrounded by the “Iron Battalion” which seemed to have held its own very well since it was organized in that place.

They had assembled together under the impression that their country was about to be invaded by an army from the United States, and that it was necessary to make preparation by examining each other's arms, and to make everything ready by preparing to strike in any direction, and march to such places as might be necessary in the defense of their homes.

As it will be well recollected, I was the president of the company that first made the settlement there. I was received with every feeling of enthusiasm and I never found them in better spirits. They were willing any moment to touch fire to their homes, and hide themselves in the mountains, and to defend their country to the very last extremity.

Now, there had been no such preaching as that when I went away, but the Spirit seemed to burn in my bones to visit all these settlements in that southern region. Col. Dame was about organizing the military of that District under the law of last winter. As the Col. was going along to organize the military, I got into the carriage and went on a mission of peace, to preach to the people. When I got to Cedar, I found the Battalions on parade and the Col. talked to them and completed the new organization.

On the following day I addressed the Saints at their meeting house. I never had greater liberty of speech to proclaim to the people my feelings and views, and in spite of all I could do, I found myself preaching a military discourse; and I told them, in case of invasion, it might be necessary to set fire to our property, and hide in the mountains, and leave our enemies to do the best they could. It seemed to be hailed with the same enthusiasm, that it was at Parowan. That was the same Sabbath that br. Young was preaching the same kind of doctrine, and I am perfectly satisfied that all the districts in the southern country would have given him their unanimous vote.

I then went to Harmony; br. Dame preached to the military and I to the civil powers, and I must say that my discourse partook of the military more than the religious. But it seemed that I was perfectly running over with it, and hence I had to say something about it....

We pursued our visit to the Mountain Meadows and there were kindly treated by the families of the missionaries, who lived at this place on account of the abundant grass for their stock. I then went to Penter [sic - Painter?] and there addressed a houseful of people in the evening and then proceeded to Cedar the next day; they had heard they were going to have an army of 600 dragoons come down from the East on to the town; the Major seemed very sanguine about the matter. I asked him, if this rumor should prove true, if he was not going to wait for instructions; he replied, There was no time to wait for any instruction; and he was going to take his battalion and use them up before they could get down through the kanyons; for, said he, if they are coming here, they are coming for no good.

I admired his grit, but I thought he would not have the privilege of using them up, for want of an opportunity. I also visited the Saints at Paragoonah and preached to them and in every place felt the same spirit. I then came over to Beaver, which is a new settlement, and the day previous an Indian came in and told them there were shod horses tracks at a spring over the big mountains about 20 to the east.

Major Farnsworth supposing that there was a body of men in the neighborhood and that these were the tracks of the scouts, they immediately went over the mountains and traced the horses' tracks, until they ascertained they came from Parowan. I do not know whether the inhabitants of Parowan intended to whip a regiment of dragoons, or not, but it is certain they are wide awake, and are not going to be taken by surprise. There was only one thing that I dreaded, and that was a spirit in the breasts of some to wish that their enemies might come and give them a chance to fight and take vengeance for the cruelties that had been inflicted upon us in the States; they did feel that they hated to owe a debt and not be able to pay it, and they felt like an old man that lives at Provo, br. Jameson, who has carried a few ounces of lead in his body ever since the Haun's Mill massacre in Missouri; and he wants to pay it back with usury; and he undertook to preach at Provo, and prayed that God would send them along; for he wanted to have a chance at them.

Now I never felt so, but I do not know but it is on account of my extreme timidity, for I would a great deal rather the Lord would fight the battles than me, and I feel to pray that he will punish them with that hell which is to want to and can't, and it is my prayer and wish all the time that this may be their doom. This is what I want to inculcate all the time, and at the same time if the Lord brings us in collision with them, and it is his will, let us take hold, not in the spirit of revenge or anger, but simply to avenge God of his enemies, and to protect our homes and firesides, but I am perfectly aware that all the settlements I visited in the south, Fillmore included, one single sentence is enough to put every man in motion, in fact a word is enough to set in motion every man, or set a torch to every building, where the safety of this people is jeopardized.

I have understood that there are half a dozen fellows in Provo that have but one wife each, and that they are not for fighting because they say this trouble has come on account of plurality. Well I pity them because I know the women will leave them, and that it would not be but a few days before there would be so many broken hearted, disconsolate men, for the women among the Latter Day Saints will not live with such men.

I have rejoiced and enjoyed myself on this visit to the south as much as at any time, for I perceive a hearty willingness to do and sacrifice anything that was required for the preservation of Zion, and whenever I got up to preach I was full and it seemed as if I could not stop, and before I got through, I would be tired.

I will say to the brethren and sisters, that I feel to return to my Heavenly Father my thanks that he has thus far frustrated the designs of our enemies, and I know that he has got the power to wield and frustrate them at his will, and I know if we are humble and united, and moved upon by the right spirit, God will fight our battles. And if any of us are called to lay down our lives in the defence of our religion, God will save us in celestial glory, and he will preserve us, though all the world be against us.

(President B. Young: "That is true.")

These are my feelings and this is my faith. No matter what day or hour we are called to go into the presence of our Father in heaven, for every man and woman that has not got a religion that is worth more than their mortal lives, and unless we are willing to sacrifice all that pertains to these temporal feelings we are not worthy of salvation.

Why there was an honest Dutchman came to me this morning, and he had just heard that the President had concluded to let the soldiers in here. His heart had sunk within him at the thought, and "O," says he, "Can I live to see those troops come in here?" He can live through a great many things besides that. God will protect his people, and he will fight their battles, and if he wants a little help I presume that he will find us ready.

I have preached to the brethren to live their religion and "trust in God and keep their powder dry;" I borrowed it from Cromwell. Be ready to defend Israel, and when we have done all we can the Lord will do the balance. Why, say the world, it is presumption for you to talk so. Uncle Sam has twenty-five millions of people, and 100,000,000 of surplus money in the treasury, and thousands of men in the country that are aching to be killed. We used to talk to them in this way when we lived down in their midst, and then when it came to the sticking point we would bow to them, and what did we get by it? Br. Taylor told you that thousands had suffered in consequence.

I tell you, we have suffered more waste of life and property than we will to face the music, and let them do their cursedest and then every honest Dutchman and every man will get all he wants and many of us Yankees will get many of our dirty tricks purged and pruned out of us, and our picayunary will vanish, it will all fail, for everything that we have in our hearts that is not right will be purged out, for our interest will be centered in the kingdom of God.

When I was back in Washington last season I had a long conversation with Senator Douglas, and he is a kind of personification of modern democracy, very thick but not very long. He asked a great many questions about our Temple, and I gave him a description of the foundation, and he asked me if I expected we would ever be able to accomplish it? The manner he communicated it was to show that he had his eye upon another thing than that which he alluded to; but I realized then just as well as I did when I read his proposition to "cut out the loathsome ulcer." I said to him, "O Judge, we are not a little handful as we were in Nauvoo, we can now do anything we have a mind to."

Some of our national statesmen profess to be Christians and wonderfully pious. Mr. Morill, of Vermont, said to me, "Your domestic relations are so at variance with sacred books!" Why, said I, the Father of the faithful, our father Abraham seemed to have the same view of the matter that we do. "O," says he, "Abraham was guilty of a great many eccentric tricks." "Eccentric as he might be," I replied, "it is in his bosom that all Christians expect to rest, and we do not expect that he is going to kick his wives out to please anybody."

Many people do not know why it is that they feel so enraged against us. I found in talking with hundreds and thousands of persons in the course of our travels that there was a deep rooted spirit of hatred, and in talking of this I found that my reasons were superior to theirs and they felt it and realized it, and my conversation seemed to suit and carry a good influence.

Our Elders have preached the Gospel freely throughout the world, and they have tarred and feathered them and put them to death. If they could have defeated them by arguments all well enough, but no, these weapons proved ineffectual and they tried mobs and violence, and now they array the armies of the United States against us, that under their wing they may send missionaries among us to convert our souls. Poor cursed slinks! Do not they know that we were raised among them in the very hotbed of sectarian bigotry and that we know all that the priests know about their religion and ten thousand times more?

Note 1: In 1884, in response to some assertions made in Elder Penrose's discourse of the Mountain Meadows massacre, a correspondent of the Salt Lake Tribune, had this to say:"Though George A. Smith states in his affidavit that he 'encamped with Jacob Hamblin, Philo T. Farnsworth, Silas S. Smith and Elijah Hoops' [during his 1857 southern tour] he never mentions having journeyed to several settlements with John D. Lee, of which there is ample proof. Was it merciful in said Smith to counsel not to sell the emigrants something which they needed, even for their teams? -- If Brigham was not accessory before the fact, what does he mean in his published letter to Col. W. H. Dame dated September 14, 1857: 'In case the United States Government should send out an overpowering force, we intend to desolate the Territory, and conceal our families, stock and all our effects in the fastnesses of the mountains, where they will be safe, while the men waylay our enemies, attack them from ambush, stampede their animals, take the supply trains, cut off the detachments and parties sent to the canyons for wood, or on other service. To lay waste everything that will burn -- houses, fences, fields and grass, so that they cannot find a particle of anything that will be of use to them, not even sticks to make a fire to cook their supplies. To waste away our enemies and to lose none; that will be our mode of warfare. Thus you will see the necessity of preparing, first, secure places in the mountains where they cannot find us, or, if they do, where they cannot approach in force, and then prepare for our families, building some cabins, caching flour and grain.' 'Conciliate the Indians and make them our fast friends.' 'In regard to letting the people pass and repass, or travel through the Territory, this applies to all strangers and suspected persons. Yourself and Brother Isaac C. Haight, in your districts, are authorized to give such permits. Examine all such persons before giving them such permits to pass. Keep things perfectly quiet, and let all things be done peacefully, but with firmness, and let there be no excitement. Let the people be united in their feelings and faith, as well as works, and keep alive the spirit of reformation..."

Note 2: The details of Dr. Foster's purported indecencies with the lady mentioned in the Joseph Smith historical excerpt were deleted from the reprint of the account, as published in the LDS History of the Church; a fact which calls to mind another allegation made against Foster in the Mormon popular press -- see the Deseret News of Aug. 12, 1857 and appended notes.



No. 30.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., September 30, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


June, 1844.

Our communications by mail appear to be cut off, as no part of our extensive correspondence has come to hand by the U. S. mail for the last three weeks, and Dr. Hickok seems to be aware of it. Instructed Dr. Richards to answer Dr. Hickok's letter, and then rode out with O. P. Rockwell.

I received the following letter: --

"Springfield, Ill., June 6th, 1844.    
Dear Sir. -- I have just received information that T. B. Johnson is making an effort to procure from the grand jury for the United States, now in session at this place, an indictment against the members of your Municipal Court for exercising their legal and constitutional rights, and discharging their sworn duty in acting in the matter of Jeremiah Smith's petition for habeas corpus. I could hardly have supposed that he would succeed, had I not been informed that there is no doubt that he will accomplish his object. I give you this information that you may be able to act as circumstances may require. Mr. Smith has not had a hearing, and will not till tomorrow morning.     Yours truly,
H. T. HUGINS.    
Gen. Joseph Smith, Nauvoo."

Elders J. M. Grant and Geo. J. Adams preached at my house in the evening. Cloudy and cool day.

The captain of the steamer Osprey called this forenoon at the printing office to see me. I rode with him to his boat, which was at the upper landing. When I came up, Charles A. Foster called the passengers to see the meanest man in the world; Mr. Eaton stopped him, and told the passengers that it was Foster who was the meanest man in the world. Rollison attempted to draw a pistol, but Eaton silenced him, and kept them all down.

David Harvey Redfield reported that last evening, while on the hill, just before the police arrived, Francis M. Higbee said while speaking of the printing press of the "Nauvoo Expositor," if they lay their hands upon it or break it, they may date their downfall from that very hour, and in ten days there will not be a Mormon left in Nauvoo. What they do, they may expect the same in return. Addison Everett also heard him.

Jason R. Luce reported that Ianthus Rolf said, while the press was burning that before three weeks the Mansion House would be strung to the ground, and he would help to do it; and Tallman Rolf said the city would be strung to the ground within ten day. Moses Leonard also heard him, Joshua Miller being also present.

Bryant, (merchant of Nauvoo) said before he would see such things, he would wade to his knees in blood.

It is reported that runners have gone out in all directions to try to get up a mob; and the mobbers are selling their houses in Nauvoo and disposing of their property.

Wednesday, [June] 12, [1844]. -- At 10 a. m. in my office.

At half-past one I was arrested by David Bettisworth on the following writ:

"State of Illinois, } ss.
      Hancock County,}

The People of the State of Illinois to all Constables, Sheriffs and Coroners of State, Greeting:

Whereas complaint hath been made before me, one of the justices of the peace within and for the county of Hancock aforesaid, upon the oath of Francis M. Higbee of said county, that Joseph Smith, Samuel Bennett, John Taylor and William W. Phelps, Hyrum Smith, John P. Greene, Stephen Perry, Dimick B. Huntington, Jonathan Dunham, Stephen Markham, William Edwards, Jonathan Holmes, Jesse P. Harmon, John Lytle, Joseph W. Coolidge, Harvey D. Redfield, Porter Rockwell and Levi Richards, of said county did on the 10th day of June instant commit a riot at and within the county aforesaid, wherein they, with force and violence broke into the office of the Nauvoo Expositor, and unlawfully and with force burned and destroyed the printing press, type and fixtures of the same, being the property of William Law, Wilson Law, Charles Ivins, Francis M. Higbee, Chauncey L. Higbee, Robert D. Foster, and Charles A. Foster.

These are therefore to command you forthwith to apprehend the said Joseph Smith, Samuel Bennett, John Taylor, William W. Phelps, Hyrum Smith, John P. Greene, Stephen Perry, Dimick B. Huntington, Jonathan Dunham, Stephen Markham, William Edwards, Jonathan Holmes, Jesse P. Harmon, John Lytle, Joseph W. Coolidge, Harvey D. Redfield, Porter Rockwell and Levi Richards, and bring them before me or some other justice of the peace, to answer the premises, and further to be dealt with according to Law.

Given under my hand and seal at Carthage, in the county aforesaid, this 11th day of June. A. D. 1844.
THOMAS MORRISON, J. P. (Seal.)"    

After the officer got through reading the writ, I referred him to the clause in the writ, "before me or some other justice of the peace or said county," saying, "We are ready to go to trial before Esquire Johnson or any justice in Nauvoo, according to the requirements of the writ;" but Bettisworth swore he would be damned but he would carry them to Carthage before Morrison, who issued the writ and seemed very wrathy. I asked him if he intended to break the law, for he knew the privilege of the prisoners, and they should have it. I called upon all present to witness that I then offered myself (Hyrum did the same) to go forthwith before the nearest justice of the peace, and also called upon them to witness whether the officer broke the law or not.

I felt so indignant at his abuse in depriving me of the privilege of the statute of Illinois in going before "some other justice," that I determined to take out a writ of habeas corpus, and signed the following petition:

"State of Illinois, }
      City of Nauvoo, }

To the Honorable Municipal Court in and for the said City of Nauvoo:--

Your petitioner, Joseph Smith, respectfully represents that he is now under arrest in the said city of Nauvoo. page 455

That he is in the custody of one David Bettisworth, a constable in and for said county of Hancock, who holds your petitioner, as he says by virtue of a warrant issued by one Thomas Morrison, an acting justice of the peace in and for the said county of Hancock, and State of Illinois, which warrant was issued upon the affidavits of one Francis M. Higbee, charging your petitioner with being guilty of a riot, or of having committed a riot within the county aforesaid.

Your petitioner further represents that the warrant of arrest, by virtue of which the said David Bettisworth has made this arrest, does not disclose sufficiently clear and explicit the charge they have preferred.

Your petitioner further avers that this proceeding against him has been instituted through malice, private pique and corruption.

Your petitioner further avers that the design and intention of the said F. M. Higbee in commencing this prosecution is to commit and carry out more easily a conspiracy against the life of your petitioner; and that the said Higbee has publicly declared that it was his determination to do everything in his power to throw your petitioner into the hands of his enemies: and that there is a determination upon the part of said Higbee and his unhallowed coadjutors to commit an unlawful act, and to set the rights and privileges of your petitioner at defiance, and bring down upon his head this corrupt and unhallowed prosecution.

Your petitioner further avers that he is not guilty of the charge preferred against him; that he seeks an investigation before an impartial tribunal, and fears not the result.

Your petitioner would therefore ask your honorable body to grant him the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus, that this matter may be investigated upon legal principles, and that the legal and constitutional rights of your petitioner may be determined by your honorable body. And your petitioner, as in duty bound, will ever pray.
Subscribed and sworn to this 12th day of June, 1844, before me.


(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 31.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., October 7, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


June, 1844.

The following letters were also written:

"Nauvoo, June 14th, 1844.    
"To His Excellency Governor Ford:

"Sir. -- Though I have not the honor of a personal acquaintance with you, I take the liberty of stating to you that I arrived here from the city of New York about a year since, where I was engaged in the practice of medicine for many years; that General Smith's letter to you of this date has been read in my hearing; that the statement contained therein in relation to the proceedings of the municipal authorities for the removal of the press whence issued a scandalous sheet entitled the Nauvoo Expositor are correct, having been an eye and ear witness of them.

The whole affair was conducted by the city marshal and his posse in the most quiet and orderly manner, without the least noise, riot or tumult; and when the nuisance was abated, they immediately retired and were dismissed.

Having been a boarder in General Smith's family for more than pine months, and having therefore had abundant opportunities of contemplating his character and observing his conduct, I have concluded to give you a few of my 'impressions' of him.

Gen. Joseph Smith is naturally a man of strong mental powers, and is possessed of much energy and decision of character, great penetration, and a profound knowledge of human nature. He is a man of calm judgment, enlarged views, and is eminently distinguished by his love of justice. He is kind and obliging, generous and benevolent, sociable and cheerful, and is possessed of a mind of a contemplative and reactive character. He is honest, frank, fearless and independent, and as free from dissimulation as any man to be found.

But it is in the gentle charities of domestic life, as the tender and affectionate husband and parent, the warm and sympathizing friend, that the prominent traits of his character are revealed, and his heart is felt to be keenly alive to the kindest and softest emotions of which human nature is susceptible; and I feel assured that his family and friends formed one of the greatest consolations to him while the vials of wrath were poured upon his head, while his footsteps were pursued by malice and envy, and reproach and slander were strewn in his path, as well as during numerous and cruel persecutions, and severe and protracted sufferings in chains and loathsome prisons, for worshiping God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

He is a true lover of his country, and a bright and shining example of integrity and moral excellence in all the relations of life. As a religious teacher, as well as a man, he is greatly beloved by this people. It is almost superfluous to add that the numerous ridiculous and scandalous reports in circulation respecting him have not the least foundation in truth.

In haste, I have the honor to be your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant,

City of Nauvoo, June 14th, 1844.   
"Hononorable Gov. Thomas Ford:

"Being a stranger in the city of Nauvoo, but fully acquainted with the facts as stated in Gen. Smith's letter of June 14th, I assert that they are true in every particular, and that the press. in the minds of all unprejudiced people, was a nuisance of the worst character, and that the authorities acted perfectly proper in destroying it; and in accomplishing the act there was no noise, tumult or riot. Furthermore, having remained for a few weeks at General Smith's house, I think it my duty to state that I have seen nothing in his deportment but what is correct in all his domestic relations, being a kind husband and an affectionate father; and all his affairs, both domestic and official, have not only been free from censure, but praiseworthy, and ought to be imitated by every one desirous of order and peace. --     Yours, sir, most obediently,
J. R. WAKEFIELD, M. D."    

"Post Office, Nauvoo, Ill., June 14 1844.    
"His Excellency, Thomas Ford:

"Dear Sir. -- I address this letter to your Excellency by the hand of Mr. Samuel James, in consequence of the difficulties now existing in this county, difficulties in which I have had no concern; and fearing as I do, that in the midst of an excitement so great as I have understood now exists in this county, (I say understood, for it is by report only that I speak) there may be attempts made to prejudice your mind to take some measures of a violent character that may seriously affect the citizens of this place, and injure innocent and unoffending persons, which I am satisfied would grieve your Excellency, as well as every other thinking and humane man.

There have for a length of time difficulties existed between a number of the citizens of this place, which kept increasing. One of the parties had recourse to the Warsaw Signal as a medium through which they communicate their difficulties to the world. These productions were inflammatory to a high degree, and the party thus assailed charged the matter as libelous and highly abusive. To these exposures responses appeared in the papers of this place, charging the matter as being false and the authors as defamers and slanderers.

Things continued thus until a paper was established in this place called the Nauvoo Expositor. The first number of this paper made its appearance, and it was inflammatory and abusive to an extreme. This raised the excitement to a degree beyond control, and threatened serious consequences.

At this particular juncture all the authorities of the city feelings common interest in the peace and quiet of the place, and fearing the worst consequences must follow if something were not done, the city council met and took the matter into consideration, and, after deliberating on the subject and examining the charter, came to the conclusion to hazard all the consequences of declaring the press a nuisance, and accordingly ordered its removal. The city marshal, in obedience to this order, went and removed the press and destroyed it. This was done without tumult or disorder. When the press was destroyed, all returned home, and everything has been perfectly quiet ever since.

Within the last three days warrants have been issued from a justice of the peace in Carthage, calling for the bodies of the persons who destroyed the press. The officer having the matter in charge, refuses the persons a hearing before any other justices of the peace than the one issuing the warrants. With this demand they refused to comply. as there is a large assembly of persons assembled at Carthage making threats of violence; and they say, and I have no doubt they verily believe that by going there their lives will be in danger; and from the intelligence which I received last evening from a person in no way connected with the affair, and one of undoubted veracity, I must think so myself. This gentleman informs me that he has been in Carthage since Monday last at the land sales, and he heard threatenings by the persons assembled there that if they could get into Nauvoo they would murder indiscriminately, and those who wanted to escape must leave. This your Excellency would abhor as I do.

The citizens of this county who do not reside in Nauvoo, and those of other counties, have indeed no interest of a personal kind at stake in this matter. There are no persons disturbing them, nor going to do so; and this great excitement does savor of something else to me than a regard for the laws. Why not let the parties, as in all other cases of the kind settle their difficulties as the laws of the country in such cases have provided.

Have the citizens of Nauvoo ever interfered with cases of difficulty existing in other parts of the county, held public meetings to inflame the public mind in favor of one party, and prejudice it against the other party? Most assuredly they have not. Why. then, must the citizens of this place be scourged with such attempts?

If the citizens of Hancock want the supremacy of the laws maintained let these tumultuous assemblies disperse, and let the civil officers, if resisted, do as in other cases -- call for aid instead of assembling in advance, and then call for persons to be brought into their midst as prisoners amidst threats and insults.

From the confidence I have in your Excellency's superior intelligence, and sound discretion, I doubt not that your Excellency will arrive at just conclusions when the matter is submitted to your consideration, as I understand it is about being.

I can see no need for executive interference in this case, but disperse All uncalled for assemblies. and let the laws have their regular course which they can have if these assemblies will disperse. If not, I fear the consequences.

I send this to your Excellency as confidential, as I wish not to take any part in the affair, or be known in it.

With consideration of high regard, I am, dear sir, your Excellency's most obedient servant,     SIDNEY RIGDON."

I read the doings of the City Council to Dr. Wakefield, and gave him a volume of the Times and Seasons. About 4 p. m., I rode out with Dr. Bernhisel. Pleasant and warm day. Towards night some clouds.

A Mr. Norton was tried before Esq. Aaron Johnson, J. P., on a charge of firing Foster's printing office, and acquitted....

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 40.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., December 9, 1857.                    Vol. VII.


THE CALIFORNIA MAIL arrived on the 3d inst., but as usual brought no news of importance, except a lengthy and splendid reply to President Buchanan's letter to the memorialists in Connecticut, (which we shall print at an early date) and word that all or nearly all the California editors are blowing and striking in perfect phrenzy about the late massacre of emigrants by Indians at the Mountain Meadows, pouring all the blame, as is so customary upon the 'Mormons.' Of course the 'Mormons' should feed, clothe and civilize the wild and degraded red man, with comparatively, scarcely a farthing's worth of assistance from the Government, and then when passers have poisoned, cheated, abused and wantonly slain the Indians, forsooth the cankeringr venom of recreant editors is ruthlessly poured upon the 'Mormons' for not turning out in mass and standing between savage vengeance and those who excited it, which they well know, or should, is no more our business than it is theirs, and is in fact the immediate duty of the Parent Government.

Messrs. California editors, so long as the whites prefer to wantonly trample in the dust the untutored aborigines, so long they may expect to meet that indiscriminate vengeance so with the race; and by bearing this fact, known of all, in constant mind, you may avoid the sin of continually heaping false acusations upon an innocent people.

Note 1: Perhaps two of the "California editors" whose opinions were so unwelcome in Salt Lake City, were Thomas S. King and James Nisbet of the San Francisco Evening Bulletin. The Oct. 27, 1857 issue of that newspaper had this to say about the Utah church hierarchy: "We devote considerable space this evening to the statements of persons who have recently crossed the Mormon territory, going to prove the complicity of these people in the later butchery of over one hundred immigrants, and their rebellion against the Government of the United States. These statements are convincing. Through their savage allies, the Mormons have slain in cold blood, and left unburied to rot, men and women peaceably pursuing their pathway across the territory of the United States.... What effect this news will have at Washington, it is hard to forsee. But we much mistake the character of President Buchanan and his Cabinet, if it does not lead speedily to such action as will cause that arch traitor, Brigham Young, to repent his temerity. The blood of American citizens cries for vengeance from the barren sands of the Great Basin. The insulted dignity of the nation demands retribution from their infamous murderers. The insulted dognity Virtue, christianity and decency require that the vile brood of incestuous miscreants who have perpetuated this atrocity shall be broken up and dispersed."



No. 46.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., Jan. 20, 1858.                    Vol. VII.


By Elder George A. Smith, Tabernacle, Jan. 10, 1858.

(Reported By G. D. Watt.)

The Lord says, 'For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways.'

The address we have listened to this afternoon is directly calculated to inspire our minds with a full fruition of the truth of these sentiments. If the religious nations of the world had been consulted in establishing a new religion with the intention of superseding all other sects and denominations, they would have selected a grave council of the wisest, most most learned, and pious men they could find, -- learned in theology, in philosophy, in law, and in every department of science. Yet we are told that the Savior, when he visited the earth, selected as his ministers and messengers fishermen and other individuals from the lower orders of the people, men with but little learning, and less reputation, to proclaim the gospel, testify of the truth and be witnesses of his advent into the world, of his miracles and resurrection from the dead. So it was in the present generation.

When the Lord commenced his work, he neglected to call upon Campbell, Scott, Clarke, Doddridge, or any other celebrated divine. He passed over his holiness the Pope, and the Bishops that were presiding with so much dignity, splendor, and authority over the different portions of the christian church. He passed over the learned institutions of the day, and went into a field and laid his hand on the head of Joseph Smith, a plow-boy, upon one who cultivated the earth, and had scarcely education enough to read his Bible, whom he inspired, appointing him to translate the Book of Mormon and authorising him to proclaim the gospel and administer the plan of salvation.

Ere long, this young man became the scoff, the by-word and hiss of all the learned christians on the earth. But the Lord said, 'my ways are not as your ways, nor my thoughts as your thoughts.'

When the early Elders of this Church began to preach the first principles of the gospel, how oft have we heard the question asked, why did not the Lord call upon some learned man -- upon the presidents of theological Seminaries, or ripen some of our learned Missionaries?

Why, if this work be true, did he call upon a person so low, so uneducated, so foolish? This inquiry was made in every direction by hundreds and by thousands; and was laid down by them as a sufficient reason for rejecting the Book of Mormon and the testimony of the servants of God.

In a very short time a Literary war commenced. The newspapers announced to the world that an impostor had arisen, that an impostor had been palmed upon them, a false religion had been proclaimed, and that an ignorant, stupid, lazy, good-for-nothing set of fellows were pretending to preach a new religion. Thurlow Weed was the first to commence the literary war through the press, under the head of 'blasphemy.'

This proclamation has been often reiterated up to the present time. Pulpit orators announced to their congregations that three weeks would be sufficient to dispel the whole delusion. Three weeks passed away, and the word of God was still preached. Then pulpit proclaimers announced that a year would terminate the delusion.

Editors published their false statements, one of which, no doubt, will be remembered -- a pretended miracle of walking on the water. It was said that the Prophet placed planks two or three inches under the surface of the water and walked on them, to convince the multitude of the truth of his doctrine; but just as all were convinced and the Prophet was about to step on shore, some rogues pulled out the plank and he fell into the water and was drowned.

What next? 'This printing lies about Mormonism, this blackguarding, and preaching falsehoods about it, don't stop it: we must apply something that will.' They applied a suit of tar and feathers to the Prophet, and other abuses, but with no better success than attended their former efforts to stop the progress of 'Mormonism;' in fact, the Prophet had not more than got the tar fairly washed off him, before he had to go into the water to baptise.

There is a class of personages who have acted a conspicuous part in opposition to the progress of the work of the Lord in the last days who are never to be forgotten. The first members of the Church, it will be recollected, came from almost every religious denomination, and if they had never belonged to any religions sect, they had more or less of their prejudices.

I recollect when I first began to discern the operation of the spirit of apostacy. A small company of us started for Zion. One of the company (Norman A. Brown) lost a horse. This man had been baptized for the remission of sins, rejoiced in the light of truth, and started to gather with the Saints, but his horse died. 'Now,' said he, 'is it possible that this is the work of God? If this had been the work of God, my horse would not have died when I was going to Zion.' He apostatised, fought against the work of God and died a miserable, lingering and unhappy death, and all because of so great a trial as the loss of a horse.

Joseph H. Wakefield, who baptized me, after having apostatised from the Church, announced to the astonished world the fact that, while he was a guest in the house of Joseph Smith, he had absolutely seen the Prophet come down from the room where he was engaged in translating the word of God, and actually go to playing with the children! This convinced him that the Prophet was not a man of God, and that the work was false, which, to me and hundreds of others, he had testified that he knew came from God. He afterwards headed a mob meeting, and took the lead in, bringing about a persecution against the Saints in Kirtland and the regions round about.

One of the first apostates that published against this work was Ezra Booth. He published nine letters in the Ohio Star, published at Ravenna, Portage county, in which he used all the arguments and made all the false statements he could, and it was generally believed by our enemies, at the time, that the apostacy and revelations of Ezra Booth would put an utter end to "Mormonism." But the wheel rolled along unabated in its progress.

Ezra Booth had been a Methodist preacher, but on a visit to Joseph Smith, he had become convinced of the truth of the work of the Lord by witnessing a miracle. Mrs. Johnson, an aged lady, had for several years been afflicted with rheumatism and for more than a year had not been able to raise her arm at all. She was healed by the administration of the laying on of hands by the Prophet, and was enabled immediately to raise her hand to her head, comb her hair or do anything she wished. This convinced him it was the power of God. He went to preaching the truth, but found, instead of living on the fat of the land, as he did among his Methodist brethren, that he had to labor and toil for the good of Zion, trusting in God, and in the great day of accounts receive his reward, so he apostatised.

The next publication which made a prominent show in the world was a book entitled 'Mormonism Unveiled,' written by Doctor P. Hurlburt. In consequence of improper conduct among females, he was expelled from the Church. He confessed his wickedness to the council. I was present and heard him. He promised, before God, angels and men that he would from that time forth live his religion and preserve his integrity, if they would only forgive him. He wept like a child and prayed and begged to be forgiven. The council forgave him, but Joseph told him, 'you are not honest in this confession.'

A few days afterwards he published his renunciation of the work; assigning as a reason, that he deceived that Council, and made them believe his was an honest confession, when he only confessed to see whether the Council had power to discern his spirit. Joseph, however, told him at the time that he was not honest in his confession.

He went to work and got up the 'Spaulding story,' that famous yarn about the 'Manuscript Found.' When about to publish this lying fabrication, in several of his exciting speeches having threatened the life of Joseph Smith, he was required to give bonds, by the authorities of Ohio, to keep the peace. In consequence of this, the name of E. D. Howe was substituted as the author, who published it.

Hurlburt was cracked up in the world as a scientific man -- as an M.D., but he happened to be the seventh son, and was called Doctor by his parents; it was his given name, not the title of his profession.

The public press heralded forth many encomiums on the book. Mr. Howe agreed to give Hurlburt four hundred copies for the manuscript.

Hurlburt took his subscription list and went from house to house for names, until he had got subscribers for the four hundred copies, which were to be delivered as soon as they were printed and bound, at one dollar per copy.

Howe refused to deliver Hurlburt the four hundred copies until he managed to get his eye on Hurlburt's subscription list, which he copied, delivered the books, took the money and then gave Hurlburt his four hundred copies. He thereby swindled Hurlburt out of his manuscript, and he had to sell his books at from ten to twenty cents each, or anything he could get, and great numbers were never sold.

There is one thing in relation to publications against 'Mormonism;' no apostate has ever made his fortune by them, for, if he would tell the truth, that would be no mystery, and when they tell falsehoods, the spirit of lying makes them tell such big lies, and so many of them, that their work goes into discredit.

I think the first church attempted to be established in opposition to 'Mormonism. was that established by Wycam Clark, in Kirtland. He was baptized about the same time as Sidney Rigdon and, in company with Northrop Sweet and four others, seceded from this church and said they could carry the whole world with them by preaching 'Mormon' principles. They had two or three meetings, but the society would never have been known in the world, had not a few of us remembered the circumstance and told of it.

Another species of apostacy took place in the neighbourhood of the forge in Kirtland. A man named Hoten seceded from the church, renounced the Book of Mormon and the Prophet, and established himself under the name of the Independent church. A man named Montague was appointed bishop. This church got to number about ten members. They pretended, under the order of the New Testament, to have all things common. In a few weeks the bishop, who had charge of the temporal things, made a charge on the president for visiting his pork barrel and the president charged the bishop with visiting his wife, and that broke up the society.

I shall not undertake to detail all of this species of character that have arisen, but there was another by the name of Hawley. He was attacked by a spirit of revelation, somewhere in the State of New York, while he was plowing, and it took him in such a hurry that he had not time to put on his boots, but traveled barefoot to Kirtland, some six hundred miles distant, to warn Joseph that he was a fallen prophet; that God had cut Joseph off and placed in his stead a man by the name of Noah; and the reason Joseph was cut off was, he had suffered the men to wear cushions on their coat sleeves, and the women to wear caps. He went through the streets of Kirtland with a dismal howl, crying, 'Woe, woe to the people.' On one occasion, about midnight, Brigham Young went out and took with him a cow hide and said to Hawley, 'If you don't quit annoying the people with your noise I will cowhide you;' upon which he concluded he had suffered persecution enough for his master's sake, and shut up his noise.

I believe if you will take the whole circle of the history of apostates from this church, that in ninety-nine cases out of every hundred you will find that the spirit of adultery or covetousness was the original cause.

There was a man named John Smith came into the church and was somewhat prominent in the State of Indiana. He preached some little and was considered quite zealous; but he said he had proved that the Book of Doctrine and Covenants was not true, 'for it says,' said he, 'that if a man shall commit adultery and not repent of it, he shall lose the Spirit of God, and shall deny the faith; now, I have done it and have not denied the faith, and so I have proved that the revelation in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants is not from God. The spirit of blindness had so taken possession of him that he could not see that when he was proclaiming that the revelations were not true, that he was denying the faith. That spirit has such an effect over the human mind as totally to blind them in relation to their own acts and the spirit that governs them.

After the organization of the Twelve Apostles and the so far finishing of the Kirtland Temple as to hold a solemn assembly and confer the Kirtland endowment therein, the spirit of apostacy became more general and the shock that was given to the church became more severe than on any previous occasion.

The church had increased in numbers and the Elders had extended their labors accordingly; but the apostacy commenced in high places; one of the First Presidency, several of the Twelve Apostles, High Council, Presidents of Seventies, the witnesses of the Book of Mormon, Presidents of Far West and a number of others standing high in the church were all carried away in this apostacy; and they thought there was enough of them to establish a pure religion that would become universal.

This attempted organization was under the direction of Warren Parrish, who had been a traveling Elder in the church and who sustained a high reputation in the Southern States as an eloquent preacher and had, for a short time, been employed by Joseph as a clerk. He undertook to organize those elements into a church and I was told by them that all the talented men among the Elders were ready to join them.

They named, for instance, Lyman Johnson, John F. Boyington, William E. McLellan, Hazen Aldrich, Sylvester Smith, Joseph Coe, Orson Johnson, W. A. Cowdery, M. F. Cowdery and others, amounting to something like thirty who had been prominent Elders in the church.

They were going to renounce the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith and take the Mormon doctrines to overthrow all the religions in the world and unite all the Christian churches in one general band and they to be its great leaders.

What success did this great apostacy meet with? Br. Kimball, when on a mission in 1844, (this apostacy took place in 1837-8) while crossing Fox River on the ferry, encountered Warren Parrish. He was a grave-looking man, a straight-jacketed fellow, dressed in black, with a white handkerchief around his neck. Says he, 'Elder Kimball, will you have the goodness not to say to the people here that I ever was a Mormon; I am a Baptist minister, I am preaching at that meeting house for a salary of $500 a year; if they find out I have been a Mormon it would hurt my influence very much indeed.'

Where was the big church he had tried to build up? He had tried pleading law, that failed; peddling bogus money, and that failed, like his big church speculation; and where was the origin of this?

I recollect waking up late one evening when I was quite a young man and hearing my father and one of the brethren talk. Being a little disposed to listen, I learned that there had been considerable of a difficulty between Parrish and one of the brethren. This was when he was in good standing in the church. He had been too kind with the brother's wife. Then I learned the commencement of his apostacy.

You may go to every one of these men -- I care not which one -- you cannot put your finger on any one of these thirty men but what you will find that the spirit of adultery or covetousness had got possession of their hearts and, when it did, the Spirit of the Lord left them. They had not sense enough to repent and put away their iniquity, but suffered themselves to be overthrown with the spirit of darkness and they have gone to hell, and there they may lift up their eyes, asking for some relief or benefit from those they once tried to destroy, but if they get the privilege of waiting on a servant to those who have kept the laws of heaven, they will be exceedingly thankful and fortunate.

At the breaking up of Far West there was another prophet appeared. Isaac Russell undertook to lead the Saints into the wilderness. He gathered some twenty followers.

The reason why he apostatized was, the commandment required the Twelve Apostles to take their leave of the Saints on the foundation of the Temple on the twenty-sixth day of April and it could not be fulfilled because those men were all driven away; but it happened that the Twelve went to that spot and twenty or thirty Saints recommenced the foundation on the day appointed, held a conference, and cut off Russell and his followers. He used his influence over a few individuals until they scattered and wasted away.

In Nauvoo we had another shower of dust around the Prophet. There was a man by the name of William Law, who was a counselor to Joseph Smith, and a man of great gravity. He preached a great deal on the stand in Nauvoo and told the people they must be punctual and pay their debts, and he repeated it over and over again; Sunday after Sunday he preached punctuality PUNCTUALITY, PUNCTUALITY.

I was then on a mission in England, but when I got home I would hear, Sunday after Sunday, these addresses. Thinks I, this is a very righteous fellow, it will be perfectly safe to deal with him, and everybody thought so.

The first time I suspected but what he was as straight as a loon's leg, at least in relation to his trading, was one day in his mill. Br. Willard Richards and myself met Bishop Smoot and he offered to bet a barrel of salt that the Doctor was heavier than I was. We went into Law's mill to be weighed. I was weighed on the scales where he weighed wheat into the mill.

To my surprise I did not weigh as much by twelve pounds as usual. I thought this was a curiosity. I saw there was another pair of scales on the other side of the mill where they weighed out flour. I weighed the Doctor twice, and he weighed me twice on both scales, and I found that if I had been a bag of flour I should have weighed twelve pounds too much, and, if I had been a bag of wheat, I should not have weighed enough by twelve pounds.

The Doctor and myself soon discovered that the gain by this villainous fraud would supply the mill with wood and hands to tend it.

Br. Joseph and I saw brother Law come out of his house one day, and br. Joseph said to me, referring to Law, 'George, do you know that there is the meanest man in this town?'

'Yes,' I said, 'I know he is, but did not know you thought so.'

'How did you find it out?'

He has two sets of weights in his mill. He also told me something about Law's visit to certain disreputable houses in St. Louis, and gave me to understand that he knew something about Law's hypocrisy and dishonesty in dealing, as well as myself.

I only tell this circumstance because he pulled the leading string in putting Joseph Smith to death. When he comes forth, he may expect to find his white robe [dyed] in the blood of innocence, and he may expect in all time to come to have that stigma upon him.

The spirit of hypocrisy, covetousness, adultery and corruption also laid the foundation for Law's destruction.

When a man professes a great deal of sanctity, a great deal of holiness and piety,when he can scarcely speak without a pious groan, he is to be suspected, for such hypocrisy is in itself the most cursed corruption that can exist.

Law gathered around him a few followers, organized a church, and set himself up for a prophet, went out from Nauvoo, joined the mob and led the van.

In 1843, when Joseph was taken prisoner in the county of Lee, on a demand from the Governor of Missouri, William Law turned out and attempted to release him. While near Oquaka and supposing that Joseph had been smuggled to the river side, and that he was about to be carried to the Mississippi, and put on board the steamer and hurried away to Missouri, says he, 'they will carry him on board of a boat and get him over the river and, if the Prophet is carried to Missouri and killed, property in Nauvoo will fall to one-half its present value.' His anxiety was about the price of property going down. A few minutes after, when he met Joseph, he went up, threw his arms around him and kissed him. He loved him tenderly as long as he kept the price of property up.

After the death of Joseph, a number of men appeared, professing to be revelators; the most noted of them, I believe, was James J. Strang. He gathered a few followers around him, and established himself first at Voree, Wisconsin; then he removed to Beaver Island, Lake Michigan. He remained there some length of time and, finally, in some disturbance got up there, he was murdered. His followers clung together longer than any of the other apostates. They were able to publish a monthly paper, about half the size of the 'Deseret News,' printed in large type and coarsely leaded, in which they advocated James J. Strang as a prophet.

Charles Thompson, Francis Gladden Bishop, G. J. Adams and others arose, until prophets for awhile were at a discount. But all these vanished into thin air, their names were forgotten, and their pretensions are unknown, unless some of us happen to think and tell of them.

Oliver Cowdery said to the people, when he came to Pottawotamie and requested to be restored to the church, 'follow the Twelve: they are the men with whom the Priesthood rests; if you follow the main channel of the stream, you will go right, but if you run into a bayou, you will find yourselves among snags.'

You may trace the course of all those characters, and you will find that hypocrisy and adultery have been the leading strings to lead them astray. It is of the utmost importance that every Latter Day Saint thoroughly and carefully tread his own path, correct his own conduct, regulate his own life, banish from his heart the spirit of wickedness and corruption and see to it that his intentions, desires and actions are pure in the sight of God; that he covets not that which belongs to his neighbor, for our actions are between us and our God; with him we have to account, and his Spirit will not dwell in unholy temples.

Then let us keep ourselves pure before him, live the principles that we have espoused, and be prepared for the great day when we shall stand upon Mount Zion, where none will stand only those who have clean hands and pure hearts.

May God bless us: Amen.

Note: Apostle Smith's address was subsequently published in Vol. VII of the Journal of Discourses. See also his address of  Nov. 15, 1864 and his autobiography in the July 15, 1865 issue of the LDS Millennial Star.



No. 48.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., Feb. 3, 1858.                    Vol. VII.




My Brother, Phinehas Howe, gives his history as follows: --

"My earliest recollection of the scenes of life are relating to myself and my brother Joseph. A short time before I was two years old he cut off my right hand except a small email portion of my little finger, with an ax while we were at play, my mother doctored it and saved it.

The same winter, or soon after this accident, my father moved to Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont, where we lived three years, and during this time I recollect being taught to pray, and obey my father and mother. We then moved to the State of New York, where we lived for many years, most of the time in Chenango and Cayuga counties.

At the age of 19, I married Clarissa Hamilton, and commenced in the world for myself. I now began seriously to think of getting religion, and according to my best light I sought the Lord, but finding very little or no comfort in this I soon gave it up, and concluded to make the best of this world.

I sought for riches, but in vain; there was something that always kept telling me that happiness originated in higher pursuits, and in the fall of 1823, a few months previous to my twenty-fourth birthday, I again commenced seeking the Lord with greater energy and a more fixed determination than at any former period of my life.

I forsook all my former associates, and commenced praying and fasting, and watching every weakness of my nature, and the more I prayed the more I saw my weakness and felt my dependence on God.

Thus things continued with me until the February following, when I found relief and felt the spirit of justification resting upon me: I was then told that I had got religion, but my mind was not wholly satisfied, I felt to pray day and night for greater manifestations of the spirit and power of God.

In April I gave my name to the Methodist Reformed Church, and thus was numbered with that body. In the fall of the same year I was baptized by immersion, that being the only mode that I could acknowledge, or that would in any way satisfy my mind. About that time I received license to speak in public, and I felt a great responsibility resting upon me, and I prayed continually to God to make me holy and give me power to do good.

While in this state of mind I had a very singular manifestation, which I will here mention. I was at a prayer meeting at the house of Israel Pease, in the town of Hector, Tompkins Co., New York; the congregation were mostly praying for sanctification; I felt like one alone, for I could pray for nothing but to become holy, and I had got in one corner, as much alone as possible, when all of a sudden I saw a body of light above the brightness of the sun descending towards me; in a moment it filled me with joy unutterable: every part of my system was perfectly light and perfectly happy. I soon arose and spake of the things of the kingdom of God, as I had never spake before. I then felt satisfied that the Lord had heard my prayer and my sins were forgiven.

Soon after this, while at home, I was called to see a young woman in the neighborhood, who had long been sick of consumption. The messenger said the lady was dying, and her friends wished me to come as soon as convenient. I called on my brother John, who lived on the way, and asked him to accompany me, which he very readily did.

We soon arrived at the house; on entering we found the family and friends weeping, and the young woman, to all appearance, breathing her last I stepped to the bedside, and adjusted the pillows of the dying girl, as she seemed to respire with great difficulty.

At this moment her mother approached me, and asked me if I thought she had a sense of her suffering. I replied, 'I cannot say, she appears to be about through with the struggle.' She then said, 'Will you pray?' I immediately knelt and commenced to invoke my Father in heaven in her behalf, asking him to ease her out of this world of sorrow, and take her to a world of bliss.

After praying thus a few moments I felt a check on my spirit, and a voice whispered to me, 'Pray for her recovery.' I immediately commenced praying that she might be restored to health, and almost the same minute the same voice said, 'Lay hands on the sufferer and rebuke the disease.' I did not wait to think of the probable result, but arose without saying Amen, went to the bed side, laid my hands on the dying girl, and bade the power of the destroyer to flee, and said in the language of the Savior, arise and be made whole. (Here I would say that I had never seen anything of the kind in my life, but had always believed that the people were living far beneath their privileges.) The girl arose as one from the dead, and sat up in bed and praised God with a loud voice, and soon became a hearty and healthy woman, and as far as I know is still living and well; her name was Mary Webley.

Soon after this I went into the town of Canandaigua, Ontario Co., and commenced preaching in a little village called Cheshire, which was said to be the wickedest place in western New York. I was very successful in my labors and soon raised up a branch of forty-five members, and then returned home, after an absence of forty-one days.

I then settled up my affairs, took my family, and moved to Cheshire, in Ontario Co., where I stayed and preached three years, laboring for the support of my family. During that time, in the fall of 1826, I became acquainted with Heber C. Kimball, in the town of Mendon, while on a visit there to see my brother-in-law, John P. Greene, and having understood that others of my father's family were going there, I concluded to sell out and move to Mendon, which I did in the spring of 1828.

About this time my father, brother Lorenzo and others of my father's family moved into the town. We immediately opened a house for preaching and commenced teaching the people according to the light we had; a reformation commenced and we soon had a good society organized and the Lord blessed our labors.

The Baptist Church with their minister, all seemed to feel a great interest in the work; the reformation spread and hundreds took an interest in it.

Thus things things moved on until the spring of 1830, and I might say until 1832, there was little or no change in the progress of the reformation; notwithstanding, I, as an individual, felt that we had arrived at the zenith of our enjoyment in the course we were pursuing.

In April, 1830, having received the Book of Mormon, as I was on my way home from the town of Lima, where I had been to preach, I stopped at the house of a man by the name of Tomlinson, to get some dinner; while engaged in conversation with the family a young man came in, and walking across the room to where I was sitting, held a book towards me, saying, 'There is a book sir, I wish you to read;' the thing appeared so novel to me that for a moment I hesitated, saying, 'Pray, sir, what book have you?' 'The Book of Mormon, or, as it is called by some, the Golden Bible.' 'Ah, sir, then it purports to he be a revelation.' 'Yes,' said he, 'it is a revelation from God.' I took the book, and by his request looked at the testimony of the witnesses. Said he, 'If you will read this book with a prayerful heart, and ask God to give you a witness, you will know of the truth of this work.' I told him I would do so, and then asked him his name. He said his name was Samuel H. Smith. 'Ah,' said I, 'you are one of the witnesses.' 'Yes,' said he, 'I know the book to be a revelation from God, translated by the gift and power of the Holy Ghost, and that my brother Joseph Smith, jun., is a Prophet, Seer and Revelator.'

This language seemed to me very strange, and I thought, rather ridiculous; still I said but little more to him; but thought he be must he be deceived, and that the book was a production got up to lead people astray; however, I thought it my duty to read it, as I had promised, and search out the errors, and as a teacher in Israel expose such errors and save the people from the delusion.

I bought the book and went home, and told my wife I had got a week's work laid out, and I hoped that nothing would occur to prevent my accomplishing my task. She said, 'Have you anything new to attend to?' I replied, 'I have got a book here called the Book of Mormon; and it is said to be a revelation, and I wish to read it, and make myself acquainted with its errors, so that I can expose them to the world.'

I commenced and read every word in the book the same week; the week welt following I did the same; but to my surprise, I could not find the errors I anticipated, but felt a conviction that the book was true.

On the next Sabbath I was requested to give my views on the subject, which I commenced to do; I had not spoken ten minutes in defence of the book, when the Spirit of God came upon me in a marvelous manner, and I spoke at great length on the importance of such a work, quoting from the Bible to support my position; and finally closed by telling the people that I believed the book. The greater part of the people agreed with my views, and some of them said they had never heard me speak so well, and with such power. My father then took the book home with him and read it through. I asked him his opinion of it? He said it was the greatest work and the clearest of error of any thing he had ever seen, the Bible not excepted.

I then lent the book to my sister Fanny Murray; she read it, and declared it a revelation. Many others did the same.

In August following, my brother Joseph Young came from Canada to see me; he had been there preaching, and having a desire to have me in this field of labor for a season; he came over to the States with the intention of getting me to go back with him.

We accordingly left for Kingston, in Upper Canada, about the 20th of August [1830]; and passing through the town of Lyons, we called on an old acquaintance by the name of Solomon Chamberlain; we had no sooner got seated, than be began to preach Mormonism to us; he told us there was a church organized, and ten or more were baptized, and every body must believe the Book of Mormon or be lost.

I told him to hold on, when be had talked about two hours, setting forth the wonders of Mormonism -- that it was not good to give a colt a bushel of oats at a time. I knew that my brother had but little idea of what he was talking and I wanted he be should have time to reflect, but it made little difference to him, he still talked of Mormonism.

We tarried a short time with him and then went on our way, pondering upon the things we had heard. This was the first I had heard of the necessity of another church, or of the importance of re-baptism; but after hearing the old gentleman's arguments, the importance of the power of the holy priesthood, and the necessity of its restoration in order that the power of the gospel might be made manifest, I began to enquire seriously into the matter, and soon became convinced that such an order of things was necessary for the salvation of the world.

We soon reached the place of our destination, it being but 18 miles from Kingston, in Earnest town, where we commenced our labor. I tarried some time with my brother trying to preach, but could think of but little except the Book of Mormon and what I had heard of Mormonism.

One day after I had been preaching in Loborough, I said to my brother, 'What did you think of my preaching today?' 'O,' said he, 'if you had just come from the priest factory in the States, I should have thought you did very well, but I don't think there was much God in it.' I then told him I could not preach. and that I should return home. I accordingly started in a few days.

On my way I attended a quarterly meeting. held by the Episcopal Methodists in Kingston, at the close of their annual conference. At the close of the meeting, an indian gave an appointment to preach in the British Chapel at early candlelight. I determined to go, for the Book of Mormon, and the Lamanites were were before me continually. As soon as the candles were lit, I was in my seat near the desk; the preacher was there and soon commenced; I listened with great interest, while he set forth the traditions of his fathers in a masterly way and made many statements corroborating the truth of the Book of Mormon.

After meeting I went to my hotel, where the most of the members of the conference assembled for the night; I think Bishops Heading and George were present. After all were seated in two large rooms, I took my place at the door between the two rooms, and, calling the attention of the people, I asked them if any one present had ever read the Book of Mormon? I paused for an answer and after a short pause a gentleman said that he had never seen or heard of such a work. I then said the book was called by some the Golden Bible.

This seemed to take the attention of the whole assembly, consisting of more than one hundred; a gentleman requested me in behalf of the people present, to give them some account of the book. I commenced by telling them that it was a revelation from God, translated from the Reformed Egyptian language by Joseph Smith, jun., by the gift and power of God, and gave a full account of the aborigines of our country, and agreed with many of their traditions, of which we had been hearing this evening, and that it was destined to overthrow all false religions, and finally to bring in the peaceful reign of the Messiah.

I had forgotten everything but my subject, until I had talked a long time, and told many things I had never thought of before; I bore a powerful testimony to the work, and thus closed my remarks and went to bed, not to sleep but to ponder with astonishment at what I had said, and to wonder with amazement at the power that seemed to compel me thus to speak.

The next morning I took passage on a packet for the States, landed at old Oswego, took passage on a canal packet for Manlius Square, where I met a great number of my friends, who had assembled for our annual conference; among the number was my old friend Solomon Chamberlain. He told me he had come to offer the conference the Book of Mormon, saying that if they rejected it they would all go to destruction. He soon filled his mission and was driven from the place by the voice of the conference.

One man whose name was Buckley and an elder in in the Methodist Reformed Church, railed on brother Chamberlain and abused him shamefully; he immediately went crazy and was carried home to the town of Smyrnia, a distance of 20 or 30 miles, and died in a few days raving mad.

I attended the conference, bore my testimony and left for home in company with my brother-in-law, John P. Greene.

On our arrival we found our families all well. I still continued to preach, trying to tie Mormonism to Methodism, for more than a year, when I found that they had no connection and could not be united, and that I must leave the one and cleave to the other.

About this time my brother Brigham came to see me, and very soon told me that he was convinced that there was something in Mormonism. I told him I had long been satisfied of that.

About this time we heard there were a few saints in Bradford county, Pa., and we determined to make them a visit. We accordingly got Heber Kimball to take his team and accompany us; we started about the 20th of January [1832], and took our wives with us, visiting our sister Nancy Kent, in Steuben Co., and my wife's mother and sisters in Tioga county, N. Y., and then proceeded on our journey to Bradford Co., Pa., where we spent some days with the few saints that were there, and became more and more convinced of the truth of Mormonism. We bade our friends farewell and returned home, rejoicing, preaching the gospel by the way.

A few days after we got home my brother Brigham left for Kingston, Upper Canada, to tell the glad tidings to our brother Joseph, who was there preaching Methodism, and to try to get him to come home with him, which he accomplished in a very short time, although he had to travel some four hundred miles by land. Immediately after his return, my father and my brother Joseph accompanied me to Bradford county, Pa., where they both became convinced of the truth of Mormonism; and in the morning of the 5th of April 1832, I was baptized by Elder Ezra Landon and my father by Elder Daniel Bowen. The next morning, being the 6th of April, 1832, my brother Joseph was baptized by the latter. April 7th, my father and I started for home, a distance of 120 miles, where we arrived in health, and found our friends and families rejoicing in fulness of the Gospel

Early in June following I started on a mission to Canada in company with Elders Elial Strong, Eleazer Miller and Enos Curtis. We arrived in Earnest Town at the close of the yearly conference of the Methodist Reformed Church, and attended their quarterly meeting on the Sabbath. The priests had heard that I had become a Mormon, and consequently did not know me, although it was not two years since I had preached in the house and attended a conference with the most of them where we then were. At the close of the meeting I begged the privilege of preaching in their meeting-house at five the same evening, which they very reluctantly granted. I had a full house and good liberty, and at the close of my meeting I had more invitations to preach than I could attend to but, I sent seven appointments to different places for the ensuing week.

We labored in Canada about six weeks with great success, raised the first branch in British America, and returned home rejoicing, in the midst of cholera and death; found our families all well and the work rolling on under the labors of my brother Brigham and John P. Greene.

Note 1: See also the reprintof this autobiographical sketch, as published in the May 23, 1863 issue of the LDS Millennial Star, and in the three subsequent numbers. For a contemporary account of the conversion of Brigham and his family to Mormonism, see the Rochester Liberal Advocate for April 14, 1832. An historical map of the region in New York where the Young family lived at the time of their conversion is available here

Note 2: The Liberal Advocate's brief summary of the 1832 Mormon conversions at Mendon, New York is but the iceberg tip of a much larger story -- one which centers primarily upon the activities and experiences of Phinehas (or, Phineas) H. Young (1799-1879) and his near relatives. On Sept. 28, 1818, at Auburn, Cayuga, NY, Phinehas married Clarissa Hamilton (1799-1834). Phinehas was apparently a journeyman printer who successively moved his family to Onondaga Co., Steuben Co., and Tompkins Co., before joining the Methodist Reformed Church in 1824 (at least he possessed printer's skills sufficient enough for Joseph Smith to invite Phinehas to become part of the Church's newspaper staff, when it was moved from Missouri to Kirtland at the beginning of 1834). Phinehas Young soon became a preacher for that group and moved again, first to a hamlet just south of Canandaigua, Ontario, NY, and then, two years later, to Mendon, Monroe Co. Phinehas and Clarissa's residence at the Canadaigua area was during the interesting episode of the trials of the abductors of William Morgan, the rise of Anti-Masonry, and the burning of the Royal Arch Chapter in that town. Whether Phinehas was a printer for the pro-Masonic or anti-Masonic press in Canadaigua history does not record, but he was apparently both "laboring for the support" of his family and also serving as the "Reformed Methodist preacher" in that area -- perhaps in company with his brother-in-law, the Methodist Rev. John P. Greene. Phinehas must have been at least somewhat acquainted with another printer, who then resided at Canandaigua -- the highly vocal publisher of the anti-Masonic Ontario Phoenix, William W. Phelps. It is also likely that Phinehas knew something of Benjamin Franklin Cowdery, who was then the editor of the nearby anti-Masonic Geneva Chronicle. Whether or not Phinehas knew Cowdery's younger cousin, Oliver, at that time, history does not record. However, Phinehas became acquainted with Oliver's sister, Lucy P. Cowdery, at an early date and married her in Kirtland, Ohio, on September 28, 1836.

Note 3: It seems inexplicible that Phinehas Young, having embraced the essential message of Mormonism as early as April, 1830, (as conveyed to him by Samuel H. Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith, jr.), should have waited two years to become a baptized Mormon. Also, since Phinehas lived practically within walking distance of the old Smith home at Manchester and the newspaper office where the Book of Mormon was published, it seems equally inexplicible that Phinehas did not make an effort to go and meet members of the Smith family, Martin Harris, W. W. Phelps, etc., during those two years. In June of 1830, Elder Samuel H. Smith returned to Mendon and loaned a second copy of the Book of Mormon to Rhoda and John P. Greene. Phineas lent his copy to his father, then to his sister Fanny, who gave it to Brigham Young. John's copy also circulated among relatives and friends of the Young family, including Brigham Young.

Note 4: In 1831 Mormon Elder Alpheus Gifford and his missionary companions came through the Mendon area, further arousing the interest of the Youngs to the possibility of Mormon conversion. According to Vilate Kimball's Autobiography, "Five elders of the Church of Latter-day Saints came to the town of Victor, which was five miles from Mendon, and stopped at the house of Phineas Young, the brother of Brigham. Their names were Eleazer Miller, Elial Strong, Alpheus Gifford, Enos Curtis and Daniel Bowen. Hearing of these men, curiosity prompted Mr. Kimball to go and see them. Then for the first time he heard the fullness of the everlasting gospel and was convinced of its truth. Brigham Young was with him." Elder Alpheus Gifford and Elder Miller returned again to the Mendon area at the beginning of April 1832. They had some initial success among the Baptists, the ranks of whom Vilate Murray Kimball 1806-1867) and her husband Heber C. Kimball had joined the year before. According to one account, Brigham Young was baptized on Sunday, April 15th, 1832, by Eleazer Miller, and the Kimballs were baptized by Elder Alpheus Gifford the next day. However, Brigham's own private journal places the baptism on April 9, 1832 and that may the correct date. From the Millennial Star's account of Phinehas Young's history, the reader might guess that Phinehas was baptized among the Mormons of Bradford Co,, Pennsylvania, but other sources confirm that the baptism took place near his home in Mendon, New York.

Note 5: It is possible that both Phinehas Young and his brother-in-law, the Rev. John Portineus Greene (1793-1844), delayed their Mormon baptisms in order to retain their Methodist credentials, while attempting to spread the new doctrine among the Methodists of New York and Canada. It also seems more than likely that these two preachers met in unpublicized gatherings with Mormons of higher rank than Solomon Chamberlain, prior to their openly embracing the latter day faith in April, 1832. As for Chamberlain, he took the opportunity of meeting and visiting with Hyrum Smith and other early Mormon converts, at Manchester, before eventually traveling to Fayette to meet Joseph Smith, jr. himself. According to Chamberlain, he was baptized by that Mormon leader, in Seneca Lake, during the first part of April, 1830. Thus, if Phinehas Young was "passing through the town of Lyons," where Chamberlain lived, on "about the 20th of August" of 1830, Solomon Chamberlain would probably have already possessed sufficent "Church of Christ" credentials to have baptized Phinehas. However, had he done so at that time, no doubt Phinehas would have been thrown out of Methodist gatherings, just as Solomon Chamberlain was. At any rate, if Phinehas Young did try to surrepitiously inject Mormonism into Methodism, he ended up with little more to show for those efforts than his helping to raise up "the first [Mormon] branch in British America."



No. 9.                         Fillmore City, Wed., May 5, 1858.                        Vol. VIII.


I, Orson Hyde, son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe, wasborn in Oxford, New Haven County and State of Connecticut, January 8, 1805. At the age of seven years, my mother, a pious and godly woman, according to the light that then was, and member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, died soon after being delivered of a son, named Ami. Having given birth to eight sons and three daughters in the following order, according to my best recollection: Abijah, Harry, Laura, Nathan, Sally, Asahel, Horatio, Maria, Charles, Orson and Ami.

My father, a boot and shoemaker by trade, was a very talented man; quick, athletic, and naturally witty and cheerful. He was kind and affectionate, except when under the influence of strong drink (a habit to which he was somewhat addicted). After the death of my mother, my father enlisted into the army of the United States, and was in the campaign in Canada, under General Brown, -- was in most of the battles fought there, several times slightly wounded, -- was on the frontier along the line, and &c., in the war with Britain in 1812 and 1813. Some four or five years after, in attempting to swim a river in Derby, Connecticut, he was taken with the cramp and drowned.

After the death of my mother, the family was scattered abroad, and took their chances in life under no special protector or guide, save that of a kind Providence who ever watches, with care, over the lonely orphan and hears the plaintive cry of the young sparrows, bereft of their parent mother.

At this early age, I was placed in the care of a gentleman by the name of Nathan Wheeler, or rather, fell into his hands, residing in Derby in the same county. This was a very good family, but quite penurious. With Mr. Wheeler I continued until I was eighteen years of age, and would have continued longer; but from the consideration that suitable encouragement was not offered to me for education, and &c., I concluded that my services from seven to eighteen years of age, would abundantly repay Mr. Wheeler for his care and expense in rearing me up to that time.

In the meantime Mr. Wheeler removed and came to the Western Reserve in Ohio, having failed in business in Derby. He first visited the Western Reserve by himself, purchased a farm in Kirtland, and sent for me and his nephew, Nathan Wooster, to come out the next spring. Accordingly, Mr. Wooster and myself started early the next season (I then being fourteen years of age). This was a hard trip for a youngster to perform on foot, with knapsack upon the back, containing clothes, bread, cheese, and dried beef for the journey, and obliged to keep up with a strong man, traveling from 30 to 38 miles per day, until we had performed the entire distance of 600 miles.

Mr. W[heeler] then sent to the east for the balance of his family, who came on the next season in the care of Capt. Isaac Morley, a resident of Kirtland, where they arrived in safety. The farm being a new one, and heavily timbered, it was the hardest kind of labor to prepare it for cultivation. This being done, and Mr. Wheeler being again in easy circumstances, I concluded to strike out for myself, having had comparatively no chance for mental or literary improvement, and no very flattering prospects held out to me that I should be able to enjoy such opportunity at any future time, should I continue longer with Mr. W[heeler], consequently, at the age of 18 years, in the face of the remonstrances of Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler, I made my first debut into the world with the following outfit: one suit of homemade woollen clothes (butternut colored,) two red flannel shirts, also homemade, two pairs of socks, one pair of coarse shoes on the feet, one old hat and six and a quarter cents in clean cash.

With this outfit and capital stock in trade, on the 8th day of January, 1823, I went forth from my old home to carve out my fortune and destiny under my own guidance, for ought I then knew. My first strike was to hire out for six months to Grandison Newel, at 6 dollars per month, to work in a small iron foundry. There I learned to mold clock bells, and irons, sleigh shoes and various other articles. My wages for this term of service, were carefully saved, together with some perquisites, and compensation for extra labor, which in the aggregate, amounted to enough to buy me a good suit of clothes, boots, hat, and etc. This being accomplished, I began to straighten up a little. I then hired for six months more to Mr. Orrin Holmes of Chagrin (now Willoughby.) to card wool, and being a raw hand at the business, I could not get very high wages. The machines were in Kirtland.

I next went into the store of Gilbert and Whitney in Kirtland to serve as clerk, where I continued for a year or two, then hired two carding machines to run for one year, the same where I was engaged a year or two before. The proprietors being well acquainted with me took my own obligation for the rent without security. The carding season came on, and the machines (two in number under the same roof) being put in good running order, operations began. A new machine having been placed on the same stream, a few miles above, I feared that my business would be cut short. But unfortunately for the proprietors of the new mill, their dam broke way in a freshet, and they were unable to repair it during the carding season, which gave to me almost the entire carding of the country. During this season I paid my hired help, and also my rent, and cleared about 600 dollars in cash. This I thought was doing very well for a boy. When winter came on, I went into Gilbert and Whitney's store again, under moderate wages, and continued there until the spring. Then in 1827, business being rather slack in the store, I went to work for the same parties, making pot and pearl ashes. This season there was a Methodist camp meeting about six miles distant from Kirtland, which I attended, and became a convert to that faith. I enjoyed myself as well as the light and knowledge I then had would allow me. I believe that God had mercy and compassion upon me, and that if I had died at that time, I should have received all the happiness and glory that I could appreciate or enjoy. The revival that began at that camp meeting spread much in Kirtland. A class was formed there, and I was appointed class-leader.

About this time some vague reports came in the newspapers that a "golden bible" had been dug out of a rock in the state of New York. It was treated, however, as a hoax. But on reading the report, I remarked as follows -- "Who knows but that this 'golden bible' may break up all our religion, and change its whole features and bearing?" Nothing more was heard of it for a long time in that section.

Not long after this, the Campbellite doctrine began to be preached in Mentor and in Kirtland. Elder S. Rigdon was its chief advocate there. Being forcibly struck with the doctrine of immersion or baptism for the remission of sins, and many other important items of doctrine which were advocated by this new sect, and which were passed over by the Methodists as not essential, I left the Methodists and became a convert to this new faith.

Feeling that one day I might be called to advocate it, and feeling my great deficiency in learning, I resolved to go to school. Accordingly, I took up my abode in Mentor, in the house of Elder Sidney Rigdon, and began the study of English grammar under his tuition. Elder Rigdon took unwearied pains and care to instruct me in this elementary science.

After spending several months [summer/fall, 1828?] in this way, studying day and night, I went two quarters to the Burton Academy and placed myself under the tuition of the preceptor, Reuben Hitchcock, Esq. (since judge of the court). Here I reviewed Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic and Rhetoric; then returned to Mentor and spent one season with a young man by the name of Matthew J. Clapp, at his father's house, where the public library was kept. Here I read history and various other works, scientific and literary; and in the fall of the year was ordained an elder in this new church, and went on a mission with Elder Rigdon to Elyria, Loraine County, and also to Florence in Huron County. There we baptized a great number of people into the new faith, organized several branches of the Church, and returned again to Mentor. This I think was in the fall of 1829.

Early in the spring of 1830, I returned to Elyria and Florence, and became the pastor of the churches raised up the fall previous. During the fall and winter of 1830, I also taught school in Florence. During this fall, Samuel H. Smith, Ziba Peterson, F. G. Williams and Peter Whitmer came along through that section, preaching the 'golden bible' or 'Mormonism,' I encountered them; but perceiving that they were mostly illiterate men, and at the same time observing some examples of superior wisdom and truth in their teaching, I resolved to read the famed "golden bible," as it was called.

Accordingly, I procured the book and read a portion of it, but came to the conclusion that it was all a fiction. I preached several times against the `Mormon' doctrine or rather against the Mormon bible. On one occasion, the people of Ridgeville, near Elyria, sent for me to preach against the Mormon bible. I complied with the request, and preached against it. The people congratulated me much, thinking that Mormonism was completely floored. But I, for the first time, thought that the `Mormon' bible might be the truth of heaven; and fully resolved before leaving the house, that I would never preach against it anymore until I knew more about it, being pretty strongly convicted in my own mind that I was doing wrong. I closed up my school and my preaching in that section, and resolved to go to Kirtland on a visit to my old friends. Elder S. Rigdon, Gilbert and Whitney, and many others of my former friends had embraced the Mormon faith. I ventured to tell a few of my confidential friends in Florence my real object in visiting Kirtland. The Prophet, Joseph Smith, jun., had removed to that place. My object was to get away from the prejudices of the people, and to place myself in a position where I could examine the subject without embarrassment.

Accordingly, in the summer of 1831, I went to Kirtland, and under cover of clerkship in the old store of Whitney and Gilbert, I examined Mormonism. Read the Mormon bible carefully through, attended meetings of the Mormons and others, heard the arguments pro and con., but was careful to say nothing. I prayed much unto the Lord for light and knowledge, for wisdom and spirit to guide me in my examinations and investigations. Often heard the Prophet talk in public and in private upon the subject of the new religion; also heard what the opposition had to say. Listened also to many foolish tales about the Prophet -- too foolish to have a place in this narrative. I marked carefully the spirit that attended the opposition, and also the spirit that attended the Mormons and their friends; and after about three months of careful and prayerful investigation, reflection and meditation, I came to the conclusion that the `Mormons' had more light and a better spirit than their opponents. I concluded that I could not be the loser by joining the Mormons, and as an honest man, conscientiously bound to walk in the best and clearest light I saw, I resolved to be baptized into the new religion. Hence, I attended the Saints' meeting in Kirtland, Sunday, October 30, 1831, and offered myself a candidate for baptism, which was administered to me by the hands of Elder Sidney Rigdon; was confirmed and ordained an elder in the Church on the same day under the hands of Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and Sidney Rigdon. Not until about three days after did I receive any internal evidence of the special approbation of Heaven of the course I had taken. When one evening behind the counter, the Spirit of the Lord came upon me in so powerful a manner, that I felt like waiting upon no one, and withdrew in private to enjoy the feast alone. This, to me, was a precious season, long to be remembered. I felt that all my old friends (not of the Mormons) would believe me, and with a warm and affectionate heart, I soon went out among them, and began to talk and testify to them what the Lord had done for me; but the cold indifference with which they received me, and the pity they expressed for my delusion, soon convinced me that it was not wise to give that which is holy unto dogs, neither to cast pearls before swine."

A few days after this, I attended a conference in the town of Orange, at which I was ordained a high priest under the hands of Joseph Smith, and appointed on a mission to Elyria and Florence in connection with Brother Hyrum Smith. In these places we were the means of converting and baptizing many of my old Campbellite friends -- raised up and organized two or three branches of the Church, laid hands on several sick persons and healed them by prayer and faith. After confirming the Churches and bearing a faithful testimony to them and to all people, in the midst of much opposition, we returned again to Kirtland. I found Brother Hyrum a pleasant and an agreeable companion, a wise counsellor, a father and a guide.

Soon after our return to Kirtland, I was sent on another mission, in company with Brother Samuel H. Smith, a younger brother of the Prophet, who was a man slow of speech and unlearned, yet a man of good faith and extreme integrity. We journeyed early in the spring of 1832, eastward together, without "purse or scrip," going from house to house, teaching and preaching in families, and also in the public congregations of the people. Wherever we were received and entertained, we left our blessing; and wherever we were rejected, we washed our feet in private against those who rejected us, and bore testimony of it unto our Father in Heaven, and went on our way rejoicing, according to the commandment.

When in Westfield, New York, we preached to a crowded audience. I was speaker. After the discourse, a gentleman rose up and requested that a brief history of Joseph Smith be given to the people previous to his finding the plates. I remarked that I was not acquainted with the early history of Joseph Smith, and consequently was unable to comply with the request, but observed that his younger brother was present who might, if he felt disposed, favor them with an account of the early life of his brother.

Samuel arose and said, that as it was the early history of his own brother that they required, it might be thought that, in consequence of his near kin, his statements might not be free from partiality, and respectfully declined the task.

The gentleman who first made the request then stated that he had been acquainted with Joseph Smith from his boyhood. It was then observed that he was a suitable person to give his history. Accordingly he began to do so. He soon came to where he said Joseph did some mean act and ran away. Another gentleman in the congregation, knowing that the speaker had recently run away from his former place of abode for his mean acts and come there, here interrupted the speaker by asking him how long it was after Joseph ran away till he started? This question so discomfited the speaker that he sat down amid the hisses and uproar of the multitude. So, but little of the history of Joseph Smith was given at that meeting.

From this place we hastened on to Spafford where there was a small branch of the Church; and by our ministry added 14 members. We then hastened on to Boston, Massachusetts, preaching and teaching by the way and baptizing some. We raised up a branch in Boston of some 25 or 30 members. Preached also in Lynn and baptized a few, who were attached to the Boston branch. Also raised up a branch of some thirty in Bradford, Massachusetts.

Then proceeded on to Saco, in Maine, where we preached several times. From thence proceeded to Farmington where we raised up a branch of about 20 in number. Returned by way of Bradford and Lowel; called on my sister, Mrs. North. Although separated from her for 25 years she received me very coolly on account of my religion. I told her that the Lord had had particular respect for her -- had not sent her this message by a stranger -- a man whom she knew not, and consequently one in whom, she had no confidence; but has taken your own mother's son -- dandled upon the same knee, nursed at the same breast and like Joseph in Egypt, separated from his kinsfolk and compelled to make friends among strangers. This brother comes to you with this message in the name of the Lord. She replied: "If the Lord had sent you I should think he would have prepared my heart to receive your message, which he has not done."

This answer filled my heart with sorrow for her unbelief. Indeed, I could hardly restrain my feelings on the occasion; still I did, and replied to my sister by the following interrogatives:

"Laura, do you think that God sent his Son with a message to the Jews?" "Yes;" was the reply.

"Did he, or did he not, prepare their hearts to receive it?" She was silent; and with a heart ready to burst with grief, I turned away from my sister, being confident that her heart was fully set to reject my message, and bade her adieu, resolving to be slow to call upon anymore of my relatives that I might be exempted from the duty of washing my feet against my own kindred in case of being rejected, leaving them to be warned and dealt with by strangers.

Mr. North, her husband, a very good man in the estimation of his acquaintances, loving popular religion and money also, gave me to understand that I was welcome at his house on account of relationship, but that he did not care to entertain my colleague, Brother Samuel H. Smith. Oh, thought I, that you were worthy before God to entertain him! I cared not for his invitation, as I thought more of Samuel than of anyone in his house, and stayed only long enough to discharge my duty, and never again voluntarily returned.

From Lowel we returned to Boston; and from thence we went to Providence, Rhode Island, and there baptized some ten or fifteen persons amid most violent opposition. We had to flee in the night, sleep under the fence and under an apple tree. Went back to Boston and then started for home, where we arrived late in December.

This was one of the most arduous and toilsome missions ever performed in the Church. To travel two thousand miles on foot, teaching from house to house, and from city to city, without purse or scrip, often sleeping in schoolhouses after preaching -- in barns, in sheds, by the wayside, under trees, and &c., was something of a task. When one would be teaching in private families, the other would frequently be nodding in his chair, weary with toil, fatigue and want of sleep. We were often rejected in the afterpart of the day, compelling us to travel in the evening, and sometimes till people were gone to bed, leaving us to lodge where we could. We would sometimes travel until midnight or until nearly daylight before we could find a barn or shed in which we dare to lie down; must be away before discovered least suspicion rest upon us. Would often lie down under trees and sleep in daytime to make up loss.

(to be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 10.                    Fillmore City, Wed., May 12, 1858.                    Vol. VIII.



In the spring of 1833, I in company with Hyrum Smith, went on a mission to Elk Creek township, Erie co., Pa., where we labored several weeks, and baptized a number of persons into a branch of the Church, previously raised up there by the ministry of John F. Boynton and others. We also preached considerably in North East Township, Ohio, and in other places while passing to and fro, baptizing some few by the way. Returned to Kirtland in the summer.

During this same summer I was appointed to go up to Jackson County, Missouri, in company with Elder John Gould, with special instructions to the Saints there from the Prophet Joseph in Kirtland. We started on foot with our valises on our backs, a distance of about one thousand miles. We travelled about forty miles per day through a sickly fever and ague country, swimming rivers, and pushing our clothes over on a log or raft before us. We arrived in Jackson County about the beginning of the Saints' troubles there. We delivered our letters and documents, and were sometimes surrounded by the mob, who threatened to wring our heads off from our shoulders. Several little skirmishes took place while there, and some few were killed and wounded.

Times began to be warm, and expulsion seemed inevitable. The Saints began to flee over the river to Clay County, and we, having done all we could, took a steamer for St. Louis on our return home. We arrived home in Kirtland in the month of November 1833.

In the winter and spring of 1834, I took another mission to Pennsylvania, Elk Creek, in company with Elder Orson Pratt, to preach the gospel and to call a company to go up that summer to Missouri. We went as far east as Genesee, N. Y.

In the month of May, the company started from Kirtland for Missouri. I went round by Florence to collect some money due me there, for the benefit of the camp. I obtained between one and two hundred dollars, met the camp near Dayton, and turned in myself and my money to strengthen the camp.

On our way up on the north side of the Missouri River, when nearly opposite Jefferson City, the place of residence of Gov/ Daniel Dunklin, Governor of the state, I, with br. Parley P. Pratt, was deputed to go and see him, and ascertain if he could not do something towards reinstating our people upon their lands and take some steps to punish our persecutors. But he referred us to the courts of the respective counties in which our aggrievances originated, and said that he entertained no doubt but that these courts, that had full jurisdiction, would do us ample justice in the case. He knew better. He knew that both magistrates, constables, judges and sheriffs were engaged in the mob, and were sworn to destroy us. He well knew that to refer us to these courts for justice, was like referring us to a band of thieves to sue for the recovery of stolen property. The courts would do nothing -- the Governor would not if he could, and the President of the United States, at the head of all political power, could not correct one error in any branch below him, neither redress us in any way. Heaven blot out such a government from the records and family of nations. We were compelled to return with the same knowledge and comfort that we had before -- God with us, and everybody else against us.

Returned from Missouri the same summer.

On the 4th day of September following, I was married, in Kirtland, to Miss Marinda N. Johnson, daughter of John and Elsa Johnson, by Elder Sidney Rigdon.

This winter the Twelve Apostles were chosen, and I, being one of that number, was appointed, with the entire quorum, to take a mission through the states, and hold conferences in all the churches. In the spring of 1835, the Twelve started, and went through to the states of Vermont and New Hampshire, preaching and baptizing, holding conferences and strengthening the churches, regulating and putting them in order. Returned to Kirtland in September of the same year.

In the spring of 1836, I took a mission to the state of New York, in company with several others of the Apostles. I labored in the vicinity of Rochester. Fell in with Joseph and Hyrum at Buffalo, on their way to Canada, and took dinner with them at a hotel. I next proceeded to Canada to join Elder Parley P. Pratt, who had previously gone there, and had called for help. Elder Pratt and myself labored in company for a season.

At one meeting a learned Presbyterian priest came in just at the close, and bade us a challenge for debate. We, at first, declined, saying that we had all the labor we could attend to without debate. But nothing would answer the priest but debate. We then said, debate it should be. Accordingly, time and place were agreed upon, and also the terms and conditions. Before the debate came off, Elder Pratt was called home as a witness in a case at law, and left me to meet the champion alone. The time arrived, and about one acre of people assembled in a grove, wagons arranged for pulpits opposite each other, and presently the priest came with some less than a mule load of books, pamphlets and newspapers, containing all the slang of an unbelieving world. The meeting was duly opened by prayer. All things being ready, the battle began by a volley of grape and canister from my battery, which was returned with vigor and determined zeal. Alternate cannonading, half hour each, continued until dinner was announced. An armistice was proclaimed, and the parties enjoyed a good dinner with their respective friends.

After two hours, the forces were again drawn up in battle array. The enemy's fire soon became less and less spirited, until, at length, under a well directed and murderous fire from the long "eighteens" with which Zion's fortress is ever mounted -- to wit: the Spirit of God -- the enemy raised his hand to heaven and exclaimed, with affected contempt, "Abominable! I have heard enough of such stuff." I immediately rejoined, ""Gentlemen and ladies, I should consider it highly dishonorable to continue to beat my antagonist after he has cried enough," -- so I waived the subject. The priest did not appear to think half so much of his scurrilous books, pamphlets and newspapers, when he was gathering them up to take away, as when he brought them upon the stand. Their virtue fled like chaff before the wind. About forty persons were baptized into the Church in that place (Scarborough) immediately after the debate. Jenkins was the name of the priest. It is highly probably that he has never since challenged a `Mormon' preacher for debate.

When Elder Pratt returned to Canada, my wife came with him, and joined me in that country. We continued to labor in Markham, Scarborough and Toronto during the season, and returned to Kirtland in the fall, after raising up several branches of the Church. Engaged this winter in reading Hebrew.

Spring of 1837, went on a mission to England, in company with Elders Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, John Goodson, Isaac Russel, John Snider and Joseph Fielding. Labored in Lancashire and Yorkshire, and baptized about fifteen hundred souls by our united labors, and returned again to Kirtland, May 21, 1838. This summer I removed with my family to Far West, in Missouri, where I was taken sick, soon after my arrival, with bilious fever, and did not fully recover until the spring of 1839.

Few men pass through life without leaving some traces which they would gladly obliterate. Happy is he whose life is free from stain and blemish.

In the month of October, 1838, with me it was a day of affliction and darkness. I sinned against God and my brethren; I acted foolishly. I will not allude to any causes for so doing save one, which was, that I did not possess the light of the Holy Ghost. I lost not my standing in the Church, however; yet, not because I was worthy to retain it, but because God and his servants were merciful. Everlasting thanks to God, and may his servants ever find mercy. Brothers Hyrum Smith and H. C. Kimball, men of noted kindness of heart, spake to me words of encouragement and comfort in the hour of my greatest sorrow. But Hyrum is gone! Peace to his ashes and blessings upon his posterity. Heber lives, and may he and his posterity live to tread upon the necks of the enemies of God. I seek pardon of all whom I have offended, and also of my God, in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

I located with the Saints in Commerce, since Nauvoo. Here I took the ague, which lasted me for months, and which came well nigh killing me and also my family. At the April conference in 1840, reduced to a mere skeleton, I was appointed, in company with Elder John E. Page, to go on a mission to Jerusalem, and started -- gone nearly three years. Performed the mission, but Elder Page did not. Returned to Nauvoo latter part of December, 1842, the particulars of which, and my subsequent history, are contained in the general records of the church.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 11.                    Fillmore City, Wednesday, May 19, 1858.                    Vol. VIII.




My grandfather, Israel Johnson, lived in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, and was much respected by his neighbors for his honesty, integrity and industry.

My father, John Johnson, was born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, April 11, 1779. He followed the occupation of farming on a large scale, and was noted for paying his debts and living independently. He moved from Pomfret, Vermont, to Hiram, Portage County, Ohio. He was connected with the Methodist Church for about four or five years previous to receiving the gospel.

Soon after Joseph Smith moved from the state of New York, my father, mother and Ezra Booth, a Methodist minister, went to Kirtland to investigate 'Mormonism.' My mother had been laboring under an attack of chronic rheumatism in the shoulder, so that she could not raise her hand to her head for about two years; the prophet laid hands upon her, and she was healed immediately.

My father was satisfied in regard to the truth of 'Mormonism,' and was baptized by Joseph Smith, jun., in the winter of 1830-1, and furnished him and his family a home, while he translated a portion of the Bible.

In the fall of 1831, while Joseph was yet at my father's, a mob of forty or fifty came to his house, a few entered his room in the middle of the night, and Carnot Mason dragged Joseph out of bed by the hair of his head; he was then seized by as many as could get hold of him, and taken about forty rods from the house, stretched on a board, and tantalized in the most insulting and brutal manner; they tore off the few night clothes that he had on, for the purpose of emasculating him, and had Dr. Dennison there to perform the operation; but when the Dr. saw the Prophet stripped and stretched on the plank, his heart failed him, and he refused to operate. The mob then scratched his body all over, saying, "Damn you, this is the way the Holy Ghost falls upon you." And in attempting to force open his jaws, they broke one of his front teeth to pour a vial of some obnoxious drug into his mouth.

The mob became divided, and did not succeed, but poured tar over him, and then stuck feathers in it and left him, and went to an old brick yard to wash themselves and bury their filthy clothes. At this place a vial was dropped, the contents of which ran out and killed the grass. About the same time part of the mob went to the house that Sidney Rigdon occupied, and dragged him out, and besmeared him with tar and feathers. My father, hearing the outcry of the family, went to the door, but finding it held by someone on the outside, he called for his gun, when those who held the door left; he pursued, and was knocked down; his collar bone was broken; he was taken back to the house, and hands laid upon him by David Whitmer and immediately healed. A few minutes after this accident, we heard the voice of Joseph calling for a blanket; some person handed him one, and he came in, the tar trickling down his face; his wife was very much alarmed, supposing it to be blood, until he came near enough to see that it was tar. My mother got some lard, and rubbed it upon him to get the tar off, which they succeeded in removing.

Waste, who was the strongest man on the Western Reserve, had boasted that he could take Joseph out alone; at the time they were taking him out of the house, Waste had hold of one foot, Joseph drew up his leg and gave him a kick, which sent him sprawling in the street. He afterwards said the Prophet was the most powerful man he ever had hold of in his life.

Soon after this persecution, Mason had an attack of the spinal affection. Fullars, one of the mobocrats, died of the cholera in Cleveland. Dr. Dennison was sent to the penitentiary for ten years, and died before the term expired.

(to be continued)


I am the third son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickeson, of Columbia County, New York. I was born April 12, 1807, in Burlington, Otsego County, New York.

Of my childhood and youth I will say but little. I was raised to hard work on a farm -- brought up in the strictest morals; was a believer in the Bible and Jesus Christ; received but a limited education in the common schools.

I was married September 9th, 1827, in Canaan, Columbia co., N. Y. My wife's name was Thankful, daughter of William and Thankful Halsey; she was born in New Lebanon, Columbia county, N. Y., March 18, 1797.

On the 25th of March, 1837, she gave birth to my firstborn, whose name is Parley, and died the same day. This happened in Kirtland, Ohio.

About the first of September, A.D. 1830, I was baptized by the hand of an Apostle named Oliver Cowdery. This took place in Seneca Lake. I was confirmed the same day and ordained an elder, at the house of Father Whitmer, Seneca county, N. Y. From that time forth I began to minister in the fulness of the gospel. My first mission was in Columbia county, among my relatives and neighbors, where I baptized my brother Orson Pratt.

Returning to western New York the same autumn, I saw for the first time Joseph Smith, the Prophet, at his father's house in Manchester; heard him preach, and preached in his house, at the close of which meeting we baptized seven persons.

After this he inquired of the Lord, and received a revelation appointing me a mission to the west, in company with Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, jun., and Ziba Peterson. We started this mission in October, 1830. From Father Whitmer's in western New York, we travelled nearly fifteen hundred miles, mostly on foot, and arrived in Jackson County, Missouri, in the beginning of the year 1831, having preached the gospel and left the Book of Mormon with the Cateraugus Indians near Buffalo, N. Y., and with the Wi-an-dots of Ohio. We also preached the gospel and established the Church in Kirtland, Ohio, and the regions round about, consisting of several hundred members, among whom were Sidney Rigdon, Isaac Morley, John Murdock, Lyman Wight and many others, whom we ordained Elders.

Passing the western bounds of Missouri amid the deep snows of January 1831, we entered what is now called Kansas, and bore the Book of Mormon and our testimony to the Delaware Indians, who received it joyfully. We were soon ordered out by government agents, and threatened with the military. We then returned to Jackson County, Missouri, and preached the gospel in several neighborhoods, baptizing a few.

On the 14th February same year, I took leave of my fellow laborers in Jackson County, and travelled, mostly on foot, to Kirtland, Ohio, nearly one thousand miles, where I arrived some time in March.

Here I met with President Joseph Smith, who inquired of the Lord and received commandment for me to preach the gospel and visit the churches in the regions around, which I did until the conference at Kirtland, held June 6, 1831, in which President Joseph Smith, by the word of God, ordained me, with many others, to the High Priesthood, and received a revelation for me and my brother Orson, and many others, to journey two and two, to the western bounds of Missouri, preaching and baptizing by the way.

We started in June, performed this journey on foot, organized several churches by the way, and arrived in western Missouri in October of the same year.

From this time until February 1832, I was very sick of fever and ague, during which I tarried with the churches there.

About the middle of February I attended conference in Jackson county, over which Bishop Edward Partridge presided. Here I was healed by the laying on of hands, and the next day started my return mission in company with John Murdock and others.

After a tedious journey of a thousand miles, we arrived in Kirtland, Ohio, in May 1832, having preached by the way with some success.

After a short mission to Pittsburgh and back, on foot, distance 130 miles, I removed with my wife to Jackson County, Missouri, where I settled, opened a farm, and built a log cabin.

The next winter, in company with Elder W. E. McLellin, I performed a mission on foot through Missouri and into Green County, Illinois, where we preached with much success; distance about six hundred miles in going and returning.

About the 1st of June I returned home; devoted my time among the churches and in presiding over a school of Elders in Zion, and in laboring with my hands.

In the autumn of 1833 I was driven out of Jackson county, with the rest of the church, at the loss of my home. I took refuge in Clay County, where I obtained a living by day labor, jobbing, and &c.

On the first of February, 1834, being sent by a general conference, held in Clay county, I started in connexion with Elder Lyman Wight, on horseback, rode one thousand miles, and arrived in Kirtland in March. President Joseph Smith enquired of the Lord, and by revelation our mission was still extended eastward in connection with others.

President Joseph Smith and myself journeyed together as far as Gennessee county, New York, where we held conference, after which we separated, and I still continued eastward, visiting the churches in northern New York, and my friends in Columbia County.

I again arrived in Kirtland in the latter part of April.

On the 1st of May 1834, I started with President Smith and company for Upper Missouri, where we arrived in July. In this journey I had traveled by land near four thousand miles. From this till October I spent the time in laboring with my hands.

On the 8th of October, in compliance with a revelation through the Prophet Joseph, I started with my wife for Kirtland, Ohio. After journeying near one thousand miles with a horse team, we stopped for the winter at New Portage, within fifty miles of Kirtland. Here I devoted my time diligently in the ministry and in laboring with my hands until February 1835, when I repaired to Kirtland.

February 21st, 1835, I was ordained one of the Twelve Apostles under the hands of Joseph Smith and others. I then immediately returned to New Portage, settled my affairs, and returned again to Kirtland to join the Twelve on a mission eastward.

May 4th, we started this mission. The season was spent in preaching, visiting the churches, holding conferences, and etc., in the eastern States. August found us in the State of Maine, and in September we returned to Kirtland. The winter was spent in the School of the Prophets in the House of the Lord. In April 1836, I took a mission to Canada and labored through the season in the city of Toronto and round about, which mission resulted in the baptism and ordination of John Taylor, Joseph Fielding and others, and in the gathering into the church of many souls. In October of the same year I returned to Kirtland; spent the winter at home.

On the 25th of March 1837, my son Parley was born, in fulfillment of a prophecy delivered on the head of my wife, about eleven months previous, by Elder H. C. Kimball. Having lived to see and embrace her child, she died about two hours after his birth.

In the spring of 1837, soon after the death of my wife, I returned to Canada on a short mission to the Saints, during which several of the Canadian elders, viz., Joseph Fielding, Isaac Russell, John Snyder and John Goodson, were selected for a mission to England.

They were set apart, and performed that mission under the presidency of Elders H. C. Kimball and Orson Hyde; this being the first introduction of the fulness of the gospel in Europe.

May 9th, same year, I was again married, receiving the hand of Mary Ann Frost, daughter of Aaron Frost, of Maine. Soon after this marriage I went to the city of New York, where, at length, I succeeded in baptizing many, among whom was Addison Everett. Here I wrote and published the "Voice of Warning," and here God manifested his power in many gifts and healings, causing the work to spread through the city and round about.

In April 1838, I took leave of New York, and with a small colony emigrated once more to Missouri. We settled in Caldwell County in May, where I built a house and made a farm with my own hands, besides devoting much of my time to the ministry. In autumn of the same year I was imprisoned with Br. Joseph and others, while my family and the whole church were robbed, plundered, and driven from the State.

On the fourth of July, 1839, I gained my freedom by the power of God, after eight months and four days' imprisonment, and escaped to Illinois. I found my family in Quincy, and gathering with them to Nauvoo, I again commenced to labor with my hands.

On the 29th of August 1839, I started on a mission to England, in compliance with a revelation through Joseph Smith. We traveled by land, in a carriage, near six hundred miles, my brother Orson and my family accompanying me. We arrived at Detroit and tarried a few days with our brother Anson, and with our father and mother who then lived with him. My father, being about 70 years of age, was then laying low with a fever, and soon after died.

Continuing our journey, we arrived in New York sometime in autumn, where I tarried for the winter, having great success in the ministry.

On the 9th of March 1840, I sailed for Liverpool, England, in company with Elders B. Young, H. C. Kimball, O. Pratt and others. We had a rough passage of twenty-eight days, and on the sixth day of April landed in Liverpool. We convened a general conference at Preston on the 15th of April, in which Elders B. Young, H. C. Kimball and myself were appointed a publishing committee for the church. I was also appointed editor and publisher of a monthly periodical to be called the Millennial Star, the first number of which was issued in May following.

I continued in this publishing department between two and three years, the last eighteen months of which I had the presidency of the church in the British Isles.

About the 20th of October 1842, I took leave of England, and sailed for New Orleans, chartering a ship called the Emerald, and taking out with me several hundreds of the Saints. We landed in New Orleans after a tedious passage of ten weeks. Passing up the river for one week I landed with my family in Chester, Illinois, where we wintered on account of the ice. In the course of the winter I paid a visit to Nauvoo on horseback, and was welcomed by Br. Joseph and my friends in general.

On the 12th of April 1843, I landed in Nauvoo with my family. The remainder of the season was spent in building, and &c.

The spring of 1844, I was sent out on a mission to the eastern states. I went as far as New York, held several meetings, but was constrained by the Holy Spirit to return home speedily. On arriving in Chicago, Illinois, I heard of the death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. I arrived home in time to console the Saints and assist in keeping them together, until the return of President Young and others of the Twelve.

March 13, 1858. -- Presidents B.Young, H.C. Kimball, O. Hyde, O. Pratt, W. Woodruff, Geo. A. Smith and E. T. Benson, heard this history read by R. L. Campbell, and approved of it.

Note 1: Luke S. Johnson's 1858 statements regarding the tarring and feathering of Joseph Smith in 1832, were preceded by a less detailed recollection he communicated to Elder Thomas Bullock in 1846. According to the Dec. 13, 1846 entry in the LDS "Journal History of the Church," on that day "Bro. Luke [S.] Johnson stated that all but one who were engaged in mobbing, tarring and Feathering Joseph and Sidney in the town of Hiram, Portage county, [Ohio], had come to some untimely end, and the survivor, Carnot Mason, had been severely afflicted, Carnot was the person who dragged Joseph out of the house by his hair. Dr. Denison prepared the vial for Joseph, supposed to be Aqua Fortis." This historian's summary was evidently based upon the account left by Bullock himself in his 1846-47 "Poor Camp" Journal: "Sunday 13 December 1846 -- I was at Doctor's all day... A delightful day. Luke Johnson told the Council of 12 that Carnot Mason is the only man alive out of between 25 and 30 who tarred, feathered and poisoned Joseph at Hiram, Portage County, and Mason dragged Joseph out by the hair of his head Dr. Denison prepared [the] Viol of Aqua Fortis" (transcribed by Will Bagley in his 1997 The Pioneer Camp of the Saints: The 1846 and 1847 Mormon Trail Journals of... Thomas Bullock, pp. 106-07).

Note 3: Combining Luke Johnson's 1846 and 1858 recollections, it appears that the "Dr. Denison" (or Dennison) who purportedly refused to castrate Joseph Smith, was also the person who prepared a vial of "some obnoxious drug" which Johnson "supposed to be Aqua Fortis" (nitric acid). The probability that nitric acid was employed during the March 24, 1832 assault, is strengthened by Sidney Rigdon's public statement of April 6, 1844, at Nauvoo, where he was reported to have said: "the mob came in & broke the door, took me & drag[g]d me out through the streets by my heels with my head pounding over the frozen ground. Another company took president Smith, & tar & featherd him. They tried to turn [sic - throw?] Aquiphertos down our our throats." According to Johnson, this unscrupulous Dr. Dennison was subsequently "sent to the penitentiary for ten years, and died before the term expired." If all the participants in the tar and feathers incident, save one, were dead by 1846, then the Ohio "Dr. Denison" must have died between 1832 and 1846. According to Apostle George A. Smith, speaking in 1864, this same "Dr. Dennison died in the Ohio Penitentiary where he was incarcerated for procuring an abortion, which caused death." If this set of allegations be true, then Susan Easton Black must have been mistaken in 2002, when she said "Dr. Dennison, who had attended Joseph’s birth years earlier in Vermont and since moved west, planned to castrate the Prophet. 'His hand began to shake, and he dropped the knife.'" -- On page 13 of the 2000 published edition of Larry C. Porter's 1971 PhD dissertation, "A Study of the Origins of the Church...," Porter documents the possibility that "Dr. Joseph Denison of South Royalton, Vermont... delivered Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saints," in 1805. Since this particular physician died in Vermont and was buried at Royalton in 1855, he could not be the same physician cited by Dr. Black (see Mary E. W. Lovejoy's 1911 History of Royalton, Vermont..., Vol. 2. p. 749ff.)

Note 4: All of Luke S. Johnson's remarks regarding the March 24, 1832 tarring and feathering outside of his parents home in Hiram, Ohio, should be read with a modicum of skepticism. Even though Luke says that "we heard...," as though the Johnson family members were close observers or auditors of the incident, he also relates that his father could not open the door of the Johnson house, to venture outside and inspect the surrounding grounds, until "those who held the door left" the scene. Assuming that the entire Johnson family was confined within the house during Smith's and Rigdon's struggles, the only possible out-of-doors partner in Luke's recollected "we," might have been his sister Fanny, who had married Symonds Ryder's brother, and who lived on the same road, within observation distance of the Johnsons' property. However, there is good reason to believe that Luke Johnson was not even present within the Johnson house on the night of March 24-25th, and that he must have received all of his reported information second-hand. According to the 1832 journal of a Mormon missionary (that of Elder John Smith, not of the Joseph Smith family) now in private hands, Luke S. Johnson was many miles away from Hiram, at the time when the attack opon the Mormon leaders occurred. H. Michael Marquardt, in a conversation conducted in January of 2009, communicated the following excerpt from Elder Smith's 1832 missionary journal: "[March] 24 I got so that I could Ride a lit[t]le and went to Chippaway -- 25 went with Brethern Semer Brunson and Luke Johnson 3 miles and held meeting -- 26 I visited Som[e] of the members and held meting at broth[er] Bradens..." If these entries can be relied upon, Elder Johnson was in Chippewa Township, Wayne Co., Ohio (between Akron and Wooster) at the time of the tarring and feathering at his parents' home in Hiram. Other contemporary sources indicate that the region around Wooster was then the scene of Mormon interest and missionizing; see, for example, the Wooster Republican Advocate of Feb. 5, 1831.

Note 5: For more on the 1832 attack upon Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, at Hiram, Ohio, see B. H. Roberts' "Figures in Early Church History," in the Deseret Evening News of Sept. 27, 1902. In that article Roberts says nothing of the 1832 assault being carried out "for the purpose of emasculating" Joseph Smith. Instead, Roberts says that the "treatment of Sidney Rigdon on the same occasion was even more severe" than that rendered to Smith. Since no report exists of any attempt made then to castrate Rigdon, Joseph Smith's own (uncorroborated) endangerment in that regard may have been exaggerated by Luke Johnson (who does not purport to have been an eye witness to the initial assault upon Smith). As Todd Compton said in 1987, "The castration, in this scenario, may have only been a threat, meant to intimidate Smith and cause him to leave Hiram."

Note 6: See also: "A Hill of Zion" in the New York Herald of Sept. 10, 1877, "Hiram Hill is Still Unchanged," in the Cleveland Plain Dealer Magazine of Feb. 21, 1909, various items transcribed in association with Rev. B. A. Hinsdale's 1876 booklet, A History of Disciples at Hiram, and the on-line article Elder Sidney Rigdon's 'Hiram Period.'



No. 12.                    Fillmore City, Wed., May 26, 1858.                    Vol. VIII.


William Smith was the fifth son of Joseph Smith, sen., and Lucy Smith; born at Royalton, Windsor county, Vermont, March 13, 1811. He was baptized at an early period. He was a teacher in the church in 1831. He took a mission to Erie county, Pennsylvania, in December, 1832, to preach the gospel and call the Elders to Kirtland to attend a school of the Prophets. He was ordained to the office of High Priest under the hands of Sidney Rigdon in council on the 21st day of June, 1833. During the winter of 1833 he worked on a farm and chopped cord wood near Kirtland.

He was married to Caroline Grant, daughter of Joshua and Thalia Grant, February 14, 1833, by whom he had two daughters -- Mary Jane and Caroline L. He went to Missouri in Zion's Camp in 1834, and returned to Kirtland the same fall. He was appointed one of the Twelve Apostles at the organization of that quorum. He accompanied the Twelve on their first mission through the Eastern States and returned with them to Kirtland, Oct. 29, 1835. While Joseph Smith was presiding in a high council, William rebelled against him in a very headstrong manner.

December 16, 1835. -- At a debating school held in the house of Father Joseph Smith, the Prophet Joseph told the brethren he feared it would not result in good, whereupon William, in a rage, commanded Joseph to leave the house; but Joseph replied he was in his father's house, and should go when he got ready; William then attacked Joseph, and attempted to put him out and inflicted upon him personal injury, the effects of which he occasionally felt until his death. Hyrum Smith called upon Joseph in relation to this difficulty, and said that although he felt the tender feelings of a brother towards William, yet he could but look upon such conduct as an abomination in the sight of God. After Hyrum and the Twelve had labored with William for several days, he made confession and was forgiven.

He removed to Far West with his family in the spring of 1838. After Joseph was taken prisoner and the mob began to drive out the Saints, William expressed himself in such a vindictive manner against Joseph that the church suspended him from fellowship, May 4, 1839, at a general conference near Quincy.

He went to Illinois and settled in Plymouth, Hancock county, keeping a tavern. William was restored to fellowship in the Church through the intercession of Joseph and Hyrum; but when the Twelve went to England, instead of accompanying them, according to the commandment of the Lord, he remained on his farm at Plymouth.

Dec. 1, 1840. -- He published a letter in the Times and Seasons, making an apology for neglecting to go on his mission on the ground of poverty, but it came with an ill grace as he was better situated to leave his family than any of the members of the quorum who went.

William's general character and course of conduct towards his father's family resembles that of Laman's towards his brethren.

In the spring of 1841 he visited the branches of the church in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and collected means for his own benefit, returning to Nauvoo the same season.

His name appears as the Editor of the Wasp, published in Nauvoo, illinois, April, 1842 but a very small part of the labor was performed by him. He was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the Legislature of Illinois in the winter session of 1842-48. His acts as a member of the Legislature were highly approved by the people; he displayed considerable energy in defending the Nauvoo charters and the rights of his constituents.

He took a journey to the East on business in the spring of 1843, and spent his time among the churches. He attended a wood's meeting at the square near Bordertown, N. J., where, in a conversation with br. Geo. A. Smith, he said he should not pay over one dollar for the Nauvoo House or Temple, and if his brother Joseph did not do more for him, he should come out against him; he considered he was putting means into the hands of Joseph to educate his children, while his own children were remaining ignorant. Br. Geo. A. replied, I shall do all I can to build up the Nauvoo House and Temple, and I think that Joseph has done all he could for his relatives, and I wonder that he has done as much as he has, considering the circumstances he has been under.

William returned to Nauvoo on the 22nd day of April, 1844, with about forty or fifty Saints from New Jersey. After staying a short time in Nauvoo, he had his last interview with his brother Joseph under the following circumstances: --

He asked Joseph to give him a city lot near the Temple. Joseph told him that he would do so with great pleasure, if he would build a house and live upon it; but he would not give him a lot to sell. William replied he wanted it to build and live upon. The lot was well worth $1000. In a few hours afterwards, an application was made by Mr. Ivins to the recorder to know if the lot was clear and belonged to Wm. Smith, for William had sold it to him for $500. Joseph, hearing of this, directed the clerk not to make a transfer; at which William was so offended that he threatened Joseph, who deemed it prudent to keep out of the way, until William left on a steam-boat for the East accompanied by his family. He spent his time mostly in the various branches of the church, and collected a good deal of money for the Temple which he used for his own accomondation.

In all his missions the course of conduct he pursued towards the females subjected him to much criticism.



My father moved to Kirtland, and was ordained to the office of high priest, and was a member of the first High Council organized in the church. He died in Kirtland in 1843.

I was born in Pomfret, Windsor Co., Vermont, November 3rd, 1807. In early life I assisted my father in farming, and remained with him until I received the gospel, and was baptized by Joseph Smith, May 10, 1831. Soon thereafter I was ordained a priest by Christian Whitmer, and performed a mission to the southern part of Ohio, in company with Robert Rathburn, where we baptized several and organized a branch in Chippewa.

In company with Sidney Rigdon I went on a mission to New Portage, where we baptized about fifty or sixty, and organized a branch; from thence we journeyed to Pittsburgh, (in the vicinity where Sidney was born and raised) where we preached the gospel to his relatives, and I baptized his mother and his oldest brother, also several others in that neighborhood, and we organized a branch.

At a conference in Orange, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, I was ordained a high priest by Joseph Smith. At this conference the eleven witnesses to the Book of Mormon, with uplifted hands, bore their solemn testimony to the truth of that book, as did also the Prophet Joseph.

In January 1832, I was appointed by revelation, in company with W. E. McLellin, to go on a mission south. We preached several times, and, arriving at Middlebury, Portage County, Brother McLellin got a situation behind a counter to sell tapes, and etc., and I, preferring not to proceed alone, returned to the town of Hiram, and the prophet appointed Seymour Brunson in his stead, with whom I travelled through Ohio, Virginia and Kentucky. We baptized over o ne hundred persons, and organized a branch in Lawrence County, Ohio, and another in Cabal County, Virginia, and returned to Hiram.

December 28, 1832, in company with Hazen Aldrich I started and resumed my mission to the south country. On the 31st, at Worcester, we baptized two.

January 19, 1833, preached in Charleston, Jackson Co., where I baptized several of the Stoker family. On the 27th, met bro. Zerubabbel Snow, and baptized one. We visited the branches, preached and set the churches in order as we journeyed along. Feb. 24, returned to Hiram, and assisted my father on his farm during the summer.

In the fall of 1833, I visited the branches raised up in Lawrence Co., Ohio, and preached and baptized in that vicinity.

November 1st, I married Susan Harminda Poteet, in Cabal Co. Virginia.

Feb. 17, 1834, at the organization of the first High Council, which was in Kirtland, I was chosen a member.

In May I started with Zion's Camp for Missouri, on which journey I acted as pioneer, and went before the camp -- marked the signs of the times, and the situation of our enemies. Having made a declaration before I started that I would go into Jackson Co., or die in the attempt, in company with my brother Lyman and others I procured a boat, and rowed over the Mo. River and landed in Jackson Co., where we discharged three rounds of our small arms, and immediately got into the boat, and with all our energies rowed back. Meanwhile the mob in Jackson Co. lined the shore, and commenced firing upon us, their balls skimming the waters near us. After landing I returned fire and shot across the Missouri River.

I returned to Kirtland, in Captain Heber C. Kimball's company, and received my blessing in common with the members of Zion's Camp.

Feb. 14, 1835, I was chosen, and on the 15th ordained one of the Twelve Apostles, at the organization of that quorum; and with them traveled during the summer, through the Eastern States, holding conferences, preaching the gospel and regulating the churches, returning to Kirtland in September.

I attended Hebrew school during the winter, and received my blessings in the House of the Lord in the spring of 1836; after which I started on a mission to Canada, preaching through the state of New York on the way. I baptized many, and organized a branch in Canada, and returned to Kirtland in the fall.

A Baptist Clergyman from the state of New York, who had been acquainted with the Prophet Joseph in his early life, called upon him and stayed all night. Joseph made the minister welcome, and treated him hospitably and respectfully; but, when breakfast was over next morning, he called Joseph a hypocrite, a liar, an imposter and a false prophet, and called upon him to repent. Joseph boxed his ears with both hands, and, turning his face towards the door, kicked him into the street. He immediately went before a magistrate, and swore out a writ against Joseph for assault and battery. I saw the operation, and followed the minister into the Squire's office, and demanded a writ for his apprehension, for provoking an assault; the clerk filling up the writ I called for first -- the minister, fearing trouble, paid for his writ and withdrew without it, and made his way post haste for Cuyahoga Co.; I followed him on horseback, making him travel pretty lively until he got a few rods over the line when I overtook him and said, "Sir, you are lucky to have got over the line, and out of my jurisdiction, or I should have arrested you."

Jan. 12th, 1838, I learned that Sheriff Kimball was about to arrest Joseph Smith, on a charge of illegal banking, and knowing that it would cost him an expensive lawsuit, and perhaps end in imprisonment, I went to the French farm, where he then resided, and arrested him on an execution for his person, in the absence of property to pay a judgment of $50, which I had in my possession at the time, which prevented Kimball from arresting him. Joseph settled the execution, and thanked me for my interference, and started that evening for Missouri: this was the last time I ever saw the Prophet.

Soon after, I was in Kirtland, and hearing that a vexatious writ had been sworn out by John C. White against Joseph Smith, sen., it being supposed he was liable to a prosecution in consequence of his manner of solemnizing marriages, I begged the privilege of serving the writ, and arrested the old gentleman, and took him to the magistrate's office. The court not being ready to attend to the case, I put him in a small room adjoining the entrance from the office. I also allowed his son Hyrum to accompany him. I took a nail out from over the window sash, left the room and locked the door, and commenced telling stories in the courtroom, to raise a laugh, for I was afraid they would hear Father Smith getting out of the window; when the court called for the prisoner, I stepped into the room in the dark and slipped the nail into its place in the window, and went back and told the court that the prisoner had made his escape. White and others rushed into the room, and examined the fastenings and found them all secure, which created much surprise how the prisoner had got out. I had previously told John F. Boynton, to go and assist Father Smith out of the window. Hyrum got out first, then he and Boynton assisted the old man out, he thereby escaped bonds or imprisonment, and an expensive and vexatious lawsuit.

Having partaken of the spirit of speculation, which at that time was possessed by many of the Saints and elders, my mind became darkened, and I was left to pursue my own course. I lost the Spirit of God, and neglected my duty; the consequence was, that at a conference held in Kirtland, September 3rd, 1837, in company with my bro. Lyman and John F. Boynton, I was cut off from the church, privileged with confessing and making satisfaction.

In the spring of 1838, Dr. Frederick G. Williams was arrested at Willoughby, as he was on his way to Missouri, on a frivolous and vexatious process; he sent to Kirtland for me to help him. On receipt of his message, I repaired forthwith to Willoughby, and learned that he was in the hands of an officer named Cranston, and that he was to have his trial before Esqr. Bates at early candlel light. I immediately removed his horse and buggy out of the county, and went to him; he asked me if I could render him any assistance, as this was a vexatious suit. I told I could, and that I had sent his horse and buggy out of the county, and I would furnish him a horse which should be held in the street opposite the office, by Bradford W. Elliot, at the lighting of the candles. I sat at the door of the court-room, the key being on the outside; Cranston and Dr. Williams were walking the room, and Cranston was observing that a prisoner never made his escape from him. Just as the candles were lighting, I opened the door, the Dr. walked out, unobserved by Cranston; I immediately followed him, and, locking the door, tossed the key a few rods from the office; the court hearing the door locked, jumped up, upsetting the table and candles, and mixed up in great confusion; the cry was, "Open the door, open the door;" a shoemaker at work, being the only person within hearing, replied several times, "Open the door yourself." At length Cranston succeeded in getting out by a hatch-way through a hatter's shop below, and overtaking me (as I was quietly walking down the street towards Kirtland) slapped me on the shoulder, asking where Dr. Williams had gone to. I replied, I am not his keeper; whereupon he gave me the second and third slap on the shoulder, and in a loud tone, demanded of me to inform him: I had been shooting squirrels that day, and had my powder flask in my pocket, which I took out and told him, I would let him know where the Dr. was, and snapping the spring of my flask at him several times, he ran off, and looking over his shoulder, he fell down, but kept running several rods upon his hands and feet: when he got back to court, he reported that he had narrowly escaped with his life.

From this time up to the death of Joseph Smith, I spent my time in teaching school in Cabal County, Virginia, for about a year, devoting my leisure time in reading works on medicine. I returned to Kirtland and continued the study of medicine, and attended a course of lectures in the botanical college at Cincinnati, receiving a certificate from Professor Curtis; afterwards practiced in Kirtland, and engaged in various occupations to enable me to obtain a living; but did not officiate in any religious duties.

Note 1: Elder Andrew Jenson used the above account as a basis for his autobiographical sketch of William, for the LDS Historical Record, of March, 1886. Later reprints added the following closing paragraph: "In a general conference of the Church held in Nauvoo Oct. 6, 1845, Wm. Smith was dropped as one of the Twelve Apostles and Patriarch of the Church, and on the following Sunday (Oct. 12th) he was excommunicated, as more of his inconsistent acts had come to light. Some time afterwards he associated himself with the apostate James J. Strang, who tried to organize a church of his own, but failed. Wm. Smith afterwards identified himself with the "Reorganized Church" and lived for a number of years in Elkader, Clayton county, Iowa. He died Nov. 13, 1894, at Osterdock, Clayton county, Iowa, as the last surviving brother of Joseph the Prophet." See the Oakland, California Expositor of August, 1888 for a copy of Jensen's sketch, as well as a critical reply from William himself.

Note 2: Luke Samuel Johnson died in Utah in 1861. He was rebaptized on March 8, 1846, by his brother-in-law, Orson Hyde; however, he never again served in any high office among the Mormons.



No. 13.                        Fillmore City, Wed., June 2, 1858.                         Vol. VIII.


I, Orson Pratt, for the information of my descendants, and kindred and all others interested, give the following brief sketch of my Ancestry and Geneaology

A few centuries ago, when the old world groaned under the hand of tyranny and oppression, when persecution raged against those who desired to be the humble followers of Christ, a great western continent was discovered to which a few hardy brave pioneers sailed and commenced the colonization of New England. Among these humble pilgrim fathers were my ancestor, William Pratt and his older brother John. In February, 1639. these two brothers received a portion of land in the first distribution made to the colonists, located at Hartford, Connecticut. This is the first reliable information that I have concerning them. This little colony was founded in June, 1636, which was a little less than three years, before they drew their portion of land. It is supposed that they accompanied the Rev. Thomas Hooker and his congregation, about hundred in number from Newton, now called Cambridge, Massachusetts through a dense wilderness inhabited only by savage wild beasts, and became the first settlers of Hartford. The ancient records at Newtown, or Cambridge, show that John Pratt owned land in that town.

My ancestor, William Pratt, was a member of the Legislature some 25 or 30 sessions; and the general court gave him one hundred acres of land in Say Brook, Connecticut, for service performed is as Lieutenant in the Pequot war...

My parents, Jared and Charity Pratt, were numbered among the poor of this world. To procure the comforts of life, they were necessitated to labor for the rich. At times bright prospects of wealth seemed to open before them; but a succession of misfortunes kept them down in the low vales of poverty. The only occupation followed by my father was the cultivation of the soil. To this laborious method of procuring a living he was unaccustomed in his youthful days. Being the oldest among eleven children, his father Obadiah, made him, in early life a weaver for the family. But hand looms were mostly dospensed with, and steam [sic - water?] power substituted, to supply clothing for man. Weavers, therefore, were thrown out of employment, and however inexperienced, were obliged to adopt some other business to sustain themselves and families. Under these disadvantageous circumstances, my father, by hard labor for others, earned the scanty means of subsistence.

My brothers, when young, were sent from home to labor at farming in the service of others; after which they looked after their own welfare and education, living sometimes in one place, and then in another, without the advantages of parental instruction at a time when they most needed it. While blessed with the privilege of living at home, we were diligently taught in every principle of morality and honesty; for although my parents had no faith in the modern sectarian principles of Christianity, yet they looked upon the history of ancient Christianity, as recorded in the Bible, as something most sacred and worth possessing. These Bible doctrines, they diligently instilled into the minds of their children, so far as they understood them; and often expressed themselves as desirous of belonging to the Church of Christ, if it could be found.

As stated in my genealogy, I was born September 19th 1811, in Hartford, Washington county, New York. When I was about three or four years old, my parents removed from Hartford to New Lebanon, Columbia county, where I was sent to school for several months, each year, until the spring of 1822. During this interval I often had many serious impressions in regard to God and a future state. And being very young, my parents instructed me to read the Bible, which I often did, with much interest, asking a great variety of questions, concerning what I found written. It was seldom that I attended any religious meetings, as my parents had not much faith in and were never so unfortunate as to unite themselves with any of the religious sects.

In the spring of 1822, being in my eleventh year, I went to live with a farmer whose name was Justin Jones: this was in the neighborhood of my parents. I continued in this place until the autumn of 1823. The preceding winter, I also went to school. I next engaged to labor at farming, for Mr. Church at Canaan, Four Corners, Columbia county, New York, and continued with him about seventeen or eighteen months; three or four of which I went to School, and became quite familiar with all the rules in Daball's arithmetic. In the spring of 1825, accompanied my oldest brother to Hurlgate, Long Island, about six miles from New York city. Here I engaged myself for one year to Mr. Greenock, a farmer; three months of which I went to school, and studied arithmetic and bookkeeping. In the Spring of 1826, I was recommended by Mr. Greenock to a large cabinet making establishment in New York city, where I intended to remain until of age; but after tarrying a few months, I was taken violently sick and brought very low, so that my recovery, for some time, was considered doubtful. When my strength permitted, I went into the country, to Hurlgate, and tarried with my brother Anson, until the spring of 1827, when I returned to Canaan, about 150 miles north of New York city; and engaged myself to labor for seven months, on a farm for Mr. Noise; at the expiration of which, I accompanied my brothers Parley and Nelson Pratt to Lorain county, Ohio. We performed the journey by canal boat from Albany to Buffalo, and thence by schooner up Lake Erie. I boarded with Mr. Redington during the winter and went to school.

In the spring of 1828, I started east in search of employment, came to the village of Chagrin, now called Willoughby, Ohio, where I labored a few months at a hotel; the most of my time being occupied at farming. I also labored a few months at farming for Mr. Norris, a few miles east of Painesville. In the autumn of this year, I performed a lengthy journey to the State of Connecticut, where I labored a short time; and then took a steam boat for New York city, and thence to Long Island, with my brother Anson.

In the spring of 1829, I again, returned to Canaan, and commenced farming for Mr. Haight. The following winter I spent four months at a boarding school or academy, during which I made myself thoroughly acquainted with geography, grammar, and surveying.

In the spring of 1830, I engaged myself to Mr. Joshua Lord, with whom I tarried and labored on a farm, until the following October. This was in Canaan only one or two miles from the old homestead of my grandfather, Obadiah Pratt.

From the age of ten to nineteen I saw much of the world, and was tossed about without any permanent abiding place; but through the grace of God, I was kept from many of the evils to which young people are exposed. The early impressions of morality and religion, instilled into my mind by my parents, always remained with me, and I often felt a great anxiety to be prepared for a future state; but never commenced, not real earnest, to seek after the Lord, until the autumn of 1829.

I then began to pray very fervently, repenting of every sin. In the silent shades of night, while others were slumbering upon their pillows, I often retired to some secret place in the lonely fields or solitary wilderness, and bowed before the Lord, and prayed for hours with a broken heart and contrite spirit -- this was my comfort and delight. The greatest desire of my heart was for the Lord to manifest His will concerning me. I continued to pray in this fervent manner until September, 1830, at which time two Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, came into the neighborhood, one of which was my brother Parley. They held several meetings which I attended.

Being convinced of the divine authenticity of the doctrines they taught, I was baptized September 19, 1830. This was my birthday, being nineteen years old. I was the only person in the country who received and obeyed the message. Shortly after my baptism the Elders left.

In October, 1830, I travelled westward over two hundred miles to see Joseph Smith, the Prophet. I found him in Fayette, Seneca county, N.Y., residing at the house of Mr. Whitmer. I soon became intimately acquainted with this good man, and also with the witnesses of the Book of Mormon. By my request, on the 4th of Nov., the Prophet inquired of the Lord for me, and received the revelation published in the Doctrine and Covenants, sec. lvi.

On the 1st day of December, 1830, I was confirmed, and in accordance with the word of the Lord I was ordained an Elder under the hands of the Prophet. My first mission was to Colesville, Broome county, N. Y., where I commenced to open my mouth in public meetings, and teach the things of God as the Holy Ghost gave me utterance. The same month I returned from Colesville to Fayette, accompanied by Hyrum Smith.

On the 2nd of January 1831, I attended a Conference on the 2nd of January, and in a few weeks Elder Samuel H. Smith and myself started on foot for Kirtland, Ohio, a distance of several hundred miles, to which Joseph, the Prophet, had Joseph previously moved.

During the spring of 1831, I traveled on a short mission of about one month with Lyman Wight, going about one hundred miles west of Kirtland, preaching the Gospel wherever we were led by the Spirit of Truth. After which I united in the ministry with my bro Parley, and preached some in Rome and also in Thompson, where the Saints from Colesville were temporally located. In the latter place I tarried some five or six weeks, and labored with my hands.

In June a revelation was given commanding many Elders to travel two by two from Ohio to the western boundaries of Missouri, among whom my brother Parley and myself were called by name and commanded to travel together. On our way we held about fifty meetings, and baptized five in Peru, Delaware county, Ohio, and six in Vermillion county, Illinois.

About the end of August I arrived in Jackson county, Missouri; the next day I was taken with the chills and fever, which confined me to my bed a few weeks.

About the first of October, though still weak and feeble, I started on foot for Ohio, in company with Asa Dodds, preaching by the way, as commanded of the Lord through the Prophet.

Br. Dodds stopped in Indiana, but I continued my journey, although suffering much from the ague. Towards the close of the year I arrived in Hiram, Portage county, Ohio, where the Prophet then resided.

About the 1st of January 1832, I went to Kirtland, attended many meetings, visited disorderly members with Elder Cahoon, called Church meetings, and excommunicated several. I then returned to Hiram, united in the ministry with Elder Lyman E. Johnson, and started for Lorain county, Ohio, where we preached in the regions around until the general Conference held at Amherst, Lorain county, on the 25th of January. At this Conference the Prophet Joseph was acknowledged President of the High Priesthood, and hands laid on him by Elder Sidney Rigdon, who sealed upon his head the blessings which he had formerly received. I was appointed to preside over the Elders, and was set apart and ordained by Sidney Rigdon. At this Conference, by the request of the Priesthood, the Prophet inquired of the Lord, a revelation was given and written in the presence of the whole assembly, appointing many of the Elders to missions, among whom Elder Lyman E. Johnson and myself were named and appointed on a mission to the Eastern States. (See Doc. and Cov., sec. lxxxviii.)

The next day after Conference we left Amherst and in a few days found ourselves in Hiram.

To be continued.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 14.                        Fillmore City, Wed., June 9, 1858.                         Vol. VIII.



February 2nd, 1832. -- On this day, by the counsel of the Prophet, I was ordained a High Priest under the hands of Sidney Rigdon.

Feb. 3rd -- Elder L. E. Johnson and myself started on our eastern mission, travelling, as usual, on foot, without purse or scrip, and carrying our change of clothing in our hands. We travelled in an easterly direction through Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York city, to Hurlgate, on Long Island; preached thirty times in towns and villages on the way, where they previously had never heard the gospel. In the town of Blakesley, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, we baptized four, and ordained one of them, namely, Asbury Secor, a Priest. At Hurlgate, near the last of March, I baptized and confirmed my oldest brother, Anson Pratt. From this place we travelled north, visited Canaan, Columbia county, New York; saw my parents. We then travelled north-east through the southern part of Vermont into New Hampshire, proceeded to the eastern shore of the Connecticut river to Bath, preaching wherever we were led by the Spirit; while journeying from Long Island to Bath held five meetings.

We tarried twenty-six days in the regions round about Bath, held twenty-one meetings and baptized fifteen, among whom were Orson Johnson, Hazen Aldrich, Amasa Lyman, John Duncan and Daniel S. Miles.

May 14. -- We travelled north, and came to the town of Charleston, in Vermont; tarried ten days; preached seven times in this region, baptized fourteen, among whom were Winslow Farr, William Snow and Zerubbabel Snow. In those parts the Lord wrought by our hands many miracles of healing.

May 25. -- We went about thirty miles northwest to the town of Troy; tarried nineteen days; held sixteen meetings in those regions; baptized eighteen in the town of Jay, and then started back to Charleston.

June 15. -- Arrived among our brethren in Charleston; tarried eleven days; held six meetings; baptized eleven, one of whom was John Badger; then went south a few miles and held eleven meetings; here the Lord healed a lame woman whom we baptized.

July 4. -- Again visited Bath; tarried three days; preached twice; baptized four; ordained Hazen Aldrich an Elder.

July 9. -- Started again for Charleston; tarried six days, attended three meetings, baptized one; ordained John Badger an Elder, William Snow a Priest, and Winslow Farr a Teacher, and then travelled to the town of Jay, and held two meetings. We next returned to Bath, held two meetings, and ordained John Duncan a Teacher.

July 30. -- We departed from Bath and went to the town of Benson, about five days’ journey. We tarried in this region about twenty-five days, held fourteen meetings in various towns and villages, baptized two, and attended a Conference.

August 28. -- We started a journey of over one hundred miles to the south part of Connecticut, where we arrived on the 1st of September; commenced preaching in the towns round about; tarried twenty-three days; held eleven meetings in the town of Madison, and six in the town of Killingsworth; baptized ten, ordained one of them, namely, Willard Woodstock, an Elder.

Sept. 24. -- Started on a return journey to Benson; arrived in five days; tarried in Benson a few days; held four meetings.

Oct. 2. -- Went on board of a vessel, sailed seventy miles down Lake Champlain; landed at Port Kent on the west shore, and then travelled about thirty miles to Moerstown, New York, where we found one of our brethren, Ira Ames; held three meetings in this region.

Oct. 8. -- Re-crossed the lake into Vermont; the next day preached in Franklin village; two days more brought us to the town of Jay, where we held three meetings.

Oct. 15. -- Started for Bath; called at Charleston and held two meetings.

Oct. 20. -- Arrived in Bath; stopped five days; held six meetings in neighboring towns; baptized one, and ordained John Duncan a Priest; and William Snow from Charleston being present, we ordained him an Elder.

Oct. 26. -- I started in company with Elders L. E. Johnson Hazen Aldrich and William Snow, and travelled west some three or four hundred miles -- a portion of which we rode on a canal boat, where I preached to the passengers.

Nov. 8. -- Arrived in Spafford, Onondaga county, New York, at which place there was a Branch of the Church; here we tarried six days; held five meetings, one of which was a Conference, eleven Elders present; baptized eight, among whom were Allen Holcomb, whom we ordained an Elder, Libbeus T. Coon and Mahew Hilman. Elder L. E. Johnson here united in the ministry with Hazen Aldrich, and started for Ohio. I united in the ministry with Elder William Snow, and started eastward, preached in the villages of Vesper, Tully and Fabius; in the latter place tarried six days, baptized two, namely, Samuel and Jemima Newcomb.

Nov. 23. -- Travelled eleven miles; preached twice in Casinovia, then travelled six days to the town of Day, Saratoga county, where we tarried seventeen days, held fifteen meetings.

Dec. 20. -- We started for Bolton, on the west shore of Lake George; here was a Branch of the Church; we tarried ten days, held ten meetings, baptized ten persons.

Dec. 31. -- Ordained Silas T. Gardner an Elder, and then started for Benson, in Vermont; held one meeting in Benson, and then pursued our journey to Bath, about 100 miles distant.

January 8, 1833. -- Arrived in Bath; I tarried nine days, William Snow having gone to Charleston; held five meetings, then visited the Church at Charleston, held one meeting, returned to Bath and held two meetings.

Jan. 28. -- Started for Ohio.

Feb. 2. -- Arrived in Bolton; tarried four days, held three meetings, baptized two, ordained John Tanner a Priest, and then pursued my journey several hundred miles west. Within about 150 miles of Kirtland, I fell in company with D. W. Patten and Reynolds Cahoon, tarried and held four meetings with them, and then proceeded on my journey to Kirtland, where I arrived Feb. 17, 1833, having been absent on this eastern mission one year and fourteen days, during which we travelled on foot near 4000 miles, attend 207 meetings, mostly in places where they had not heard the word, baptized 104 persons, and organized several new branches of the church.

Feb. 18. -- Washed my hands and feet as a testimony unto the Lord that I had warned this wicked generation and that my garments were clean from their blood, and on the same day I admitted into the School of the Prophets. During my attendance at this school, I boarded with the Prophet Joseph, from whom I received much good instruction. On the Sabbath days I continued preaching in various places.

Elder Lyman E. Johnson and myself, having received a commandment through the Prophet to visit the Churches and preach in the Eastern States, left Kirtland on the 26th of March to fill our mission. We arrived in Bath, New Hampshire, on the 7th June, having attend forty-four meetings by the way, and baptized thirteen.

June 8. Met in Conference in Bath; present—High Priests 4, Elders 8, Priests 2. At this Conference Elders Willard Woodstock, Harlow Redfield, William Snow and Hazen Aldrich, were ordained high priests; Henry Harriman was ordained an Elder, and Daniel Carter, a member, was ordained a Priest, the ordinances being administered under my hands.

During the next six days we held meetings in the towns round about.

June 14. -- Elder Lyman E. Johnson went to Charleston, and continued laboring in St. Johnsbury and the adjoining towns.

June 18. -- I baptized six, namely, Gardner Snow, Willard Snow, Lucina Snow, Jacob Gates, Mary Gates and Emily Harvey, the last person named having been healed three days before by the power of God. After this I held thirty-five meetings in different counties in Northern Vermont, and baptized eight, returned to St. Johnsbury.

July 6. -- Preached in St. Johnsbury and baptized Sally Snow. The 28th, preached and baptized Susan Briant. After this held sixteen meetings in the towns around, and baptized seventeen, the most of whom lived in Danville. Many were healed, through the ordinances, by the power of God.

July 19. -- Started for Charleston.

July 24. -- Attended conferences at Charleston. Elder Orson Johnson and John Badger were ordained High Priests. Winslow Farr, Isaac Aldrich and Roswell Evans, were ordained Elders; Gardner Snow, Willard Snow and Joseph Swasey, were ordained Priests; and Horace Evans was ordained a Teacher, the ordinances being under the hands of Lyman E. Johnson. After attending five meetings, I left for Danville.

Aug. 31. -- Ordained Jacob Rust an Elder; tarried three days longer; held three meetings and baptized three, and then went to Bath; held five meetings in the adjoining towns, and baptized three.

Sept. 8. -- Held two meetings in Bath. Brother Horace Cowan ordained an Elder under the hands of Lyman E. Johnson.

Sept. 9. -- I left Bath for Kirtland; held some meetings by the way; arrived in Kirtland Sept. 28th, having been absent six months, durng which I travelled about 2000 miles, attended 125 meetings, and baptized upwards of 50 persons.

I remained in Kirtland about two months, labored on the House of the Lord and printing office thirty days; the most of the time boarded with the Prophet.

Nov. 27. -- Elder Lyman E. Johnson and myself started to visit some of the eastern churches, having been set apart by a Council of High Priests for that purpose. 

[journal entries not printed in 1858 follow:

December 1st. Preached in Springfield upon the gospel.

December 2nd. Went to Elk Creek and attended a church meeting, Brother Zebedee being present. Two were cut off from the Church.

December 3rd. Went to Springfield.

December 4th. We attended a church meeting in Springfield and settled some difficulties among the brethren.

December 5th. Attended another church meeting in the same place and cut off from the Church Brother Tiler.

December 6th. Preached at Elk Creek.

December 8th. Being the Sabbath preached at the same place upon the two places of gathering.

Dec. 11. -- [edited published version] Held a conference in the evening at Elk Creek; settled some difficulties between the elders; Amasa Lyman ordained a high priest -- under the hands of Lyman E. Johnson. From Kirtland to this place we had held seven meetings.

December 11th. [original journal entry: Held a conference in the evening and regulated some difficulties existing between Henry Dighton and Harrison Sagers, and also between Zebedee Coltrin and Moses Martin. Brothers Harrison and Moses were found to be under condemnation, but after confessing, were permitted to retain their offices. Brother Lyman E. Johnson also ordained Brother Amasa Lyman to the office of high priest.

December 12th. Brother Lyman, Amasa and I left Elk Creek and came to Westfield.

December 15th. Being the Sabbath preached unto the church in Westfield upon the Word of Wisdom; in the afternoon preached at the lake; in the evening met with our brethren and held a prayer meeting.

Dec. 16. -- [edited published version] We went to Silver Creek; tarried eight days; held eight meetings in the adjoining towns, then left for Geneseo, where we held a conference,and preached much in the adjoining regions. After which I went to Waterloo, near where the Church was first organized, where I arrived on the 17th of January 1834.

December 16th. [original journal entry: Left Westfield and traveled about one mile. We met Brother John Murdock on his return from Shenango Point, and he turned about and went with us to the east. We came to the church at Silver Creek the same day.

December 17th. Brother Lyman left Silver Creek in company with Brother Amasa for Pennisburg, and Brother John and I tarried at Silver Creek waiting for some clothes to be made.

December 18th. We preached at Fayette Village upon the first principles of the gospel.

December 19th. Preached at Stebbins' schoolhouse upon the first principles of the gospel.

December 20th. Preached at Forrestville Village.

December 21st. Preached at Fayette Village upon the new covenant and something concerning the priesthood.

December 22nd. Being the Sabbath we attended meeting in Fayette in the forenoon and heard a Methodist preacher by the name of I. H. Jacket preach against the Church of Christ; in the afternoon we held a meeting among the brethren and they renewed their covenants before God to be more faithful, and we administered the sacrament and held a prayer meeting in the evening.

December 23rd. Held a meeting in Fayette Village in defense of the truth in which we investigated the several arguments brought forth against it the day preceding by the Methodist priest.

December 24th. Being the Sabbath we attended a meeting with our brethren at Geneseo. We went into the schoolhouse before meeting began; but Brother Landen did not ask us to preach, but preached himself. However, Brother John did say a few words to the congregation after Brother Landen had got through. After meeting we went to visit Brother Landen and found that he still rejected the vision and said that it was of the devil. In the evening Brother Murdock preached upon the priesthood.

December 30th. Brothers Lyman and Amasa arrived.

December 31st. We met in conference at which the following official members were present, viz.: high priests: Lyman Johnson, Orson Pratt, John Murdock, Amasa Lyman; elders: Joseph Young, Roger Orton, Chester L. Heth, Oliver Granger; priests: Hiram Straten; teacher: Edward Bosley. Conference organized by appointing Lyman Johnson Moderator and Orson Pratt clerk. Opened with prayer by Brother Lyman and then proceeded to examine into the case of Brother Ezra Landen, a high priest. We had previously visited Brother Landen and endeavored to reason with him but in vain. He also had been warned to attend the conference but would not attend and treated us with contempt and ridicule. After his case was duly examined by the conference and some points of the revelations read and explained touching his situation, the conference were requested to give their decision. They unanimously gave their voices against him and he was cut off from the Church. The same day we demanded his license but he refused to give it up.

Brother Hiram Straten, a priest, was sharply rebuked by the conference for being unwise in many things. The conference decided that seven or eight of the official members present should go two by two and visit several members of the Church in this vicinity and examine into their situation and notify them to appear at the next meeting appointed on the Thursday following. The conference closed.

January 1st, A. D., 1834. This day I felt some of the effects of the fever and ague.

January 2nd. The Church met according to previous appointment. Four high priests and three elders were present. After the meeting was opened we explained the reasons why E. Landen was cut off. The following persons requested their names to be taken from the Church record of names, viz.: Lester More, Daniel More, Letitia Bosby, Aaron Clark, Rodman Clark, Polly Kelly. The Church therefore were called upon to raise their hands against them and they were cutoff.

January 3rd. Attended a meeting at the Brick Schoolhouse in Avon. Brother Amasa preached.

January 5th. Being the Sabbath, preached at the schoolhouse near Brother Orton's upon the vision.

January 6th. Held a church meeting and the following persons were cut for disbelieving the work and bad conduct: Hannah More, Albert More, Masy More, John Bosely, Ruby Landen, John Heth.

January 9th. Attended a prayer meeting at Brother Bosley's.

January 10th. Preached near Wadsworth Mills upon the new covenant.

January 11th. Met in church meeting. Eight were cut off, viz.: Wm. More, John B. Dicker, Christeen Dicker, Polly Clark, Mariah Clark, Elias Orton, Robert Hawes and Polly Hanes.

January 12th. Being the Sabbath preached at the schoolhouse near Mr. Beaman's upon the two places of gathering. In the afternoon attended a meeting at the schoolhouse near Brother Orton's. Brothers Lyman and Amasa preached.

January 14th. I preached at the village of Lima upon the scattering and gathering of Israel, proving from the scriptures that there must be more revelations and miracles and that the Lord would lift up a standard and set a sign among them; I also said something about the two sticks.

January 15th. Preached at Mendon village upon the first principles of the gospel and the power of godliness.

January 16th and 17th. I rode on horseback to Brother Chamberlain's near Waterloo, near where the Church was first organized.

January 18th. Preached at the schoolhouse near his house upon more revelations and miracles, and also the gifts in the Church of Christ.

January 19th. Being the Sabbath, preached again in the same place upon the two places of gathering, the Second Coming of Christ, the Millennium, and the Saints coming into possession of the earth to inherit it forever and ever.

Jan. 20, 1834. -- [edited published version] I started for Kirtland, preaching by the way.

January 20th. [original journal entry: Brother Chamberlain committed to my trust one hundred dollars to be sent to Kirtland for the assistance of the brethren, and the same day I rode to Lima. In the evening attended a meeting, and Brother John preached.

January 21st. Rode to Brother Bosleys.

January 23rd. We met in a church meeting and two were cut off at their own request, viz.: Levi Bartlet and Elizabeth Bartlet.

January 26th. Being the Sabbath we attended a meeting among the brethren at Geneseo. I preached upon the Word of Wisdom.

January 29th. I left Geneseo and came to Warsaw. Brother Isaac Whitley gave me $9.20 towards getting me a cloak.

February 1st. Left Warsaw in company with Brother Lyman and came to the Church at China, and in the evening held a meeting.

February 2nd. Being the Sabbath, presided at China.

February 3rd. Left China for the West. Arrived at Silver Creek on the 5th.

February 6th. Brother Lyman took the stage for Kirtland. I tarried at Silver Creek and preached among the brethren the same evening.

February 7th. I preached at Stebbins' schoolhouse upon the literal fulfillment of the prophecies from the days of Abram down to the present time, upon Jew and Gentile, and also more revelations and miracles at their gathering.

February 8th. Preached at Bush's schoolhouse upon the first principles of the gospel and the fourth chapter of Ephesians. There were two or three priests present, one of whom (being a Methodist) arose up after I had got through and opposed. After he had sat down I again arose in order to expose his folly, but he being ashamed and enraged would not await for me to get through; but arose up and began to speak in order to make a noise, and thus break up the meeting. On account of this I was obliged to stop before I had answered his arguments, and nearly all the people in the house appeared to be disgusted with his proceedings.

February 9th. Being the Sabbath, I preached among the brethren upon Christ's Second Coming, the thousand years of rest, and the Saints inheriting the earth forever and ever. In the afternoon administered the sacrament; in the evening attended a prayer meeting.

February 11th. Took the stage for Kirtland.

Feb. 13. - [edited published version] Arrived in Kirtland, Elder Lyman E. Johnson having arrived a few days before me. I had been absent two months and a half, travelled about 1000 miles, and attended 37 meetings.

February 13th. [original journal entries: Arrived in Kirtland and attended a council the same evening. I had been absent about two months and a half; had traveled about 1,000 miles, and attended 37 meetings.

February 16th. Being the Sabbath, attended a meeting in Kirtland.

February 17th. Attended a council.

February 19th. Attended a council.

February 20th. Attended a [high] council [meeting, in Springfield twp., Erie Co., PA].

Feb. 22. -- I preached about four miles east of Cleaveland.

Feb. 23. -- Preached at Newbury Centre.

Feb. 24. -- I travelled to Kirtland. This day the Prophet received a revelation, wherein Orson Hyde and myself were appointed to travel together, to assist in gathering up the strength of the Lord's House, preparatory to the redemption of Zion....

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 15.                        Fillmore City, Wednesday, June 16, 1858.                         Vol. VIII.



John F. Boynton was born in Bradford, Essex Co., Mass., on the 20th day of September 1811.

His grandfather, Samuel, married Ruth Hardy. His father's name was Eliphalet; his mother's maiden name was Susan Nichols.

He was baptized into the church in September 1832, by Joseph Smith, jr., in Kirtland, Ohio. He was ordained to the office of an Elder by Sidney Rigdon.

He went to Erie Co., Penn., in 1832, with Zebedee Coltrin, on a mission; they preached and baptized in several places. He was called home to Kirtland by the Prophet Joseph in December following.

He was sent on a mission to Maine, and wrote a letter, dated Saco, Maine, Jan. 20, 1834, in which he says, "I have baptized about forty in this section; Elder Evan M. Greene travelled with me from the 16th Jan., 1833, till Oct. following; while together we baptized about 130."

He was chosen one of the Twelve Apostles at the organization of that quorum.

In 1835 he accompanied the Twelve on their mission through the churches in the east; attended a Conference in Laboro', Upper Canada, with six of his quorum on the 29th of June; continued preaching through the eastern country; returned to Kirtland in the fall, and preached to the Saints on Sabbath, Oct. 18th.

He was married to Susan Lowell by Joseph Smith.

During his last mission he borrowed all the money lie could among the brethren, and with it entered into the mercantile business with Lyman E. Johnson, and followed it until he apostatized and was cut off from the quorum of the Twelve and the church, on the 3rd day of September 1837.



Lyman E. Johnson was born in Pomfret, Windsor county, Vermont, Oct. 24, 1811.

He was baptized into the church in February 1831, by Sidney Rigdon, and was ordained to the office of an Elder under the hands of Joseph Smith.

At a conference held at Orange, Ohio, he was ordained a High Priest by Joseph Smith.

He was called by revelation in Nov., 1831, to go forth into the world to preach the gospel, on which mission be baptized a number and built up some branches in Ohio.

In 1832, in company with Orson Pratt, he performed a mission, preaching through the Eastern States.

In company with Elder John Heriot, he preached in Nova Scotia.

In the spring of 1834 he went from Kirtland through the eastern branches to aid in gathering up brethren to go in Zion's camp. He went up to Missouri the following summer as a member of that camp, and returned to Kirtland in the fall.

He married Sarah Lang Sept. 4, who bore to him two children. Soon after his marriage he started on a mission to the East, and went as far as Maine, preaching through the States baptizing and organizing branches of the church: he returned in the fall.

He signed a document testifying to the good conduct of Joseph Smith during his journey with Zion's Camp to Missouri.

He was chosen one of the Twelve at the organization of the Quorum in February, 1835.

May 4. -- He left Kirtland in company with the Twelve Apostles, and attended conferences with them, going eastward as far as Farmington, Maine, and returned to Kirtland in the fall, and spent the winter studying the Hebrew language.

In the spring of 1836 he took a mission through the eastern country -- passed through New Brunswick, attended a conference at Newry, Maine, returned to Kirtland in the fall, and entered into merchandizing and soon after apostatized.

He was cut off from the church at a conference held in Far West, April 13, 1838. He relinquished the business of merchandizing, and commenced the practice of law.



The following is a brief synopsis of the journal of Elder John E. Page, as given by himself: --

The subscriber was born of Ebenezer and Rachel Page, their first child, February 25th, A. D. 1799. My father was of pure English extraction; my mother of English, Irish and Welsh extraction. My place of birth was Trenton township, Oneida county, State of New York. I embraced the faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and was baptized August the 18th, 1833, by the hands of Elder Emer Harris, (own brother to Martin Harris, one of the three first witnesses to the divinity of the Book of Mormon). I was ordained an Elder under the hands of Elders Nelson Higgins, Ebenezer Page, junior, and others. My baptism took place in Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio; my ordination in Florence, Huron county, of the same State, on the 12th of September 1833.

I moved to Kirtland, Geauga county, Ohio, in the fall of 1835.

On the 31st day of May, 1836, I started on a mission to Canada west, Leeds county. I was gone from my family seven months and twenty days.

On the 16th day of February, 1837, I again left Kirtland with my family of wife and two small children, taking with me all the earthly goods I possessed, which consisted of one bed and our wearing apparel of the plainest kind, to continue my mission in the same region of country as before.

In July following, the commandment came forth for me to occupy a place in the Quorum of the Twelve.

On the 14th day of May, 1838, I started with a company of Saints, made up of men, women and their children, for the State of Missouri, where we landed, in the first week of October, with a company occupying thirty wagons, at a place there called De Witt, some six miles above the outlet of Grand River, on the north side of the Missouri river, where we were attacked by an armed mob, and by them barbarously treated for near two weeks. We then went to Far West, Caldwell county, where we united with the general body of the church, and with them participated in all the grievous persecutions practised on the church by means of a furious mob, by which means I buried my wife and two children as martyrs to our holy religion, who died through extreme suffering for the want of the common comforts of life, which I was not allowed to provide even with my money.

On the 19th of December 1838, at Far West, Elder John Taylor and myself were ordained as Apostles under the hands of Elders B. Young and H. C. Kimball, in the quorum of the Twelve, to fill some vacancies in the quorum which had happened by apostacies -- having baptized, in two years time, upwards of six hundred persons, and traveled more than five thousand miles, principally on foot and under the most extreme poverty, relative to earthly means, being alone sustained by the power of God and not of man, or the wisdom of the world.   JOHN E. PAGE.

At the time br. Page was called to go on a mission to Canada, he objected, for the reason that he wag destitute of clothing; br. Joseph Smith took off his coat, and gave it to him, and told him to go, and the Lord would bless him abundantly on his mission.

He started with his family for Quincy, Illinois; and while on his way, I [i. e. Brigham Young] and several of the Twelve who were going up to Zion to fulfil the revelation which said the Twelve should "take leave of my Saints in the city of Far West, on the 26th day of April next, on the building spot of my house, saith the Lord," met him, he had just upset his wagon on a sideling hill, and among other things had spilt a barrel of soft soap, which he was scooping up with his hands. I counselled him to return with us; he at first objected, but I insisted be should get ready, to which he consented, and accompanied us to Far West, and attended the conference there on the 26th of April.

He went to Illinois and located with Father Judd's family for a season, on the Mississippi flats, below Warsaw, Hancock Co.; while located at Father Judd's, he preached in Adams and Hancock Counties.

In 1839, he neglected to go to England with his brethren of the Twelve, according to the word of the Lord to that quorum.

April 8th, 1840, Elder Page was appointed by a general conference at Nauvoo, to accompany Elder Orson Hyde on a mission to Jerusalem; and although he started on this mission, he never left the shores of America.

He travelled through Indiana and Ohio, and spent the winter of 1840-1 preaching occasionally in Cincinnati and vicinity. He arrived in Philadelphia in June 1841, where Elder Geo. A. Smith, on his return from England, met him, and knowing the Saints were willing to raise ample means to carry Elder Page on his journey, Elder Smith urged him to proceed on his mission to Jerusalem.

Soon after, Elder Page became involved in difficulty with the branch in Philadelphia, and in the fall Prest. Hyrum Smith wrote to him to come home.

He did not return to Nauvoo until the spring of 1842; on his way he delivered several discourses at Pittsburg, and got up a petition, which was signed by the Saints and others, to President Joseph Smith, praying that he might be sent to Pittsburgh.

At the conference held April 6, 1843, he was sent to Pittsburgh, where he organized a branch of the church from those baptized by himself and other elders, and some who emigrated thither. In organizing this branch he drew up a constitution, requiring their president to be elected every four months; at the first election he was chosen president; at the second election Elder Small was chosen president, having received the most votes; he moved his family to Pittsburgh, where he continued to preach.

During the summer of 1843, the quorum of the Twelve went eastward from Nauvoo on a mission. Elders H. C. Kimball, O. Pratt and John E. Page met at Cincinnati, and organized that branch; Elders Kimball and Pratt proceeded on their mission, and as soon as they were gone, Elder Page called the branch together, and annulled the organization, and re-established the old one. In a few days after, bros. W. Woodruff, Geo. A. Smith and myself visited Cincinnati, and we disapproved of Elder Page's proceedings, for the reason, that it was not right for one of the Twelve to undo what three had done.

Elder Page, in company with his brethren of the Twelve, went to Philadelphia, New Jersey, New York and Boston; he remained in Boston some time. Prest. Joseph Smith, disapproving of his course in Boston, directed him to proceed to Washington, and build up a church there. He went to Washington, remained a short time, and baptized several, then returned to Pittsburgh.

Soon after President Smith's death, an advertisement appeared in the Beaver, Pa., Argus, that Elder John E. Page was out of employment, and would preach for any body that would sustain his family.

President of the United States of America.


Whereas the Territory of Utah was settled by certain emigrants from the States and from foreign countries, who have for several years past manifested a spirit of insubordination to the constitution and laws of the United States. The great mass of those settlers, acting under the influence of leaders to whom they seem to have surrendered their judgment, refuse to be controlled by any other authority. They have been often advised to obedience, and these friendly counsels have been answered with defiance. The officers of the federal government have been driven from the Territory for no offense but an effort to do their sworn duty. Others have been prevented from going there by threats of assassination. Judges have been violently interrupted in the performance of their functions, and the records of the courts have been seized and destroyed or concealed. -- Many other acts of unlawful violence have been perpetrated, and the right to repeat them has been openly claimed by the leading inhabitants, with at least the silent acquiescence of nearly all the others. Their hostility to the lawful government of the country has at length become so violent that no officer bearing a commission from the Chief Magistrate of the Union can enter the Territory or remain there with safety; and all the officers recently appointed have been unable to go to Salt Lake or anywhere else in Utah beyond the immediate power of the army. Indeed, such is believed to be the condition to which a strange system of terrorism has brought the inhabitants of that region, that no one among them could express an opinion favorable to this government, or even propose to obey its laws, without exposing his life and property to peril.

After carefully considering this state of affairs, and maturely weighing the obligation I was under to see the laws faithfully executed, it seemed to me right and proper that I should make such use of the military force at my disposal as might be necessary to protect the federal officers in going into the Territory of Utah, and in performing their duties after arriving there. I accordingly ordered a detachment of the army to march for the City of Salt Lake, or within reach of that place, and to act, in case of need, as a posse for the enforcement of the laws. But, in the meantime, the hatred of that misguided people for the just and legal authority of the government had become so intense that they resolved to measure their military strength with that of the Union. They have organized an armed force far from contemptible in point of numbers, and trained it, if not with skill, at least with great assiduity and perseverance. While the troops of the United States were on their march, a train of baggage wagons, which happened to be unprotected, was attacked and destroyed by a portion of the Mormon forces, and the provisions and stores with which the train was laden were wantonly burnt. In short, their present attitude is one of decided and unreserved enmity to the United States and to all their loyal citizens. Their determination to oppose the authority of the government by military force has not only been expressed in words, but manifested in overt acts of the most unequivocal character.

Fellow-citizens of Utah, this is rebellion against the government to which you owe allegiance. It is levying war against the United States, and involves you in the guilt of treason. Persistence in it will bring you to condign punishment, to ruin, and to shame; for it is mere madness to suppose that with your limited resources, you can successfully resist the force of this great and powerful nation.

If you have calculated upon the forbearance of the United States -- if you have permitted yourselves to suppose that this government will fail to put forth its strength and bring you to submission -- you have fallen into a grave mistake. You have settled upon territory which lies, geographically in the heart of the Union. The land you live upon was purchased by the United States and paid for out of their Treasury. The proprietary right and title to it is in them, and not in you. Utah is bounded on every side by States and Territories whose people are true to the Union. It is absurd to believe that they will or can permit you to erect in their very midst a government of your own, not only independent of the authority which they all acknowledge, but hostile to them and their interests.

Do not deceive yourselves, nor try to mislead others by propagating the idea that this is a crusade against your religion. The Constitution and laws of this country can take no notice of your creed, whether it be true or false. That is a question between your God and yourselves, in which I disclaim all right to interfere. If you obey the laws, keep the peace, and respect the just rights of others, you will be perfectly secure, and may live on in your present faith or change it for another, at your pleasure. Every intelligent man among you knows very well that this government has never directly or indirectly sought to molest you in your worship, to control you in your ecclesiastical affairs, or even to influence you in your religious opinions.

This rebellion is not merely a violation of your legal duty; it is without just cause, without reason, without excuse. You never made a complaint that was not listened to with patience. You never exhibited a real grievance that was not redressed as promptly as it could be. The laws and regulations enacted for your government by Congress have been equal and just, and their enforcement was manifestly necessary for your own welfare and happiness. You have never asked their repeal. They are similar in every material respect to the laws which have been passed for the other Territories of the Union, and which everywhere else (with one partial exception) have been cheerfully obeyed. No people ever lived who were freer from unnecessary legal restraints than you. Human wisdom never devised a political system which bestowed more blessings or imposed lighter burdens than the government of the United States in its operation upon the Territories.

But being anxious to save the effusion of blood, and to avoid the indiscriminate punishment of a whole people, for crimes of which it is not probable that all are equally guilty, I offer now a free and full pardon to all who will submit themselves to the just authority of the federal government. If you refuse to accept it, let the consequences fall upon your own heads. -- But I conjure you to pause deliberately, and reflect well, before you reject this tender of peace and good will.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JAMES BUCHANAN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, have thought proper to issue this, my PROCLAMATION, enjoining upon all public officers in the Territory of Utah, to be diligent and faithful, to the full extent of their power, in the execution of the laws; commanding all citizens of the United States in said Territory to aid and assist the officers in the performance of their duties; offering to the inhabitants of Utah who shall submit to the laws, a free pardon for the seditions and treasons heretofore by them committed; warning those who shall persist, after notice of this proclamation, in the present rebellion against the United States that they must expect no further lenity, but look to be rigorously dealt with according to their deserts; and declaring that the military forces now in Utah, and hereafter to be sent there, will not be withdrawn until the inhabitants of that Territory shall manifest a proper sense of the duty which they owe to this government.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed to these presents.

{L. S.} Done at the city of Washington, the 6th day of April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-second.
By the President:
    LEWIS CASS, Secretary of State.

Note 1: In his 2010 history of the Kirtland Era, Hearken O Ye People, Mark L. Staker mentions the conversion of Lyman E. Johnson on page 282: "During the general religious excitement, nineteen-year-old Lyman was the first member of the Johnson family to embrace Mormonism. Although the Johnsons had not been part of the local Disciples of Christ congregation, it was Sidney Rigdon who baptized Lyman in February 1831, immediately after Sidney returned from New York accompanying Joseph and Emma Smith." Sidney Rigdon left Palmyra New York, by stagecoach, on January 24, 1831 and was present in Kirtland to preach there on Sunday, January 30th. Richard S. Van Wagoner (following John W. Rigdon's somewhat dubious chronology), concludes that Sidney "obtained quarters in an old log cabin on John Johnson's property in Hiram, Ohio, thirty-five miles southeast of Mentor. Here, with some twenty other converts, Rigdon formed a congregation." While it appears unlikely that Sidney Rigdon was continually occupying a residence in Hiram at the time, he was certainly very familiar with that place and its people. He may have baptized John Johnson's son Lyman while briefly staying over at "Hiram Hill" during the month of February.

Note 2: Although Lyman's activities during the early part of 1831 remain unknown, it is reasonable to assume that his Mormon conversion had a substantial effect upon the religious beliefs of his parents. Staker says, that following a miraculous healing of Lyamn's mother's arm at Kirtland, "John and Elsa Johnson all had their faith confirmed that Joseph was indeed a prophet. They were baptized in Kirtland before they returned home. This healing and their baptism can be most reliably dated to late March... Marinda Nancy Johnson... said she was baptized in April 1831 in the creek near the Johnson home and that it occurred after Joseph was invited to preach in Hiram because he healed her mother. The sequence of events seems clear: the Johnsons visited Joseph in the "winter," he preached in Hiram before Marinda was baptized in April, and Lyman Wight and John Whitmer established an LDS branch in neighboring Nelson before April 9. Thus, the circumstantial evidence suggests that the healing took place during late March 1831. Hartwell Ryder, 'A Short History of the Foundation of the Mormon Church,' recalled that "the Mormons came to Hiram" in April 1831, after Elsa Johnson's healing. Thus, a firm Mormon presence in Hiram by early April seems likely."

Note 3: For more on the John Johnson family, see Luke's biographical sketch in the Deseret News of May 19, 1858, as well as the on-line article, "Elder Sidney Rigdon's 'Hiram Period.'"



No. 27.                      Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, September 8, 1858.                      Vol. VIII.


I was born in the township of Lyman, in the county of Grafton and State of New Hampshire, on the 30th of March 1813.

I was the third son of Boswell Lyman and Martha Mason. The names of my grandparents, on my father's side, were Elias Lyman and Ruth Griswold. My mother's parents were Perez Mason and Martha Barney.

I was born on a small homestead belonging to my mother's parents, so my infancy knew not the blessing of a paternal home.

In something less than two years subsequent to my birth, my father left on a journey with one of my mother's brothers, for the purpose of mending their fortunes in the west; my uncle's name was _____. He died at Utica in the State of New York, leaving my father to pursue his doubtful way alone.

Years flew by and our hearth was still sad, nor was our domestic circle again cheered by the presence of the husband and father; some six years thus passed, in which time my eldest brother, Mason Boswell, was indentured to a farmer in the town of Lebanon, county of Grafton, State of N. H. My elder brother, Elijah, died in infancy, thus myself, my younger brother, Elias, and my sister, Ruth Elias, remained with my mother, who resided with her father, until her second marriage, which was with a Mr. Isaiah Emerson, subsequent to my father's death, which, from the best information we have, transpired near New Orleans, some six years after he left us.

My mother left me with my grandfather, with whom I remained until I was eleven years of age, at which time my grandfather retired from his farm to reside with his eldest son, Perley Mason, with whom, according to the wishes of my mother, I remained, without being indentured, for seven years.

During the year 1831, I became somewhat thoughtful on the subject of religion, and found peace with God and my soul in striving to break off my sins by righteousness, and my iniquities by turning unto the Lord, (this was, however, in my ignorance much like the blind groping for the wall at noon).

I remained in this condition (not united with any of the churches of the times) until the spring of 1832, when our place was visited by Elders Lyman E. Johnson and Orson Pratt, from whom I first heard the gospel. I was baptized on the 27th of April 1832, by Elder Lyman E. Johnson, and was confirmed on the day following by Elder Orson Pratt.

On account of the ill feelings that arose in my uncle's family because of my baptism, I resolved to go to the west, and accordingly, on the 7th of May (having bid adieu to my uncle's family), I started on a journey of some 700 miles.

My earthly wealth was composed of some sixteen pounds of half worn clothing, and eleven dollars and thirty-seven cents in cash. These were some of the circumstances under which I left the land of my birth, a stranger to everything to be encountered on my journey.

The weariness consequent upon the first day's walking I had ever performed, admonished me that I had better ride, which I did, by stage and canal, until I reached Lyons in Wayne County, New York. Here finding my funds minus I walked to Palmyra where I sought for employment, which I found with Mr. Thomas Lacky, who bought Martin Harris' farm when he sold it to raise the money to print the Book of Mormon.

I here labored one half month, for which I received four dollars and a half, with which I continued my journey as far as Buffalo, where I shipped on board the steamer Henry Clay, had a quick but rough passage to Cleveland, from this point I travelled on foot forty-five miles, to the residence of br. John Johnson, in the town of Hiram, Portage county, State of Ohio, where I arrived on the 5th of June. Father Johnson was the father of br. Lyman E. Johnson who had baptized me; he received me kindly and ministered to my wants, in which he was heartily joined by mother and daughters.

It was at this place that br. Joseph Smith resided when he was brutally mobbed, tarred and feathered on the night of the 25th of March previous.

He was now absent on a visit to Missouri, from which he returned in July following.

After resting and refreshing myself for one week, I engaged to labor for Father Johnson at ten dollars per month; under this engagement I labored until the 1st of July, about which time the Prophet returned to Father Johnson's to reside,
this afforded me an opportunity to see the Man of God.

Of the impressions produced I will here say, although there was nothing strange or different from other men in his personal appearance, yet, when he grasped my hand in that cordial way (known to those who have met him in the honest simplicity of truth), I felt as one of old in the presence of the Lord, my strength seemed to be gone, so that it required an effort on my part to stand on my feet; but in all this there was no fear, but the serenity and peace of heaven pervaded my soul, and the still small voice of the spirit whispered its living testimony in the depths of my soul, where it has ever remained, that he was the Man of God.

I continued laboring for Father Johnson until sometime in the month of August, when one Sabbath evening after a social prayer meeting with the few members in our place, the Prophet, in his own familiar way, said to me, "br. Amasa, the Lord requires your labors in the vineyard." I without thought replied, I will go, and on the 23d of August 1832, myself and br. Zerubabel Snow were ordained to the office of Elders in the Church, under the hands of Joseph Smith and Frederick Williams; and on the following day started on our first mission to proclaim the gospel of salvation. I had heard five sermons preached, three by br. Orson Pratt, one by br. Joseph Smith, one by br. Rathbone; but strong in the Lord and in the conviction of our own honesty we started.

About the time of our starting there was an application came to Prest. Joseph Smith to visit an old gentleman who was afflicted with a severe pain in his head; from a press of business, br. Joseph could not go, but instructed br. Snow and myself to call upon the old man, which we did, and as we came near his house, before we entered, we heard his groans extorted from him by pain, which seemed intolerable.

We entered and introduced ourselves, being strangers, we prayed for and laid our hands upon him, in the name of Jesus, and rebuked his pain which was instantly removed, and the sufferer rejoiced and praised God, who had so signally blessed himself and us as his ministers: the old gentleman's name was Harrington.

From br. Harrington's we continued our journey, and as the close of the week drew near we found ourselves in the township of Chipeway, where we found a few members of the church; we stopped with br. Baldwin Welton, a br. Bosinger lived near. Here we made our first appointment for meeting on the Sabbath, the day came and the hour, but the people did not, a dull prospect this for converting the world. The day passed, but we concluded that we would have a prayer meeting at night, the hour came and br. Welton's family and some of br. Bosinger's family who did not belong to the Church came in, and, with a Miss Smith, were seated, the latter reclining on a bed in the corner of the room; we sang and prayed, and br. Snow proceeded to make some remarks, [but] in an instant a chilling sensation pervaded my entire body and a cry of alarm from the bed attracted the attention of all. On stepping to the bedside we discovered that Miss Smith's face and her entire form were distorted in the most shocking manner, her eyes were glaring wildly, but apparently sightless, her respiration was very difficult and her limbs were rigid as iron; the common restoratives were used without effect, we laid our hands upon her and rebuked the devil when she was instantly relieved, but in another moment she was bound as before, we kneeled down by her bed and prayed, when she was again released, and asked for baptism, stating that she had been acting against her convictions of right in some conversations we had held with her during the day; we repaired to the water, and there under the mantle of night introduced the first souls into the Church as the fruits of our labors.

Thus the Lord in the days of our weakness strengthened and comforted us, with the assurance that His power could sustain us while we trusted in Him.

We blessed our friends and proceeded on our way as our destination was the southern part of the state of Ohio, where Elders Seymour Brunson and Luke Johnson had been laboring, and had built up a small branch of the church.

We at length reached our field of labor some time in Sept. having preached by the way.

We continued here and in Cabell County, Virginia, until the following spring, during which time there were some forty souls added to the church.

We then started for Kirtland, where we arrived early in the spring, here we met with the Prophet and many of the Elders, with whom we had a good and instructive time. Here I parted with br. Snow, he being appointed a mission to the Eastern States, and had for his partner Horace Cowen.

I was appointed on a mission to the East, and had for my partner Wm. F. Cahoon, with whom I started from Kirtland, on my second mission, about the 21st of March 1833. I continued my labors for about eight months, during which time I travelled as far east as Chautauque and Cattaraugus counties, New York, during this time I held one hundred and fifty-two meetings, and saw one hundred souls added to the Church. About the first of Dec. (br. Cahoon having previously returned to Kirtland) I made my arrangements to return to Ohio, and while on the way I met with Brothers Lyman E. Johnson, Orson Pratt and John Murdock, in the Girard branch of the church in Erie County, Pennsylvania. Here we held a conference on the 11th of Dec. 1833, at which time I was ordained to the High Priesthood, under the hands of Lyman E. Johnson and Orson Pratt.

From this place I accompanied brs. Pratt, Murdock and others to Livingston County, N. Y., where we labored for a length of time in settling difficulties in a branch of the Church in the town of Geneseo, under the presidency of Elder Landon, who with some twenty-five others were cut off from the Church (perhaps in some instances rather prematurely).

The above labor, with considerable other preaching in the country, occupied the time until near spring, when I parted with the elders, with whom I so pleasantly spent a portion of the winter, and in company with Brother Alva L. Tippetts started for the land of my nativity.

We journeyed eastward, preaching by the way as opportunity offered, until we reached Lake George in Warren county, N. Y. On the shore of this lake I found a small branch of the church, connected with which was Elder John Tanner. To effect the adjustment of some differences existing between some members of this branch, I went to New Hampshire to secure the cooperation of some High Priests.

While making this journey, the call to go to Zion reached eastern New York, through Lyman E. Johnson; responding to this call changed my plan of operation, and after filling my engagements in this region, I went directly to Kirtland, taking in charge as a contribution some money and teams and the two sons of John Tanner, John J. and Nathan.

I here received on my own account between nine and ten dollars in money, to provide myself for the journey, the above money I received from Sister Polly Beswick, it was all she had.

We journeyed westward as far as Kirtland, where we arrived about the first of May, but did not join the camp until the day previous to their leaving New Portage, which was on the 7th of May, 1835, at this point we identified ourselves with the camp by enrolment, and paying over our money to the credit of Father Tanner.

From this place I traveled with the camp, participating in all the vicisitudes it encountered, and sharing in its toils and labors as well as the varied and rich instruction that we received from time to time from the Prophet.

Thus we pursued our anomalous and strange journey, the vicisitudes of which afforded us ample opportunity to evince our faith by the offering of our lives for the truth, thus proving by the patient endurance of our toils and our untiring perseverance in the accomplishment of our purposes, that the interests of the Kingdom, when they should be committed to our keeping, would be faithfully cared for, thus laying the foundation for the effectual redemption of Zion, in the development of a faithful and energetic ministry.

On the 17th of June, on Grand River, I met for the first time with Bishop Edward Partridge, I traveled and conversed with him the most of the day.

June the 19th, we arrived in the vicinity of Fishing River, and encamped near a Baptist meeting house; during the night we were visited by a severe storm of rain and high wind, accompanied by thunder and lightning, which prostrated the most of our tents. Some of the fugitives from the fury of the storm, found shelter in the church (the most salvation it probably ever ministered).

The morning found me minus my tent, and a depression in the ground, in which my bed had been inadvertently made, was full of water, in which myself and bed were submerged.

June 20th. On moving from our camp this morning, four miles, to br. John Cooper's, we found the country around us was visited during the night previous with a terrific storm of hail, which in its destructive course demolished fields of grain and made liberal pruning of the forest over which it passed. And what more directly affected our safety, it held in check, so they could not move, a large mob force that were assembled to question our presence in, or dispute our passage through the country.

We remained near br. Cooper's until the 24th, during our stay here we were visited by some gentlemen from Clay and Ray counties, among them were General Atchison, Colonel Sconce, and a Mr. Cameron.

With them the Prophet had an interchange of feeling and sentiment of a conciliatory character, which the Lord blest to our good, thus adding another to the evidences already given, that it was no part of his purpose to expose his servants to the chances of destruction at the hands of their enemies. It was here the Lord signified to the Prophet, to our joy and comfort, that our offering was accepted. While here br. Ezra Thayre was attacked with the cholera, from which he recovered.

June 24th. Moved camp twenty miles, and camped at Brother Burket's, two and a half miles from Liberty, the county seat of Clay. Here on the morning of the 25th, several of the brethren were attacked by the cholera; among the first was Elder John Carter, who had a protracted struggle with the fell destroyer. The following night there were some half dozen of the brethren stricken down, and all lying on the floor in a small apartment. This was a scene that can be more easily imagined than described, to see men stricken down in a moment, and in a short hour the ruddy glow of health displaced by the pallor of death.

To see the human form divine, that at the dawn of morning was stately and erect, in all the perfections of manly beauty, to see its perfections and beauty of form melt away in the death struggle of a few short hours. And to think, the sufferers, who are they? the question reaches to and stirs the fountain of feeling within us, for they are no strangers that are writhing at our feet, these are the forms of the loved, the faithful and the brave; with them we had labored -- with them we had rejoiced together in the truth; they were endeared to us by the tenderest ties that bind heart to heart, and soul to soul. These are the sufferers for whom there seems to be no rest but in the grave.

I passed the night with the sufferers, in the morning, the company with which I was connected was disbanded. Ere I left, I gave a parting look, breathed a hasty prayer, and tore myself away from the scene of death.

June 26. From this place I went to the residence of Brother King Follet. From this until the organization of the high council, I passed my time with the brethren who had been expelled from Jackson County, by whom I was kindly entertained.

I then engaged to work for Brother Jabez Durfee, who was building a mill for Esquire Arthur. While thus engaged, I was called upon to assist in numbering the people of the Church in Clay county. This led me to form an acquaintance with the Saints generally who had been driven from Jackson County.

In this labor I was engaged until the 11th of August, when I was attacked by the ague and fever, with which I was confined to the house and bed until the 2nd of November. I was, during my sickness, at the house of br. Elias Higbee, whose wife was most kind and unremitting in her attentions to my comfort, as were the Saints generally.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Friday, November 5, 1858.                    No. 1.


Dr. Forney, Superintendent of Indian affairs returned a few days since from a visit among the Goose Creek and Humboldt Indians, where he was summoned nearly two months ago in consequence of reported robbery of the U. S. Mail, and other hostile demonstrations by the Indians in those regions. The Doctor reports the Indians very numerous on the route, but quiet and apparently inoffensive, and very destitute and degraded. We learn from Agent Hurt, and others, that our recent difficulties with the Utahs residing on the Spanish Fork and Sanpete reservations will most likely be amicably adjusted in a short time; they having returned to the latter place, and manifested a disposition to come to terms.

We design making the future columns of the "Valley Tan," the medium of useful information at all times; relative to the movements of the Indians within our borders; and also to entertain our readers from time to time with such incidents in the lives and habits of these creatures, as many appear interesting and characteristic.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., January 18, 1859.                    No. 12.


==> Dr. Forney, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, leaves shortly for the North, and from thence will cross over to the Camp, where he has an engagement to meet the Ute chief Arrapine, who contemplates being there at the full of the moon.

Dr. F. will be accompanied by Mr. Jarvis, the newly appointed Indian Agent.

    Your correspondent over Truth denies the existence of a Danite band in Utah, but we may reasonably doubt whether this assertion is entitled to any credit for veracity or not. We are at a loss to know whether your correspondent has properly personated himself or not. We have heard of persons stealing the livery of Heaven to serve the Devil in; and there are inklings appearing frequently in the teachings of the leading members of the church, which seem to justify our suspicions on this point.

On page 143, Deseret News, Vol. 7, Prest. B. Young says, "If men come here and do not behave themselves, they will not only find the Danites, whom they talk so much about, biting their horses' heels, but the scoundrels will find something biting their heels. In my plain remarks I merely call things by their right names."

But Truth denies its existence now.

This may be; they may have changed their name, for the purpose of executing more successfully the duties enjoined upon them.

Ot may not be out of the course of Mormon policy to deny the existence of facts occasionally. We well remember, when it was first reported that polygamy was, or would be incorporated into the Mormon creed, it was most positively denied by their Apostles and Elders; some of whom even went so far as to appear indignant and insulted at the idea, pronouncing it but another name for whoredom, and a base slander upon their community; while we have reasons to believe that it existed at the time, and was inculcated as a part of their religious creed. Subsequent developments have exposed their venality, and cast doubt upon the credulity of any statement they may make in regard to their institutions....

But it matters little whether they admit the existence of such a name or not; facts speak louder than words; and history that is fresh in the memory of thousands, is fraught with the most flagrant and unblushing violations of the laws, both of the country, and of humanity; and if Mr. Truth insists upon it, we may yet be able to lift the curtain, and expose the actors in some of those secret tragedies, whether they be called Danites or not....

This may be the work of Danites or destroying angels, or what name sover you may be pleased to call them; yet it does not mitigate the enormity of guilt that must attach to such a state of things, and the hypocrisy that can pass them silently over, and complain of grievances, of which they should not feel half so much interest.
C. X. Y.    

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., January 25, 1859.                    No. 13.

Mormonism -- Increase of the Army.

Speech of Hon John Thompson, of New York, delivered in
the House of Representatives, January 27, 1858.


... The General Government has superseded Young as [Utah's] Territorial Governor. His successor (Cumming) has issud his proclamation, exhorting the people to lay down their arms and refrain from all disorderly and treasonable projects. The idle wind that sweeps those plains is not more idle and ineffective than these proclamations upon that people. Their imperial priests, despot, and dictator, from his dual throne as potentate of the Saints and vicegerent of the Almighty, laughs them to scorn. Entrenched behind the material bulwarks of distance and the wall of rock which nature has provided; girded by sterile plains and verdureless hills, and guarded by a blind fanaticism that knows no law beyond his will, and will shed its last drop of blood at his behest, he has become follhardy by impiety and the unquestioning devotion that encircles him. The wiley ctaft of the conspirator and the low cunning of the knave have given place to the grasping ambition of the traitor and the prince.

In his plotting brain the time has arrived to cast off the allegiance he swore to this Government, which he once needed to subdue or wheedle the savage, around whom he now believes he has thrown stronger toils. A sway of more than six years, as head of the State and of the Church -- wielder at once of the sword of territorial sovereignty and the crozier of spritual might -- has compacted and cemented in his grasp a dominion he is impatient to extend, and will not surrender. Ten thousand swords will leap from their scabbards at his beck; thirty thousand hands of male and female alike, will toil incessantly to sustain his power, linked, as they believe it to be, with their best interests in time and their salvation forever.

What is this moral and political phenomenon that looms up so grandly, and has ripened so soon; defying the forces of the Republic, and attracting the attention of the civilized world?

Mormonism, as a religious system, had its origin in a romance, written about the year 1810 by Solomon Spaulding, a native of Connecticut, who had been educated for the ministry, but followed a mercantile employment, removed to Cherry Valley, New York, where he amused his leisure hours by weaving a book entitled by him the "MSS. Found," the notion entertained or suggested by some writers that the American Indians are the descendants of the lost ten tribes of Israel. Hence, he starts them from Palestine, invents for them various fortunes by flood and field, wars, quarrels, turmoils, strifes, separations, until they people this continent, and leave behind them the vestiges of mounds, tumuli, fortifications, sculpture, and cities dilapidated, which are discovered in Northern and Central America. It is written somewhat in Scriptural style, and uses the machinery of the Jewish economy throughout. He read his manuscript to various persons who yet remember it, but was not successful in procuring its publication. Somewhere in [sic -about?] the year 1823, this manuscript fell into the hands of Jo Smith, a native of Windsor County, Vermont. Smith was about twenty years of age, and already exhibited that singular compound of genius and folly, of cunning and absurdity, of indolence and energy, of craft and earnestness, which distinguished him to the end of his career.

Under the new-light preachers of that day, Smith became imbued with all the wild and extravagant notions of seeing sights, hearing voices, receiving revelations, meeting and fighting the devil in bodily form; which indicate a diseased imagination, and want of all solid instruction and fixed principles on religious subjects. Enthusiasm ran mad through the whole region where he dwelt, and Smith was one of its most brilliant exemplifications; ultimately having a revelation that all existing systems of religion were wrong, and that he should be made the prophet of a new faith. For more than five years he vibrated between his caution and his enthusiasm; giving out occasionally dark hints about certain mysterious plates to be dug up by him, containing a new revelation. Part of his time was spent in lying, swindling, and debauchery, and the remainder in visions and repentance; the vulgar habits of the brute contending with the higher functions of the prophet. At length he pretended to dig out the plates from the side of a hill in Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, placed himself behind a curtain, permitting no one to enter, from which sanctum he translated from the plates the Book of Mormon to an amanuensis, reading it all from Spaulding's manuscript in his possession, one hundred and eighteen pages of it having been stolen by Martin Harris. With this new Koran our modern Mohammed started upon his career.

On the 5th of May, 1829, John the Baptist came back to earth to baptize Smith; and on the 6th of April, 1830, the first church of Latter-day Saints was organized at Manchester, New York, consisting of four Smith and two converts out of the family -- Pratt, Rigdon, Kimball, and Young joining afterwards. This Bible, unlike that of the Christian [or] Musselman, purports to be chiefly historical, and does not enunciate or enforce a system of moral and religious truth in a philosophic or didactic form; all its incidental lessons upon life or manners being derived from current doctrines of this day. It is consequently incapable of comparison with any other extant form of religious faith. One might as well compare the Christian religion with Fenelon's Telemachus, or one of Jame's novels....

The history of this fanaticism is soon told. The church was organized in 1830. In August, 1831, they commenced a settlement at Independence, Jackson County, Missouri -- revealed to Smith as the "New Jerusalem." Smith wavered king between this place and Kirtland, Ohio, where in 1833, they commenced building their first temple, which was finished in 1836 at a cost of about fifty thousand dollars. In 1839 they relaid the foundations of their temple in Missouri. They left this region again for Nauvoo, in Illinois, where another temple was soon erected. Jo Smith's life and labors ended together in Carthage Jail, where, on the 27th of June, 1844, he was shot by a gang of border ruffians....

Illinois spews them out; Missouri rejects them. Smith had aspired to the presidency, and the Saints wielded a banded political influence on which no party could count, and which could at any time turn the scale in a contest between them. Dissentions grew up, blood was shed in bitter broils; and as the land became too straight and their numbers increased, in 1845 they turned their eyes westward -- to Vancouver's Island, to Texas, to California, and finally to a valley in the Rocky Mountains. In 1848, as the young grass was peering from the sod and the buds were bursting into flowers, in the month of May, the exodus to Utah commenced. Pioneers having gone before, across the Mississippi they pass, and away over the prairie and plain, men and women, flocks and herds -- the heavy wain drawn by the lowing cattle -- the patient tramp of feet, great and small -- filing along the long line og fifteen hundred miles to a land naked as it came from the hands of its Maker; it was the heroism of faith! How sad that it had no worthier end!

From that day Young has reigned supreme, and thousands and tens of thousands have flocked to his standard. The unsettled religious sentiment of the lower grades of mind gravitate there. It is the Botany Bay of the world! There it stands, rampant and defying. Its hand on its sword hilt and its eye flashing fire; a territory and not a territory! -- a Republic in embryo! -- a despotism consummate, wearing the show of popular approval, and bending willingly to the nod of a tyrant. There it stands -- it is before you in your path to the Pacific -- it will not sway at your bidding; a huge, ugly, stubborn fact, which no ignorance can disregard and no political fatuity despise.

What will you do with it? Will you turn despot and sabre sixty thousand souls because they believe in Brigham Young and polygamy? Will you meet the fanaticism and folly and fraud by the fanaticism of extermination? Will you make the city a desert and the region a howling wilderness on the one hand; or, will you suffer this moral cancer, inflaming political treason, to grow on untouched until it becomes to vast to handle? Will you permit an independent and defiant despotism, organized in the very heart of this continent and embracing the vilest and most intractable elements of which a community can be composed, to compact and strengthen its defenses, to train its battalions, to call home its forces and light a fire at your threshold which all the forces of the Republic cannot subdue?

What will you do with Utah? ... if anything is to be done not a moment should be lost. Every day strengthens its forces and compacts its power. Its agencies are hurrying home as fast as steam and money can speed them.

I know some think we should let them alone, and that the system must soon fall to pieces. But how long has Mohammedanism lasted? How much less reliable is the fanaticism of to-day than that of ten centuries ago? What element of this structure gives signs of impotence or decay? What limb of this hale giant is already smitten with moral paralysis, and gives tokens that its energies are spent or even wearied? Sir, we have let them alone, and from a contemptible handful, they have grown into a nation! The citizens of Illinois and Missouri could eject them without aid; but now they stand behind a wall of ten thousand bayonets, and dare you to the encounter. The unorganized fanaticism of the world gravitates to Utah, and there it is molded into armies. Eight tenths at least of these elements are foreign, uneducated by and unaccustomed to our institutions, with no love for democracy, and no reverence for national law; restless masses, impatient of restraint, and fraternizing only on the lust of license and the hope of power....

Let those who must bear the responsibility of the war determine mainly how it shall be waged, and what shall be the amount and character of its appointments -- whether the additional force shall be that of volunteers, to which opinion I incline, or an increase of the regular Army -- whether it shall approach from the east or from the west -- whether it shall employ horse or foot. But let them not have to say to the nation that a formidable rebellion has ripened, and is rioting unchecked among us, and we refuse to agencies to counteract or destroy it. I hope this may not become a party question -- a shuttlecock for political partisanship to hurl to and fro. Let us deal with it as if we felt a common danger, and were only anxious to cope with and overthrow it. While I leave myself free to vote as I shall deem best upon all details, I stand committed, for one, to give my voice and vote to stay the march of this prairie fire; to fight it out at once, before it involves our homes and ourselves in the ruin of its spreading conflagration.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., February 15, 1859.                    No. 16.


The massacre at the Mountain meadows is still fresh in the memory of many in this city and an allusion to it will touch the hearts of many in the States. It was there that about one hundred and thirty nine emigrants were brutally murdered and whose bones even to this day bleach the grounds of that dreadful spot.

Who did this damnable deed, -- the Indians? A strong suspicion rests upon the popular mind that white men, or at least those who claim to be white were interested in it and if not actual participants, encouraged the massacre. This wholesale murder must come to light and we are glad to see that the Federal officers are moving in the matter, and that there is at least some probability that the parties, whether Indians or their adjuncts, Mormons, will be brought to justice.

Santa Clara and the vicinity of the Mountain Meadows seems to be a favored spot for murder. Below we annex two letters received some time since which inform us of the murder of two or three others by the Indians in view of the circumstances Gov. Cumming has made a requisition upon Gen. Johnston for troops, and they will proceed to that locality about the first of next month.The Executive, with that energy of purpose that has ever characterised him, is determined to protect the emigration which necessarily passes through this region south, as the following letter will show: --

Great Salt Lake City,      
February 14, 1859.      
      I have received reliable information that several acts of hostility have been committed recently by the Piede and Pi-ute Indians between the Mountain Meadows and Santa Clara, on the San Bernardino route to California.

The necessary requisition has been made upon the Officer in command of this Department, who will detach a suitable military force to be stationed at such points on the route as will secure the emigration and other travelers from Indian hostilities.

General Johnston has informed me that the troops assigned to this duty will move soon after the first of March, from Camp Floyd.

J. Forney, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, will visit the tribes in advance of the troops.

Please publish the above note for the information of the public, and oblige.
A. CUMMING,      
Governor, Utah Territory.      

In relation to the children rescued from that terrible slaughterm we refer to the following letters by which it will be seen 15 have been rescued from the savages: --

SANTA CLARA, Dec. 9 1858.    
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, U.T.,

Dear Sir: -- I think I have discharged my duty faithfully as to gathering the unfortunate children I have now fifteen of them in my possession. I am satisfied that there were seventeen of them saved from the massacre; I know there were two of them taken east by the Pi-utes. I have visited the Piranigets, west of there; they said they let the Pi-utes have the two that they got and all they ever had that; they wanted to take them to the Mopuis or Navajos, and they would get two or three horses a-piece for them. I could not feelt satisfied in my mind until I had visited those two tribes. I accordingly got twelve men, pack mules, and 30 days' provisions; traveled east to the Colorado, then up the river three days before we could cross. The third day after we crossed the Colorado, our mule that was packed with flour and dried meat took fright and run off leaving us on a desert without food or water. I sent two men in pursuit of the animal. As there was no water, the company had to proceed.

After traveling and fasting five days, we came to the Oribies, a city of indians belonging to the Moduis nation, where the Pi-utes children have been sold as slaves for some years past.

We visited all the towns belonging to this nation, five in number; found many of the Navajos in these towns that had been driven back by the U. S. troops, save several of the chiefs who said they were going to try and make peace with the Government.

On our first appearance the Navajos all left the town supposing the U. S. troops from the west to cut them off. We had a good Spanish interpreter with us and found those of the Moquis and Navajos that spoke Spanish. I ltold them the evils that would follow in case they did not make peace with the Government.

The Moquis advised us not to trust them, as they would kill us if they got the advantage, as they hated white faces.

We could hear of no white children among the Moquis except one white child, a boy, three years old; they said they got him of the Paches; he was sick and not able to leave the town comfortably. Knowing that if we tarried long, we would be shut out for the winter by snows on the high mountains we had to cross, we accordingly started for home, pushing our animals as fast as they would bear it.

I had engaged an indian to hunt and furnish us meat on our way back near the Colorado. This supply of meat we did not get, and a heavy fall of snow set in upon us, having been rationed on less than a pint of beans a day to the man for five days, our strength reduced for the want of food; snow knee deep and the storm increasing and the knawing of bark, hunger induced us to kill a horse; we feasted on his flesh over night, and were enabled to pursue our journey. The storm having abated, so that we could see our course, we arrived home safe December 3, having been 37 days out.

The Pi-ute Indians of late have been difficult to manage; travelers have passed unmolested until of late.

Soldiers and discharged teamsters have flooded by there, many of whom pay no regard to counsel, or care for no one but themselves, trading guns and much ammunition. They are unmanageable to a certain extent. If I would stand back and let them steal and, perhaps kill, it would be all right. I have spent my time and means since I saw you to keep peace in this part of the Territory, which I could have done if there had been none but Ondians to deal with.

As regards the children and our journey to California, I intend to go with you according to your request, I have engaged a nurse. You can travel in the winter season, after you pass the rim of the Basin, better than in summer.

I anticipate a pleasant trip with you; it will rest my mind from the cares and anxiety that has encumbered me of late. I would be much pleased to hear from you; let me know your mind when you will be here.
                                JACOB HAMBLIN.

P.S. -- You can get all the teams you want for crossing the desert here, which will be less expense than to bring them from the city.

I have told the Indians that the Americans and Mormons were one and friends. This was according to your instructions. You can, of course, see what would naturally follow their ancient hatred and animosity; we have to shoulder together with all the mean tricks the travelers are guilty of. They stole horses, killed cattle, and shot some two or three men while I was gone to the Moquis nation. We have stood guard of late for our own safety. I saved nearly one hundred cows from being killed and wasted last fall, that were taken from the emigrants on the Big Muddy. There were but few of them left; many of ours killed. J. H.

                                                            FORT CLARA, Dec. 11, 1858

DEAR SIR: -- By the request of Mr. Jacob Hamlin, I seat myself to answer your letter which came to hand last night. Mr. Hamlin, starting early this morning on a trip to the Big Muddy, could not attend to it himself. He requested me to say that he had written three letters to you, why you had not received them he could not tell.

The Indians in our absence in search of the lost children have proved very troublesome about this place, as well as south of here on the California road. They have killed some two or three travelers; also several head of cattle and horses. Mr. Hamlin has now gone to quiet the disturbance if possible, so that travelers can pass unmolested. Seventeen of the lost children are safe and well provided for. Mr. Hamlin is ready to take them through as soon as you arrive.
Yours with respect,  

The superintendent of Indian Affairs, Dr. Forney, will leave this city next week for the south, and it may prove that his visit and investigations will not prove very wholesome to even some of our white folk who live about here and are considered some -- nous verrous.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., March 8, 1859.                    No. 19.


INDIAN DEPREDATIONS. -- The last California mail, although inside of time as usual, was molested by the Indians, in the neighborhood of Santa Clara, who stole eight of their cattle and two mules, which they ate. Our informant says that they are in a deplorable condition and entirely destitute of food. Dr. Forney will shortly leave, and it is to be hoped something will be done for them.

Judge Cradlebaugh, we understand, opened his Court at Provo on last Tuesday. We have not yet received his charge to the Grand Jury, but doubt not it will be worthy of his reputation which he has long sustained as a jurist and a fearless man.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., March 15, 1859.                    No. 20.


==> A rumor has been quite prevalent that a collision was threatened between the troops stationed at Provo by order of Judge Cradlebaugh during his court, and the citizens, and had taken place. This we are assured is incorrect; a few fisticuffs may have taken place, the result of whiskey; but we apprehend that the citizens of Provo, although they are very indignant at the presence of the soldiers, would scarcely risk an engagement with them.

A few days since they petitioned Governor Cumming upon the subject, and on last Sunday he went down. The Court will probably adjourn to-day; nothing will be done, unless perhaps the two Indians, Mose and Looking-glass, be convicted; but the murderers will stalk abroad with the "damned stain" upon their hands, which, like the scarlet spot upon the hand of Lady Macbeth, it appears, cannot be wiped out by any Judicial authority in the Territory....

PERSONAL. -- Dr. Forney, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, left last Sunday fpr the south, where, in the neighborhood of Santa Clara some recent Indian depredations have been committed.

Mr. Jarvis, Indian agent, left on Monday for Ruby Valley, with an agricultural equipment, to open a farm that the "untutired savage" may learn to how and plow, an accomplishment we think that the "Diggers" will be slow to learn.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., March 29, 1859.                    No. 22.

Second Judicial District Court.

                                      Provo, March 22, 1859.
Court met at 10. a.m., persuant to adjournment. Officers present as before. Cleark read records of yesterday's proceedings.

The Court ordered the criminals who were confined in the custody of the guard, to be brought into his presence, and addressed them briefly in substance as follows:

The Court will take occasion to inform the prisoners that on yesterday it discharged the Grand and Traverse juries. The reasons which induced the Court to adopt this course, are, that it has been fully convinced that the community here, were endeavoring to use the Court for improper party purposes. That persons who were of their own party, though guilty of the most henious crimes known to the laws, and to humanity, were protected, screened, and secreted from justice, while those who were not of their society, had no mercy or justice to expect from them.... You are therefore discharged from custody....

Mose and Looking Glass, can scarcely realize the change. They are quite overjoyed at the idea of regaining their liberty....

Judge Cradlebaugh is a severe thorn in the side of Mormon chicanery and duplicity, and charges crime home upon those who are its real authors....

A memorial, claiming to be from American citizens in Utah Territory, has been presented to the Governor, praying for the withdrawal of the troops now stationed at Provo, and requesting him to lay the subject before the peoper departments at Washington. We do not undertake to answer for his Excellency, but we think that he is as much convinced as we are, that the civil and ministerial officers attendant upon the Federal Courts are as powerless as the courts themselves. What is the army here for but to aid the civil authorities in the execution of their delicate and, so far, fruitless labors? What has created the stampede in the neighborhood of Provo and some other parts? It is not the appearance of the troops we undertake to say, but there was a more potent reason than this; they saw in the person of Judge Cradlebaugh and his energetic movements a determination to rip open hidden crimes that have slumbered for years! Why so anxious to get away, and so repugnant to testify, when the bones of murdered men, women and children at the Mountain Meadows bleach they Valley, and their flesh fatten the wolves? If it was the Indians, as has been confidently asserted, or any body else, Mormon, Jew, or Gentile, humanity and justice demands the utmost rigors of the law that justice can administer. These are our rentiments; and all good citizens, no matter of what creed, or persuasion, will join with us in the opinion that it is correct.

The following are the remarks of Judge Cradlebaugh upon the occasion of his releasing the Grand Jury from farther services --

Discharge of the Grand Jury.

This day marks two weeks from the time you were were impannelled. At that time the court was very particular to impress upon your minds the fact that it was desireable to expedite business as speedily as possible. The court took occasion to call your attention to the difficulties under which we had to labor. -- It told you of the condition of the legislation; ot told you of the fact that the Legislature had not provided proper means to aid the court in bringing criminals to punishment; it told you that, aside from that, that the legislation was of such a character as to embarrass the the court in the discharge of its duties...

Aside from this, the court took the usual course of calling your attention to particular crimes -- the horrible massacre at the Mountain meadows.... When this people come to their reason, and manifest a disposition to punish their own high offenders, it will then be time to enforce the law also for their protection. If this court cannot bring you to a proper sense of your duty, it can at least turn the savages in custody loose upon you.

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tues., April 5, 1859.                    No. 23.


PROVO, 25th March, 1859.       
Kirk Anderson, Esq.,
Editor Valley Tan:

Sir: -- The following is substantially my charge to the Grand Jury, empanelled for the 2nd Judicial District, delivered in this city on the 8th inst.
Very respectfully,         JOHN CRADLEBAUGH.    

Discharge of the Grand Jury.

I will say to you, gentlemen of the Grand Jury, that from what I learn, it has been some time since a Court has been held in your District, by a judicial tribunal having cognizance of criminal matters.

No person has been brought to punishment for crimes committed for more than two years. From what the Court learns, crime after crime has been committed....

I may mention to you the massacre at the Mountain Meadows. In that massacre a whole train was cut off, except a few children who were too young to give evidence in court. It has been said that this offence was comitted by the Indians.

In committing such an outrage, Indians would not be so discriminate as to save only such children as would be unable to give testimony of the transaction in a court of justice. In a general slaughter, if any were to be saved by Indians, they would have been most likely those persons who would give less trouble than infants. But the fact is, there were others engaged in that horrible crime.

A large organized body of white persons are to be seen leaving Cedar City, late in the evening, all armed, travelling in wagons and on horseback, under the guidance and direction of the prominent men of that place. The object of their mission is a secret to all but those engaged in it. To all others the movement is shrouded in mystery. They are met by another organized band from the town of Harmony. The two bands are consolidated. Speeches are made to them by their desperate leaders in regard to their mission. They proceed in the direction of the Mountain Meadows. In two or three days they may be seen returning from that direction, bearing with them an immense amount of property, consisting of mules, horses, cattle and wagons, as the spoils of their nefarious expedition. Out of a train of one hundred and forty persons, fifteen infants alone remain, who are too young to tell the sad story. That Indians were engaged in it, there is no doubt: but they were incited to engage in it by white men, worse than demons.

I might give you the names of the leading white persons engaged, but prudence dictates that I should not. It is said that the Chief Kanosh was there. If so, he is amenable to law, and liable to be punished. The Indians complain that in the division of the spoils, they did not get their share; that their white brothers in crime did not divide equally with them, but gave them the refuse....

My object in particularly calling your attention to these crimes, is, the responsibility shall be with you, if the offenders are allowed to go unpunished. The Court will do its duty, and the question is whether you will bring these offenders to trial.... The very fact that such an affair as the Mountain Meadows massacre should so long have been left uninvestigated, shows that there is some person high in the the estimation of the people, by whose authority crime can be committed....

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. ?                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., April 13, 1859.                    Vol. IX.


At a special conference at Council Bluffs, Iowa, held on the 21st of October, in the year 1848, brother Oliver Cowdery, one of the three important witnesses to the truth of the Book of Mormon, and who had been absent from the Church, through disaffection, for a number of years, and had been engaged in the practice of law, was present and made the remarks here annexed. Brother Orson Hyde presided at the said Conference. Brother Reuben Miller, now Bishop of Mill Creek Ward was also present at the time and noted what he said, and has furnished us, what he believes to be a verbatim report of his remarks, which we take pleasure in laying before our readers: --

"Friends and Brethren, -- My name is Cowdery, Oliver Cowdery. In the early history of this Church I stood identified with her, and one in her councils. True it is that the gifts and callings of God are not without repentance; not because I was better than the rest of mankind was I called; but, to fulfill the purposes of God, he called me to a high and holy calling.

I wrote, with my own pen, the entire Book of Mormon (save a few pages) as it fell from the lips of the Prophet Joseph Smith, as he translated it by the gift and power of God, by the means of the Urim and Thummim, or, as it is called by that book, 'holy interpreters.' I beheld with my eyes, and handled with my hands the gold plates from which it was transcribed. I also saw with my eyes and handled with my hands the 'holy interpreters.' That book is true. Sidney Rigdon did not write it; Mr. Spaulding did not write it; I wrote it myself as it fell from the lips of the Prophet. It contains the Everlasting Gospel, and came forth to the children of men in fulfillment of the revelations of John, where he says he saw an angel come with the Everlasting Gospel to preach to every nation, kindred, tongue and people. It contains principles of salvation; and if you, my hearers, will walk by its light and obey its precepts, you will be saved with an everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God on high. Brother Hyde has just said that it is very important that we keep and walk in the true channel, in order to avoid sand-bars. This is true. The channel is here. The holy Priesthood is here.

I was present with Joseph when an holy angel from God came down from heaven and conferred on us, or restored, the lesser or Aaronic Priesthood, and said to us, at the same time, that it should remain upon the earth while the earth stands.

I was also present with Joseph when the higher or Melchisedek Priesthood was conferred by the holy angel from on high. This Priesthood was then conferred on each other, by the will and commandment of God. This Priesthood, as was then declared, is also to remain upon the earth until the last remnant of time. This holy Priesthood, or authority, we then conferred upon many, and is just as good and valid as though God had done it in person.

I laid my hands upon that man -- yes, I laid my right hand upon his head -- (pointing to Brother Hyde) and I conferred upon him this Priesthood, and he holds that Priesthood now. He was also called through me, by the prayer of faith, an Apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ."

In the early part of November following, as brother Miller relates, brother Hyde called a High Council in the Tabernacle, to consider the case of brother Cowdery having been cut off by the voice of a High Council, it was thought that, if he was restored, he should be restored by the voice of a similar body. Before this body brother Cowdery said: --

"Brethren, for a number of years I have been separated from you. I now desire to come back. I wish to come humbly and to be one in your midst. I seek no station. I only wish to be identified with you. I am out of the Church. I am not a member of the Church, but I wish to become a member of it. I wish to come in at the door. I know the door. I have not come here to seek precedence. I come humbly and throw myself upon the decisions of this body, knowing, as I do, that its decisions are right, and should be obeyed."

Brother George W. Harris, President of the Council, moved that brother Cowdery be received.

Considerable discussion took place in relation to a certain letter which, it was alleged, brother Cowdery had written to David Whitmer. Brother Cowdery again rose and said: --

"If there be any person that has aught against me, let him declare it. My coming back and humbly asking to become a member through the door, covers the whole ground. -- I acknowledge this authority."

Brother Hyde moved that Brother Oliver Cowdery be received into the Church by baptism, and that all old things be dropped and forgotten.

Seconded and carried unanimously.

We are informed by Elder Phineas H. Young, who was present at his death, that Oliver Cowdery died in Richmond, Missouri, at 4 o'clock a.m., March 3, 1849 [sic - 1850]. Elder Young says, "His last moments were spent in bearing testimony of the truth of the Gospel revealed through Joseph Smith, and the power of the holy Priesthood which he had received through his administrations."

Note: See also Elder George A. Smith's letter of Oct. 29th, 1848, which provides details concerning the above events. Oliver Cowdery's obituary was published in the July 1, 1850 issue of the LDS Millennial Star.


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tuesday, April 26, 1859.                    No. 26.


STAR OFFICE, Mariposa, Cal.    
March 26, 1859.      

Dear Sir: -- Having had some little acquaintance with you while you were connected with the Missouri Republican, in St. Louis, and having myslef had intimations (while in Utah in November, 1857) made to me that certain persons then in Salt Lake City would be murdered, I have been requested by a friend to write to you... [information on the Aiken murders, from "J. J. G" follows]

... If you wish it, I will give you some particulars about the scene of the massacre of the Mountain Meadows, as I passed the ground a few weeks after the wholesale murder was committed; and as none of that body of emigrants escaped to tell the tale, and the only evidence we will ever have will be circumstantial -- I think I can prove, conclusively, to every unbiased mind, that the greatest portion of that company of emigrants were killed by white men -- and that it was the most cruel, cold-blooded and treacherous wholesale murder that ever blackened the dark catalogue of crime

I have "notes and observations" taken down on the Meadows, together with conversations held with different Mormons upon the subject, which would probably be interesting to Americans, and which, I am confident, would cause great uneasiness among the Saintly murderers....

Note: The Mariposa Star began publication in 1858, under the management of J. W. Ross and James Lawrence. Whether of not they had an associate in their office in 1859, bearing the initials "J. J. G.," remains undetermined.


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tuesday, May 3, 1859.                    No. 27.


RETURN OF SUP'T FORNEY FROM THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS. -- J. Forney, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in a note to Governor Cumming announces his arrival at Fillmore on the 27th of April with sixteen children, survivors of the "Mountain Meadows Massacre." He proposes to leave the children at the Spanish Fork Farm until he can secure more comfortable quarters at or near this city, where they will remain until the Commissioners arrive who have been appointed to receive and restore them to their friends.

The Indians in the southern portion of the territory are reported to be quiet.

The military command detailed as an escort for Paymaster Prince, were a few miles south of Fillmore on the morning of the 20th.

PERSONAL. -- Dr. Forney, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, arrived in this city from his late visit to the southern portion of the Territory. The Doctor looks well and is in good health, and reports the Indians in that vicinity as peaceable. He brought with him three of the children, survivors of the Mountain Meadows massacre, the others as will be seen by reference to another paragraph, are at the Indian farm at Spanish Fork. The children that he brought up are apparently very intelligent and have a lively recollection of the bloody deeds that consigned their parents and friends to death, of there were no other proof, know the difference between an Indian and a white man.

It is reported that several white men openly boast in the vicinity of Santa Clara, that they were present and assisted at the Mountain Meadow massacre. This thing has got to come to a head, and it rests with the Government officials who are presumed to exercise some power in this Territory....

(From the Philadelphia Sunday Despatch.)

Sketches of Religious Sects.


Notwithstanding the general abhorence and contempt with which the Mormons are regarded by all other religious sects, they adhere pertinaciously to their claim to be the true church; and are in no degree daunted or discouraged by the universal hostility which is manifested toward them. Their pretensions, and the prominent place which they have obtained in the history of religion, false and true, in the United States, render it proper that we should include them in this series.

Joseph Smith, the founder of this remarkable community, was born in Sharon, Vermont, in December, 1805. In his youth his parents removed to Palmyra, New York, and he commenced his public career in the vicinity of that place. He never enjoyed the benefit of much education; to "read, write and cypher" was the extent of his scholastic attainments. He pretended that in September, 1823, he was favored with a divine vision, in which he saw a light, brighter than the noonday sun, and that an angel from heaven stood before him in person, who informed him that he was chosen by Christ to proclaim a new religion, an improvement upon the old Christianity; that the end of the world, the latter day glory, was approaching, of which he (Smith) was appointed to be the herald and the forerunner. He was also informed that certain golden golden plates, containing a new revelation, and a record of the history of the Aborigines of this continent, were buried at a certain place under ground; and he was commissioned to obtain, read and interpret them, and proclaim their contents to the world.... The translation of the contents of the golden plates, which were written in an unknown and mysterious language, Smith professed to accomplish by means of the "Urim and Thummim," the keys of light and knowledge which were miraculously imparted to him. The opponents of the Mormons, however, assert that the Book of Mormon is nothing more than a religious history, or romance, written by a person named Solomon Spaulding, who was a graduate of Dartmouth College and became a clergyman, who afterward relinquished the profession and entered into commercial pursuits. Having removed to Ohio, he conceived the idea of writing such a work, and spent three years in the execution of it. Two of the principal personages in the story are Mormon and Moroini, and from the former of these the book is named. In 1812 Spaulding brought the manuscript to Pittsburg, and offered it to a booksellde named Patterson, for the purpose of publication. Before the matter could be arranged, Spaulding died, and the work remained in the possession of Patterson, who paid no further attention to it. -- After his death, in 1836 [sic], the manuscript fell into the hands of one Sidney Rigdon, by whose means it came under the inspection of Joseph Smith. From it Smith conceived the idea of founding a new sect, on the basis of the new revelation which this book was supposed to contain.

The Book of Mormon is an imaginary narrative of the early history of the American Indians, who the writer endeavors to show, are the descendants of the ten lost tribes of the Jews.. It gives a detailed account of their supposed journey from Jerusalem, both by land and sea, till their arrival in America, under the guidance of Nephi and Lehi. The identity of these two works was proved by the assertions under oath [sic] of several respectable persons who had heard Spaulding read portions of his manuscript, and who readily discovered that a perfect [sic] sameness and resemblance pervaded them. Yet the book answered the purposes of Smith admirably; for it was written in an antique style, was filled with Oriental allusions, and was singularly adapted to answer the preposterious end to which the Prophet subsequently appropriated it.

The great object which Smith professed to have in view in the establishment of his new sect was to prepare the way for the second coming of Christ to judgment, to usher in the millennium, and to gather around him all those who, by belonging to his community, should be in a state of preparing to receive Christ, and thus become heirs of Heaven. His earnestness and zeal soon gathered around him a considerable number of adherents; and the first conference of all the "saints" was held in June, 1830, at Fayette, N. Y. The palpable absurdity and falsehood of the whole concern soon surrounded Smith and his associates with many and bitter enemies, and they found it necessary to remove. They first emigrated to Kirtland, Ohio; but here their sojourn was short. After a few weeks [sic] they proceeded further west, and halted in Jackson county, Missouri... Threats were made to exterminate the whole community, and it became necessary for them again to remove. Then it was that these persecuted fanatics selected the place which they afterward termed Nauvoo, Illinois, as their headquarters....

Nauvoo and the Mormons thus continued to grow at a rapid rate; but with prosperity came its usual concomitants in such cases -- spiritual pride and internal dissensions. It was about this period that Sidney Rigdon, one of the twelve apostles [sic], first proposed and asserted the doctrine of the plurality of wives as being a part of the true Mormon creed. -- It is but justice to Joe Smith to say, that he was opposed to this innovation, and that it was not till after his death that it became a fully recognized and admitted principal and practice of the Mormon community. Rigdon was subsequently expelled from the church; but he had gained a large number of followers to his views, and a dangerous schism followed his exit... the most remarkable feature of the Mormon creed is their "spiritual wife" doctrine. This theory is based on the idea that the future kingdom of the saints is to consist solely of their own posterity, and hence the more children a "saint" has, the more jeirs of glory are created; and that women may become heirs of heaven also, by becoming "sealed" to a saint, and entering paradise with him... Some of the saints are said to have as many as twenty, others thirty, and others even forty wives; and the having of more than one wife is the generally prevalent custom among the inhabitants of Salt Lake City. It is probable that the whole Mormon community now dwelling in Utah territory may amount to forty thousand persons; and the sum total of the sect throughout the world cannot, by the most liberal estimate, exceed a hundred thousand.

THE MORMON PROPHET. -- Mr. W. H. Rhodes has written a tragedy entitled the "Mormon Prophet," which he intends to produce in some one of our theatres within a short time. The piece is purely American and treats of the Mormons in the time of Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and the incidents leading to the death of that arch apostate and impostor. Those who have read this piece speak highly of its dramatic and its literary merit and entertain the opinion that it will meet with flattering success San Francisco Herald.

Note: The above, error-ridden report on the "Mormons, or Latter Day Saints," must have caused many a wry smile among knowledgeable Saints, when it was reprinted in the Utah newspaper. They no doubt would have found it quite amusing to learn that the monogamous "Apostle" Rigdon was the innovator of a polygamous religious system opposed by Joseph Smith -- and that Rigdon and his huge following of polygamy converts opened a great schism in the Nauvoo church.


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tuesday, May 10, 1859.                    No. 28.

Affairs  in  the  Territory.

The condition of affairs in this Territory are of a most unsettled and complicated character... The Mountain Meadow massacre is probably now in course of investigation, and the bones of the butchered which like the teeth that Cadmus saved may produce an alphabet whose every letter would spell guilt against those who were participators in it, and those high in the church who have slumbered over it until now, should call not only for the highest but the most prompt authority to either extinguish signal fires or spike cannon, especially should they be intended to be used to cover crime, and in their very uses are treasonable... we present in another column a letter from Dr. Forney, Sup't. of Indian affairs, who has just returned from the South and which is interesting. He brought with him to this city several children, whose infancy, or rather good luck, saved them from massacre at the Mountain Meadows, the balance of them were sent to the Spanish Fork.

Bye the bye, and in this connection, we would ask, what has become of the dead head commissioners sent here to take them to the States... we learn from Dr. Forney that on his late trip he made considerable inquiry about the stock and other property known to have been in possession of the murdered emigrant party at Mountain Meadows, but could learn nothing.

It is not "laying around so loose," but what it may be ferreted out yet -- quien sabe.

"The Man for the Emergency."

The following very pert and sensible remarks we clip from the [San Francisco] Golden Era.  

Emergencies have recently arisen in Mormondom which called for the energies of one who could act boldly and fearlessly, with a conscientious sense of right; one who would not succumb to Gubernatorial dictation or cower under his command, and such an one has been found in his honor, Judge Cradlebaugh.

We have on more than one occasion endeavored to defend his Excellency Gov. Cumming, against the accusation of Mormonism, but his recent action in opposition to Judge Cradlebaugh, manifested by his efforts in conjunction with the Mormos for the removal of the necessary military protection from the court at Provo convinces us that his sympathies at least are with that immortal association of patriotic and loyal American citizens.

Shake a measure of corn, and the large grains will rise to the top. So it is with a community. Agitate it and great minds, which might have slumbered on in obscurity, unconscious of their own might become conspicuous.

Judge Cradlebaugh of the U. S. District Court of Utah, may be cited as an example. He is making his mark in that Territory, if half that is written of him be true. Six months ago he was known as a young man of fair abilities but of years too few to successfully manage the important change in trusted to him; but he has shown himself the man for the emergency. Satisfied that many of the leading Mormons had taken part in, or instigated, the Mountain Meadow massacre, and the murder of Jones, Porter, Forbes, Parrish, and a dozen others during the past two years, he determined to bring them to punishment.

On the 8th of March he organized his court in Provo city. As there was no jail in the city he made a requisition on Gen. Johnston for a detachment of troops to guard the prisoners and give protection to the court. The local authorities and Mormons strongly objected to the presence of the troops and petitioned for their immediate removal, but without effect.

Governor Cumming who is represented as an admirer of Brigham and a tolerably good Mormon was prevailed upon by some mysterious influence to join in the request.

The judge however, did not feel disposed to gratify his Excellency, but on the contrary considerably augmented the military force around Provo. Grand and petit juries were sworn in but as the majority of their members were Mormons, they refused either to indict or convict. In his charge to the grand jury, the Judge, although his words fell like bombs among the Saints and shook Mormondom to its centre, openly accused elders and bishops of participating in the butchery of one hundred and forty immigrants at the Mountain Meadows, and mentioned the names of Mormons who had perpetrated other murders and robberies, and where witnesses might be found to establish their guilt. He spoke and acted with the fearlessness and resolution of a Jackson, but the jury failed to indict, or even to report on the charges, while threats of violence were heard in every quarter, and an attack upon the troops was intimated if he persisted in his course. Finding that nothing could be done with the juries, they were discharged on the 21st, with a scathing rebuke from the Judge. Sitting as a committing magistrate, he began the task alone. He examined witnesses, made arrests in every quarter and created a consternation in the camps of the Saints, greater even than was occasioned by the first arrival of the troops within the walls of Zion. At last accounts terrified elders and bishops were decamping to save their necks and developments of the most startling character were being made, implicating the highest church dignitaries in the many murders and robberies committed upon the Gentiles during the past eight years. All honor to the young Judge! -- Territorial Enterprise.

G. S. L. City, May 5 1859.    
Kirk Anderson, Esq.:

Dear Sir: -- I returned yesterday from a laborious trip, through the extreme southern portion of the Territory, at the same time interesting however

the purpose of my visit was to see and learn the condition, locality and character of the Pi-ute tribe of Indians, and to bring certain children to this city.

The Pi-ute Indians, living in the southern part of the Territory, are divided into ten bands, each band numbering from 60 to 150, which live and roam on and adjacent to the Southern California road, from Beaver to the California line and along the Santa Clara, Los Vegas and Rio Virgin rivers. There is one principal chief whom all the bands recognize as such; each band has one or more sub-chiefs.

I saw all the chiefs and many of the Indians, during my recent visit. The Pi-ute Indians are not an exception to the other Indians in the Territory in regard to poverty; these are, if any thing the most destitute. There is less game in the country claimed by the Pi-ute indians than in any other part of the Territory; everything growing with a life sustaining principle: roots, seeds (grass, &c.), and a peculiar plant called umea All these are collected with great care.

A few bands cultivate small patches of land already, however, most of the land, which is advantageously located for irrigation is occupied. Begging among the whites, and all sorts of shiftings, these Indians merely sustain life; and I very much fear that necessity has compelled them heretofore to steal cattle, horses and mules, and to commit the crimes too fresh in our memory. I will render them such assistance in future as will be in my power.

There was during last winter and is still, considerable travel on the Southern California road; most of the travel consisted in trains with goods from California for Utah Territory. This was during the season of the year when the Indians are most destitute, indeed many in a starving condition. I am informed that some of these trains were severely taxed by the Indians.

You are well aware that owing to the entangled condition of affairs here, I could do but little officially until last June; since then I have been constantly engaged among the Indians, endeavoring to ameliorate their condition in different parts of the Territory. It was my desire to have visited the Pi-utes much sooner; this was impossible. The awful Mountain Meadow tragedy was perpetrated in the Pi-ute country. More of this by and bye.

I found much of the road on may way south exceedingly bad in consequence of snow, mud, tremendous hills and innumerable rocks and stones. One wheel of each wagon and my carriage "smashed flat," besides minor accidents and occasionally the mules straying away; and always at a place from 10 to 20 miles from any place. Patience being the only help under such circumstances, never having had much to spare, necessity and circumstances, however have furnished me with some.

After I got south of Fillmore I found it difficult on my way south to procure a sufficiency of grain for my stock; for what reason I cannot tell. We, however, got to Santa Clara finally.

I neglected mentioning that Mr. Rogers accompanied and rendered me valuable assistance. I reached the memorable Mountain Meadow valley 300 miles south of this city wednesday April 14th, and nooned at the spring in the south end of the valley, and where the unfortunate emigrant party was camped from five to eight days.

The valley, usually called Mountain Meadows is about six miles long south east and one to three wide, and almost continuous meadow, and already excellent grass throughout the whole valley. The road leading into the valley from the east goes through a narrow kanyon, the road from the valley south turns abruptly north-east, and passes over a considerable hill. There are two narrow out-lets from the valley besides those already mentioned, and through which the water runs. The entire valley excepting the roads, and out-lets above alluded to, are surrounded by high hills, with several small ravines or gullys between broken and abrupt hills. From several points within the valley proper, I could have a distinct view of anything that might be transpiring in the whole valley. There is one house with corrall, &c., in this valley situated in the east end.

I have now traveled over much of this extensive Territory, and the Mountain Meadow valley is the most extraordinary formation west of the Rocky Mountains, probably in a higher altitude, than any other valley small or large, on the continent; yet a continuous and handsome meadow furnishing grass for much stock but, in too high an altitude for agriculture of any kind, even if it would admit of agriculture nature has not supplied it with sufficient water, there being but two springs in the whole valley.

In about the centre of the valley in what is called the "Rim of the Basin," or point where the water, either finds its way to the Pacific or Lakes of Utah Territory, nature always profuse in making provision for the weary traveler and his stock, has, it would seem, designed this extraordinary and beautiful little valley, in so high an altitude that it can never be dispoiled by the hands of the agriculturalist, for a resting place, and re-susitating the broken down stock of the anxious traveler before reaching the Deserts, that all travelers over the southern California road must encounter before reaching the healthful and rich California climate and soil and on which deserts are now bleaching the bones of thousands of human beings, and of tens of thousands of animals.

I fear I have taken up too much space in describing the Mountain Meadow valley. But the terrible "Drama" consumated in this little valley ,hardly eighteen months ago, with the cries of women and children almost sounding in ones ears, must necessarily make this peculiar valley among the clouds, a subject of to the enquiring mind.

I informed my then guide and interpreter (Mr. Ira Hatch) that I was anxious to see the spot where the massacre took place, and also where the dead were buried. I saw the three places where the dead are buried.

From information received from persons in and out of the Mormon Church, and observations whilst at the place, enables me to say that the emigrant party in question, arrived and camped at the spring in the south end of the valley, Friday, Sept. 7th or 8th, 1857 the amount of property is variously [estimated] from to 200 to 700 head, and ten to thirty wagons My own impression is that they had 600 head of cattle and about 40 wagons.

It is said the firing commenced Monday, Sept 10, before daylight, and that the firing was by the indians fighting the said emigrant party then in camp at the spring, as already stated. The firing was continued some say five, others say seven days. During the five or seven days of firing and fighting by the Indians the emigrant party was corralled, that is they made a corrall and temporary fort by their wagons and filled under the wheels and to the bed of the wagon with sand aad earth dug in the centre of corrall. I saw the ditch and other evidences of there having been a corrall. Sept. 17th, 1857, morning, a friendly Indian and who could talk English came in the corrall, the inmates having then been without water from five to seven days; made arrangements or treaty with said Indian. The Indians to have the property and to spare the lives of the whites, and permit them to return to Painter Creek and Cedar City. From the spring and corrall to the place where it is said they were murdered, and where I saw the graves (or imperfect holes) is at least one mile and a half.

I walked over the ground where it is supposed they were killed, the evidences of this being unmistakable from skulls, & other bones and hair ladying scattered over the ground. There are there buried as near as I can ascertain, 106 persons, men, women and children; and from one to two miles further down the valley, two or three who, in attempting to escape, were killed partly up the hill, north side of the valley, and there buried; and three who got away entirely, but overtaken and killed at or near the Vegas or Muddy; in all 115. I made strict and diligent inquiry of the number supposed to have been killed and 115 is probably about the correct number.

April 15th, arrived at Santa Clara this afternoon and camped in town. Here I met Mr. Jacob Hamblin, who has been in my employ since last fall collecting certain children, and other business among the Indians. Here (Santa Clara) myself and party were kindly treated during our stay, two days.

I say in the beginning of my letter that I purposed bringing to this city certain children remaining of the Mountain Meadow massacre. These children, sixteen in number, I have now in my possession. Thirteen I got in Santa Clara, at Mr. J. Hamblin's, who collected them in pursuance to my directions, and three I got in Cedar City on our way home, left there by Mr. Hamblin. I am pleased to say that Mr. Hamblin has discharged his duty in relation to the collection and keeping of those children.

The following is all I have been able as yet to collect of the history of these unfortunate, fatherless, motherless and pennyless children.

John Calvin, now 7 or 8 years old; does not remember his name; says his family lived at Horse Head, Johnson co., Arkansas.

Ambrose Mironi, about 7 years, and William Taggit, 4 1/2 years, brothers; these also lived in Johnson co.

Prudence Angeline, 6 years, and Annie, about 3 years; these two are said to be sisters.

Rebecca, 9 years; Louisa, 5 years, and Sarah, 3 1/2 years; from Dunlap.

Betsey, 6 years, and Annie, 3 years; said to be sisters; these know nothing of their family or residence.

Charles Francher, 7 or 8 years, and his sister Annie, 3 1/2 years.

Sophronia or Mary Huff, 6 years old, and Elisha W. Huff.

A boy, no account of him. Those among whom he lived call him William.

Francis Hawn or Horn, 4 1/2 years old.

I have come to the conclusion, after different conversations with these children, that most of them came from Johnson co., Arkansas. Most of them told me that they have grandfathers and grandmothers in the States.

Mr. Hamblin has good reasons for believing that a boy about 8 years of age, and belonging to the party in question, is among the Navajo Indians, at or near the Colorado River.

My communication is already too long, but must ask your indulgence for a few lines more.

I will keep the children under my immediate supervision, until the person appointed to take them to Fort Smith arrives.

The massacre of an entire train, not one remaining to speak of the "drama" but sixteen fatherless motherless and pennyless children ,supposed probably to be too young to give the affair tangibility, cannot remain long uninvestigated.

The cause or reason for the comission of a crime so terrible as that of killing at least 115 persons, must assuredly become a subject of enquiry with the proper legal authorities.

The Pi-ute tribe of indians have been, and are charged with the above crime. Last August, my attention was called to the Mountain Meadow affair officially. Since then I have made diligent enquiry, got the written statements of persons living in the neighborhood, and finally visited the southern country; and now after full enquiry and examination, I deem it to be my imperative duty to say that the Indians had material assistance from whites; and in my opinion the Pi-ute Indians would not have perpetrated the terrible massacre without such aid and assistance.

Mr. Jacob Hamblin and others, of Santa Clara, expressed much anxiety to bring the guilty to justice.

I remain very respectfully yours, &c.

Note: A reprint of part of Dr. Forney's letter, published in the California Weekly Stockton Democrat of June 5th was supplemented with testimony from James Lynch, copied from the San Francisco Bulletin, of May 31, 1859.



No. 10.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., May 11, 1859.                    Vol. IX.


G.S.L. CITY, May 5, 1859.    
Hon. Elias Smith:

Dear Sir: -- Yesterday I returned from a laborious thoughf interesting trip through the extreme southern portion of the Territory.

The purpose of my visit was to see and learn the condition, locality and character of the Pi-ute tribe of Indians and to bring certain children to this city.

The Pi-ute Indians living in the southern part of the territory are divided into ten bands, each band numbering from 60 to 150, which live and roam on and adjacent to the Southern California road from Beaver to the California line and along the Santa Clara, Las Vegas and the Virgen rivers. There is one principal chief whose name Tut-se-guv-vit, whom all the bands recognize as their head. Each band has one or more sub-chiefs.

I saw all the chiefs and many of the Indians during my recent visit. The Pi-ute Indians are not an exception to the other Indians in the territory in regard to poverty; if there is any difference, these are the most destitute.

There ia less game in the country claimed by the Pi-ute Ondians than any other part of the Territory. The vegetation consists in a few scrubby cedars; cottonwoods on the banks of rivers; the cactus, bearing large pods, which, when roasted in ashes are of indifferent taste; a few roots; some grass and weeds, the seeds of which are gathered and a peculiar shrub, called mesquite.

A few bands cultivate small patches of land; already however most of the land, which is advantageously located for irrigation, is occuppied. By begging from the whites, and all sorts of shiftings, these Ondians merely sustain life; and I very much fear that necessity has compelled them heretofore to steal cattle, horses and mules, and to commit the many crimes too fresh in our memory. I will render them such assistance in future as will be in my power.

There was during last winter, and still is considerable travel on the southern California road; most of which consisted in trains with goods from California for Utah Territory. This was during the season of the year when the Indians are most destitute; many indeed being in a starving condition, and, as I am informed, some of these trains were severely taxed by the Indians.

You are well aware that owing to the entangled condition of affairs here, I could do but little officially until last June. Since then I have been constantly engaged among the Indians in different parts of the Territory, endeavoringn with my utmost to ameliorate their condition. It was my desire to have visited the Pi-utes much sooner; this was impossible.

The awful Mountain Meadow tragedy was perpetrated in the Pi-ute country. But more of this by and bye....

I reached the memorable Mountain Meadow valley, 300 miles south of this city, Wednesday, April 14, and nooned at the spring in the south end of the valley, where the unfortunate emigrant party was camped from five to eight days.

This valley, usually called Mountain Meadows, is about six miles long and from one to three wide, running in a southerly direction, almost a continuous meadow, and excellent grass already growing throughout the whole valley. The road leading into the valley from the east goes through a narrow kanyon; the road from the valley on the south turns abruptly to the eastward and passes over a considerable hill. There are two narrow outlets from the valley, besides those already mentioned, through which the water runs. The entire valley excepting the roads and outlets above alluded to, is surrounded by high hills, with several small ravines or gulleys between broken and abrupt hills. From several points within the valley proper I could have a distinct view of anything that might be transpiring in the whole valley. There is one house in this valley, situated in the east end, where there is a corral, &c.

I have now traveled over much of this extensive Territory, and the Mountain Meadow valley is the most extraordinary formation west of the Rocky Mountains; probably in a higher altitude than any other valley, small or large, on the continent, yet it is a continuous and handsome meadow, furnishing grass for much stock, but in too high altitude for agriculture of any kind, and, even if it would admit of agriculture, nature has not supplied it with sufficient water, there being but two springs in the whole valley....

I fear I have taken up too much space in describing the Mountain Meadow valley. But the terrible drama consummated in this little valley hardly eighteen months ago, with the cries of women and children alost sound in one's ears, must necessarily make this peculiar valley among the clouds, a subject of concernment to the inquiring mind.

I informed my then guide and interpreter (Mr. Ira Hatch) that I was anxious to see the spot where the massacre took place and also where the dead are buried. I saw the three places where the dead are buried.

Information received from persons in and out of the Mormon Church, and observations whilst at the place, enables me to say that the emigrant party in question arrived and camped at the spring in the south end of the valley, Friday, Sept. 7th or 8th, 1857. The amount of property is estimated at from 200 to 700 head, with from ten to thirty wagons. My own impression is that they had 600 head of cattle and about 40 wagons.

It is said the firing commenced on Monday, Sept. 10, before daylight, and that the firing was by the Indians fighting the said emigrant party then in camp at the spring, as already stated. The firing was continued, some say five, others say seven days.

During the five or seven days of firing and fighting by the Indians, the emigrant party was corralled, that 1s, they made a corral and temporary fort by their wagons and filled under the wheels and to the bed of the wagons with sand and earth dug in the centre of the corral. I saw the ditch and other evidence of there having been a corral. Sept. 17th, 1857, in the morning, a friendly Indian and one who could talk English came into the corral. The emigrants having then been without water from five to seven days, made arrangements or treaty with said Indian -- in which the Indians were to have the property, spare the lives of the whites, and permit them to return to Pinto Creek and Cedar City. From the spring and corral to the place where it is said they were murdered, and where I saw the graves (or imperfect holes) is at least one mile and a half.

I walked over the ground where it is supposed they were killed -- the evidences of this being unmistable from skulls, and other bones and hair laying scattered over the ground. There are there buried, as near as I can ascertain, 106 persons, men, women and children; and from one to two miles further down the valley, two or three, who in attempting to escape were, killed partly up the hill, north side of the valley, and there buried, and three who got away entirely, but were overtaken and killed at or near the Vegas or Muddy; in all 115. I made strict and diligent inquiry of the number supposed to have been killed, and 115 is probably about the correct number.

April 15th -- Arrived at Santa Clara this afternoon and camped in town. Here I met Mr. Jacob Hamblin, who has been in my employ since last fall, collecting certain children and other business among the Indians. Here (Santa Clara) myself and party were kindly treated during our stay -- two days.

I say in the beginning of the of my letter that I purposed bringing to this city certain children remaining of the Mountain Meadow massacre. These children, sixteen in number, I have now in my possession. Thirteen I got in Santa Clara, at Mr. J. Hamblin's, who collected them in pursuance to my directions, and three I got in Cedar City on our way home, who were left there by Mr. Hamblin. I am pleased to say that Mr. Hamblin has Ms discharged his duty in relation to the collection and keeping of those children.

The following is all I have been able as yet to collect of the history of these unfortunate, fatherless, motherless and pennyless children:

John Calvin, now 7 or 8 years old; does not remember his name; says his family lived at Horse Head, Johnson Co., Arkansas.

Ambrose Moroni, about 7 years, and William Taggit, 4 1/2 years, brothers. These also lived in Johnston Co.

Prudence Angeline, 6 years, and Annie about 3 years. These are said to be sisters.

Rebbeca, 9 years; Louisa, 5 years, and Sarah, 3 1/2 years, named Dunlap.

Betsy, 6 years and Annie, 3 years; said to be sisters. These know nothing of their family or residence.

Charles Francher [sic], 7 or 8 years, and his sister Annie 31/2 years.

Sophronia or Mary Huff, 6 years and Elisha W. Huff, 4 years.

A boy -- no account of him. Those among whom he lived called him William.

Francis Hown or Korn, 4 1/2 years old.

I have come to the conclusion after different conversations with these children that most of them come from Johnson co., Arkansas. Most of them have told me that they have grandfathers and grandmothers in the States.

Mr. Hamblin has good reasons for believing that a boy about 8 years and belonging to the party in question is among the Navajo Indians, at or near the Colorado river.

My communication is already too long but I must ask your indulgence for a few lines more.

I will keep the children under my immediate supervision until the person appointed to take them to Fort Smith arrives.

The massacre of an entire train, not one remaining to speak of the "drama," but sixteen fatherless, motherless and pennyless children, supposed be too young to give the affair tangibility, cannot remain long uninvestigated.

The cause or reason for the commission of a crime so terrible as that of killing at least 115 persons must assuredly become a subject of inquiry with the proper legal authorities.

The Pi-ute tribe of Indians have been and are charged with the above crime. Last August, my attention was called to the Mountain Meadow affair officially. Since then I have made diligent inquiry, got the written statements of persons living in the neighborhood, and finally visited the southern country; and now, after full inquiry and examination, I deem it to be my duty to say that the Indians had material aid and assistance from whites; and, in my opinion, the Pi-ute Indians would not have prepetrated the terrible massacre without aid and assistance.

Mr. Jacob Hamblin and others of Santa Clara expressed much anxiety to bring the guilty to justice.

I remain, very respectfully, yours, &c.,
                              J. FORNEY

Notes: (forthcoming)


K I R K   A N D E R S O N 'S

Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tuesday, May 17, 1859.                    No. 29.


The Mountain Meadow Orphans are now in this city under charge of Dr. Forney and excite the sympathy of all who see them. -- We publish below two interesting letters in relation to them, and in conformity with instructions, Dr. Forney will send on the children which he has gathered and whose infancy has been baptized in blood, an orphanage that never from its brutality can claim kindred or kind except what charities the world affords them. Mercy in its kindness, has extended most of them an oblivion of that terrible massacre. They will leave in about ten days; Mr. Russell of the firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell, having kindly tendered a free transportation. They have been kindly treated and Dr. Forney has clad and made it a matter of personal duty in which the best feelings of his nature have been enlisted.

We commend these babes to the active sympathies of our friends in the States.

March 19, 1859.    
SIR: -- The Indian Department are commissioned to collect and return home, a number of children now in Utah, whose parents were massacred some years since, while emigrating west. I have agreed to furnish the Department two wagons and covers, twelve yoke of cattle, yokes and chains, with which to transport them to the States.

You will therefore turn them over to Superintendent Forney, or such person as the Departmmeenntt may request taking a receipt for the safe delivery of the property at Leavenworth in like condition as received.

Should Mr. Forney, or other person authorized request it, you will place the two teams under the conduct of some one of our returning caravans, and explain to the conductor that with us it is a matter of great importance that all attention and care be paid to the children and those who may be in charge of them, if ladies they should command the highest respect. You will give such directions that if anything is required on the road to the States, it will be furnished at our stations, or by our outward bound trains, if the same can be spared without retarding the train:

We esteem this an act of humanity and know that you will do all in your power to forward the wishes of the Department.
                     Very Respectfully,
                      For Russell, Major & Waddell.
DR. HOBBS General Agent, Utah,

Office Indian Affairs,      
March 31, 1859.    
SIR: -- Referring to the letter from this office to you of the 3d instant, wherein you were informed that Michael Delany, Esq., had been detailed to proceed to Salt Lake, for the purpose of taking the children who survived the massacre of the emigrant train in 1857, to Fort Smith, in Arkansas, I have now to inform you that a change has been made in that arrangement.

You will perceive from the enclosed letter from William H. Russell, on behalf of Russell, Majors and Waddell, to Dr. J. Hobbs, the general agent of that company, that he has agreed to furnish for the purpose of transporting these children from Salt Lake to Leavenworth, free of charge, two covered wagons, and twelve yoke of cattle, with the necessary gear, to be placed under the charge of one of the conductors of their caravans, who is directed to use especial care and diligence in the premises.

I have, therefore, to direct that you will collect the children at the city of Salt Lake, as early as possible, for the purpose indicated. You will provide a suitable number of females, not exceeding four, if such can be found, desirous of returning to the States, whose business it will be to give these little ones all needful supervision and attention upon the road. You will also provide them with blankets and such other material comforts as in your judgment will be requisite for the entire party.
                     Very respectfully,
                      your obedient servant,
                    CHARLES E. MIX,
                     Acting Commissioner.
Jacob Forney, Esq.,
Superintendent, &c,.
Salt Lake City, Utah.

Note: The Charles E. Mix letter was reprinted in full, in President Buchanan's 1860 Message to the Senate -- Its extra lines given there, read as follows: "You will then, showing Dr. Hobbs Mr. Russell's letter, turn them over to his charge, to be placed by him with the conductor who may be selected. All arrangements for their provisions, at least such as can be made at starting, must be seen to by you; you will perceive that Mr. Russell has directed anything to be supplied on the journey that may be needed, either at the stations or by the trains that may be met. -- You will advise this office, at the earliest moment possible, when they will probably leave Salt Lake, and at what time it may be expected that they will reach Leavenworth; then Superintendent Rector, who resides at Fort Smith, will be directed to dispatch an agent to Leaven worth to meet the children, and convey them to the first-mentioned point, where the superintendent himself will receive them and take steps to have them turned over to their friends and relatives. -- You will make up your accounts for the subsistence of the children and their outfit, and transmit them here; you will also make an agreement with the females who may accompany them for compensation for their services, which should be definite in its character, and made with an eye to the smallness of the appropriation; and the agreement must be forwarded here, that they may be paid upon their arrival in case they do not desire to return."


Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Tuesday, May 24, 1859.                    No. 30.


THE SIXTEEN CHILDREN remaining of the massacre at Mountain Meadows in September, 1857 are still in our city under the immediate care and supervision of Superintendent Forney, who we perceive is busily engpaged in getting them clothing and other needful appliances for the long journey over the plains. The unusual lateness of the season and the large quantities of snow which has fallen the past winter has swollen all the streams to such a degree that traveling trains is almost out of the question -- this and exceeding bad road render it doubtful and indeed impossible to start the children as soon as anticipated. We are authorized to say that as soon as it is deemed practicable the children will be started. -- Until they leave, they will remain under the care of Dr. Forney, who by the by is towards them a very kind protector.

CORRECTION. -- It is proper to state that the letter from Hon. C. E. Mix, Com. Ind. Affairs, to Sup't Forney, published in the "Valley Tan" of last week, was only a portion of the same, and shoald have been so stated at the time.

TREASURE FOR SALT LAKE. -- A company of Dragoons (Maj. Carleton) from Fort Tejon, left here yesterday as escort of treasure which came down on the Senator in charge of Maj. Prince, the Paymaster of the Utah Army, and bound for Salt Lake to pay off troops. It is said that there is half a million in Maj. Prince's Colsa. Two companies from Camp Floyd, Utah, are coming to meet this escort at Mountain Meadows....

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 17.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., June 29, 1859.                    Vol. IX.


DEPARTURE. -- Fifteen of the children that survived the "Mountain Meadow massacre" left this city yesterday for Fort Smith, Arkansas. They went in carriages, having everything necessary provided for their comfort during their journey.

Two companies of the 2d dragoons under Capt. Anderson from Camp Floyd, which are to be joined by another company of the same regiment at Fort Bridger, having been ordered to Laramie and Kearney, will accompany the children as an escort as far as the posts to which they have been ordered; from thence to the place of their destination, they will doubtless be furnished with the necessary protection.



The following letter from the United States Attorney General to the District Attorney for Utah is published in the Washington Constitution: --

Attorney General's Office,    
May 17, 1859.    
... there is one subject to which I would call your special attention. It appears that a company of emigrants from Arkansas to California was attacked at the Mountain Meadows three hundred miles south of Salt Lake and one hundred and nineteen cruelly murdered, none being spared except a few children all of whom were under seven years of age. This crime by whomsoever committed, was one of the most atrocious that has ever blackned the character of the human race. The Mormons blame it upon the Indians and the accusation receives some color from the fact that all the children who survived the massacre were found in the possession of Indians. Others, and among them a judge of the Territory, declare their unhesitating belief that the Mormons themselves committed this foul murder. All the circumstances seem from the correspondence, to be enveloped in mystery. In your letter the manner of the murder is described -- showing that the emigrants were attacked within a corral which they had formed for defence, that they agreed to surrender their arms upon the promise that their lives should be spared, and after doing so were all of them treacherously butchered. Why does the information stop there? If that much be known how is it that we know no more? who were the parties that received this surrender and how is it proved? Cannot the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, or some one with that department of the public service trace back the children from the Indians in whose possession they were found, to the corral where their parents were slain[?] It is said that some of the Mormon inhabitants of Utah have property of the emigrants in their possession. If this be true, will it not furnish a thread which, properly followed. would lead back to the scene of the crime?

These are mere suggestions, which are intended to show the interest of the government on the subject, rather than to instruct you in the performance of your duty. It is, however, confidently expected of you that you will intermit no watch nor let any opportunity escape you of learning all that can be known upon this subject... J. S. BLACK...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, June 29, 1859.                    No. 33.


Eighteen little children from 2 to 8 years old, the survivors of the Mountain Meadow massacre, left here on Tuesday for the States. The first arrangements contemplated their transportation to the States with ox teams; but Gen. Johnston kindly and promptly responded to a request from Dr. Forney, and has furnished for their better accommodation, three spring ambulances, and one baggage wagon with teams of six mules each.

The change in the mode of transportation will, we think, contribute greatly to the comfort of the children, and those in charge of them. From the circumstances connected with their oophanage, they are peculiarly objects for sympathy; and we are pleased to see the efforts of Dr. Forney to make the road on which they travel, in search of relatives, or friends as smooth as possible.

They will travel with and are under the protection of Capt. R Anderson, 2d dragoons, who is en route to Ft. Kearney with his command.

Mrs. Worley, Mrs. Nash, and two other ladies have been engaged as matrons to attend to the wants of the little ones and three men also accompany the party as camp asssistants,

The names of the children so far as can be learned are as follows: --

John Calvin, Lewis, and Mary Sorel, (their father being held in remembrance as "Joe Sorel;") Ambrose Miram, and William Taggett; Frances Horn; Charles and Annie Francher; Betsey and Jane Baker; Rebecca, Louisa, and Sarah Dunlap; Sophronia or Mary and Ephraim W. Huff; Angeline and Annie, (surname unknown;) and a little boy of whom there Is no account, the people with whom he was found called him William. The children are supposed to have resided iinn the same neighborhood, and in Johnston county, Arkansas.

These children have been in charge of Dr. Forney since last fall, and we know that he has given his interested and personal supervision in order that they might be properly and comfortably cared for.

We learn mareover, that Dr. Forney has obtained the guardianship of these children.

There was a large amount of property in the possession of the party massacred at the Mountain Meadows, and the children have now an agent here, who will undoubtedly use his best endeavors to recover the property of which they have been despoiled.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, October 5, 1859.                    No. 47.


There are about 7,500 newspapers published in the United States -- a newspaper or some kind of a magazine, to every 4,000 inhabitants. The people of Utah claim a population of 100,000. At these figures they ought to support twenty-five newspapers. -- The territory of Nebraska, containing a population of about 60,000 supports to the best of our knowledge, which we believe to be well grounded, fifteen newspapers; Kansas with a population of over 80,000 boasts over twenty; Arizona, with less than three thousand white inhabitants, has one, and we do not certainly know but two; the "Gentile" population of Carson Valley, who do not, according to the Mountaineer, exceed "three or four hundred," have one; -- and we could undoubtedly, if we had the statistics at hand, show that the 1 to 4,000 ratio holds good throughout all the States and all the Territories, except sainted Utah. One of the two organs which are issued here is supported, not by the common intelligence of the masses, as is the case elsewhere, but by means wrung from the scanty purses of the Church members, through the pillaging tithing system, which system must be complied with by all Mormons, or else -- they are not in "good standing" as church members. It is, of course, altogether optionary with our Mormon friends whether they pay one tenth of their substance to the Church or not, but to refuse to do so would be to incur the displeasure of the Almighty, which displeasure it is supposed manifests itself through crop failures, sickness, and all sorts of adversities. Their consciences are Mortgaged as security for the payment of these elecmosynary contributions -- their consciences are shackled down as guaranties for the sustenance of this system of voluntary robbery.

Now the question arises, do the Mormons as a people, fall behind their neighbors in their liberality to the press> Perhaps they would not if newspapers were as necessary to them as to the "world," but they have better facilities for obtaining information than through newspapers. About every other family, and generally the one between, is possessed of either astrological science or a 'peep-stone.' By the former they can cypher out the fate of nations with much greater accuracy than a Brougham a Bennett, a Raymond, or any other uninspired man and through the latter -- a small globular-shaped pebble -- they can see cattle beyond mountains twenty or a hundred miles, or even a greater distance off. Then what is the use of throwing away money upon the printers?

We make these remarks merely to justify our Mormon friends before the world, in their illiberality to the press.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, October 12, 1859.                    No. 48.


==> A letter in the Fort Smith Times states that in the midst of the Mountain Meadow massacre, a girl thirteen or fourteen years old threw herself upon John D. Lee (the captain of the band of murderers and a Danite Saint), and plead for her life after seeing her father, mother and brothers murdered; Lee took her into the bushes, robbed her of that jewel which to a virtuous girl is dearer than life, and after satisfying his beastly desires, deliberately cut her throat, and left her weltering in her life's blood.

Note 1: The story of John D. Lee's rape and murder of a teenage girl at Mountain Meadows appears to have first been mentioned in the popular press, when the San Francisco Bulletin of June 17, 1859 published a letter from an anonymous correspondent in Salt Lake City, who reported on the findings of Judge Cradlebaugh's ongoing investigation: "Some of those engaged in the Mountain Meadow massacre (there were few, very few Indians -- and they confirm this) have been heard to say that, after killing the men. &c., Bishop Lee committed a nameless outrage upon a young girl, and then cut her throat." On page 105 of her Mountain Meadows Massacre, Juanita Brooks opines that such charges against John D. Lee were "finally developed" to include rape and murder. This reading of sources overlooks the fact that Lee was charged with the crime within months after the massacre -- the allegation of rape followed by murder was not a later developmemt. Brooks also says that such an act on Lee's part was "highly improbable." Such an opinion ignores a great accumulation of evidence showing that soldiers do commit rape under such circumstances. For examples of Lee's self-admitted hyper-sexualiy, see Will Bagley's Blood of the Prophets.

Note 2: See also the New York Times, of Jan 7, 1860, which reported: "The Secretary of the Interior is in possession of evidence sufficient to convict a Mormon "Saint," named Lee, of having violated and murdered a young girl, a survivor of the party of emigrants massacred at Mountain Meadow, by his fellow-believers, a few months ago..." This allegation was repeated thereafter in various accounts of the massacre -- for example, Burton provides a sanitized version on page 340 of his 1862 City of the Saints: "One of the Mormons the name has been variously given is accused of a truly detestable deed; a girl, sixteen years old, knelt to him, imploring mercy; he led her away into the thicket and then cut her throat."



Vol. I.                          Great Salt Lake City,  November 19, 1859.                          No. 13.

From Iron County.

Messrs. Editors: As Iron county seems, in the opinion of many, a sort of terra incognita, perhaps a few historical items from this portion of Utah may be of interest to the subscribers of the Mountaineer.

On the 13th day of January, 1851, a company of about 119 persons, led by Col. Geo. A. Smith, arrived upon the spot, upon which Parowan is now located, after having toiled through snows, over mountain passes and wilderness plains for 250 miles, and encountering intensely cold weather. At this time, with the exception of small forts at Provo, Springville and Manti, there was no settlement south of G.S;L. City. Arrived at the Little Salt Lake, Col. Smith and company set to work in earnest, and in a few months roads were made into the canyons, a field fenced, cleared and sowed; some 50 miles of water ditches made, a saw mill erected and a commodious meeting-house and many private dwellings, and much other labor labor performed incidental to a new settlement....

Prosperity again dawned upon the settlements, but the difficulties of 1857 produced a slight interruption in the peaceful labors of the inhabitants. Sec. Floyd says in his report, speaking of the Utah troubles, that "all the deluded members of the Mormon sect were collected from remote settlements" to oppose the U.S. troops in the mountains. As none of the inhabitants of this portion of the territory were honored by a call at the time referred to, it is of course presumable that we southerners are not included in the unfortunate class of "deluded Mormons" occupying the more northern portions of Utah, and we feel highly honored by the Hon. Sec.'s wise discrimination.

In September, 1857 occurred the massacre of a company of emigrants who had incurred the deadly hostility of the Indians by wantonly poisoning them, at the Mountain Meadows; and another large company, a few days' journey behind, narrowly escaped the same fate. The latter company was attacked at Indian Creek, six miles north of Beaver, and, though succored by a company of citizens sent to their assistance by Maj. P. T. Farnsworth, from Beaver, were fired upon incessantly by the Indians all the way to that place and three of them shot in the streets of that town by the savages. An express having been dispatched to Col. William H. Dame, at Parowan, for assistance, Capt. Silas S. Smith, with a company of citizens, was instantly sent to the assistance of the emigrants and a treaty of peace was made with the Indians. At the earnest solicitation of the travelers, five of the best interpreters accompanied them on their journey to preserve them from the Indians, which they successfully accomplished until their arrival at the Big Muddy in New Mexico, when a body of several hundred Indians succeeded in stampeding and driving off a large number of cattle from the train. The interpreters narrowly escaped. Had it not been for the untiring exertions of Col. Dame and other leading men in behalf of the company, for a period of two weeks, it would have unquestionably shared the melancholy fate of the one which preceded it.

Nothing of interest occurred from this time until the spring of 1859, when Judge Cradlebaugh came here with several companies of soldiers, declaring to the inhabitants that we "Might sow, but should not reap." By what authority the honorable Judge entered this rule of court, I have not yet learned. Major Prince, who arrived from California about the same time with a detachment of troops, said "that if he had the power, he would kill every man, woman and child in southern Utah and lay waste to the whole country -- that we were all guilty of the Mountain Meadow massacre. Condemnation before trial is certainly a more expeditious, but questionable, mode of procedure, especially in capital cases.

At present all is peace and quiet with us and unless modern civilization finds its way among us, it may condtinue so.   J. H. M.

Note: It seems rather remarkable that the writer of the above letter should expend such a great deal of trouble in chronicling the events associated with the wagon train immediately following the ill-fated Fancher party -- and in his telling of that story, omit every possible reference to that train's members' identities. Although the account here given roughly fits the events associated with the progress of the "Duke train" in 1857, it is impossible for the modern reader to be certain as to exactly which group of "emigrants" the writer is talking about. And, of course, he provides no useful details relating to the Fancher party itself. A previous Mormon description of the Mountain Meadow massacre was provided, shortly after the event, by the LDS "mail rider" William Hyde. Other early mentions of the event, in Mormon publications, were made in the San Francisco Western Standard of Oct. 13, 1857 and in the Salt Lake City Deseret News of Dec. 9, 1857.


Vol. II.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., November 30, 1859.                    No. 2.


Of the Grand Jury of the Second District of Utah Territory,
September Term, 1859.


To Hon. John Cradlebaugh --

The undersigned Grand Jurors, empanneled for the September Term of the U. S. District Court, for the Second Judicial District of Utah Territory, respectfully submit this for their report:

The accumulation of offences, in the absence of all recognized Judicial Tribunals, have imposed upon the Jury an amount of labor which it has been impossible entirely to perform.

Under the instructions of the Court, we have, therefore, exercised a discretion in the selection of those offences which in our judgment were most flagrant and demanded immdiate investigation, and refer our unfinished business for the consideration of future Grand Juries.

We cannot permit the present occasion to pass, and would leave our duty imperfectly performed, were we to adjourn without congratulating the citizens of this judicial district upon the successful organization of a judicial tribunal that already commands the hearty sympathy and encouragement of every patriotic citizen. Hitherto we have presented the singular anomaly, without a parallel beyond the jurisdiction of the United States, of a people living under a constitutional government without any participation in the framing of laws for the protection of personal liberty and property, remote from the seat of government and without the presence of courts or other tribunals for the administration of justice, yet maintaining our loyalty to the constitution, supporting the laws and promoting the prosperity and wealth of the country.

We can, therefore, with special pride and propriety congratulate the citizens of this district upon such auspicious event in our midst, as the organization of a court of justice, under the immediate protection of the Flag of our Union, that will insure perfect and peaceful enjoyment to every citizen in his personal liberty and right of property. In the midst of this congratulation there exists serious causes of public and private grievance, which urgently call for redress, and to which we respectfully call attention.


First in importancei is the social condition of antagonism that distinguishes the citizens of this Territory and creates an irreconcilable political antipathy between them.

our community is divided into two classes -- those who receive and practice the tenets of the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches, and those who hold to the Mormon faith.

All political power, the legislature and the Territorial offices are, and now, hitherto have been under the control and disposal of the Mormon Church. The political power of the Territory may justly be said therefore, to have been in the past a pure Theocracy.

The gentiles, so called, (those apart from the Mormon Church,) have been allowed no political power, have exercised no influence upon the legislature; and instead protection, have only found abuse and oppression in the laws enacted by the local legislature. The Mormon population far exceeds that of other citizens; they reside near the seat of government and possess every ability to perpetuate by force and fraud their present Theocratic Tyranny. This condition of things, socially and politically, so oppressive to the people of this district, loudly demands redress, and is a rebuke to our national boast of equal laws and equal liberty.


Another grievance of paramount importance; and which has greatly retarded the rapid settlement and improvement of this district, is the absence of regular terms of the district court and the uniform of administration of justice; for three long and dreary years we have been utterly without any court of justice; the law has been a nullity for want of an adminstrative tribunal and the people without compass or star, have groped along the path of civilization and empire, conquering the wilderness and increasing the strength of the nation; guided alone by their loyalty to the Union and sustained by the long deferred hope that their repeated petitions would eventually be heard and their grievancs redressed by the paternal Government.

The seat of justice in this district is seven hundred miles from the capitol of the Territory, the distance is aggravated by difficulty and rugged mountains and great barren deserts stretching from 114 to 122 lines of longitude. This district is one third of the entire Territory; hence the right of appeal is a constitutional illusion, and with the presence of a permanent court, substantial justice in many instances can only be attained at the cost of personal impoverishment. These, apart from other detailed reasons should suggest to the serious consideration of Congress amelioration through an amendment to our judicial system.


Another grievance of vast importance is the condition of the Indians, and the absence of adequate military defence for the immigrants and citizens within the Territory. -- While ample appropriations have been made by the Government for the subjugation and support of the Indians in the entire Territory, the confidence of Congress has been shamefully abused, and the bounty has been basely squandered, without securing any of the aims and objects of the appropriations. Two thirds of the Indian population reside within this district; they live along the immigrant route; are far more hostile than their more eastern brethren and are constantly outraging property, harrassing the settlements and murdering our citizens....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., December 28, 1859.                    No. 6.


MORMON REGENERATION. -- The Cincinnati Commercial has it from an elder, that the Illinois Mormons held a conference in De Kalb county, last month, at which delegates from five States were present. The object of the conference was to procure an organization to make head against the heresies of the Utah Mormons, and especially polygamy. -- A paper to be published in Cincinnati devoted to the dissemination of the true faith, and mussionaries are to be sent to Salt Lake to reclaim the backsliding of the church there. The organization will not be complete until a son of Joe Smith is at its head.

Note: The press release for the Oct., 1859 Reorganite "conference" was communicated to the Cincinnati Commercial in mid-October by Elder Isaac Sheen (see Sheen's biographical sketch in the Saints' Herald of Jan. 26, 1910). The location of the meeting was near Sandwich, not far from the boundary between De Kalb and Kendall counties.


Vol. II.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., February 15, 1860.                    No. 14.

From the New York Times, Jan 7.

Law  in  Utah.

The Secretary of the Interior is in possession of evidence sufficient to convict a Mormon "Saint," named Lee, of having violated and murdered a young girl, a survivor of the party of emigrants massacred at Mountain Meadow, by his fellow-believers, a few months ago. The Mormon authorities refuse to surrender this scoundrel for trial, unless he is to be tried before a Mormon jury. And as no Morman has ever yet convicted any Mormon of any outrage on a Gentile, the offer is simply made to enable him to go scot free. In these circumstances, the Secretary the Secretary urges the immediate propriety of establishing martial law in the Territory, for the protection of life and property. This is precisely what we have been recommending for a year. To send judges out to hold courts which were the laughing-stock of the "Saints," and by which no Mormon criminal was ever finally brought to justice, -- courts, the process of which was treated with contempt in every part of the Territory outside the camp of the United States Army, was to say the least, a very grave error. There is nothing more prejudicial to the cause of good government than the exposure of the law and its ministers, for never so short a period, to ridicule. The temporary anarchy of Lynch law does less injury to society than the spectacle of a judge mocked and defied by a rabble. If from the moment the U. States troops set foot in Utah, martial law had been maintained, and crime had been punished by drumhead courts-martial; not only would a tide of Gentile emigration have been directed into the valley, but the Mormon mind would have been thoroughly impressed with a vivid sense of the reality of the common law and the acts of Congress. By this time a United States Judge would have been enabled to take his seat in full assurance that he would be respected and obeyed, and we should have had a Christian public growing up in the Territory strong enough to render our further interference in its affairs unnecessary. The course that has been pursued has, on the contrary, convinced the Mormons of our impotence, rendered the California emigrant routes insecure, driven away settlers from the Utah Territory, confirmed the Mormons in their insolence and bigotry, and the Gentile population by permitting the most crimes against them to go unpunished. Common justice, common humanity, and respect for our good name, demand that this state of things should now be put an end to, at whatever cost. We owe it to the Mormons themselves, to the hordes of recruits who are flocking to them every month from all parts of the world, as well as to all citizens of the United States everywhere, to see that there is no portion of our territory in which a peaceful settler may not till his fields and reap his harvests in peace and confidence. We have given the civil law a fair, or rather, a grossly unfair, trial, in Utah. We have not only tried it long enough, but too long. -- It has failed to accomplish its objects, which are protection of life and property, and the punishment and prevention of crime. The remedy in such cases -- and, let us add, the constitutional remedy -- is direct martial law. When the courts and police become powerless, it is the duty of every government to try what the army can do to supply their place, and prepare the way for the restoration of legal authority. There has never been a clearer case made out for the proclamation of martial law than the Mormons have made out for us in Utah, and we do most earnestly urge upon the General Government to follow the advice of the Secretary of the Interior, and proclaim it. Put the army in possession of the country. Bring home the insulted judges, the useless sheriffs, the desposed marshals. When a murder or robbery is committed, instead of negotiating the terms of a trial with the Mormon hierarchy, as we might with Turkey or Japan, follow the perpetrator with as much force as shall be necessary to take him, and when taken, try him before a board of officers, calmly, deliberately, and fairly, and when convicted, punish him instanter. When a crime has been committed, of which the Mormons in the vicinity are plainly cognizant, and the criminal cannot be found, go back to Norman William's law -- lay a fine on the whole district, and collect it at the point of a bayonet....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., February 22, 1860.                    No. 15.


Below the reader will find a letter from Judge Cradlebaugh, of the United States Federal Court of Utah Territory, who is now in Washington, inviting the Hon. Mr. Hooper, the Mormon in full communion, who now represents Utah Territory in the Representatives hall, to a public discussion of different Mormon questions in issue before the people of the United States. Judge Cradlebaugh is a gentleman of fine abilities and great energy of character, and is evidently earnestly bent on informing the public mind of the truth concerning the practices and tendencies of Mormonism, which must be dealt with by Congress, if it would put an end to the enormous expense now growing out of the necessities of our military service in that quarter. If Mr. Hooper accepts Judge C.'s invitation, a vast concourse of intelligent and deeply interested persons will doubtless attend their discussion from its opening to its close.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 18, 1860.    
Wm. H. Hooper,
    Territorial Delegate from Utah.

Sir: -- I see from time to time the N. Y. Herald's correspondence from Utah, in which denials are made of the charges preferred against the people you represent, and false suggestions expressed as to the condition of affairs in that Territory.

Now to the end that the country may know the truth respecting these matters, I have thought it right and necessary to address you this communication. I assert --

1st. That the Mormon people are subject to a theocratic government, and recognizes no law as binding which does not coincide with their pretended revelations as promulgated by their "Prophet, Seer and Revelator," Brigham Young.

2d. They have taught, and still teach, Treason against the government of the United States.

3d. That they practice polygamy in a manner shocking to the moral sense of the world, and aggravate the offence by incest and murder.

4th. That they teach the doctrine of "the shedding of human blood for the remission if sin," as defined by their own ecclesiastical code, and these teachings are carried into practice. The murders of Jones and his mother at Pondtown; of the Parishes and Pitter at Springville, of the Aiken party at Chicken Creek, the mud fort at Salt Creek, and at the bone yard, and of Forbes at Springville, are the natural results of these vile doctrines.

5th. That they teach the doctrine that it is right and godly that Mormons should rob Gentiles whenever they can do so with facility and escape public exposure. The Mountain Meadows Massacre is a melancholy proof of this fact.

6th. That they teach the doctrine and practice it, of castrating men, and have declared from their pulpit, with public acquiescence, that the day was near when their valleys would resound with the voice of Eunuchs.

I am prepared here and now with proofs to sustain these charges, unpremeditatedly taken from numberless enormities; and occupying the position which you do here -- a member of the Mormon church, having received your endowments and taken upon yourself the oaths and obligations of the church -- I have to say to you that I will at any reasonable time and place of your own selection meet you face to face before the people and Federal authorities here, ready, but sorrowfully, to substantiate every specification herein contained.

I have a file of the Deseret News, your church organ, running from 1850 to 1859, containing Mormon history of current affairs during that period; and should you accept this proposition for calm, fair comparison of testimony on these subjects before a discerning public, this file will be at your call for reference.

The above statement and letter of Judge Cradlebaugh to Mr. Hooper, delegate in Congress from this Territory, is taken from one of the Washington City papers. -- The paper from which it is copied does not state whether Mr. Hooper would accept or decline the proposition for discussion tendered him by Judge Cradlebaugh, but from a private letter received by a gentleman in this city from Washington, we are informed that Mr. H. will not, and dare not accept the challenge of Judge Cradlebaugh, and that his declining to do so will be regarded in Washington and elsewhere as evidence that he cannot disprove the charges made in the letter of the Judge. It has been rumored, but on what authority we know not, that Mr. Hooper denies in Washington that he is a Mormon or connected with the Mormon church. Whether he does or not we do not know; one thing is certain, whether he represents the religious tenets of the Mormons or not, as their political representative and delegate, it would certainly appear to be his duty to vindicate his constituents from such charges as the Judge has made against them, if he felt able to do so. Mormon newspapers and leaders are in the constant habit of evading the charges so frequently made against them by attributing them to slander, and the statement of hired and irresponsible letter writers. But here the charges come in no obscure form, and from no obscure and irresponsible source; they are clearly and specifically set forth; the man who makes them occupies a position of responsibility and honor, that entitles his statements to some weight and consideration, if not disproved or denied. He assumes the burden of establishing the charges that he has made against the Mormon church and people, if their delegate in Congress will only meet him in public discussion concerning those charges; and if this is declined, the Mormons cannot hereafter, as they have heretofore, skulk down behind the plea that irresponsiblr persons have lied about them; nor can they elsewhere, as they have attempted to do here, stifle the freedom of speech by bravado or threats of violence.

Note: The above letter also appeared in the New York Herald of Jan. 22nd and the New York Times of Jan. 21st. The Times reprinted the piece from the Washington Star. An extract also appeared in the San Francisco Bulletin of Feb. 20, 1860.


Vol. II.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., February 29, 1860.                    No. 16.


We publish in our paper a lengthy communication from Mr. Wm. H. Rogers, in regard to the Mountain Meadows massacre, and a trip which he took to the vicinity where it occurred in the spring of the year 1859. The statement of Mr. Rogers, we doubt not, will be read with interest, not only here, but by persons abroad, who have heard of this most horrible of crimes that has ever taken place in our country, or disgraced the records of any people. The facts connected with this event have heretofore had a rather mythical and uncertain shape, and they have never been given to the world before in as distinct and connected a form as Mr. Rogers has here presented them.

The charges of the Mormons being concerned in the transaction have now a form more tangible than rumor, and will not be easily laughed or sneered away in the minds of the people of the country. After these facts become familiar to the public, it will not perhaps, appear so strange that the "one fact" of the Mountain Meadows massacre has created as much "stir and bother in the world." --

The massacre in cold blood of one hundred and twenty or thirty American citizens, will undoubtedly be thought a "fact" worthy of producing "stir and bother" in the minds of the people of the country. It should be enough to incite them to vengeance against whoever committed the deed, whether whites or Indians, Mormons or Gentiles.

The bones of these murdered emigrants after having the flesh gnawed from them by wolves, and bleaching for a year and a half on the ground, we learned some time since from a Cal. paper, were collected together by Maj. Carlton while he was at the Mountain Meadows, and buried in a single grave. The same paper adds:

"A stone monument now marks the spot where rests the remains of those massacred at the Mountain Meadows. -- This is surmounted by a cross of red cedar, twelve feet in height, on the transum is carved the following inscription, visible to travelers.

    'Vengeance is mine, I will     repay saith the Lord.'

On the base of the monument stands a granite slab, into which are cut the following words:                         Here
120 men, women and children were massacred in cold blood, early in September, 1857.
                        They were from Arkansas.

There it stands! a monument to an Administration guilty of the weakness and folly of sacrificing the sense of justice to the vain hope of retaining power."

The Mountain Medows Massacre.


To the Editor of the Valley Tan. -- I have observed on the part of one or both of the Mormon newspapers published in this city, an evident purpose to treat with a light and cavalier manner the statement that has been many times made, that the Mormons were concerned in the Mountain Meadows massacre. By their references to the matter, they would evidently produce the impression, that the whole story in regard to the Mormons being in any way concerned in the transaction, is one that has been framed for the purpose of increasing the prejudice and dislike with which they are already regarded by the great body of the people of the country. As I have never seen a published statement of the facts connected with that wholesale butchery, so far as the facts in regard to it have been brought to light, I have determined to supply this omission, by a statement of facts and circumstances in relation to it, gathered during a trip which I made with Dr. Forney, Superintendent of Indian affairs for Utah Territory, into the region where the massacre occured, in the Spring of 1859.

Dr. Forney left Camp Floyd in the last of March, 1859, to go down to the Santa Clara settlement, 350 miles south of Salt Lake City, to obtain and bring back with him the children saved from the Mountain Meadows massacre, who had been collected, and were then in charge of Mr. Jacob Hamblin. Dr. Forney, having some time previously employed him to collect the children and take care of them till he could take them away. On this trip Dr. Forney employed me to accompany him as an assistant, and I first joined him at the town of Nephi, 80 or 90 miles south of Salt Lake City. From Nephi we proceeded through Filmore to the Indian farm on Cirn Creek, 15 miles south, where we distributed some goods to the Indians; from thence we proceded to Beaver, Parowan, Cedar City, and Painter creek. The latter is a small place in the immediate vicinity of the Mountain Meadows, where the celebrated massacre occurred in September 1857. In passing through each of the towns named, the Doctor and myself made diligent inquiry concerning the massacre of this party of emigrants; the number of persons composing the emigrant party, and other matters deemed of interest in relation to them. We however, ascertained but little. The number of emigrants was generally estimated at from 120 to 140; but no one professed to have any knowledge if the massacre, except that they had heard [that it] was done by the Indians. At Painter creek, an Indian guide that had been sent to us by Jacob Hamblin, already referred to as the man that Dr. Forney had employed to collect and take charge of the children saved from the Mountain Meadows massacre, came with us. This guide conducted us to the scene of the massacre.

The small valley known as the Mountain Meadows, in which it occurred and which will hereafter impart to its appropriate and once inviting name a sad and horrible history, is situated about 6 miles south of Painter Creek, a small Mormon settlement in Iron county. The valley is about 5 miles in length. and in the widest part does not exceed a mile in breadth. It is covered mostly during the summer with rich and luxuriant grass, and is nearly the last place where grass can be found on the southern road to California, before striking the desert. On the north end of the valley, near where the road enters it, a ranch has been constructed for the purpose of herding and taking care of the cattle brought there during the summer to graze. This ranch is owned by Jacob Hamblin. He lives there only during the summer months and spends the winter with his family at the Santa Clara settlement, some distance south of the Mountain Meadows. This ranch was unoccupied at the time that our Indian guide conducted us into the valley. The immediate locality of the massacre of the emigrant party is about four miles from the ranch on the road leading south. The valley at the place slopes gently toward the south; a small ravine runs parallel with the road on the right hand side at the spot.

When we arrived here in April, 1859, more than a year and a half after the massacre occurred, the ground for a distance more than a hundred yards around a central point, was covered with the skeletons and bones of human beings, interspersed in places with rolls or bunches of tangled or matted hair, which from its length, evidently belonged to females. In places the bones of small children were lying side by side with those of grown persons, as if parent and child had met death at the same instant and with the same stroke. Small bonets and dresses, and scraps of female apparel were also to be seen in places on the ground there, like the bones of those who wore them, bleached from long exposure, but their shape was, in many instances, entire. In a gulch or hole in the ravine by the side of the road, a large number of leg and arm bones, and also of skulls, could be seen sticking above the surface, as if they had been buried there, but the action of the water and digging of the wolves had again exposed them to sight. The entire scene was one too horrible and sickening for language adequately to describe.

From this spit we proceeded south about one mile to a large spring, where the emigrants were encamped when the attack was first made upon them previous to the massacre. Here, within a few yards of the spring, we could distinctly define the form and size of the corral which they made, from a number of small holes, forming together a circle in the shape of a corral. These holes were dug for the purpose of lowering the wheels of their wagons in them, so as to form a better protection, after the attack began. On the center of the corral a pit some twenty feet long, and four or five wide and deep, was dug for the purpose, no doubt, of placing the women and children in order to protect them from the fire of the assailants. To the left of this corral, and about ine hundred and fifty or sixty yards distant, on a small mound or knoll, a number of stones were still piled up in a way to form a partial breastwork or protection against the fire which the emigrants no doubt returned for several days against their assailants. Numbers of the stines in this breastwork had bullet marks upon them on the side towards the corral, fully supporting the abve construction as to its use. In places around the corral, human bones and imperfect skeletons were lying on the ground, indicating, with the corral and the breastwork on the knoll, that it was here, and not at the place spoken of where the great body of bines were found, that the work of slaughter began. From this spring we proceeded on towards the settlement on the Santa Clara, for the purpose of obtaining the children from Mr. Hamblin, who resides there. -- On the same evening, after we had struck our camp for the night, a man drove up near us with an ox wagon, going also in the direction of Santa Clara. After turning out his oxen, he came to our tents and very soon informed us that he lived at Santa Clara, and that he was returning home from Cedar City with a load of flour, which he had been up to the latter place to obtain. The conversation, after these personal explanations, turned very naturally, after what we had witnessed during the day, upon the Mountain Meadows massacre. And this man, whose name was Carl, or Carlie Shirts, informed us that he lived at the time the massacre occurred, at the ranch owned by Mr. Hamblin, at the north end of the Mountain Meadows. He was employed by Mr. Hamblin and making adobies at the time. He saw the emigrants when they entered the valley, and talked with several of the men belonging to it. They appeared perfectly civil and gentlemanly. The train, he supposed, contained about forty wagons, and seven or eight hundred head of cattle, including those that were loose, besides a considerable number of horses and mules. The emigrants entered the valley on Friday, and the men with whom he conversed told him that they were anxious to stop a few days and rest and recruit their stock before entering on the desert, and inquired of him a good spot for this purpose. He recommended the vicinity of the spring in the siuth end of the Meadows, as good water and plenty of grass abounded there. Following this advice, they proceeded there and encamped. The next morning he again saw some of the men, who informed him that they were looking for lost stock. In the evening he saw the men returning, driving some loose cattle. He never saw any of the party afterwards. Early on Monday morning following, he stated that he heard the fire of a great many guns in the south, in the direction of the camp of the emigrants, he also saw on the hills around a good many Indians passing backwards and forwards, as if in a state of commotion or excitement. His impression from hearing the guns and seeing the Indians at the time, was, that the latter had attacked the emigrants. On our inquiry why he did not go to Painter Creek and give the alarm if he thought so, he stated that he supposed the people knew about it. If not in the words, the foregoing is the exact substance of the statement made by Shirts.

On the day following, we reached the Santa Clara settlement and found in the possession of Mr. Hamblin, thirteen of the children preserved from the massacre, which, with one at Painter Creek, and two at Cedar City, was all that had then been heard of. These children were well with the exception of sore eyes, which they all had, and which prevailed at the time as an epidemic in the place [or] vicinity where they were. After remaining a few days in Santa Clara in distributing some goods to the Indians, we set out with these children on our return. We did not take the same route by which we came down, but proceeding from Santa Clara direct to Harmony, leaving the Mountain Meadows some 15 or 20 miles to our left. On arriving at Harmony Dr. Forney called on John D. Lee, who was at the time, as he may be at present, a bishop in the Mormon church. The Doctor had received information which led him to believe that Lee had a portion of the property belonging to these murdered emigrants in his possession, and his object in calling on him was to demand a surrender of the property. On the demand being made, bishop Lee denied having possession of any of the property, or any knowledge concerning it, further than that, he heard that the Indians took it.

I was not present when this demand was made, but was informed of it as recited by Dr. Forney on his return from Lee's house. Dr. Forney also informed me that, in a conversation with Lee concerning the massacre, he stated he was not at the massacre but reached there just after it ended. He also stated that Isaac Haight, who presided at Cedar City, and is another prominent dignitary in the Mormon church, holding an office styled "president," which is higher than than that of a bishop, also arrived at the spot soon after him. In the same conversation as related to me, Lee applied some foul and indecent epithets to the emigrants -- said that they were slandering the Mormons, while passing along, and in general terms justified the killing. The day after this conversation with Lee, we started for Cedar City; Bishop Lee also set out with us for the professed purpose of going to see Prest. Haight and bishop Higby at Cedar City, and talking over with those men, in the presence of Dr. Forney, the circumstances in relation to the massacre, and the suspocions which had been expressed, that they were concerned in it, either as actual participants in the deed itself, or as inciting the Indians to the crime, and, then sharing with them the spoils of the slain. Bishop Lee proceeded in company with us about half way from Harmony to Cedar City, when, from some unknown cause, he rode ahead and we did not see him afterwards.

On our arrival at Cedar City he was not there, or if he was, he kept secreted and out of sight. Dr. Forney met there President Haight and Bishop Higby, and made of these ecclesiastics the same demand that he did of Bishop Lee, and received about the same replies, from them that Lee gave. They did not, however, attempt to justify the massacre, on the ground of their slandering the Mormons. On leaving Cedar City, on our way back, before arriving at Corn Creek, the Indian chief, Kanosh, who had been with us from the time that we left the Indian farm on Corn Creek, going south, informed Dr. Forney, that some Indians had told him on the way, that there were two more children saved from the massacre than Mr. Hamblin had collected. This information, though not deemed very reliable, the Doctor considered of sufficient importance to make an additional effort, in order to ascertain whether it was correct or not. On arriving at Corn Creek, we found there three companies of U. S. troops from Camp Floyd, under the command of Captain Campbell, who was on his way south to meet Maj. Prince, paymaster in the army, who was returning to Camp Floyd from Califirnia, with a large sum of money. On meeting these troops, Dr. Forney furnished me with instructions, and directed me to return south again with the troops, and see if I could ascertain anything about the two children spoken of by Kanish. Judge Cradelbaugh, of the U. S. District Court for Utah, was also traveling with Capt. Campbell's command into the vicinity of Mountain Meadows, to see if he could obtain any evidence against persons who had been charged with participating in the massacre, that would justify him in arresting and holding them for trial. He was proceeding as a court inquiry or investigation simply; and informed me that he had authority from Gen. Johnston to retain a portion of the troops under Capt. Campbell, if he deemed it necessary, either to protect the court or to enforce its writs. Judge Cradlebaugh, on setting out was accompanied by deputy marshal, J. H. Stone, but the latter was compelled to stop near Nephi on account of sickness. Judge Cradlebaugh now requested me to take the place of Mr. Stone, as I had been previously sworn in and acted as deputy U. S. Marshall at the U. S. District Court, held at Provo in the preceding month. As the duties of this post could in no way interfere with my search for the two children, said to have been left, and might enable me better to find them, I acceded to Judge Cradlebaugh's request to act as marshal.

In the vicinity of Parowan and below Cedar City, where the command of Capt. Campbell encamped, the soldiers, while hunting for wood, discovered human bones scattered in the bushes, and at one place they brought an entire skeleton into camp -- the bones of which were still united and held together by sinews, showing that the person, whoever it was, could not have been a great while dead. We had no knowledge at the time, and never received any, as to whose remains these were, or whether they were persons that had died from exposure, or starvation, or whether they were victims if treachery and murder. From the distance at which they were found from the place of the Mountain Meadows massacre, it is not presumable that they formed a portion of the party slain there.

On arriving at Cedar City, President Haight and Bishop Higby were not seen; but at the camping ground, a few miles beyond, Judge Cradlebaugh issued writs for their arrest, and also for the arrest of Bishop Lee if Harminy, and placed them in my hands for execution. These writs were issued, as I understand, on the authority of affidavits, charging these men with being concerned in the Mountain Meadows massacre, which were made before Judge Cradlebaugh before he set out to investigate the matter.

These writs were given to me when we were about four or five miles below Cedar City and about twelve or fourteen from Harmony; but as nothing had been seen of Haught or Higby in passing through Cedar City, I thought it best to proceed first to Harmony and try to secure Lee, and afterwards to return and try to arrest Haight and Higby, if circumstances gave promise of any success in doing so. It is proper for me to say here, that not only Haight and Higby, but a large portion of the male inhabitants of the different Mormon towns, and settlements through which we passed, either fled or secreted themselves on the approach of the troops. The cause of this I do not know, unless from a consciousness of guilt of some kind, as the troops were certainly on no hostile expedition against the inhabitants, but were simply on their way to act as an escort to a paymaster of the army. And Judge Cradlebaugh did not seek to interfere with the right or liberty of any man [unaccused of crime]. I summoned to attend me, and if necessary act as a civil power, in the arrest of Lee, eight Quartermaster's men who were traveling with Capt. Campbell's command; on their way to California. Accompanied by these men, I started for Harmony on the morning that I received the writs. On the way thither we passed through or near a small settlement containing five or six houses. I stopped here to make inquiries about the two children. The residents of the place, men, women and children, mostly came out of their hiuses when I had stopped, but none of them professed to know anything about any children besides those that Mr. Hamblin had collected. I told them that if the children were in the country at all, every house would be searched if they were not given up. At this, one of the men present, but who did not live in the place, but had arrived there just before me, stated that his wife had one of the children; that he lived at Pocketville, another small settlement forty or fifty miles distant, named from its location in the mountains. He stated that the child was very young, and that his wife was very much attached to it, and that it would give me much trouble if I took it away, and seemed by all his remarks, to be anxious to retain it. I told him that I had no power to give the child away, and that I would send and get it in a few days. Mr. Hamblin went over and brought this child away in a few days after I discovered where it was. This child was a bright eyed and rosy cheeked boy, about two years old, and must have been an infant when the massacre occurred.

On being brought to Salt Lake City, and joining the other children, one of the oldest boys of the group, whose name was John Calvin Sorrow [sic - Sorel?], ran up to it, and kissing it remarked that it was his little brother; and that he did not know where he was. From this circumstance this child received the name of Sorrow, after that of the older boy, but whether it was their original name or not I do not know; it is, at all events, expressive of their sad history. The second child said to have been left, I never heard of, although I inquired diligently after it. On arriving at Harmony, with the men accompanying me, I went to the house of Bishop Lee and inquired for him, but was informed by one of his wives, (I was told that they were thirteen in number,) that Mr. Lee had been absent two or three days in the mountains; that he was there looking for copper with the Indians. Others besides his family of whom I inquired, also informed me that he had gone away. As he had thus played the same dodge that President Haight and Bishop Higby gave us at Cedar City, I deemed it useless to wait for his return, or to return myself to Cedar City under any expectation of finding Haight or Higby there. I therefore returned again to the camp of Capt. Campbell, and proceeded on with it to the Mountain Meadows, and encamped a second time by the spring in the south end of the meadows, where the emigrants were encamped before being butchered

From the Mountain Meadows, Capt. Campbell, with his command, proceeded to the Santa Clara, some four or five miles from the Mormon settlement on that stream, and there awaited the arrival of Maj. Prince. We waited here a week before Maj. Prince arrived. During our stay here some Indians in the vicinity came frequently to our camp, the same Indians that had been charged with [attacking] the emigrants at the Mountain Meadows. These Indians admitted that a portion of them were present after the attack began at the corral, but denied they joined in it. One of these Indians stated in the presence of others of the same band, that after the attack was made upon the emigrants at the corral, a white man came to them and exhibited a letter, and stated that it was from Brigham Young, and that it directed them to go up and help whip the emigrants. A portion of the band went therefore, but did not assist in the fight, and gave as a reason for not doing so, that the emigrants had long guns and were good shots, and they were afraid to venture near. A chief of the band stated that a brother of his was killed by a shot from the corral at a distance of two hundred yards, as he was running across the meadow. These Indians also stated that the Mormons who killed the emigrants were painted so as to resemble Indians. They denied that they received aby of the stock or property belonging to the emigrants, except a few of the old clothes. These Indians called Bishop Lee "Narguts," was there but would not venture near, being, like themselves, afraid. President Haight and Bishop Higby were also present, aiding in the attack.

Maj. Carlton, of the first Dragoons, came as the escort of Maj. Prince from California. On reaching Santa Clara where we were encamped, the two commands went together to the Mountain Meadows -- Maj. Carlton, to recruit his stock, before setting out on his return to California, and Capt. Campbell on his way to Camp Floyd. Leaving these commands both here, Judge Cradlebaugh and I proceeded forward to Cedar City, where the Judge intended to remain some time and make a thorough investigation if he could, concerning the massacre and persons engaged in it.

Owing to some disadvantages in the location of Cedar City, a large portion of the inhabitants that once dwelt there had moved away, and there was, in consequence, a good many vacant houses in the place. Judge Cradlebaugh obtained the use of one of these to stay in while he remained, and for the purpose of a court room. As soon as it became known that Judge C. intended holding a court, and investigating the circumstances of the massacre, and that he would have troops to ensure protection, and enforce his writs if necessary, several persons visited him at his room, at late hours of the night, and informed him of different facts connected with the massacre. All these that called thus, stated that it would be at the risk of their lives if it became known that they had communicated anything to him; and they requested Judge Cradlebaugh, if he met them in public in the day time, not to recognize them as persons that he had before seen.

One of the men who called thus on Judge Cradlebaugh, confessed that he participated in the massacre, and gave the following account of it: Previous to the massacre there was a council held at Cedar City, which President Haight, and Bishops Higby and Lee attended. At this council they designed or appointed a large number of men residing in Cedar City, and in other settlements around, to perform the work of dispatching these emigrants. The men appointed for this purpose, were instructed to report, well armed, at a given time, to a spring or small stream, lying a short distance to the left of the road leading into the meadows, and not very far from Hamblin's ranch, but concealed from it by intervening hills. This was the place of rendezvous; and here the men, when they arrived, painted and otherwise disguised themselves so as to resemble Indians. From thence they proceeded, early on Monday morning, by a path or trail which leads from his spring directly into the meadows, and enters the road some distance beyond Hamblin's ranch. By taking this route they could not be seen by any one at the ranch. On arriving at the corral of the emigrants, a number of the men were standing on the outside by the camp-fires, which, from appearances, they had just been building. These were first fired upon, and at the first discharge several of them fell dead or wounded; the remainder immediately ran to the inside of the corral, and began fortifying themselves, and preparing for defence as well as they could, by shoving their wagons closer together, and digging holes into which to lower them, so as to keep the shots from going under and striking them. The attack continued in a desultory and irregular manner for four or five days. The corral was closely watched, and if any of the emigrants showed themselves they were instantly fired at from without. If they attempted to go to the spring, which was only a few yards distant, they were sure to fall by the rifles of their assailants. In consequence of the almost certain death that resulted from any attempt to procure water, the emigrants, before the siege discontinued, suffered intensely from thirst. The assailants, believing at length that the emigrants could not be subdued by the means adopted, resorted to treachery and strategem to accomplish what they had been unable to do by force. They returned to the spring where they had painted and disguised themselves pervious to commencing the attack, and there removed those disguises, and again assumed their ordinary dress. After this, Bishop Lee, with a party of men, returned to the camp of the emigrants, bearing a white flag as a signal of truce. From the position of the corral, the emigrants were able to see them some time before they reached it. As soon as they discerned it, they dressed a little girl in white, and placed her at the entrance of the corral, to indicate their friendly feelings to the persons bearing the flag. Lee and his party, on arriving, were invited into the corral, where they staid about an hour, talking with them about the attack that had been made upon them. Lee told the emigrants that the Indians had gone off over the hills, and that if they would lay down their arms and give up their property, he and his party would conduct them back to Cedar City; but if they went out with their arms, the Indians would look upon it as an unfriendly act, and would again attack them. The emigrants, trusting to Lee's honor and to the sincerity of his statements, consented to the terms which he proposed, and left their property and all their arms at the corral, and, under the escort of Lee and his party, started towards the north in the direction of Cedar City. After they had proceeded about a mile on their way, on a signal given by Bishop Higby, who was one of the party that went to the corral with Lee, the slaughter began.

The men were mostly killed or shot down at the first fire, and the women and children, who immediately fled in different directions, were quickly pursued and dispatched.

Such was the substance, if not the exact words, of a statement made by a man to Judge Cradlebaugh, in my presence, who at the same time confessed that he participated in the horrible events which he related. He also gave Judge C. the names of 25 or 30 other men living in the region, who assisted in the massacre. He offered also to make the same statement in court and under oath, if protection was guaranteed to him. He gave as a reason for divulging these facts, that they had tormented his mind and conscience since they occurred, and he expressed a willingness to stand a trial for his crime.

We had been in Cedar City but two days when Capt. Campbell with his command arrived, and informed Judge Cradlebaugh that he had received an express from Gen. Johnston, directing him to bring back with him all the troops in his command, as reports were then current that the Mormons were assembling in armed bodies in the mountains, for what purpose was not known. In consequence of this order, Judge Cradlebaugh was left without the means of either protecting witnesses who might be called on to testify in court, or of arresting any parties who might flee or resist his writs. Without assistance of this kind, he deemed it useless to attempt to hold a court, and we accordingly both left on the following day with Capt. Campbell, on his return to Camp Floyd. On our way there we were overtaken by Mr. and Mrs. Hamblin, on their way to Salt Lake City. They had with them the child found at Pocketsville. I had employed Mr. H. to take it to the city, knowing that it would be out of my power to devote proper care to it, under the circumstances in which I was placed. Mr. Hamblin travelled in company with us for a day or two, and during this time Mrs. H. informed me that at the time of the massacre, she was living at the ranch at the north end of the Mountain Meadows, and that for several days before these children were brought to her house, or before she had even seen them, she saw several men loitering about in the vicinity of her house without any apparent object or business; this was an unusual circumstance. On the day that the massacre took place, Mrs. Hamblin stated that the children were brought to her house, and there disposed of by Bishop Lee to different white persons who were there at the time. Lee professed to act as an agent for the Indians in disposing of these children. He pretended to barter them for guns, blankets, and ponies for the use of the Indians; but Mrs. H. stated that she was of the opinion at the time that the children were not really sold, and that the pretence of doing so by Lee was a mere sham. Lee went through the form of selling or bartering off all the children but two. One if these was an infant whose left arm was nearly shot off above the elbow, the bone being entirely severed; the other was her sister, three or four years older. These two, Mrs. Hamblin stated, Bishop Lee gave to her, and asigned as a reason for doing so, the high esteem which the Indians had for Mr. Hamblin. I have omitted heretofore to state that Jacob Hamblin, the husband of this lady, who has been several times referred to in this narrative, was a "President" in the Mirmon church, holding the same office as that of Isaac Haight. From many interviews that I have had with Mr. Hamblin, and from all that I could learn from others, he was absent from home, and in Salt Lake City; when the massacre took place; and I have no evidence ir reason ro believe that he was in any way concerned, or even aware of the massacre, till after it was over.

It will be remembered that I employed Mr. Hamblin to go to Pocketville for the child which I heard of there. After his return with the child, Mr. Hamblin came to the camp of Capt. Campbell, on the Santa Clara, to inform me of the fact. -- While there he told me that he had heard more, and learned more about the massacre during his absence after the child, than he ever knew before; that he had been told of a number of men that he knew, who were concerned [with] it, that he never dreamed or suspected, or would have suspected of being concerned in it, but for what he had been told. I inquired of him the names of these men, and he informed me that he was under a promise of secrecy not to divulge them to any one but Gov. Cumming; but that he [intended] to tell him who they were. Mr. Hamblin was in Salt Lake City not long after, but I was told by Gov. Cumming after he left, that he had revealed nothing to him in regard to the massacre or those concerned in it.

These are the principal and most important facts obtained in relation to this noted massacre during the trip to which I have referred. I have omitted many minor facts and circumstances corroborative of those given, on account of the additional length to which they would extend this article, which is already quite lengthy. I have aimed at the narration simply of what I saw and heard, leaving the public to place any construction they deem proper upon the facts and statements given. And this would not have been done by me in this manner if I had seen from any one else a publication embodying these particulars, if this attempt had not been made to sneer away the evidence that exists of Mormon complicity in this horrid massacre, if not of their being the only persons concerned in it.
WM. H. ROGERS.      

Origin of the Mormon Imposture.

In an old number of Littel's Living Age, we find the following account of the origin of the Mormon church and its founders. We trust that the views of the writer expressed in 1851, about having a State as the result of such fanaticism and folly is as far removed in the future now as when uttered:

The Rochester American publishes the following from a forthcoming work by Mr. Turner, entitled a "history of Philip and Gorham's Purchase." Though not entirely new, it is succinct, and communicates some facts coming within the author's personal knowledge:

As we are now at the home of the Smith family -- in sight of "Mormon Hill" -- a brief pioneer history will be looked for, of the strange, and singularly successful religious sect -- the Mormons; and brief it must be, merely starting it in its career, and leaving it to their especial historian to trace them to Kirtland, Nauvoo, Beaver Island, and Utah, or the Salt Lake.

Joseph Smith, the father of the prophet Joseph Smith, jr., was from the Merrimack river, N. H. He first settled in or near Palmyra village, but as early as 1819 was the occupant of some new land on "Stafford street," in the town of Manchester, near the line of Palmyra. * "Mormon Hill " is near the plank road about half-way between the villages of Palmyra and Manchester. The elder Smith had been a Universalist, and subsequently a Methodist; was a good deal of a smatterer in scriptural knowledge, but the seed of revelation was sown on weak ground; he was a great babbler, credulous, not especially industrious, a money-digger, prone to the marvellous; and, withal, a little given to difficulties with neighbors, and petty law-suits. Not a very propitious account of the father of a prophet -- the founder of a state; but there was a "woman in the case."

Mrs. Smith was a woman of strong, uncultivated intellect; artful and cunning; imbued with an ill-regulated religious enthusiasm. The incipient hints, the first givings out that a prophet was to spring from her humble household, came from her; and when matters were maturing for denouement, she gave out that such and such ones -- always fixing upon those who had both money and credulity -- were to be instruments in some great work of new revelation. The old man was rather her faithful co-worker, or executive exponent. Their son, Alvah, was originally intended or designated, by fireside consultations and solemn and mysterious out-door hints, as the forthcoming prophet. The mother and the father said he was the chosen one; but Alvah, however spiritual he may have been, had a carnal appetite; ate too many green turnips, sickened and died. Thus the world lost a prophet, and Mormonism a leader; the designs, impiously and wickedly attributed to Providence, were defeated; and all in consequence of a surfeit of raw turnips. Who will talk of the cackling geese of Rome, or any other small and innocent causes of mighty events after this? The mantle of the prophet which Mrs. and Mr. Joseph Smith and one Oliver Cowdery had wove themselves -- every thread of it -- fell upon their next eldest son, Joseph Smith, Jr.

And a most unpromising recipient of such a trust was this same Joseph Smith, Jr., afterwards Jo Smith." He was lounging, idle, (not to say vicious,) and possessed of less than ordinary intellect. The author's own recollections of him are distinct. He used to come into the village of Palmyra, with little jags of wood, from his back-woods home; sometimes patronizing a village grocery too freely; sometimes finding an odd job to do about the store of Seymour Scovell; and once a week he would stroll into the office of the old Palmyra Register for his father's paper. How impious in us young "dare devils" * to once in a while blacken the face of the then meddling, inquisitive lounger -- but afterwards prophet -- with the old-fashioned balls, when he used to put himself in the way of the working of the old-fashioned Ramage press! The editor of the Cultivator at Albany -- esteemed as he may justly consider himself for his subsequent enterprise and usefulness -- may think of it with contrition and repentance, that he once helped thus to disfigure the face of a prophet, and, remotely, the founder of a state.

But Joseph had a little ambition, and some very laudable aspirations; the mother's intellect occasionally shone out in him feebly, especially when he used to help us to solve some portentous questions of moral or political ethics, in our juvenile debating club, which we moved down to the old red school-house on Durfee street, to get rid of the annoyance of critics that used to drop in upon us in the village; amid, subsequently, after catching a spark of Methodism in the camp-meeting, away down in the woods, on the Vienna road, he was a very passable exhorter in evening meetings.

Legends of hidden treasure had long designated Mormon Hill as the repository. Old Joseph had dug there, and young Joseph had not only heard his father and mother relate the marvellous tales of buried wealth, but had accompanied his father in the midnight delvings, and incantations of the spirits that guarded it.

If a buried revelation was to he exhumed, how natural was it that the Smith family, with their credulity, and their assumed presentiment that a prophet was to come from their household, should be connected with it; and that Mormon Hill was the place where it would be found!

It is believed by those who were best acquainted with the Smith family, am>! most conversant with all the Gold Bible movements, that there is no foundation for the statement that their original manuscript was written by a Mr. Spaulding, of Ohio. A supplement to the Gold Bible, "The Book of Commandments," in all probability was written by Rigdon, and he may have been aided by Spaulding's manuscript; but the book itself is without doubt a production of the Smith family, aided by Oliver Cowdery, who was school teacher on Stafford street, an intimate of the Smith family, and identified with the whole matter. The production, as all will conclude who have read it, or ever. given it a cursory review, is not that of an educated man or woman. The bungling attempt to counterfeit the style of the Scriptures; the intermixture of modern phraseology; the ignorance of chronology and geography; its utter crudeness and baldness, as a whole, stamp its character, and clearly exhibit its vulgar origin. It is a strange medley of scripture, romance, and bad composition.

The primitive design of Mrs. Smith, her husband, Jo and Cowdery, was money-making; blended with which perhaps was a desire for notoriety, to be obtained by a cheat and fraud. The idea of being the founders of a new sect was an after-thought, in which they were aided by others. The projectors of the humbug being destitute of means for carrying out their plans, a victim was selected to obviate that difficulty. Martin Harris was a farmer of Palmyra, the owner of a good farm, and an honest, worthy citizen; but especially given to religious enthusiasm, new creeds, the more extravagant the better; a monomaniac, in fact. Joseph Smith, upon whom the mantle of prophecy had fallen after the sad fate of Alvah, began to make demonstrations. He informed Harris of the great discovery, and that it had been revealed to him that he (Harris) was a chosen instrument to aid in the great work of surprising the world with a new revelation. They had hit upon the right man. He mortgaged his fine farm to pay for printing the book, assumed a grave, mysterious, and unearthly deportment, and made here and there among his acquaintances solemn annunciations of the great event that was transpiring. His version of the discovery, as communicated to him by the prophet Joseph himself, is well remembered by several respectable citizens of Palmyra, to whom he made early disclosures. It was in substance as follows: --

The prophet Joseph was directed by an angel where to find, by excavation, at the place afterwards called Mormon Hill, the gold plates; and was compelled by the angel, much against his will, to be the interpreter of the sacred record they contained, and publish it to the world. That the plates contained a record of the ancient inhabitants of this country, "engraved by Mormon the son of Nephi." That on the top of the box containing the plates, "a pair of large spectacles were found, the stones or glass set in which were opaque to all but the prophet;" that "these belonged to Mormon, the engraver of the plates, arid without them the plates could not be read." Harris assumed that himself and Cowdery were the chosen amanuenses, and that the prophet Joseph, curtained from the world and them, with his spectacles read from the gold plates what they committed to paper.

Harris exhibited to an informant of the author the manuscript title-page. On it was drawn, rudely and bunglingly, concentric circles, between, above, and below, which were characters with little resemblance to letters, apparently a miserable imitation of hieroglyphics, the writer may somewhere have seen. To guard against profane curiosity, the prophet has given out that no one but himself, not even his chosen co-operators, must be permitted to see them, on pain of instant death. Harris had never seen the plates, but the glowing account of their massive richness excited other than spiritual hopes, and he, upon one occasion, got a village silversmith to help him estimate their value, taking as a basis the prophet's account of their dimensions. It was a blending of the spiritual and utilitarian that threw a shadow of doubt upon Martin's sincerity. This, and some anticipations lie indulged in as to the profits that would arise from the sale of the Gold Bible, made it then, as it is now, a mooted question whether he was altogether a dupe.

The wife of Harris was a rank infidel and heretic, touching the whole thing, and decidedly opposed to her husband's participation in it. With sacrilegious hands she seized over a hundred of the manuscript pages of the new revelation, and burned or secreted them. It was agreed by Smith and family, Cowdery and Harris, not to transcribe these again, but to let so much of the new revelation drop out, as the "evil spirit would get up a story that the second translation did not agree with the first." A very ingenious method, surely, of guarding against the possibility that Mrs. Harris had preserved the manuscript with which they might be confronted, should they attempt an imitation of their own miserable patchwork.

The prophet did not got his lesson well upon the start, or the household of the impostors were in fault. After he had told his story, in his absence, the rest of the family made a new version of it to one of their neighbors. They showed him such a pebble as may any day be picked up on the shore of Lake Ontario -- the common hornblende -- carefully wrapped in cotton and kept in a mysterious box. They said it was by looking at this stone, in a hat, the light excluded, that Joseph discovered the plates. This, it will be observed, differs materially from Joseph's story of the angel. It was the same stone the Smiths had used in money-digging, and in some pretended discoveries of stolen property.

Long before the Gold Bible demonstration, the Smith family had, with some sinister object in view, whispered another fraud in the ears of the credulous. They pretended that, in digging for money at Mormon lull, they came across a chest, three by two feet in size, covered with a dark-colored stone. In the centre of the stone was a white spot about the size of a sixpence. Enlarging, the spot increased to the size of a twenty-four pound shot, and then exploded with a terrible noise. The chest vanished and all was utter darkness.

It may be safely presumed that in no other instance have prophets and the chosen amid designated of angels, been quite as calculating and worldly as were those of Stafford street, Mormon Hill, and Palmyra. The only business contract -- veritable instrument in writing -- that was ever executed by spiritual agents, has been preserved, and should be among the archives of the new State of Utah. It is signed by the prophet Joseph himself, amid witnessed by Oliver Cowdery, and secures to Martin Harris one half of the proceeds of the sale of the Gold Bible until he was fully reimbursed in the sum of $2,500, the cost of printing.

The after-thought which has been alluded to -- the enlarging of original intentions -- was at the suggestion of S. Rigdon, of Ohio, who made his appearance and blended himself with the poorly devised scheme of imposture, about the time the book was issued from the press. He unworthily bore the title of a Baptist elder, but had by some previous freak, if the author is rightly informed, forfeited his standing with that respectable religious denomination. Designing, ambitious and dishonest, under the semblance of sanctity and assumed spirituality, he was just the man for the use of the Smith household amid their half-dupe and half-designing abettors; and they were just the fit instruments he desired. He became at once the Hamlet, or more appropriately perhaps, the Mawworm of the play.

Under the auspices of Rigdon, a new sect, the Mormons, was projected. Prophecies fell thick and fast from the lips of Joseph; old Mrs. Smith assumed all the airs of a mother of a prophet; that particular family of Smiths were singled out amid became exalted above all their legion of namesakes. The bald, clumsy cheat found here and there an enthusiast, a monomaniac or a knave, in and around its primitive locality, to help it upon its start; and soon, like another scheme of imposture, (that had a little of dignity and plausibility in it,) it had its Hegira, or flight, to Kirtland, then to Nauvoo; then to a short resting-place in Missouri -- and then on and over the Rocky mountains to Utah or the Salt Lake. Banks, printing-offices, temples, cities, and finally a state, have arisen under its auspices. Converts have multiplied to tens of thousands. In several of the countries of Europe there are preachers and organized sects of Mormons; believers in the divine mission of Joseph Smith & Co.

And here the subject must be dismissed. If it has been treated lightly -- with a seeming levity -- it is because it will admit of no other treatment. There is no dignity about the whole thing; nothing to entitle it to mild treatment. It deserves none of the charity extended to ordinary religious fanaticism, for knavery and fraud have been with it incipiently and progressively. It has not the poor merit of ingenuity. Its success is a slur upon the age. Fanaticism promoted it at first; then ill-advised persecution; then the designs of demagogues who wished to command the suffrage of its followers; until finally an American Congress has abetted the fraud and imposition by its acts, and we are to have a state of our proud Union -- in this boasted era of light and knowledge -- the very name of which will sanction and dignify the fraud and falsehood of Mormon Hill, the gold plates and the spurious revelation. This much, at least, might have been omitted out of decent respect to the moral and religious sense of the people of the old states.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 6.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., Apr. 11, 1860.                    Vol. X.


Convened in the Tabernacle, Great Salt Lake City, Friday, April 6, 1860, at 10 a.m. -- President Brigham Young presiding...

Pres. Joseph Young observed that his brother Brigham was the first man who preached the gospel to him; at that time he was traveling in Canada preaching for the Methodists. He became acquainted with the Book of Mormon about two months after its publication, but never investigated the subject of its coming forth for two years, when his brother came two hundred miles to preach it to him; he received it with joy and went forth testifying to the truth; from that time to this he always has had a testimony to bear that Joseph Smith was a Prophet and that the Book of Mormon was a divine revelation, and he could bear testimony that the keys of power were now committed to Joseph's successors...

Elder William W. Phelps made remarks on the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, a copy of which he said he received on the 9th day of April, 30 years ago; that book he considered to be the foundation of all that which has brought so many of us together, therefore he rose up to bear testimony of its truth. He held in his hand a copy of the first edition of that Book, and declared it to be the truth of the Almighty; he had heard the testimony of Joseph Smith and that of the chosen witnesses in relation to the Book of Mormon, and he with them wished to give his testimony to the world relative to its divine origin. Said he knew this to be the church of the living God, and that Brigham Young was the legally appointed successor of Joseph Smith...

Prest. Brigham Young gave notice that the Union Academy would be open for tuition tomorrow morning, and urged upon the people the necessity of patronizing it, and of giving their sons a liberal eduaction

The  Union  Academy

Was opened, pursuant to previous notice on Monday morning, 9th inst., at 9 o'clock, in the large and commodious building on the east side of Union Square formerly known as the the Union Hotel.

Up to Tuesday morning the number of students who had presented themselves was only twenty-six.

Two departments have been formed thus far, including the whole number of students. The first department comprises the class in mathematics, thirteen in number, which is under the supervision of Mr. Orson Pratt. This class has entered upon the study of algebra, Days algebra being chiefly used astext books.

The second depart department is under the supervision of Mr. James T. Cobb, comprises the classes in the lower branches; namely, arithmetic, geography, history, &c. Reading, writing and other rudimental ranches branches will not be taught in the Academy, for the present at least.

Although the Academy is under the general supervision of Professor Orson Pratt, his immediate services, probably, will not be required till the classes in the higher branches shall have become farther ad advanced, or until applicants present themselves, prepared to enter into the study of the more abstruse sciences.

The auspices under which this Academy has been opened and the interest manifested by many in its success, together with the zeal already exhibited by the students in the prosecution of their studies, are are strong guarantees of the permanency of the institution.

The opportunity here offered by President Brigham Young, to our young men, of acquiring a thorough, practical, scientific education cannot but be gratefully acknowledged and, we trust, will be duly improved by all whose circumstances will permit them to avail themselves of it. The benefits to be derived therefrom will doubtless be more fully understood and appreciated in years years to come. Our most ardent wishes are for its complete success...

The school taught by Mrs. Hulda Kimball, one of our most experienced female teachers, in the 17th Ward, is in a flourishing flourish condition -- the average attendance being about fifty, with a pleasing degree of regularity, promptness and interest on the part of the scholars...

Note: History does not record whether Huldah Barnes Kimball informed her fellow Salt Lake City educator, Master James T. Cobb, of her early years in the Church, when she was intimately associated with the arch-apostate D. P. Hurlbut. Given the fact that Cobb provided no unique information about Hurlbut's notorious 1833-34 activities, in his writing of numerous historical articles for the Salt Lake Tribune, the answer to that pertinent question appears to be "no." Probably the plural wife of Heber C. Kimball felt it was unseemly to speak too freely of her early experiences with the Church in western Pennsylvania, (and at Kirtland, as a female attendant to Joseph Smith, Jr. and family, in the Smith home there).



No. 43.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wed., Dec. 26, 1860.                    Vol. X.


On Sunday, Dec. 23, 11 a.m., Bishop William Crosby preached to the congregation, exhorting them to walk in the path of truth and righteousness.

In the afternoon Bishop Edwin D. Woolley made a few remarks on the remarkable events of the present year.

President Brigham Young delivered an interesting discourse on the gifts of the Holy Ghost and showed that this people are destined to become a kingdom of kings and priests. Showed that the gift of seeing was a natural gift, that there are thousands in the world who are natural born Seers, but when the Lord selected Joseph Smith to be his vice-gerent and mouthpiece upon the earth in this dispensation, he saw that he would be faithful and honor his calling. He advised the wicked to forsake their sins, to love righteousness and mercy; counseled all Saints not to touch nor taste that which would pollute them, but inasmuch as they were righteous to continue in their righteousness, that they might be prepared to enter into the kingdom of our God.

Note: Compare the above to Journal of Discourses III, (1856) p. 364: "If a man is called to be a Prophet, and the gift of prophecy is poured upon him, though he afterwards actually defies the power of God and turns away from the holy commandments, that man will continue in his gift and will prophecy lies. -- He will make false prophecies, yet he will do it by the spirit of prophecy; he will feel that he is a prophet and can prophecy, but he does it by another spirit and power than that which was given him of the Lord. He uses the gift as much as you and I use ours. The gift of seeing with the natural eyes is just as much a gift as the gift of tongues. The Lord gave that gift and we can do as we please with regard to seeing; we can use the sight of the eye to the glory of God, or to our own destruction. -- The gift of taste is the gift of God, we can use that to feed and pamper the lusts of the flesh, or we can use it to the glory of God. -- The gift of communicating one with another is the gift of God, just as much so as the gift of prophecy, of discerning spirits, of tongues, of healing, or any other gift, though sight, taste, and speech, are so generally bestowed that they are not considered in the same miraculous light as are those gifts mentioned in the Gospel."



No. 3.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, Oct. 19, 1864.                    Vol. XIV.



We published in our last issue a brief account of the the first general festivities of some of the choice men of Israel known as Zion's Camp. These long tried members of our Church were called together by President Brigham Young, that they might have an opportunity of enjoying themselves, and of talking over the history of their labors for the kingdom of God when it was in its infancy. We give in this number some of the most important, and to us interesting incidents connected with the calling, by revelation through the great Seer of the 19th century, the organization and travels of the 205 men who went to fulfill the commandments of heaven. And feeling assured that many of our readers would like to see the names of the whole company, we print them in also.

In December 1833, soon after the news of the expulsion of the Saints from Jackson county, Missouri, reached the brethren in the east, a revelation was given which is recorded in section 98 of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and in the February following another revelation was given, see section 101, paragraph 5.

With a full determination to render implicit obedience to these revelations, President Joseph Smith, Elders Parley P. Pratt, Lyman Wight, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Frederick G. Williams, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt and other Elders, visited the branches of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in New York, Pennsylvania and the New England States, collecting together as many as could be obtained to go in fulfillment of the aforementioned revelations. Many who had money were unwilling to invest their means until they should hear of the certainty of peace. The poor among the Saints were awake to their duties, and determined to do all they could for the accomplishment of the purposes of the Almighty.

About fifty volunteers were obtained in the vicinity of Kirtland, and nearly one hundred from the eastern branches of the Church.

The main body, consisting of about one hundred, left Kirtland Geauga, county, Ohio on the 5th of May, 1834 and by the next Sabbath the Camp had received considerable accessions to its numbers, say in the neighborhood of sixty. Part of these were from the Eastern States, and the remainder from Ohio. They organized into companies called tens, each company being provided with the necessary tents and other camp equipage. Messes for cooking purposes, were also formed. They made an orderly encampment, and kept guard every night in order to protect their animals and other property.

The journey from Kirtland to Clay county Missouri was performed in 46 days, traveling days being thirty-seven; most of the company traveled on foot. Much of the country through which the they traveled was new, in consequence of which they were frequently obliged to take a circuitous route.

Elders David W. Patten and William D. Pratt were sent forward from Kirtland, in advance of the Camp, to carry the revelations to the brethren in Missouri, and apprise them of what was in progress for the redemption of Zion.

Daniel Dunklin, then Governor of Missouri, had previously promised to re-instate the Saints upon their lands, specifying however this very singular condition, that they must defend themselves afterwards. Elders Orson Hyde and Parley P. Pratt visited the Governor, and informed him that the Saints were waiting for and anxiously expecting him in to fulfill his promise, which he positively refused to do.

The people in Jackson county, through some gentleman of Clay, proffered to sell their possessions in the former county to the Saints, or to buy of the Saints at an appraised value. They were answered that to sell our possessions would to a denial of our faith, but the offer was made to accept the proposal to purchase theirs, upon which they declined to sell.

Section 102 in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants is a revelation given on the banks of Fishing river, Missouri and explains the reason why the camp broke up without going into Jackson county.
"Verily I say unto you who have assembled yourselves together, that you may learn my will concerning the redemption of mine afflicted people.

And Zion cannot be built up unless it is by the principles of the law of the celestial kingdom, otherwise I cannot receive her unto myself; and my people must needs be chastened until they learn obedience, if it must needs be, by the things which they suffer.

For behold I do not require at their hands to fight the battles of Zion; for, as I said in a former commandment, even so will I fulfill. I will fight your battles.

Behold, the destroyer I have sent forth to destroy and lay waste mine enemies: and not many years hence they shall not be left to pollute mine heritage, and to blaspheme my name upon the lands which I have consecrated for the gathering together of my Saints."
Out of the whole number that went as far as Fishing river, two went off because they had not a chance to fight the mob, one left without his discharge, and all the rest carried out the requirements of the Prophet in good faith.

The same revelation required the Saints to send up wise men with money, to purchase all the land they could in Jackson and the countries round about. In obedience to which they subsequently purchased and acquired the immense tracts of land owned by them in Jackson, Clay, Ray, Caldwell, Clinton, Davies, Livingston and Carroll counties, from which they were driven out of the State, under the exterminating order of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, in the fall of 1838.

Prayers were had in each tent of the Camp every morning and evening during the entire journey. The Camp rested on Sabbath days, and held meetings, at which the sacrament was administered. President Smith was constantly teaching the brethren, both in public and private, the principles of the kingdom. All the brethren traveled on foot, except the invalids, packing their knapsacks and much of the time carrying their fire arms. The wagons were each drawn by one or two horses, and were so heavily laden that the brethren had frequently to draw them through the mud and other bad places by hand; this was almost an every day occurrence while passing the swamp lands of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.
Hazen Aldrich,
Joseph S. Allen,
Isaac Allred,
James Allred,
Martin Allred,
Milo Andrus,
Solomon Angel,
Allen A. Avery,
Almon W. Babbitt,
Alexander Badlam,
Samuel Baker,
Nathan Bennett Baldwin,
Elani Barber,
Israel Barlow,
Lorenzo D. Barnes,
Kdson Barney,
Royal Barney,
Henry Benner,
Samuel Bent,
Hiram Backman,
Lorenzo Booth,
George W. Brooks,
Albert Brown,
Harry Brown,
Samuel Brown,
John Brownell,
Peter Buchanan,
Alden Burdick,
Harrison Burgess,
David Byur,
William F. Cahoon,
John Carpenter,
John S. Carter,
Daniel Cathcart,
Alonzo Champlin, 
Jacob Chapman, 
William Cherry, 
John M. Chidester, 
Alden Childs, 
Nathaniel Childs, 
Stephen Childs,
Albert Clements, 
Thomas Colborn, 
Alanson Colby, 
Zera S. Cole, 
Zebedee Coltrin, 
Libeus T. Coon, 
Horace Cowan, 
Lyman Curtis, 
Mecham Curtis, 
Solomon W. Denton, 
Peter Doff, 
David D. Dort, 
John Duncan, 
James Dunn, 
Philemon Duzette, 
Philip Ettleman, 
Bradford W. Elliott, 
David Elliott, 
David Evans, 
Asa Field, 
Edmund Fisher, 
Alfred Fisk, 
Hezekiah Fisk, 
Elijah Fordham, 
George Fordham, 
Frederick Forney, 
John Fossett, 
James Foster, 
Solon Foster,
Jacob Gates,
Benjamin Gifford,
Levi Gifford, 
Sherman Gilbert, 
Tru Glidden, 
Dean C. Gould, 
Jedediah M. Grant, 
Addison Green, 
Michael Griffith, 
Everett Griswold, 
Elisha Groves, 
Joseph Hancock, 
Levi W. Hancock, 
Joseph Harmon, 
Henry Herriman, 
Martin Harris, 
Joseph Hartshorn, 
Thomas Hayes, 
Nelson Higgins, 
Seth Hitchcock, 
Amos Hogers, 
Chandler Holbrook, 
Joseph Holbrook, 
Milton Holmes, 
Osmon Houghton, 
Marshal Hubbard, 
Solomon Humphrey, 
Joseph Huntsman, 
John Hustin, 
Elias Hutchins, 
Heman T. Hyde, 
Orson Hyde, 
Warren S. Ingalls, 
Edward Ivie, 
James R. Ivie, 
John A. Ivie, 
William S. Ivie, 
William Jessop,
Luke S. Johnson, 
Lyman E. Johnson, 
Noah Johnson, 
Seth Johnson, 
Isaac Jones, 
Levi Jones, 
Charles Kelley, 
HeberC. Kimball, 
Samuel Kingsley, 
Dennis Lake, 
Jesse B. Lawson, 
L. S. Lewis, 
Josiah Littlefleld, 
Lyman O. Littlefleld, 
Waldo Littlefleld, 
Amasa M. Lyman, 
Moses Martin, 
Edward W. Marvin, 
Reuben McBride, 
Robert McCord, 
Eleazer Miller, 
John Miller, 
Justin Morse, 
John Murdock, 
Freeman Nickerson, 
Levi S. Nickerson, 
Uriah C. Nickerson, 
Joseph Nicholas, 
Joseph B. Noble, 
Ur. North, 
Roger Orton, 
John D. Parker, 
Warren Parrish, 
David W. Patten, 
Orson Pratt, 
Parley P. Pratt,
William D. Pratt, 
Charles C. Rich, 
Leonard Rich, 
Darwin Richardson, 
Burr Riggs, 
Harpin Riggs, 
Nathaniel Riggs, 
Milcher Riley, 
Alanson Ripley,
Lewis Robbins,
Erastus Rudd,
William Henry Sagers,
Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury.
Henry Sherman,
Lyman Sherman,
Henry Shibley,
Cyrus Smalling,
Avery Smith,
George A. Smith,
Hyrum Smith,
Jackson Smith,
Zechariah B. Smith,
Joseph Smith.
Lyman Smith,
Sylvester Smith,
William Smith,
Willard Snow,
Harvey Stanley,
Hyrum Stratton,
Zerubbabel Snow,
Daniel Stephens,
Elias Strong,
John Joshua Tanner,
Ezra Thayer,
Nathan Tanner,
James L. Thompson.
Samuel Thompson, 
Wm. P. Tippetts,
Tinuey Thomas,
Nelson Tribbs, 
Joel Vaughn, 
Salmon Warner, 
William Weden,
Elias Wells,
Alexander Whitesides,
Andrew W. Whitlock,
Lyman Wight,
Eber Wilcox,
Sylvester B. Wilkinson,
Frederick G. Williams,
Alonzo Winchester,
Benjamin Winchester, 
Lupton Winchester, 
Alvin Winegar, 
Samuel Winegar, 
Hiram Winter, 
Henry Wissmiller.
Wilford Woodruff, 
Brigham Young, 
Joseph Young.
Charlotte Alvord, Sophronia Curtis. Mary Snow Gates, Nancy Lambson Holbrook, Betsy Parrish, Ada Clements. Mary Chidester, Diana Drake, Eunice Holbrook, Mrs. Houghton, _____Ripley.
Diana Holbrook, daughter of Chandler Holbrook, Sarah Lucretia Holbrook, daughter of Joseph Holbrook, Charlotte Holbrook, daughter of Joseph Holbrook, [Almira Winegar], daughter [sic - sister] of Alvin Winegar, Sarah Pulsipher, daughter of Zera Pulsipher, John P. Chidester, son of John M. Chidester, Eunice Chidester, daughter of John M. Chidester.

Note: The Zion's Camp participants list given above is NOT exactly the same as the 1864 Deseret News roster. See Thomas Bullock's Zion's Camp Roll manuscript in the LDS Church Archives and the rosters published by Andrew Jenson in the Historical Record issues of June, 1888 and August, 1889.



No. 12.                    Great Salt Lake City, Wednesday, Dec. 21, 1864.                    Vol. XIV.



A Sketch of Church History by Elder GEORGE A. SMITH,
spoken in the Tabernacle at Ogden City,
Tuesday, November 15, 1864, 10 a.m.


When the Lord appeared to Joseph Smith and manifested unto him a knowledge pertaining to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon and the work of the last days, Satan came also with his power and tempted Joseph. It is written in the book of Job, "Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them." In the very commencement of this Work, the Prophet Joseph Smith was called upon to contend face to face with the powers of darkness by spiritual manifestations, and open visions, as well as with men in the flesh, stirred up by the same spirit of the adversary to edge up his way and destroy him from the earth, and annihilate the work which he was about to commence. He thus describes the incident:

"In the spring of 1820, after I had retired into the place where I had previously designed to go, having looked around me, and finding myself alone, I kneeled down and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. I had scarcely done so, when immediately I was seized upon by some power, which entirely overcame me, and had such astonishing influence over me as to bind my tongue so that I could not speak. Thick darkness gathered around me, and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden destruction. But -- exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me, and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and abandon myself to destruction, not to an imaginary ruin, but to the power of some actual being from the unseen world, who has such a marvellous power as I had never before felt in any being -- just at this moment of great alarm, I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head, above the brightness of the sun, which descended gradually until it fell upon me. It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from the enemy which held me bound. When the light rested upon me I saw two personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in air. One of them spake unto me, calling me by name, and said, pointing to the other -- 'This is my beloved son, hear him.'"

It was also peculiar in the history of the age, that just at the time that God was revealing unto his servant Joseph to raise up men to bear testimony of the principles of the Gospel in its fulness and simplicity, that satan was at work stirring up the hearts of the children of men to a species of religious excitement. There were in many parts of the country strange manifestations, great camp and other protracted meetings were assembled together to worship under the various orders denominated Methodists, Campbelites, Presbyterians, Baptists, Unitarians, etc., among whom were manifested the development of a spirit which deprived men of their strength; they would faint away, or, they would manifest a variety of contortions of countenance. There was introduced into the Western States a phenomenon called the jerks; persons under the influence of religious fanaticism would jerk seemingly enough to tear them to pieces.

When the Church was organized, persons came into it bringing along some of these enthusiastic notions individuals who professed to have revelations on every subject, and who were ready to banish every moral principle under the guidance of false spirits. Joseph the Prophet had also to learn by experience, and to teach the Elders and the early members of the Church, how they should judge of the manifestation of spirits. Book of Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 17, Par. 7.

"Wherefore it shall come to pass, that if you behold a spirit manifested that you cannot understand, and you receive not that spirit, ye shall ask of the Father in the name of Jesus, and if he give not unto you that spirit, that you may know that it is not of God: and it shall be given unto you power over that spirit, and you shall proclaim against that spirit with a loud voice, that it is not of God; not with railing accusation, that ye be not overcome; neither with boasting, nor rejoicing, lest you be seized therewith," and refers to Hiram Page who began to get revelations through the medium of a black stone, certain characters appearing on that stone which he wrote down.

Notes concerning false revelations, apostacies.

Joseph Smith in his history wrote thus:

"To our great grief, however, we soon found that Satan had been lying in wait to deceive, and seeking whom he might devour. Br. Hyrum Page had got in his possession a certain stone, by which he had obtained revelations concerning the upbuilding of Zion, the order of the Church, &c., &c., all of which were entirely at variance with the order of God's house, as laid down in the New Testament, as well as our late revelations. As a conference had been appointed for the first day of September, I thought it wisdom not to do much more than to converse with the brethren on the subject, until the Conference should meet. Finding, however, that many, especially the Whitmer family and Oliver Cowdery, were believing much in the things set forth by this stone, we thought best to inquire of the Lord concerning so important a matter; and before conference convened, we received the revelation to Oliver Cowdery given at Fayette, New York, September, 1830, in the 4th paragraph of which the Lord says: "And again, thou shalt take thy brother, Hyrum Page, between him and thee alone, and tell him that those things which he hath written from that stone are not of me, and that Satan deceived him; for, behold, these things have not been appointed unto him, neither shall anything be appointed unto any of this church contrary to the church covenants, for all things must be done in order, and by common consent in the church, by the prayer of faith."
Joseph's history continues:

"At length our Conference assembled. The subject of the stone previously mentioned, was discussed, and after considerable investigation, Bro. Page, as well as the whole church who were present, renounced the said stone, and all things connected therewith, much to our mutual satisfaction and happiness."

Some of the elders journeyed to the westward from the State of New York, and built up branches in the State of Ohio. Elders Oliver Cowdery and P. P. Pratt visited Sidney Rigdon who resided in Mentor, Geauga county, and was famous in that country as a reformed Baptist minister, more familiarly known as Campbelites. He had preached the doctrine of baptism for the remission of sins, the regular Baptist church having a different, view of the subject, for they considered "baptism as an outward sign of an inward grace," and that in order to be a candidate for baptism he must have received a change of heart, changed from a heart of stone to one of flesh; he was required to go into the congregation and formally renounce the world, the flesh and the devil, having given evidence that he was a new creature and was prepared for baptism. But the Reformed Baptists held the doctrine which I believe was first preached in Ohio, by Sidney Rigdon, that a man must reform, that repentance was simply a reformation, and the moment that repentance was resolved upon, the candidate was ready for baptism; and so far their notion appeared to be an improvement upon the general idea entertained, and consonant with the Bible view of it, as it was laid down by the Savior and his apostles. But here they stopped, and did not administer the laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, and what was further, they contended there was no need of it, that it was all done away, and that the written word was all the spirit there was.

When the elders waited on Sidney Rigdon and presented to him the Book of Mormon, teaching him the principle of laying on of hands for the reception of the Holy Ghost, he received it, as did several hundred members of his church, and members of other churches in that vicinity, who were baptized in a few weeks. In a few days Elders Oliver Cowdery, P. P. Pratt and Ziba Patterson, passed on westward, as their mission directed them to the western boundaries of the State of Missouri. Sidney Rigdon took a journey to the east, as did Edward Partridge for the purpose of visiting the prophet, and these strange spirits of which we have already spoken began to manifest themselves in the churches and branches which had been built up.

There was at this time in Kirtland, a society that had undertaken to have a community of property; it has sometimes been denominated the Morley family, as there was a number of them located on a farm owned by Captain Isaac Morley. These persons had been baptized, but had not vet been instructed in relation to their duties. A false spirit entered into them, developing their singular, extravagant and wild ideas. They had a meeting at the farm, and among them was a negro known generally as Black Pete, who became a revelator. Others also manifested wonderful developments; they could see angels, and letters would come down from heaven, they said, and they would be put through wonderful unnatural distortions. Finally on one occasion, Black Pete got sight of one of those revelations carried by a black angel, he started after it, and ran off a steep wash bank twenty-five feet high, passed through a tree top into the Chagrin river beneath. He came out with a few scratches, and his ardor somewhat cooled.

Joseph Smith came to Kirtland, and taught that people in relation to their error. He showed them that the Spirit of God did not bind men nor make them insane, and that the power of the adversary which had been manifested in many instances was visible even from that cause, for persons under its influence became helpless, and were bound hand and foot as in chains, being as immovable as a stick of timber. When Joseph came to instruct these Saints in relation to the true Spirit, and the manner of determining the one from the other, in a short time a number of those who had been influenced by those foul manifestations, apostatized. Among the number was Wycom Clark; he got a revelation that he was to be the prophet -- that he was the true revelator, and himself, Northrop Sweet and four other individuals retired from the church, and organized the "Pure Church of Christ," as they called it, composed of six members, and commenced having meetings, and preaching, but that was the extent of the growth of this early schism. John Noah, another of this class, assumed to be a prophet, and in consequence thereof was expelled from the church.

Among the early baptisms in Northern Ohio, was a Methodist minister by the name of Ezra Booth. He was present when the Elders first received the ordination of the High Priesthood. They met together in June, 1831, in a log school house in Kirtland, a room about eighteen feet by twenty. While they were there, the manifestation of the power of God being on Joseph, he set apart some of the Elders to the High Priesthood. Ezra Booth was bound, and his countenance was distorted, and numbers of the brethren looked at him, and thought it was a wonderful manifestation of the power of God, but to their astonishment, Joseph carne forward and rebuked the foul spirit, and commanded it to depart, in consequence of which Booth was relieved, and many of the brethren were greatly tried at such a singular treatment by the prophet of these wonderful manifestations of power.

Others had visions. Lyman Wight bore testimony that he saw the face of the Savior.

The Priesthood was conferred on a number of Elders, and thirty were selected to take a mission to the western boundaries of Missouri, and travel and preach two and two by the way, traveling without purse or scrip. They did so, building up churches. Joseph was required to travel by water, or at a more rapid rate to reach there, to meet the brethren and hold a Conference in the land of Zion. It was only a short time after the return from this mission, that Ezra Booth apostatized as did Jacob Scott, Symons Rider, Eli Johnson and a number of others. The spirit of apostacy was little known, but when these men apostatized they became more violent, more cruel, and manifested a greater spirit of persecution than any other enemies. What seemed singular, Ezra Booth had been brought into the church through the manifestation of a miracle. The wife of Father John Johnson had been afflicted with the rheumatism, so as to be unable to raise her arm and hand for two years. Her husband had believed the work, and she also was believing. She went to Joseph Smith the Prophet to have him administer to her, Booth accompanied them, for he was well acquainted with the family, and the condition of Mrs. Johnson. When the Elders laid their hands upon her, she was instantly healed, so that she could use her arm and hand as well as ever she could previously. Booth knew this to be an instantaneous cure, and soon after witnessing this miracle, he was baptized, and ordained an Elder. He having formerly been a Methodist minister, commenced preaching the gospel without purse or scrip, and he did so until he found, (using a common expression,) it did not pay. Under these circumstances he apostatized. While he was in apostacy he searched his cranium for some means to justify himself and published a series of lying letters in the Ohio Star, a paper printed in Revenna. These nine letters had been republished several times as evidence against "Mormonism;" and his apostacy culminated in collecting a mob who tarred and feathered Joseph Smith, and inflicted upon his family the loss of one of its number at Hyrum, Portage county, Ohio. Joseph Smith was occupying the room of a house brother Johnson was living in, at the same time; it was a two story building, had steps in front. The mob surrounded the house, the twins being afflicted with measles, Joseph was lying upon a trundle bed with one of them. The mob rushed in, gathered up Joseph while in his bed, took him out in his night clothes, and carried him out on to the top of the steps. Joseph got a foot at liberty and kicked one of the men, and knocked him down off the steps, and the print of his head and shoulders were visible on the ground in the morning. Warren Waste, who was the strongest man in the western reserve considered himself perfectly able to handle Joseph alone, but when they got hold of him, Waste cried out, "do not let him touch the ground, or he will run over the whole of us." Waste suggested in carrying him to cross his legs, for they said that would make it easier for the prophet, but that was done in consequence of the severe pain it would give to the small of the back. He was daubed with tar, feathered and choked, and aquafortis poured into his mouth. Dr. Dennison had been employed to perform a surgical opperation, but he declined when the time came to operate. The liquid they poured into his mouth was so powerful, that it killed the grass where some of it had been scattered on the ground. Joseph is reported by the mob to have said, be merciful, when they told him to call upon his God for mercy, they immediately, as he began to pray, heard an alarm which made them think they were about to be surprised, and left suddenly. Sidney Rigdon, who resided near by, had been dragged by the heels out of his bed at the same time, and his body stripped and a coat of tar and feathers applied. The next morning he was crazy, his head greatly inflamed and lacerated. Joseph found his way in from the light of the house, the mob having abandoned him. While he was engaged in getting off the tar by the application of grease, soap and other materials, Philemon Duzette, the father of our celebrated drummer, came there, and seeing the Prophet in this condition, took it as an evidence of the truth of "Mormonism," and was baptized. These circumstances exposed the life of the child, the measles struck in and caused its death, and the whole of this persecution was got up through the influence of those apostates; and it made it necessary to keep up a constant watch lest some violence should be repeated. Luke Johnson informed us that Warren Waste was afterwards a cripple, rendered so by weakness in the small of the back, and Dr. Dennison died in the Ohio Penitentiary where he was incarcerated for procuring an abortion, which caused death; Joseph soon after located in Kirtland. In Kirtland there were manifestations of evil spirits in high places, which might have been considered more dangerous than the manifestations in the early establishment of the Church.

Sidney Rigdon, on one occasion got up to preach, and commenced by saying that the Church and kingdom was rent from them and given to another people. Joseph was absent, when he came home he found Sidney almost like a mad man. He labored with him and with the church, and finally succeeded in convincing him that he was under the influence of a false spirit. A man from the State of New York by the name of Hawley, stated that while he was working in his field, barefoot, the word of the Lord came to him, saying that he should start on the instant, and not stop to put on his shoes. He came six hundred miles to Kirtland, and went to Joseph with the message that he had suffered John Noah, a prophet of God, to be cut off from the Church, and that consequently he had lost his office; and he had also suffered the women to wear caps, and the men he allowed to wear cushions on their shoulders, and for these heinous sins he was cut oft, and this man had come six hundred miles barefooted to bear the terrible message. You might suppose such an adventurer coming among us would be regarded as a madman by all, but at that time several men were ready to listen to him; a Bishop's Council was assembled and an investigation had. During the investigation, the subject of women wearing caps and veils and having their heads covered was canvassed, and the Bible ransacked by Oliver Cowdery and others. When the man was expelled from the Church for giving way to the power of false spirits, he rose up in a most solemn manner, and proclaimed to the Council that they had chosen darkness instead of light. This man went through the streets of Kirtland in the night crying in a most doleful voice, woe, woe to this people. I understand that brother Brigham, hearing this nonsense and noise in the street, jumped up out of his bed in the night, took with him a cow hide whip into the street, and told that noisy person if he did not stop his noise he would certainly cowhide him, which caused him to cease to annoy the inhabitants with his folly.

Another prophet arose by the name of Hoton, he had his head quarters at the forge in Kirtland. He was the president, and a man named Montague was appointed Bishop. They resolved to live precisely in accordance with the principles, as they understood them, spoken of soon after the day of Pentecost, for they had all things common. Their number increased to ten, and they called themselves "the independent Church." Persons who had apostatized from the Latter-day Saints could be admitted into their party upon the terms of entering the room, shaking hands with every member and consecrating their property. This church lasted some two or three months, when a difficulty occurred between the President and the Bishop. The Bishop accused the President of being too familiar with his meat barrel; the President, in turn, accused the Bishop of being too intimate with his sheets. The result was, a split took place between the two chief authorities, and the organization ceased to exist.

There was a prevalent spirit all through the early history of this Church, which prompted the Elders to suppose that they knew more than the Prophet. Elders would tell you that the prophet was going wrong, men who thought they knew all about this work thirty or forty years some of them before the Lord revealed it, tried "to steady the ark." The Church was constantly afflicted with such a class of men.

I remember well in Zion's Camp, Levi W. Hancock made a fife, from a joint of sweet elder, Sylvester Smith marched his company to the music of that fife. That fife may be considered almost the introduction of martial music among the "mormons." A dog came out and barked, when Sylvester Smith was going to kill the dog. Joseph said he was a good watch dog, Sylvester became wrathy and threatened; finally Joseph reproved him sharply, showing him that such a spirit would not conquer or control the human family, that he must get rid of it, and predicted that if he did not get rid of it, the day would come when a dog would gnaw his flesh, and he not have the power to resist it. Some months after the return to Kirtland, Sylvester Smith preferred a charge against Joseph the Prophet, for having prophecied lies in the name of the Lord, and undertook to substantiate that charge on the ground that the Prophet had said a dog should bite him, if he did not get rid of that spirit, when he had not power to resist. They were three days and parts of nights, with the High Council in Kirtland, in investigating this charge; one person spoke three hours in behalf of the Prophet. Sylvester published a confession which can be seen in the Church History, acknowledging his fault.

The Church in Kirtland were few in number compared with the inhabitants of the city of Ogden. We had High Council upon High Council, Bishop's trial upon Bishop's trial; and labor and toil constantly to settle difficulties and get our minds instructed in principle and doctrine, and in the power that we had to contend with. I remember very well the organization of the High Council, at Kirtland as a permanent institution, there had been several councils, of twelve High Priests called for special cases, but they organized it permanently on 17th Feb. 1834. On the 19th, the first case that was brought up was that of Elder Curtis Hodge, sen., who while speaking in meeting had gone into a methodist spasm, shouting and screaming in such a manner as caused one of the Elders to rebuke him. Bro. Hodge was brought before the Council for so doing. A great deal of instruction was imparted to the people, who were assembled in a room sixteen feet by eighteen. The decision was, that the charges in the declaration had been fairly sustained by good witnesses, that Elder Hodge ought to have confessed when rebuked by Elder Ezra Thayer; also if he had the spirit of the Lord at the meetings where he halloed, he must have abused it and grieved it away, and all the Council agreed with the decision. The report of this case is in Millennial Star, Vol. 15, page 18, and well worthy of perusal.

In relation to the manifestation of the spirit and a man exercising it,he may be guilty of error of manner as well as error in matter, and these principles in this way were gradually introduced into the minds of the brethren, the Elders being instructed all the while now and then, when falling out by the way-side. The first Council I ever attended where the prophet was present was at the trial of Doctor P. Hurlburt. This occured in June, 1833. He had been cut off from the Church by the Bishop's Council, and a Council of twelve High Priests, was organized to try the case on appeal. Hurlburt did not deny the charge, but begged to be forgiven, made every promise that a man could make that he would from that day live a virtuous life. Finally the Council accepted of his confession, and agreed that he might on public confession be restored to the Church again.

It was at the same Council that Daniel Copley, a timid young man, who had been ordained a priest, and required to go and preach the Gospel, was called to an account for not going on his mission. The young man said he was too weak to attempt to preach, and the Council cut him off the Church. I wonder what our missionaries now would think of so rigid a discipline as was given at that time thirty one years ago, under the immediate supervision of the prophet.

As soon as this Council had made this decision upon Hurlburt, Joseph arose, and said to the Council, he is not honest, and what he has promised he will not fulfil; what he has confessed are not the thoughts and intents of his heart, and time will prove it. Hurlburt stated to the branch in Thompson, Ohio, that he had deceived Joseph Smith's God or the spirit by which he is actuated, I have proved that Council has no wisdom, I told them I was sorry I confessed and they believed it to be an honest confession, I deceived the whole of them and made them restore me to the Church; Hurlburt was the author of that work known by the name of mormonism unveiled. Booth's letters were reprinted by Hurlburt, who is the author of "The Spaulding story," a book which he intended to publish; and in delivering lectures he had said he would wash his hands in Joseph Smith's blood. He was taken before the court and required to give bonds to keep the peace towards all men, and especially towards Joseph Smith. These circumstances had some influence, and his friends arranged that he should not publish the book, but put it into the hands of E. D. Howe, who resided in Painsville, Ohio. He agreed that he would give Hurlburt four hundred copies of the first printed and bound, for the manuscript. Hurlburt went round and got subscribers, to pay him when the book should be delivered, one dollar each for the four hundred. Howe got the books printed and refused to furnish Hurlburt with his share, until by a piece of legerdemain he got hold of his subscription list and got the four hundred dollars, and then he let him have the books. When Hurlburt went to supply his subscribers he found they had already been served. The Spaulding story in that country was considered so ridiculous, that the books could with difficulty be sold at any price; but it has now found its way into the scientific journals of the great world as a true history of the origin of the Book of Mormon, when it is very well known that no statement on this earth could be more incorrect or more untrue. Let "Mormonism" be true or false, the Spaulding story from beginning to end is an unmitigated falsehood.

Solomon Spaulding was a Presbyterian minister; he entered into the iron trade in Conneaut, Ohio, but failing in business he took a notion to write a novel; he wrote a book called the Manuscript Found, he took his work to Pittsburg, to a man by the name of Patterson to get it printed, but he failed and never printed it. It was pretended that it fell into the hands of Sidney Rigdon, and that he converted it into the Book of Mormon, and induced Joseph Smith to publish it; whereas it is very well known that there had no connection ever existed between these parties. In the first place, Spaulding never wrote any such work; in the next place, Spaulding never had anything to do with Patterson, and Sidney Rigdon and him were perfect strangers to each other. The first knowledge that Sidney Rigdon had of Joseph Smith was when Parley P. Pratt met him in Ohio, and presented him a printed copy of the Book of Mormon; yet all this has found its way into scientific literature, and you will find it even in the North British Review. Hurlburt's failure to destroy "Mormonism" was so complete, understanding that he was backed by influential men in Mentor and vicinity, that it ended in their disgrace and discomfiture, and this was so complete, that the story in that country was hardly ever spoken of afterwards. Yet the Spaulding story lives among those who make lies their refuge, and under falsehood hide themselves.

The word of the Lord given in Sept. 1831 -- see Book of Covenants, Sec. 21, Par. 4 -- to make Kirtland a strong hold for the space of five years, gave rise to a new development in the feelings and sentiments of the Saints. The prophet said purchase lands in the vicinity of Kirtland; men were induced to buy farms, and to go to work and build houses, to quarry rock, and haul them on the ground, to build a temple. We were not then supplied with reporters and clerks as we are now, and many of the books that were kept have been wrested from the hands of the Church by apostates. The foundation of the Kirtland temple was laid in 1833, and there is scarcely a scrap of history relating to it to be found, not even the names of the twenty-four Elders in their order who laid the foundation of it. When the temple was completed there was a great manifestation of power. The brethren gathered together to its dedication. We considered it a very large building. Some nine hundred and sixty could be seated, and there would be room for a few to stand, the congregation was swelled to a little over a thousand persons at the time of the dedication. It was a trial of faith. The Elders from every part of the country had come together. The finishing of the temple had involved a debt of many thousands, and we all came together to the dedication. The congregation was so large that we could not all get in; and when the house was full, then, of course, the doors were closed, and no more admitted. This caused Elder Frazier Eaton, who had paid seven hundred dollars towards building the house, to apostatize, because he did not get there early enough to the meeting. When the dedication prayer was read by Joseph, it was read from a printed copy. This was a great trial of faith to many. "How can it be that the prophet should read a prayer?" What an awful trial it was, for the prophet to read a prayer! The service of the dedication being over, it was repeated again on the next day, to accommodate these who had not been able to get in on the first day, and all those who had been there on the first day, excepting the authorities, being required to remain outside, till these who could not get in the day before were seated; the result of this arrangement was two days dedication.

The question has often arisen among us, why it is that we do not see more angels, have more visions, that we do not see greater and more manifestations of power. Any of the brethren that were there could have heard testimonies of manifestations in abundance.

On the first day of the dedication, President Frederick G. Williams, one of the counsel of the Prophet, and who occupied the upper pulpit, bore testimony that the Savior, dressed in His vesture without seam, came into the stand and accepted of the dedication of the house, that he saw him, and gave a description of His clothing and all things pertaining to it. That evening there was a collection of Elders, Priests, Teachers and Deacons, etc., amounting to four hundred and sixteen, gathered in the house; there were great manifestations of power, such as speaking in tongues, seeing visions, administration of angels. Many individuals bore testimony that they saw angels, and David Whitmer bore testimony that he saw three angels passing up the south aisle, and there came a shock on the house like the sound of a mighty rushing wind, and almost every man in the house arose, and hundreds of them were speaking in tongues, prophecying or declaring visions, almost with one voice.

The question arises, where are those men; a number of them who manifested the greatest gifts, and had the greatest manifestations have fallen out by the way side, you look around among us and they are not here. Many who received the knowledge of the things of God by the power of His spirit, and sought not after signs and wonders, and when the spirit rested upon them seemed to produce no visible demonstration, you look around among the saints in the valleys of the mountains and you find they are here with us bearing on high the standard of Zion, or have descended into honorable graves. But when you find men who have turned away, and have got terribly afflicted with self conceit, you will find those who, on that occasion and similar occasions, received great and powerful manifestations, and when the spirit came on them it seemed to distort the countenance and caused them to make tremendous efforts in some instances. Sylvester Smith bore testimony of seeing the hosts of heaven and the horsemen. In his exertion and excitement it seemed as though he would jump through the ceiling.

Bro. Cannon in speaking on the subject this morning referred to the old adage, soon ripe, soon rotten. God has laid the foundation of his kingdom never to be destroyed, and it appears wisdom in him to develop gradually power and glory and strength. I have always heard it suggested that as the spirit of Mormonism gathered together the seed of Abraham -- mostly the sons of Abraham that are mixed among the nations, that the Holy Spirit falling upon men, who are not of the pure blood, who had the predominance of other blood in their veins, that the manifestation is greater, and when great manifestations fall on men, great trials immediately follow.

I have been conversant with early Elders, and I am satisfied that a large number of them fell from their positions in the kingdom of God because they yielded to the spirit of adultery; this was the cause of their destruction. There was an Elder named John Smith who lived in Indiana, who was quite popular in that part of the country as a preacher. He apostatized, but he did not know it. In talking about his faith and how firm it was, said, I have proven the revelation given to Joseph Smith untrue, which says if a man shall commit adultery he shall lose the spirit of God and deny the faith. I have proven that not to be true, for I have violated that commandment and have not denied the faith. He was so blind that he could not see through the darkness that the spirit of adultery had placed upon his head, the great apostacy which seemed to shake the church, and tried men's souls.

Some time after the finishing of the temple, the brethren under the direction of the prophet had established a bank in Kirtland, the paper to be redeemed by specie, and secured by real estate. The directors of that bank were members of the church, and they were determined to sustain the credit of that money. The question has some times been asked, how much has that bank failed for; it did not fail for a single dollar, and yet when it failed there was perhaps a hundred thousand dollars of the bank paper out in circulation. Warren Parrish was the teller of the bank, and a number of other men who apostatized were officers. They took out of its vault, unknown to the President or cashier, a hundred thousand dollars, and sent their agents around among the brethren to purchase their farms, wagons, cattle, horses and every thing they could get hold of. The brethren would gather up this money and put it into the bank, and those traitors would steal it and send it out to buy again, and they continued to do so until the plot was discovered and payment stopped. It was the cursed apostates -- their stealing and robberies, and their infernal villainies that prevented that bank being conducted as the Prophet designed. If they had followed the counsel of Joseph, there is not a doubt but that it would have been the leading bank in Ohio, probably of the nation. It was founded upon safe principles, and would have been a safe and lasting institution. Parrish and his coadjutors professed to have discovered that Joseph was not a Prophet, and commenced making a noise about it, and went so far as to organize about thirty of the Elders, into a new church called the Parrish party, many of them had been a long time in the church. That may be considered the time that tried men's souls; for a man that would stand up in the streets and say he was Joseph's friend, could not get a greater compliment than being called a lick skillet.

Joseph had few friends; but among the leading Elders of the Church, in Kirtland the High Council, one of the members of the first Presidency, some of the seven Presidents of the seventies, and a great many others were so darkened that they went astray in every direction. They boasted of the talent at their command, and what they would do. Their plan was to take the doctrines of the Church, such as repentance, baptism for the remission of sins, throw aside the Book of Mormon, the prophet and priesthood, and go and unite the whole christian world under these doctrines. Where are they today? Like a rope of sand that has vanished to the four winds of heaven. Many of them have already in dust and ashes lamented their fate, they have never been able to prosper in any business, or take a leading part in any capacity. This is the result of that apostacy; and yet it was so great that Joseph himself and his friends had to flee from Kirtland. There was a council there when President Young, Bro. Brigham as we called him, spoke in favor of Joseph, and Jacob Bump who had been a long time a pugilist before he came into the church, said "how on earth can I keep my hands off this man," Brigham said, lay them on if it will do you any good. The voice seemingly of an individual, was absolutely necessary to say that Joseph had a single friend. You look at times of danger, moral and physical, and you will find that the spirit of determination and strong will in the breast of a single man may save a most terrible panic and disaster. By management it was proved that Joseph had friends, and when he had gone to the State of Missouri, having fled from Kirtland, he was met with coldness by men who were in authority there. All this was the result of apostacy. The public funds were held in their own name, and another battle had there to be fought, not perhaps as severe, but at the same time there was a constant pressure seemed to be necessary to give strength to the growing kingdom; yet the revelations were that the kingdom should continue to prevail. The very fact of the promise of its continuing to prevail, signifies that it should have something more or less severe to prevail against. God has been with this people and has guided them, and dictated them, and is continuing to do so up to the present moment, and will continue so to do until the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of our Lord and his Christ. May we be prepared to fulfil our share in this great work, is my prayer in the name of Jesus Christ.  Amen.

Note: Apostle Smith's address was subsequently published in Vol. XI of the Journal of Discourses. See also his address of  Jan. 10, 1858 and his autobiography in the July 15, 1865 issue of the LDS Millennial Star.



Vol. I.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., June 8, 1864.                           No. 181.


==> We are permitted to publish the following letter from Captain Geo. F. Price, Co. M, 2d Cavalry, C. V., now (with his company) on an expedition to Fort Mojave. His friends here will be glad to know that he and his command are in good health and spirits, and will fully agree with him in, and re-echo the deep and indignant protest which he utters against the culpable neglect which has so long allowed the well known asssassins and their better known instigators in the Mountain Meadow massacre, to brave the light of day until they have apparently almost forgotton the fact that a day of retribution, though slowly, will yet assuredly come:

Camp No. 10, Mountain Meadow, U. T.,    
May 25th, 1864.     
Captain: -- It may be interesting to the General commanding the District of Utah to know that on yesterday and to-day I caused a monument to be erected beside the grave containing the bones of the victims of the Mountain Meadow massacre of September 1857. Upon my arrival here on yesterday I found the monument which was erected several years ago by an army officer, torn down -- the cross taken away, and the stones forming the monument scattered around the springs. Near the remains of this monument is the grave, giving evidence of much decay -- both grave and monument having been defaced by impious hands, I immediately determined to repair the grave and rebuild the monument. Yesterday afternoon I had erected a substantial monument of stone of the following size and dimensions, viz: Twelve feet square at base and four feet high compactly filled in with loose stone and eaith. From the centre of this square, rises a pyramidal column seven feet high, of stone, compactly laid. We planted in the centre of it a substantial cedar pole on, which is fastened a small cross manufactured from one of our packing boxes. This cross reaches three feet above the apex of the pyramid -- making the height of monument fourteen feet. On the side of the cross facing to the East, so that the rising sunlight of God may each day cast its rays of beauty upon it, are these words:

"Vengeance is mine, I will repay saith the Lord."

Below these words and on the arm of the cross are these words:

"Mountain Meadow massacre, September 1857."

On the opposite side are theae words:

"Erected by officers and men of Company M, 2d California Cavalry, May 24th and 25th, 1864."

The monument rudely but substantially erected, appears well from the road, and will stand for yeats if no impious hand destroy it. The grave has also been neatly repaired, filling it with earth and rounding it on the surface -- coverng the whole with a layer of stones. Myself, Lieut. Conrad, and every soldier of my command, consider that the fatigues and hardships of a twelve hundred mile march to Mojave and back to Camp Douglas, are cancelled in the privilege of erecting at this place beside the remains of the murdered innocent, who were betrayed and masssacred in cold blood by white fiends and their Indian allies -- a monument at once expressive of our horror at the act -- our respect for the memory of the murdered dead, and our sympathy for their fate. I cannot refrain at this time, from entering my protest as a soldier and as an American at the delay of a powerful Government in at least attempting to bring the leaders of this infamous crime to justice, and holding them up for the execration of the entire Christian world. The Mountain Meadows are 302 1/2 miles from Camp Douglas.
Very resp't, your obd't servant.                  
GEO. F. PRICE, Capt. 2d Cal. Cav.,
Commanding expedition
To Captain M. G. Lewis, A. A. G., District of Utah, Salt Lake City, U. T.

Note: See the 1859 report of James H. Carleton, as partly published in Hutching's California Magazine for Feb., 1860, for an account of the first erection of the grave monument at Mountain Meadows.

Carleton's 1859 monument was defiled, and its cross and biblical inscription desecrated, at the time when Brigham Young visited Mountain Meadows, on May 25, 1861. Wilford Woodruff's journal entry for that date relates that Brigham Young "said it should be vengeance is mine and I have taken a little." Whether the subject of the second clause was meant to refer to God or to Brigham Young himself, is unclear. The "little" amount of "vengeance" taken at that site in 1857 by Mormon militiamen, may have been in retribution for the previous killings of LDS leaders such as David W. Patten, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Parley P. Pratt, etc. -- see the Vedette of May 9, 1865 for an example of this interpretation of Brigham's remarks.



Vol. I.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., June 30, 1864.                           No. 150.

Our Notes of Travel Continued -- A visit to the Mountain Meadows.

By easy and pleasant stages we passed over the main highway from Salt Lake to Dixie, as far as Cedar city: 258 miles, tarrying briefly at Provo, Springville, Payson, Salt Creek, Fillmore (the old Capital of the Territory,) Beaver and Parowan. These latter constituting the main cities of the south, are of considerable size and all bear unmistakable evidences of thrift and prosperity. Interspersed between these are numerous other settlements of less note, in point of numbers, but any and all furnishing agreeable stopping places for the weary emigrant. At Cedar our course left the main Territorial road to the citton country and we bore off to the south-west along the highway to San Bernardino, California, via the noted Mountain Meadows. At Cedar we ascertained that there were two roads about equally lengthy, either of which would bear us safely to our destination, viz: Meadow Valley. One of these roads bore west from Cedar, via Iron and Antelope Springs, uniting with the other at the mouth of Shoal Creek. The other traverses the mountains, and passing Little and Bog "Painter" Creek settlements, passes through Mountain Meadows. Being desirous of visiting the spot of the terrible massacre in September, 1857, we chose the latter.

The "Meadows" is a most charming series of little valleys, located among the mountains -- their verdure presents an agreeable contrast to the rocky and barren scenes by which they are on all sides surrounded. As we attained the summit between Painter (more properly Panther) Creek and the Meadow Springs, the scene presented to view, was charming indeed. Around lay the high peaks of frowning mountains which had looked down, seven years agone, upon the horrid butchery which there took place, as imperturbably as the wretches who then and there bathed their hands in the innocent blood of one hundred and eighteen helpless emigrants. Before us lay the spot where the butchery was consummated; calmly as a dream of childhood, slept in beauty in its robes of living green, the lovely vale. The Sun was just passing behind the western verge of the mountain, as we reined up to contemplate the scene, and while we paused upon the mountain height, bathed in the sun-light, a thunder shower passed over the lower end of the valley, and a glorious rainbow mounted up to Heaven, one point apparently resting on the apex of the rude monument piously erected a few days before, above the gathered bones of the hapless victims, while the other was lost among the clouds. That silent yet gorgeous bow, emblem of promise and future hope, seemed thus appealing to the angels above for vengeance, while the weeping cloud dropped gently down on the green graves the very tear-drops of Heaven itself. It was a sublime sight, and we paused stricken with awe at the solemn view, and breathed a prayer for the slaughtered innocents. Passing down into the meadows, we found them to be about five miles in length -- northerly and southerly -- by from one to two miles in breadth; the whole valley covered with Springtime verdure. The California road enters near the northern end, where are found several large springs of pure wholesome water, which runs through the canyon to the northward. At the lower end of the valley is another large spring, near which the emigrants were camped on the ill-fated day of the massacre. Between the two, perhaps half way, a gentle elevation marks the rim of the Great Basin, from either side of which the waters flow to the north or the south -- the one emptying eventually into the Great Salt Lake, or sinking in the arid deserts; the other coursing on to the Colorado, and thence to the Pacific Ocean. At the lower spring, about 500 yards from the canyon, the party of emigrants -- numbering at least 118 souls, men, women and suckling babes -- camped on the 4th of September, 1857. In the 5th they were attacked by Indians and murderous whites, and manfully withstood every assault for five days. At the end of this time, by heartless treachery, the men were induced to lay down their arms and march out of their improvised fort, under a promise of protection. They had proceeded about a mile and a half, when they were again set upon by their miscreant foes and ruthlessly slaughtered. Seventeen children, between the ages of two months and seven years, were spared, and eventually recovered by the officers of the government one year later. Thus was swept from earth, by heartless massacre, one of the richest and most numerous parties of emigrants which ever passed through Utah.

We visited the spot of the massacre. A few days previously Capt. Price with C. M, 2nd Cav. C. V., had passed through, and finding the monument erected by Gen. Johnston's command in 1858, had been torn down and strwed about far and near, the command paused two days, gathered up the scattered bones for re-interment, and erected a handsome and durable monument if cobble stones on the spot where the emigrants had been encamped and were first attacked. A description of this monument has already been published in the Vedette, and we trust that no ruthless vandal hand will again be permitted to disturb the sacred resting place of those who sleep beneath the rude, but appropriate sepulchre. On the eastern face of the cross which crowns the apex are inscribed these words, "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay." On the reverse,"Erected by the officers and men of Co. M, 2d Cav. C. V., May 24th and 25th, 1864." Throughout the southern settlements we heard much of the duplicity of certain parties in this awful massacre, but we will not advert to these reports which have a general credence among the Mormon settlers themselves, who freely point out by name the guilty actors. We leave them to their own consciences, trusting that the scriptural motto emblazoned on the monumental cross, will find ample and full vindication hereafter.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., December 24, 1864.                           No. 149.

Worse than Sacrilege

The hyena is said to prowl around grave-yards and revel in the destruction of the homes of the dead, but it is the only quadruped that is thus guilty. We are, however, credibly informed that some kinds in human shape have again desecrated the resting place of the victims of the Mountain Meadow massacre. In 1859 a detachment under Captain (now General) Carleton, of the 1st Dragoons, gathered the bleached bones together and erected a handsome monument over the mound of graves, but the miscreants who had part in that horrid massacre tore it down.

In May last, Captain Price, of the 2nd Cav., C. V., passing through Mountain Meadows, once more gathered up the scattered bones, and built a durage and substantial monument at the scene of the massacre. Recently this monument has been tirn down and the last resting place of the victims of the most unparalleled atrocity of the age, disturbed. Our informant says it is almost impossible that the Indians have been engaged in this business, for they are peaceable and well disposed.

We have no words of horror equal to express the detestation of the civilized world at this inhuman, damnable act. If there is an avenging God he will pursue these vandals until they meet the reward of their horrid crimes.

Note: One unverified early report attributed the repeated desecration of the mass grave at Mountain Meadows to a certain LDS prophecy -- predicting that the bones of the Mormons' enemies would lie bleaching upon the ground. No solid evidence supports the explanation that local Mormons uncovered the emigrants' bones, in order to "fulfill prophecy," however.



Vol. III.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., February 10, 1865.                           No. 31.

Murdered Innocents.

In the month of September 1857 a party of emigrants were journeying through southern Utah en route for Los Angeles. The party was composed of about one hundred and forty men, women and children; and was finely equiped with wagons, horses, mules, oxen and considerable other valuable property. On a bright and lovely morning of early September, this party entered the Mountain Meadoww -- traveled down it to the springs, located near the southern extremity, and camped with the intention of remaining several days for the purpose of recruiting the stock before entering upon the desert country just beyond.

The camp was scarcely settled down into that quiet comfort, peculiar to an emigrant party when intending to rest several days, ere it was attacked by a body of Indians. The men of this party were not easily frightened or readily whipped. The camp was entrenched by digging away the earth under the wagon wheels -- allowing the wagons to settle close to the ground, while the earth was thrown up so as to form, with the wagon beds, a complete breastwork.

For three days the Indians continued the attack without avail. -- They were unable to conquer those brave men -- cumbered as they were with their wives and children. The most damnable duplicity -- having no equal on the pages of history -- was then employed to consummate what Indian bravery could not do. A white man appeared at the head of the valley with a white flag; and, so glad were those weary men to see a messenger of peace -- one of their own blood and nation -- that they dressed a little innocent in a white frock and a pair of strong arms held her up so that the messenger could see her. He rode into the camp. Need we follow his words and tell how he led those men to believe him. Who would not believe a white mnan under such circumstances? Those men under pledge of protection, agreed to give up their arms and surrender their property. They were willing to give up all, if in doing so they could save their loved ones. Like true men their wives and children were their first thoughts.

The messenger went away and returned in a few hours with the statement that the indians had consented to let them go upon the terms already mentioned. Then commenced the preparation for the final act of the tragedy. The men and children were first started -- the men following, totally dosarmed and all like sheep going to the slaughter. Less than half a mile from the Springs, the signal was given and then commenced the carnival of white demons. These white men, women and children were shot down -- butchered -- mmurdered -- by men of their own blood and nation. One instance well substantiated is shown where a young girl was violated as on bended knee she begged for the boon of life. A few of the children so small that it was thought they could not remember the slaughter were spared. Their then little tongues have grown into a testimony.

One hundred and twenty peaceable men, women and children were thus murdered by white fiends and their Indian allies. The Indians received the old clothing, a quantity of provisions and a few worn out cattle. The balance of the property of the property passed into the hands of the leaders of the Mormon Church.

A few weeks before, the doctrine of shedding human blood for the remission of sins had been advocated. The Mountain Meadow Massacre was but one of the bloody links of a reign of terror then was then existing in Utah. It was in fact the culmination. From this deed... the community shrunk back stricken with horror. Such an act had never before disgraced humanity.

Who are responsible before God and mankind for this massacre? The perpetrators of it yet stalk through the territory unpunished. Every obstacle possible has been thrown in the way of the United States Judges when they have attempted to investigate it. Two monuments, erected there by army officers have been destroyed.

Shall we admit Utah into the Union of States while so damnable a crime stands against her and is unavenged?

The blood of the murdered innocents cries to Heaven.

With reverence we bow our head and pray that God will smite the demons of the Mountain Meadow Massacre with the everlasting fires of his wrath -- that the fiat of the living and eternal God will consig0n them, after this life, to the lowest depths of his punishment.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. III.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., May 9, 1865.                           No. 105.

He was Mad.

This what the more considerate among the Mormons tell us, when Brigham's late ravings in the "Tabernacle" are cited, showing that the more recent outrages perpetrated in the city, were countenanced and encouraged by him -- "Brigham was mad." True enough, "mad as a Marsh hare," and has been for years, but we do not intend to be subject to the murderous caprices of such a dangerous lunatic any longer. If other people will accept his blasphemies and bloody "counsel" as insporation, and attempt to carry out his hellish behests, we must be excused for classing them all together and treating them accordingly....

Talk of Brigham's righteous anger! He that has defied Heaven and earth -- broken all sacred laws, human and divine.... He who, standing beside the monument, where stranger hands have gathered the bones of the victims in that last cruel sacrifice, read upon the Heaven-appealing Cross the legend -- "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, I will repay" -- and in his wrath betrayed his soul's dread secret, saying: "Vengeance is mine, saith Brigham Young. I have repaid -- in part."

He presume to order men "shot down" for violating his arbitrary mandates! This bloody malefactor, who has too long went unwhipped of justice, affect holy terror at the wickedness of others! Why, there is not a wretch that haunts the gambling dens of Salt Lake City, whose crimes are not as lamb's wool compared to the crimson hue of his own.

Mad he may be, but "there's method in his madness." Its instincts are cruel -- devilish and, when he finds creatures debased enough to obey him, it is high time that all, whom his malevolence endangers, should look to it that means be found to restrain such malign propensities....

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., October 6, 1865.                           No. 73.

The Mormon Junto.

Under the caption of "The Mormon Problem," we find in the Deseret News of the 20th ult., the following language: --

"Life is declared to be unsafe here -- that there is a "Danite band" ready to pounce upon the unsuspecting and unwary who may be obnoxious. Where is this "band" to be found? Who compose it? We have lived here for years and we know nothing of it. It has no existence except in the groundless and imputations of lying men."

There is manifested in this quotation an evident purpose to meet by a general statement the mmany charges made against the Utahian leaders for deeds perpetrated under their direction by an organized band of assassins and robbers passing under the general appellation of "Danites." The editor "knows nothing" of the existence of this band, and denies that it has any existence except in the groundless imputations of lying men"!

It is A point of honor burnong gentlemen to assert nothing derogotary to the character of their fellows that there is not a sufficiency of evidence to substantiate, and to resennt any imputation made either openly or covertly by designing men, adapted or intended rather to injure their reputation than promote the public or private welfare. The intent of the above charge evidently is to class the specfications of all who have preffered charges against the misdeeds of the Mormon Hierarchy among the "groundless imputations" and their authors among the "lying men."

We have probably done sufficient in this line to be accounted worthy a place among this prescribed class, although we cannot plead "guilty" to the charge. Were we to permit it to pass without publicly noticing it, we should probably treat it with the contempttit so justly deserves; and were there no other incentive tooa reply than that arising from a sense of wounded honor, we should certainly so treat it. There are other and weightier reasons, however, which impel us to respond.

The Deseret News is the literary trumpet of the church, and its consequent exponent and defender. The "Mormon Problem" is now an agitated question in the discussion of which we have openly taken sides. We owe it therefore to the nation and to society in general that we clear ourself of the charge impliedin the statements under consideration, and prove to the world that an organized band in Utah, yclept "Destroying Angels," alias "Big Fan," alias "Danites," alias "Minute Men," is something more than a phantasm existing only in the "groundless imputations of lying men."

We do not purpose to furnish all the evidence we have in our possesssion relating to that corrupt institution in this article, but we desire our readers to review those articles we have already written, and ito read the disclosures we shall hereafter make bearing upon this particular question.

This order of murderers and robbers is said to have first borne the name of the "Daughters of Zion;" but the evidence on this is not very clear -- neither that nor "Big Fan," (having reference to the fan of the thresher) have become very general, if they ever existed. but the names of "Destroying Angels" and "Danites" are those by which it is best known, and they are used indiscriminately. The former of these is self explanatory. The latter is supposed to have been assumed in reference to the prophecy of Jacob concerning the descendants of hisson Dan, "he shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." Certainly very expressive of their cowardly deeds.

The editor of the News denies the existence of the order, and thousands of the "faithful" have no idea of, or belief in its existence. This has puzzled some who have reason to believe in its existence but do not possess the necessary proofs. A few words of explanation for them, as well as for the general reader, will not be inopportune.

There are several methods employed by the wily leaders and chiefs of the order to prevent a knowledge of its existence from extending to the general members of the church, which we will consider briefly in their order. First -- the initiated are bound to secresy by the most fearful of oaths and solemn of covenants, the most lenient of the penalties for the breaking of which, are the cutting of throats and and RIPPING UP OF BOWELS. Secondly -- If any member is in the least refractory, or the slightest imputation of infidelity can be fastened upon him, he is silently put aside, or arrested on some charge in due course of law by a Danite Sheriff, who manages to murder him on the way, and report that he killed him in self defence or while was attempting to escape from the hands of justice -- the Deloss Gibson clan and two sons of a certain bishop were murdered in this way and under these pretexts. Thirdly -- None are admitted to the secrets of the order, unless their fate can be so involved in the preservation of these secrets that exposure would be certain death. Fourthly -- The commonality who are often called upon to assist in putting aside renegades to the junto, wealthy gentiles, or apostate Mormons, are prevented from participating in an actual knowledge of the existence of the society, supposing themselves to be simply "minute men," or ir a sort of church militia, in which capacity they willingly officiate to promote church interests, but unconsciously as the agents of the secret order. Of this class were some who participated in the Mountain Meadow Massacre.

That the order has not only an actual existence; but has all the paraphernalia of official grades, signs, passwords, &c., is known to its members and to some few outside, who ,if their possession of the knowledge was suspecterd, would be lost in the snow (!), killed by some Indians (!),or otherwise summarily disposed of. One or two however, unsupected havo escaped the vigilance of the spy fraternity, andi will probably furthher illustrate, ere long, the truth of the adage that "Murder will out!"

One of these a gentleman for many years a Mormon resident of Utah and well versed in the intricate workings of the secret league, has written at our request a brief but interesting sketch of this notorious order, which we take pleasure in here introducing to our readers It is as follows:

"For the information of those unacquainted with the so-called Danite system in Utah, I would state that it is composed of three orders; first the Grand Archers [sic - Grand Archees?] or Gods, composed of Brigham and his counsellors, together with a few of the twelve; these hold the the power of life and death, and without the decrees of this council no extensive murder can be committed, such as the Mountain Meadow Massacre, etc., as in that massacre a revelation was i ssued from that council, bearing the signature of the Grand Archer or Head God (as Brigham impiously styles himself) authorizing that massacre and the forwarding of the spoil to him, which was read to the Archers and Danites on that occasion. Next in order are the Archers or executive officers of the system; they have power to assassinate apostatess or small parties of gentiles without reference to the Grand Archers. Next in order are the Danites. Each Archer presides over fifty Danites. The Archers are the bishops and presiding officers. In justice to the comunity under the presidency of Brigham Young, I would state that there are thousands in Utah who are entirely ignorant of the existence of any such secret organization."

The enquiry will naturally arise -- "How, with the mantle of secrecy so thoroughly enshrouding the order, could the author of the above obtain such information without himself being a member of the league? When the statement was first handed us, we suggested a query of this nature to him, and in reply he informed Us that being in the employ of a Mr. _____, one of the leading members of the order, he was surprised one morning, to find, lying upon his desk, papers belonging to the order, from which he collected the facts whereupon the foregoing information is based.

The editor of the Deseret News pretends to "know nothing" of such an organization -- if he does not, he may rest assured that his igual spiritual (?) supervisors do not repose that confidence in him his talents merit. But with all due deference to his statement, we are disposed to believe that his knowledge of this matter far exceeds his pretensions, and for the very important reason that for years, he was the bosom friend and office companion of Brigham Young, and for other still more important reasons which we reserve for another occasion. He may gull the ignorant by his professions of ignorance, but we think the careful reader of the VEDETTE will be proof against them.

The denial of the existence of this order comes too late. Brigham Young himself has acknowledged it, and, partially, the object of it. On page 113, Deseret News, vol. 7, he says: -- If men come here and do not behave themselves, THEY WILL NOT ONLY FIND THE DANITES, WHOM THEY TALK SO MUCH ABOUT, biting the horses' heels, but the scoundrels will find comething biting their heels. In my plain remarks, I MERELY CALL THINGS BY THEIR RIGHT NAMES."

Does the Editor of the News "know nothing" about the Danites? We respectfully refer his truth-speaking honor (!) to the confession and threat couched in the above quotation from his own paper, and hurl back in his teeth, his imputations of lying and dishonesty, as applicable only to the source whence they emenated.

Note: Some of the above "Danite" information was obviously derived from either Catharine V. Waite, one of her sources, or was itself paraphrased by Mrs. Waite. While she refers to Brigham Young as the "Grand Archee" in her two books on Mormonism, the term was spelled as "Grand Archer" in the 1878 edition of Appletons Encyclopedia and in some other nineteenth century texts, such as Ellen E. Dickinson's New Light on Mormonism. J. H. Beadle calls Brigham Young the "Grand Archee" on page 243 of his 1870 Life in Utah, as well as in that book's successor, Polygamy; or the Mysteries and Crimes of Mormonism. The term is unknown in any contemporary Mormon accounts of events in Utah.



Vol. IV.                           Camp Douglas, U. T., October 14, 1865.                           No. 80.

The Grand Archees.

There are mystic rites in some orders that obtain very extensively among men, that inspire with a feeling of reverence even those who refrain from a formal connection with the societies that practice them; but in those administered by the order over which the "Grand Archees" preside, there is everything to disgust -- nothing to venerate.

We more than intimated in a previous article that the more important of the terrible murders perpetrated by the dreaded Danite band were done under the direction and by the counsel of the "Grand Archees" of the hell-devised system. We also promised to furnish the proofs of our statement, and will now redeem our promise; and we do not know that we can do better than in the language of Judge Cradlebaugh, as delivered in the House of Representatives Feb. 7th, 1863

MR. CHAIRMAN: Having resided for some time among the Mormons, become acquainted with their ecclesiastical polity, their habits, and their crimes, I feel that I would not be discharging my duty, if I failed to impart such information as I have acquired, in regard to this people in our midst who are building up, consolidating, and daringly carrying out a system, subversive of the Constitution and laws, and fatal to morals and true religion * * *

As one of the Associate Justices of the Territory of Utah in the month of April, 1859, I commenced and held a Term of the District Court for the Second Judicial District, in the city of Provo, about sixty miles south of Salt Lake City. -- Upon my requisition, General A. S. Johnson, in command of the military department, furnished a small military force for the purpose of protecting the court. A grand jury was empanelled, and their attention was pointedly and specifically called to a great number of crimes that had been committed in the immediate vicinity, cases of public notoriety both as to the offence and the persons who had perpetrated the same; (for none of these things had "been done in a corner.") -- Their perpetrators had scorned alike concealment or apology, before the arrival of the American forces. The jury thus instructed, though kept in session two weeks, utterly refused to do anything, and were finally discharged, as an evidently useless appendage of a court of justice. But the court was determined to try a last resource to bring to light and to punishment those guilty of the atrocious crimes which confessedly had been committed in the Territory, and the session continued. Bench warrants, based upon sworn information, were issued against the alleged criminals, and United States Marshal Dotson, a most excellent and reliable officer, aided by a military posse, procured on his own request, had succeeded in making a few arrests. A general stampede immediately took place among the Mormons, and what I wish to call your attention to as particularly noticeable, is the fact that this occurred more especially among the church officials and civil officers. Why were these classes so peculiarly urgent and hasty in flight? -- The law of evidence, based on the experience of ages, has but one answer. It was the consciousness of guilt which drove them to seek a refuge from the avenging arm of the law, armed at last, as they supposed, with power to vindicate its injured majesty. It is a well-known fact that many of the Bishops and Presidents of "Stakes" remained secreted in the mountains until the news was confirmed beyond doubt which announced the retrograde course of the Administration at Washington. You can easily conceive the rejoicing of those who had fled, their rapturous change from the extreme of trepidation to that of joy, when at last Gov. Cumming could officially announce to his Mormon friends that the zealous efforts of the united Judiciary of Utah, to expose and punish crime and administer the law, were condemned by the National Administration. And this, too, in the face of that Administration's boast, that "rebellion had been crushed out" in Utah.

Let me say here, though it may seem rather a digression, that while it is true that the military were appealed to for aid in the administration and enforcement of the laws, and in the protection of officers and witnesses, it is equally and undeniably true that the legal and social rights of no citizen, whoever he may have been, were for one instant infringed upon, or even endangered by such a course.

Sitting as a committing magistrate, complaint after complaint was made before me, of murders and robberies; -- among these I may mention as peculiarly and shockingly prominent, the murder of Forbes, the assassination of the Parrishes and Potter, of Jones and his mother, of the Aiken party, of which there were six in all; and, worst and darkest in the appalling catalogue of blood, the cowardly, cold-blooded butchery and robbery at the Mountain Meadows. At that time there still lay all ghastly under the sun of Utah the unburied skeletons of one hundred and nineteen men, women and children, the hapless, hopeless victims of the Mormon creed.

Time will not allow that I should read the affidavits taken. I shall publish a portion as an appendix to these remarks that you may see that I am justified in charging that the Mormons are guilty, aye, that the Mormon church is guilty, of the crimes of murder and robbery as taught in their books of faith.

The scene of this horrible massacre at the Mountain Meadows is situate about three hundred and twenty miles west of south from Great Salt Lake city, on the road leading to Los Angeles, in California. I was the first Federal Judge in that part of the Territory after the occurrence. My district extending from a short distance below Salt Lake city to the south end of the Territory. I determined to visit that part of my district, and, if possible, expose the persons engaged in the massacre, which I did in the early part of the year 1859. I accordingly embraced an opportunity of accompanying a small detachment of soldiers who were being sent to that section by Gen. Johnson -- having requested the marshal of the Territory to accompany, or to send a deputy. He accordingly sent deputy Wm. H. Rodgers, who went with me.

The command went as far south as the St. Clara, twenty miles beyond the Mountain Meadows, where we camped, and remained about a week. During our stay there I was visited by the Indian chiefs of that section, who gave me their version of the massacre. They admitted that a portion of their men were engaged in the massacre, but were not there when the attack commenced. One of them told me, in the presence of the others, that after the attack had been made, a white man came to their camp with a piece of paper, which, he said, Brigham Young had sent, that directed them to go and help to whip the emigrants. A portion of the band went, but did not assist in the fight. He gave as a reason, that the emigrants had long guns, and were good shots. He said that his brother [this chief's name was Jackson] was shot while running across the Meadow, at a distance of two hundred yards from the corral where the emigrants were. He said the Mormons were all painted. He said the Indians got a part of the clothing; and gave the names of John D. Lee, President Haight, and Bishop Highbee, as the big captains. It might be proper here to remark that the Indians in the southern part of the Territory of Utah are not numerous, and are a very low, cowardly, beastly set, very few of them being armed with guns. They are not formidable. I believe all in the southern part of the Territory would, under no circumstances, carry on a fight against ten white men.

From our camp on the St. Clara we again went back to the Mountain Meadows, camping near where the massacre had occurred. The Meadow is about five miles in length and one in width, running to quite a narrow point at the southwest end, being higher at the middle than either end. It is the divide between the waters that flow into the Great Basin and those emptying into the Colorado river. A very large spring rises in the south end of the narrow part. It was on the north side of this spring the emigrants were camped. The bank rises from the spring eight or ten feet, then extends off to the north about two hundred yards, on a level. A range of hills is there reached, rising perhaps fifty or sixty feet. Back of this range is quite a valley, which extends down until it has an outlet, three or four hundred yards below the spring, into the main Meadow.

The first attack was made by going down this ravine, then following up the bed of the spring to near it, then at daylight firing upon the men who were about the camp-fires; in which attack ten or twelve of the emigrants were killed or wounded, the stock of the emigrants having been previously driven behind the hill, and up the ravine. The emigrants soon got in condition to repel the attack, shoved their wagons together, sunk the wheels in the earth, and threw up quite an entrenchment. The fighting after continued as a siege; the assailants occupying the hill, and firing at any of the emigrants that exposed themselves, having a barricade of stones along the crest of the hill as a protection. The siege was continued for five days, the besiegers appearing in the garb of Indians. The Mormons, seeing that they could not capture the train without making some sacrifice of life on their part, and getting weary of the fight, resolved to accomplish by strategy what they were not able to do by force. The fight had been going on for five days, and no aid was received from any quarter, although the family of Jacob Hamblin, the Indian agent, were living in the upper end of the Meadow, and within hearing of the reports of the guns.

Who can imagine the feelings of these men, women, and children, surrounded, as they supposed themselves to be, by savages. Fathers and mothers only can judge what they must have been. Far off in the Rocky Mountains, without transportation -- for their cattle, horses and mules had been run off -- not knowing what their fate was to be, we can but poorly realize the gloom that pervaded the camp.

A wagon is descried, far up the meadows. Upon its nearer approach it is observed to contain armed men. See! now they raise a white flag! All is joy in the corral. A general shout is raised, and in an instant a little girl dressed in white is placed at an opening between two of the wagons as a response to the signal. The wagon approaches -- the occupants are welcomed into the corral. The emigrants little suspecting that they were entertaining the fiends that had been besieging them.

This wagon contained President Haight and Bishop John D. Lee, among others of the Mormon Church. They professed to be on good terms with the Indians, and represented the Indians as being very mad. They also proposed to intercede, and settle the matter with the Indians. After several hours of parley, they, having apparently visited the Indians, gave the ultimatum of the Indians, which was that the emigrants should march out of their camp, leaving everything behind them, even their guns. It was promised by the Mormon bishops that they would bring a force and guard the emigrants back to the settlements.

The terms were agreed to; the emigrants being desirous of saving the lives of their families. The Mormons retired and subsequently appeared at the corral with thirty or forty armed men. The emigrants were marched out, the women and children in front and the men behind, the Mormon guard being in the rear. When they had marched in this way about a mile, at a given signal, the slaughter commenced. The men were most all shot down at the first fire from the guard. Two only escaped, who fled to the desert, and were followed 150 miles before they were overtaken and slaughtered.

The women and children ran on two or three hundred yards further, when they were overtaken, and with the aid of the Indians they were slaughtered. Seventeen only of the small children were saved, the eldest being only seven years. Thus, on the 10th day of September, 1857, was consummated one of the most cruel, cowardly, and bloody murders known in our history. Upon the way from the meadows, a young Indian pointed out to me the place where the Mormons painted and disguised themselves.

I went from the Meadows to Cedar City; the distance is 35 or 40 miles. I contemplated holding an examining court there, should Gen. Johnson furnish me protection, and also protect witnesses, and furnish the Marshal a posse to aid in making arrests. While there I issued warrants on affidavits filed before me, for the arrest of the following named persons.

"Jacob [sic] Haight, President of the Cedar City stake; Bishop John M. Higbee and Bishop John D. Lee, Columbus Freeman, William Slade, John Willis, William Riggs, _____ Ingram, Daniel McFarlan, William Stewart, Ira Allen and son, Thomas Cartwright, E. Welean, William Halley, Jabes Nonden, John Mangum, James Price, John W. Adair, _____ Tyler, Joseph Smith, Samuel Pollock, John McFarlan, Nephi Johnson, _____ Thornton, Joel White, _____ Harrison, Charles Hopkins, Joseph Elang, Samuel Lewis, Sims Matheney, James Mangum, Harrison Pierce, Samuel Adair, F. C. McDulange, Wm. Bateman, Ezra Curtis, and Alexander Loveridge." * * *

While at Cedar City I was visited by a number of apostate Mormons who gave me every assurance that they would furnish an abundance of evidence in regard to the matter so soon as they were assured of military protection. In fact, some of the persons engaged in the act came to see me in the night, and gave a full account of the matter, intending when protection was at hand, to become witnesses. They claimed that they had been forced into the matter by the Bishops. Their statements corroborated what the Indians had previously said to me. Mr. Rodgers, the Deputy Marshal, was also engaged in hunting up the children, survivors of the massacre. They were all found in the custody of the Mormons. Three or four of the eldest recollect and relate all the incidents of the massacre, corroborating the statements of the Indians, and the statements made by the citizens of Cedar City to me. * * *

The survivinrg children, after they were recovered and on the way back, frequentlyy pointed out carriages and stock that belonaged to the train, stating to whom it belonged.

A great portion of the property was taken to Cedar City, deposited in the tithing office, and then sold out; the bed clothes upon which the wounded had been layng, and those taken from the dead were piled in the back room of the tithing office and allowed to remain for so great a length of time that wheen I was there eighteen mouths after, the room was still offensive. * * *

Major, now General Carlton visited this region -- he also corroborates all that is contained in the abstracts I make from official reports. At the time he was there, he erected a monument to the memory of the dead. It was by raising a large pile of rock, in the centre of which was eeilected a beam some twelve or fifteen feet in height. Upon one of the stones he caused to be engraved -- Here lie the bones of 120 men, women, and children, from Arkansas, murdered on the 10th day of September, 1857." Upon a cross-tree on the beam he caussed to be painted -- "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay it." This monument is said to have been destroyed the first time Brigham visited that part of the Territory.

The above needs no comment from our pen. Judge Cradlebaugh is now Adjutant General of the State of Nevada, and though the Mormons have sought to detract from his character they have never advanced a single argument that disproves the the statements he has made.

We have also on hand the statement of Deputy Wm. H. Rodgers named in the foregoing extract, which we intend to publish at an early day. The Deseret News demands proof; and it shall be forthcoming.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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