(Newspapers of New York)

New York City Papers of James G. Bennett

New York Herald
1850-1899 Articles

James Gordon Bennett, 1860 -- Vanity Fair

1835-1843   |   1844-1849   |   1850-1899

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Jul 08 '77  |  Aug 30 '77  |  Sep 10 '77  |  Sep 23 '77  |  Feb 01 '89  |  Jun 25 '93

Articles Index  |  misc. New York City papers


Whole No. ?               New York City, Wednesday, January 9, 1850.               Two Cents.


The Difficulty Between the Mormons and Missourians
California Emigrants -- New Mormon Colony -- Pawnee Treaty.

(under construction)
partial text


Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Friday, January 25, 1850.                       Two Cents.


Terrible Snow Storm -- Loss of Sixty Cattle --
No Deaths among the Saints.

(under construction)

A correspondent of the Frontier (Iowa) Guardian, of the 18th ult., writing from Muddy Fork, under date of Oct. 18, says: -- "We crossed over Rocky Ridge on the second of this month, near the summit of the South Pass, with the Wind River chain of mountains on the north; towards night it began to snow and blow quite hard and fast from the northeast, weather increasing in coldness, which obliged us to encamp the best way we could (without carrell) on a branch of the Sweetwater. E. T. Benson and Capt. Richards camp some ten or twelve miles ahead on Willow Creek. We turned our cattle loose and drove them into the willows near by to do the best they could and share their fate; and such a storm of wind and snow as we experienced, we think was never superseded in Pottawatamie. For thirty-six hours, it continued to howl around us incessantly, blowing nearly a hurricane, drifting the snow in every direction, and freezing fast to whatever it touched. Being unable to keep fires, (except a few who had stoves in their wagons;) we had to be content without them, and do the best we could. Many were the mother and infant that was obliged to be in bed under their frail covering that sheltered them from the pitiless blast, to keep them from perishing, with nothing, perhaps, but a piece of dry bread, or a few crackers, to subsist upon, while the winds spent their fury upon our camp of canvass, covering it with a mass of ice, the snow drifting around us in some places to the depth of three or four feet. On the morning of the third day, the storm abated, and we turned out through the chilling blast, (from off these ever-lasting snow capped mountains, being at an altitude of about seven thousand feet,) and snow; to look for our famishing, and, as we expected, many perished cattle. As we wended our way down the stream among the willows, indeed it was, a sorrowful sight to behold our perished cattle one after another, cold and stiff, lying in the snow banks, food for wolves, ravens, catamounts, magpies, &c., that inhabit these mountainous regions in countless numbers, and live on prey. The greatest part of our cattle had made their way during the storm about five miles off to the Sweetwater, where they obtained pasture and fared quite well, not one being found perished while those that tarried behind fell a prey to hunger and the merciless storm. Upwards of sixty head of cattle perished in the three camps. Those of our cattle that survived the storm did not recover from its effects for several days; others died in consequence, and some show the effects yet although they are improving at present, as we find quite plenty of mountain grass, and that hearty and good, and able good rolling order, making from twelve to fifteen miles per day, and we hope, if we are prospered, to reach the Valley in eight or ten days from this time. Notwithstanding our loss we consider we have been blessed and prospered, considering our late start from winter quarters. The goodness and mercy of our Heavenly Parent has attended us on our Journey, and surely we have been protected and preserved beyond those that have preceded us. Not a solitary death has occurred of man, woman or child in our camp, although we have experienced storms and endured cold weather. It was so cold during the storm, and after that, chickens, pigs, &., froze to death, and men passed over the Sweetwater on the ice.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Tuesday, Oct. 29, 1850.                       Two Cents.

The Worcester Fanatics -- Progress of Socialism, Abolition, and Infidelity. It has been known ever since Fourier, Brisbane, and Greeley first promulgated their social theories, that society is all wrong. It is known also that their attempts to reform it have signally failed...

But all of these expedients have been found to be mere palliatives, while a radical reform of society has been the great object of the philosophers, Fourier,Brisbane, Greeley, Big Thunder, Combe, Fowler, Collyer and the Model Artists, the Rochester knockers, and Davis, with his revelations, all havingfailed, all having proved unsatisfactory, tried separately, what next is to be done? Try them all together.

Here we come into broad, open smooth water. Here the daylight of discovery breaks in upon us as the first glimpse of the great Salt Lake broke upon the Mormons. Here we unbuckle our traps, and go straight to work in shovelling up the gold dust. The old Syracuse engineer jumped up in his nether garment, and shouted "Eureka," and Grubby Greeley answers Abby Kelly at Worcester, with "Eureka." We have got it. Got what? The philosopher's stone--the key to the millenium -- the one thing needful -- the schedule of the final reformation. The Lord be praised.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, June ?, 1851.                       Two Cents.

Mormonism and Its Increase.

We have received by regular mail, accounts from the Great Salt Lake, Deseret, to the 19th of April, contained in the journal printed there, called the Deseret News, No. 31, published half monthly, by W. Richards. It is filled with the minutes of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints, otherwise called Mormons; also, several epistles to the faithful -- clear accounts of the weather -- the political movements of the territory -- interspersed with articles on the value of manure and the growth of beets, advertisements, ordinations, lists of letters, notices, removals, &c., &c. -- all indicating a settled community, under a stable government, influenced by the new religion, and superintended by the general government.

The stride which the Mormons have made in this country is wonderful, and certainly is deserving of some attention. Mormonism, as a sect, originated in this State about 1830, or twenty years ago -- thence passed to Ohio and Missouri, thence to Illinois, and finally settled down in the Salt Lake country, where it appears to be firmly established, and whence it numbers its adherents and devotees by thousands. It was composed of but very few when it was first started; but within a comparatively short time it has made remarkable progress. It has extended its operations, and instead of being confined to one place, it has spread itself to different parts of the country. Its principal resting place, however, is at Salt Lake, between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, a region which possesses vast agricultral and mineral resources, and is, in many respects, similar to Palestine, in the Holy Land. The increase of the Mormons in that place is remarkable, and, if they go on at the same rate, they will, before many years, be a powerful and influential sect. The communities which they have established in the Northwestern States do not exhibit the same increase, nor the same degree of order, quiet, and respectability, as that of the Salt Lake does. Beaver Island has recently been made notorious in consequence of the gross superstition and villainy of some of the "saints" as they call themselves, who are placed in the position of rulers; but when the wheat is sifted from the chaff there, and the villains are excommunicated, the community will, no doubt, recover its character, and Mormonism will be increased there, and in other parts of the Northwest, and similar regions

The rise and progress of Mormonism in this country presents a singular phenomenon in religious fanaticism, blended with common sense and industrious habits. They show that a revolution is at work in the human mind on the subject of religion, of which they are only a part. It will astonish some of our readers when we inform them that Mormonism has, in this age of boasted intelligence, made more rapid progress, and has more adherents, than Christianity had in the same number of years. The foundation of their faith is a book called the Mormon Bible, a work written by a man of genius, in his hours of leisure, in the same vein, and in much the same language as is used in the Old Testament. It is nothing, in fact, but a religious novel, professing to narrate the wanderings of one of the family mentioned in the Pentateuch. This book of fancy passed into the hands of the celebrated Joe Smith, who was shot in a row in Illinois, The "prophet," as he is termed by his followers, came from Canandaigua, in this State, where he first promulgated the new religion. From Canandaigua he went to Ohio, thence to Missouri -- then to Illinois, where he met his death in the manner stated. He and his followers in Nauvoo became obnoxious to the people of Illinois, a disturbance ensued, the blood of the saints was shed, and Joe Smith was killed.

Finding no resting place in civilized parts of the country, the Mormons at length settled down in the remote Salt Lake country. Since they went there, and since the discovery of the gold mines in California, they have risen to great power -- increased their numbers to an amazing extent; have a territorial government, organized under the authority of the United States, and possess the seeds of further strength and power to an unlimited extent. In many respects, the progress and career of the Mormons resemble those of the Methodists under Wesley and Whitfield, and the probability is that they will go on increasing, until they become one of the leading religious sects of the country, and of the world. At present they are characterised by too much bigotry; but they will become more liberal, no doubt, in course of time, and be as numerous as any other Christian sect.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Saturday, June 7, 1851.                       Two Cents.



(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Tuesday, August 12, 1851.                       Two Cents.


(under construction)


Note: The above article contains a description of James J. Strang's Mormon colony at the head of Lake Michigan. The text will be added when a full copy of the article becomes available.


Whole ?                         New York City, Sunday, January 4, 1852.                       2 Cents.



Report of the Judges of Utah Territory to the President
Polygamy and Religion Revived in the West.


SIR -- It becomes our duty, as officers of the United States for the territory of Utah, to inform your Excellency that we have been compelled to withdraw from the territory, and our official duties, in consequence of the lawless acts and the hostile and seditious feelings and sentiments manifested by Brigham Young, the Governor, and the great body of the residents there, towards the government and officers of the United States, in aspersions and denunciations so violent and offensive as to render the discharge of our official duries not only dangerous, but impractical, and a longer residence in the territory, in our jusgements, incompatible with a proper sense of self-respect, and the high regard which is due to the United States...

We deem it our duty to state, in this official communication, that polygamy, or "plurality of wives is openly avowed and practised in the territory, under the sanction and in obedience to the direct commands of the church." So universal is this practice, that very few, if any, leading men in that community can be found who have not more than one wife each, which creates a monopoly, and which was pecuilarly hard upon the officers sent to reside there. The prominent men in the church, whose example in all things it is the ambition of the more humble to imitate have each many wives, some of them, we are credibly informed and beieve, as many as twenty or thirty and Brigham Young, the Governor, even a greater number. Only a few days before we left the territory, the Governor was seen riding through the streets of the city in an omnibus, with a large company of his wives, more than two-thirds of whom had infants in their arms -- a sure sign that the evil is oncreasing. It is not uncommon to find two or more sisters married to the same man; and in one instance, at least, a mother and her two daughters are among the wives of a leading member of the church. This practice, regarded and punished as a high and revolting crime in all civilized countries, would, of course, never be made a statutory offence by a Mormon Legislature; and if a crime at common-law, the court would be powerless to correct the evil with Mormon juries. The City of the Great Salt Lake, is an important point in the overland route to Oregon and California for the emigrant to replenish his stores, or to winter if overtaken by the advance of the season; but the intimidation which is produced by the denunciations and conduct...
(under construction)

Note: See also: House Executive Document, 32d Congress 1st Session, No. 25, "Utah: Message from the President... Jan. 9, 1852," pp. 8-22, (quoted in Spiritual-Wife Doctrine of the Mormons. Report of the Judges of Utah Territory. Cheltenham, England, 1852).


Whole ?                         New York City, Sunday, February 15, 1852.                       2 Cents.


Improvements of the Mormons at Great Salt Lake.

We have received intelligence from Utah, with news to the 15th November. The Deseret News, published at Great Salt Lake City, contains an account of the present state of affairs among the Mormons at that and neighboring settlements...

Expulsion of U. S. Officers from Utah.

The United States officers who returned from Utah, have stated that persons were expelled from the territory if they became obnoxious to the censure of the Mormon authorities. The following is a copy of an editorial article in the News, in relation to a regularly licensed trader, who it seems was not well regarded by the saints...
(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Tuesday, March 9, 1852.                       Two Cents.

Washington, D. C.         
April ?, 1852.         
To the New York Herald.

Sir: -- I will thank you to print, as soon as you can, the substance of this letter. Considered only as news, it ought to be worth your while. There is a great curiosity everywhere to hear about the Mormons, and eagerness to know all the evil that can be spoken of them...

I will begin with the original and beginning of our troubles, found, to my mind, in the notion that, unlike other populous communities, we are not fit, or have not the right, to furnish our own rulers.... At the very outset of our national career, we had to have strangers sent to govern us. Who of worth and standing at home would venture out to Our distant and undescribed country? Accordingly, the offices went begging among all the small-fry politicians who could be suspected of being fit to fill them. And (as I have heard, after sundry nominations were refused) the following were picked up: --

No. 1. -- A Mr. Brandebury, who brought his recommendation, saying he had studied law in the office of a Pennsylvania county-court lawyer renowned for successful high and lofty tumbling in the support of the United States Bank through a bloodless civil war, but who, in every other respect, exaggerated the recommendation of a Presidential candidate, of being perfectly and entirely unknown.

No. 2. -- Zerubbabel Snow, of Ohio, a lawyer practicing in the interior of that State -- qualifications rather ahead of the others -- willing to come out probably, having kinsfolk among us.

No. 8. -- Mr. P. E. Brocchus, of Alabama, of whom I have again to speak -- character unknown, I hope, to the President -- in the lower purlieus of the District of Columbia by no means entitled to that recommendation.

No. 4. -- B. D. Harris, a smart youngster -- from a Vermont printing office, I think -- for Secretary.

And for Indian Agent, No. S, a lazy little fellow named Day -- with half the head of a Yankee, for he was all the time thinking of a '`trade," and half the heart of a woman, for he would have run from a squaw....

The first we knew of our becoming a Territory was the account of the passage, September, 1850, of the law organizing Utah, which reached us before the year was out. Nothing could exceed the clamorous joy of our citizens at learning that they were thus invited into the family party by their brethren of the Union. Our national flags went up, hailed by huzzas, all over the settlement, and when we hoisted our large one on the liberty pole at Temple Block, in Great Salt Lake City, the artillery saluted it with one hundred rounds, rammed home.

The first actual appearance among us, by personal representative, of the government majesty of the United States, was the arrival of No. 1, as above, which came as much as half a year after (the 7th of June, I think), with a limited amount of personal luggage, including one remarkably large black umbrella, and put up at a boarding house on the outskirts of the town, resorted to by traders and carriers passing through the settlement. We welcomed this from our hearts. We did not fire the cannon at it, having saved this honor for our country's standard, or its enemies Nor did we attend to appearances as well as the French, who made ready for their king by putting white kid gloves on the guide posts' fingers, and a clean cambric ruffled shirt and silk stockings on the body of a criminal hanging in irons. Our means, after all, were limited; but we cordially did our best. As it was the Chief Justice, numbers of us paid him our respects; and, though our calls were not returned, proceeded to get up, after our custom, a Ball in his honor....

We had not unmixed cause to be pleased with our new officials. Their speech and conduct, somehow, from the first, created and spread the impression that they wanted to get extra advantage out of us. They complained, not without reason, of the lowness of their salaries; and it was intimated to some that a vote, by ourselves, of a certain increase would be agreeable. They would not organize court, or go to work, but -- an ill example to our youth -- lived indolent together in their boarding houses, day after day -- the only utterly idle persons in our whole community. Yet, at the same time, they assumed airs and graces, and various manners of condescension and superiority; in which, rest assured, they made a very great mistake. It is an error, the prevalent opinion that we all cleanse the nasal orifice with the big toe, and make tea with holy water. We have among us women who play on the piano and mix French with their talk, and men who like tight boots, and who think more of the grammar than the meaning of what they are saying; and who would ask nothing better than to be fed by other people for squaring circles and writing dead languages all their lives -- albeit we would not give one good gunsmith's apprentice for the whole of them. And, though we are all out-and-out democrats, in spirit and in substance, we have plenty of the hard-to-comb curly-pates of people, of whom the saying is true, that we "have seen better days"; so that if there is any thing we can do, it is to take the measure of sham, half-cut pretensions, and write down their figures. There was one personal infirmity of Judge Brandebury, I am sure, was as much remarked upon with us as it could be anywhere -- even the boarding-house folks were not content with it.

    Affect in things about thee cleanliness,
    That all may gladly board thee as a fewer.

May I hope your readers understand? You see, with our score of spring streams rushing through the city plat, our fresh water lakes, our hot springs, baths and Jordan river, more cleansing than Abana and Pharphar rivers of Damascus -- we think so much of washing -- And soap is not very dear with us either. And we read the scriptures, including Zechariah iii., 8 and 4, where we are taught that the angel would not speak with Joshua before he changed his linen. -- And; whistle! that shirt the Judge had on at our 24th of July celebration, where we did our best to make a dignity figure of him, was the greatest -- it came about as near to being the great unwashed -- considering there were ladies present, it was on the whole, I may say, the most Disrespectful Shirt, ever seen at a celebration. The Judge never stirred out without his big umbrella, not so much to keep the sun off, as to hide out people, no account of his being shy; but, after, this, whenever he was seen dragging about under it, it used to be the joke that he was afraid of rain water getting in on to that shirt. But, of course, no notice was taken of such trifles; and everything went on smooth and glassy as the pool of indolence itself, till after the 17th day of August. -- This day, arrived out from the States, Mr. P. E. Brocchus, and in one short six weeks after that this man staid among us, he was the means of stirring up all the evil report that we have had since to encounter....

To our people at Kanesville, where he stopped for other purposes than outfitting, he proclaimed his intention of running as delegate to Congress. He provided intoxicating liquors gratuitously to those in his company who would listen to his discourse on this subject. He said it was his only purpose in going out to Utah; and that, his election secured, he should return at once. He alluded darkly to dangers impending over us at Washington that only he could avert, and declared that he had come out to enable him to be our saviour. Thus he spoke and electioneered with the people of the train till he met a return company, who conveyed intelligence to the States of the election of Dr. John M. Bernhisel. His tone then changed. As soon as he arrived, he announced his intention of returning to the States. He said he was sick, and supported the character in the eyes of his fellow-lodgers by eating enormously, without taking any outdoor exercise. He was hale and busy enough, to our cost He must have obtained his influence over the others almost immediately after his arrival. They soon removed to the boarding house in which he was quartered; and there evidently, as we think we can see now, concerted their schemes and courses of molestation and mischief. We heard now distinctly more of discontent and dissatisfaction, and more of the insufficient compensation and the rest....

One day Brocchus reminded the Governor that he was going away very soon, and asked him to do him the favor of procuring him as large an audience of the people as possible, as he was very anxious to set before them in style the claims of the Washington monument fund. I do not know how he made out his case; but, as he was always specious and smiling, the Governor, willing to show him a pleasure, said, "I V ill invite you, sir, to speak at our approaching conference. It is a religious meeting, I suppose you are aware; but I wish well to your cause." One of the first buildings we ever raised at Salt Lake, was our Bowery, or gallery of rough timber and wattles, for public assemblies. Around it then was all naked ground, though it now stands in the heart of the business part of the city. Our semi-annual conferences have always met in it; and our Fall one assembling here by stated appointment, September the 6th; at its opening day, a handsome representation of the people from all quarters being in attendance, Governor Young took the first opportunity of fulfilling his promise "I was respectfully and honorably introduced'" says the published statement of Judge Brocchus....

I am certain no one of his acquaintance at Salt Lake City was prepared for such a speech as he made on this occasion. In its way it beat Brandebury's shirt. I would give a hundred dollars for the sake of our cause, to have had a phonographer to take down the stupendous effort. I can only now profess to remember a few points of it, recalled to my memory by the use that has been made of them since. He began by stating that he had read our history with deep interest, particularly that part relating to our sufferings in winter quarters, on the Missouri River, during the severe winter of '47. I intended to have visited winter quarters, he said, but, alas, was not able. A friend of mine brought me these flowers; here they are; it is all I can present you of that sainted place! At this sympathetic display he forced a tear, and, the careless observer would have said, wiped it from his cheek, but Deseret eyes saw the handkerchief pass to the right and left, while the tear remained on the cheek by an overcast of the head. His reception was next referred to. I was a stranger and you took me in; sick, and you visited me, &c. Even a kind lady brushed the flies from my forehead; her kindness I can never forget. -- Another tear was forthcoming, and wiped as before. Twenty minutes of this sort of thing quite naturally introduced the consideration of his personal merits. In the course of an able and flattering autobiography, he displayed all his advantages of experience and public service in important imaginary capacities. This sort of thing took up an hour more, by which the patience of the company was pretty nearly worn out, though they remained quiet. "For more than two hours," he writes, "I was favored with the unwavering attention of my audience."

But a changed tone then came on him, with a change of subject. He began a studied assault upon his introducer, Governor Young, and an argument to the people against allowing the man so much influence as he possessed, the sum of it being that so long as this continued we would have no party divisions, and without party divisions we could not be a worthy object of the notice or favor of politicians. Soon, however he found he could do nothing on this head. "Oh ladies, sweet ladies," he cried, "why do you 'go in' for such a man? Your smiles should be turned on the contemplation of men who can handle the sword -- George Washington, and Zachary Taylor, the second Washington. Oh, Governor Young can't handle a sword!" Even such soft appeals as this were thrown away. From bad to worse, disapprobation rose till the orator was groaned. He tried a few insinuations more, and was groaned again, groaned with a will. At this, instead of taking his seat, he changed his ground, and made a direct and undisguised attack upon the audience itself, men and women, without distinction, accusing them of want of patriotism and attachment to the laws, and reproaching and insulting them to their face. General D. H. Wells, of Illinois, an impulsive and hot spoken man, but I am bound to say one of our most liberal and public spirited citizens, had delivered an oration on the 24th of July, severely condemning the course of the federal government towards us. Producing an imperfect report of this speech and commenting on it, Brocchus proceeded to attribute its sentiments to the people, and make them answerable for it, thereupon threatening them with destruction by the whole army and navy of the United States. In the same way he brought up remarks of Governor Young upon General Taylor, threatening the people with destruction for them also, and declaring that his (Brocchus's) influence should break him from office, the instant he arrived in Washington. Finally, the women hissing him here, he mentioned Washington, for the first time in connection with the monument, and as if merely incidentally. "It reminds me, by the way," he said, "that I have commission from the Washington Monument Association, to ask of you (the ladies) a block of marble, as the test of your citizenship and loyalty to the government of the United States. But in order for you to do it acceptably, you must become virtuous, and teach your daughters to become virtuous, or your offering had better remain in the bosom of your native mountains."

At this climax of insult, the meeting rose as one man, and their cries and uproar compelled the speaker to take his seat. The tumult continuing, we looked to the other officers of the United States, who had been

invited to the stand, to reply; but, as they failed to do so, the Governor being loudly called for, rose and spoke in substance (for I cannot imitate or remember successfully his peculiar style), as follows: -- "But for this man's personalities, I would be ashamed not to leave him to be answered by some of our small spouters -- sticks of his own timber. Such an orator, I should suppose, might be made by down-east patent, with Comstock's phonetics and elocution primers; but, I ask you all; have we ever before listened to such trash and nonsense from this stand? Are you a Judge, (he said, turning to him), and can't even talk like a lawyer, or a politician, and haven't read an American school history? Be ashamed, you illiterate ranter, (said he), not to know your Washington better than to praise him for being a mere brutal warrior. Washington was called first in war; but he was first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen. He had a big head and a great heart. Of course, he could fight. But, Lord! What man can't? What man here will dare to say, with women standing by, that he is a bit more a coward than Washington was? Handle a sword! I can handle a sword as well as George Washington. I'd be ashamed to say I couldn't. But you, standing there, white and shaking now, at the hornets'-nest you have stirred up yourself -- you are a coward; and that is why you have cause to praise men that are not; and why you praise Zachary Taylor. President Taylor you can't praise -- you find nothing in him. Old General Taylor! what was he? -- a mere soldier, with regular army-buttons on; no better to go at the head of brave troops than a dozen I could pick up between Leavenworth and Laramie. And, for one, Ill not have Washington insulted by having him compared to Taylor, for a single breath of speech. No, nor what is more, President and General Andrew Jackson crowed down and forgotten, while I am with this people even if I did not know that one is in one place (of punishment), and the other in another (of reward)." Brigham Young spoke this out of his knowledge by the priesthood.

"What's the meaning," continued the Governor, but more at large than I can give it here, "what's the meaning of this insult of our patriotism? Is it the place of miserable vermin that feed upon its sacred body, to teach us the value of the Union? Sense enough you have to see we are bound to be its best friends. But you shall not go home to say you were never told so. Against the Union, are we? We want to have Saint Francisco on one side of us, and Saint Louis on the other, fighting and scratching like any other two saints of different denominations, do we? And the tax on the foreign goods we use isn't enough, to be sure, but we must want to pay one set of duties at a custom-house in New York

or New Orleans, and then another at Jefferson City, may be, and an. other set again at Council Bluffs. That will help us, won't it? No, Sir. we're not nailed to North or South, or any other point of the compass here. We have come out from the North and South as well as East and West, and we want our old States to stick together, because we intend to stick to the whole of them. And we are just the very people to know what tomfool's nonsense it is, the notion of a minority that expects to get into a tight place, going off for safety into close partnership with its next neighbors. Who does not know that there is more bother with a quarrel some neighbor than with a dozen that live further off. And what is a man's chance if, with a neighbor on each side of him, bent upon mischief, he has no other neighbors to help him keep them straight? It is just the same with States. Let the devil of persecution get abroad against any single one of them, as it did against us at home, and let it be Georgia or Illinois on one side, and North Carolina and Tennessee, or Missouri and Iowa on the other, all ready to join, if one is not enough, to put Charleston or Nauvoo down -- and where is Charleston' or South Carolina either, going to be, if she hasn't then one outsider to help her? Now, tell all this, when you return, to some of your folks in Alabama, where you say you belong; -- though' if you tell them instead' the Mormons want to get up a union with Selkirk's Settlement, or the Hudson Fur Company, or be annexed by the Mexican half-breeds, or the Indians, (say the Crows, or the Blackfeet, or the Snakes), I know they'd rather believe it. -- Snake stories are about all they will believe of the Mormons!" After defining very fully his views after this wise, the Governor concluded, I remember, about as follows: -- "What you have not been afraid to intimate about our morals, I will not stoop to notice, except to make my particular personal request of every brother and husband present, not to give your back what such impudence deserves. You talk of things 'you have on hearsay,' since your coming among us. 'll talk of hearsay then -- the hearsay that you are discontented and will go home, because we cannot make it worth your while to stay. What it would satisfy you to get out of us I think it would be hard to tell; but I am sure it is more than you'll get. If you or any one else is such a baby-calf, we must sugar your soap to coax you to wash yourself of Saturday nights: go home to mammy straight away, and the sooner the better!"

This is the whole of Governor Young's speech, of which so much to-do has been made. What to make of the strange speech of Brocchus, to this day I am not clear....

We could not go on with the church business after the disgraceful occurrence, and our meeting had to be dismissed and dispersed

After the Brocchus outrage, the story of the misconduct of other officers is Soon related. First, we found out, to our astonishment, that neither Brandebury nor Harris were at pains to condemn or disavow his course. Soon we were threatened that Harris would return with Brocchus; not long after we heard the same ill of Brandebury, and soon after this... their purpose of doing so was formally announced to us, The Governor, upon this, fearing they might be as good as their word, and leave the territory to legal anarchy' called a special session of the Legislature to consider of the exigency There was a rupture at once. They would not communicate with that body or notice its existence. The Assembly passed a joint resolution directing the United States Marshal to take into his custody the papers, seals and funds of the Secretary, as about to abscond. He disregarded it, and applying to Judge Brandebury, who, for this special purpose, constituted a United States Court for the first time, obtained an injunction on the marshal against interfering with him. The two houses passing also a resolution directing an order to be drawn for $500 on account of mileage, stationery, &c., out of the $24,000 placed in the Secretary's hands for such expenses; he refused to accept it, and on the contrary, wrote them back an insulting letter, in which he pronounced his (the Secretary's) opinion that they were illegally elected and constituted. This letter, dated September 25, came to the Assembly next day, or Friday, Sept. 26. What they would have done, or what would have been the course of their debates it would be hard to say. But the officers, as if they feared the Assembly really might take the Secretary's objections for more than they were worth, and resign and be reconstituted, which could have been done in a week -- the next thing we knew, they were off -- Sunday morning, bright and early, September 28, A.D., 1851....

I have concluded my narrative. How far it contains cause of offence, perhaps, I am unable to see; but I am sure it will surprise every one that has perused it, to know that, wretched stitching together of trivialities as it appears, it covers the whole ground of the charges made against us....

I am your very obedient servant,

Note 1: Late in 1851 four of the federal officials appointed to the Territorial Government in Utah, left the territory and returned to Washington. In a Dec. 19, 1851 letter, these officials complained to President Millard Fillmore of open polygamy being practiced in Utah, and said that the Mormon Church was "overshadowing and controlling the opinions, the actions, the property, andÉ the lives of its members; usurping and exercising the functions of legislation and the judicial business of the Territory." The publicizing of the officials' negative report had an adverse effect on the Territory's image in the east, and Governor Brigham Young soon sent his Second Counselor, Jedediah M. Grant, to Washington, D. C. to bolster the Church's public image. Elder Grant was assisted by Thomas L. Kane in writing letters for publication, in which the Mormons and their leaders might be better presented to easterners. At least three such letters, headed "Truth for the Mormons," were submitted to the New York Herald, but Editor Bennett chose to reproduced only one of them in his paper.

Note 2: As to the charge of Mormons practicing polygamy in Utah, Elder Grant wrote to the Herald, "I pronounce it false." But he also added a revealing comment to his denial: "Suppose I should admit it at once? Whose business is it? Does the constitution forbid it?" Unfortunately this particular passage occurs in one of the 1852 Grant letters that Editor Bennett chose not to reproduce in the columns of the Herald.


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Saturday, April 24, 1852.                       Two Cents.



The news from Great Salt Lake City, the chief place of the Mormon Empire, is to the 8th Feb. We received, several days ago, the Deseret News and private advices to that date. We have already given the leading points of these accounts in the New York Herald... . (under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole ?                         New York City, Thursday, July 15, 1852.                       2 Cents.


Interesting Letters from the Fathers and Elders of the Church

The Trouble with the Government Officers.

Great Salt Lake City.       
Utah Terrirtory, May 1, 1852.       
James Gordon Bennett, Esq. --

In the Herald of the 9th March, in your comments upon General Grant's reply to the "flying court," or "Babes in the Woods," late of Utah, I see you sagaciously say the Latter Day Saints must "make up their minds to submission to the federal authorities, and come down to the established arrangement of one wife at a time, or abide the consequences of the higher law." -- Now, sir, in all deference to your unique opinion, permit me to dissent, because the constitution has no power over religion, neither has Utah's Congress; "the federal authorities" have no control over morality -- that belongs to the good old book, the word of the Lord, and you know that God allowed any good man, such as Abraham, Jacob, Gideon, David, Solomon, and hundreds of others, a plurality of wives. 'Praise ye the Lord,' and unless all christendom shall, by their 'sacredotal clergy,' petition Jehovah, and repeal king James' repugnant, and as I believe. 'wonderful wiving law,' we shall, as a religious community, hold on to our rights, guarenteed by the constitution & revelation. It is just as virtuous, just as holy, and just as wise, for the Mormons to obey the Scriptures now, as in the days of Moses or Jesus; for Jesus said, 'suffer little childrem and forbid them not to come unto me for of such is the kingdom of heaven.'

You know also, that among other great promises to the Latter Day Saints, an 'hundred fold of mothers and children' is promised. You could not have the children, unless you had the wives, [and] mothers, to bear them. Some of the old prophets sais 'seven women should take hold of one man,' &c. but I think it is no where said that seven men should take hold of one woman, as it is somewhat fashionable among the elite of many nations.

If you have not received a communication from Dr. J. M. Bernhisel, on the plurality of wives, being a dialogue between Bogus-bus, and the king's fool, call on him for it, and let the people have it, and I think your own wife system will sing as small as our racing Gilipons, or, 'dirty cotton court.' Of two evils, a Mormon chooses neither, but goes in for all good and more good, which, if as Solomon said, a good wife is a good thing, then the more you have the more good you have; so that when suffering female kind, over the great globe, are acquainted with the fact, that, "the daughters of kings are among the Lord's honorable wives in heaven," (Psalm 45,) and on the right hand the queen in gold of Ophir, you will hear of more honorable women clinging to the priesthood [than] you ever thought of, or a narrow contracted christian clergy, drove into corruption by night closetings, because their deeds are evil.

Brother Gordon, look into my almanac for this year, and on the 22d page you will observe an account of the 'Eternal Mother,' -- and on the 37th, 'The Philosophy of the Heavens.' Try a little of the Mormon classics. I go in for Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish and any other language which conveys truth. Should you get the communication I mentioned above, I think that what I have written will do for you and I and others, to circulate that the constitution of the United States, actually allows men and women to love, get and do all the good they can from the Bible, from the Book of Mormon, from the world, and even from one another. 'Praise ye the Lord.'
            Respectfully,               W. W. PHELPS.

Note: Such is the first Mormon attempt at justifying their long secret spiritual wifery. Even the patience and indulgent allowance Editor Bennett generally extended to the Utah Saints must have been taxed in his reading of this communication from "the King's Fool." Bennett's experience in New York journalism stretched back to his days at the National Advocate, when the William Morgan affair was a big story in the press of the Empire State. He was a contemporary of William W. Phelps in the business when Phelps started his anti-masonic Ontario Phoenix at Canandaigua. While Phelps joined the Mormons and "went west," Bennett remained in the east, giving voice to the pro-masonic cause and conducting some of the very first investigative reporting on the origin and rise of Mormonism. No doubt Bennett kept an eye on Phelps over the years, and watched with distaste the man's long, slow downhill slide into obsession and obscurity. After so many years of promulgating lies regarding their secret marital affairs, Phelps' professed love of all "language which conveys truth" must have struck Bennett as both pathetic and comical.


Whole ?                           New York City, Monday, April 25, 1853.                         2 Cents.

Mormonism and "Spiritual Wifeism"
in Lee County.

(From the Chicago Press, April 13.)

We had of late years entirely lost track of William Smith, brother of the prophet "Joe." In 1839 we knew him well. He was then keeping tavern in Plymouth, a small village in Hancock county, some thirty miles from Nauvoo. A goodly number of the "Saints" frequented his house, but he never had much influence with the great body of Mormons. "Bill," as he was familiarly termed by his "Gentile" acquaintances, was always regarded as one of the lesser lights. Compared with his older brother Joe, or his younger [sic] brother Hiram, he was an inferior man. He had much less capacity than the former, and far less cultivation than the latter. Yet he was by no means deficient in that peculiar shrewdness which, from the mother of the prophet down to the youngest of her children, was characteristic of the Smith family. Bill, however, lacked caution. He had not the faculty of concealment which distinguished Joe and Hiram. Perhaps this was the reason that the two latter induced him to take up his residence outside the holy city. The weakness of Bill conduced to his popularity where he lived. He obtained a reputation for frankness and candor that was denied his shrewder brothers, and when he became a candidate for legislative honors, he polled many votes outside of the Mormon organization.

After the murder of Joe and Hiram, Bill made a desperate attempt for the succession. But he carried too few guns. Rigdon was a bigger man than Bill, Strang was bigger than Rigdon, but Brigham Young was the biggest of them all. But Rigdon, Strang and Bill were all too big to play second fiddle to Brigham. Each drew off his particular adherents, and set up on his own account. Brigham and the great mass of the saints made their hegira to Salt Lake, Rigdon and his followers to Pennsylvania, and Strang to Beaver Island. Bill commenced a kind of nomadic life. We met him repeatedly afterwards, upon the Southern rivers, travelling up and down, lecturing on Mormonism in the principal cities and towns, seemingly fond of the notoriety which attached to him. Within the last five or six years we had heard but little of him, and we supposed he had either subsided into peaceful retirement, or had made his submission to Brigham Young, and become a citizen of Utah. Our first impression was correct. William Smith, as we learn by a late number of the Dixon Telegraph, together with a few followers, has settled in Lee county, Illinois. There he maintains the distinctive tenets of Mormonism, keeps up "stated preaching," and practised many of the peculiarities for which the sect are famous. Last week he was brought before the Circuit Court at Dixon, at the instigation of a "spiritual wife." We copy what follows from the Dixon Telegraph: --
"At present term of our Circuit Court, William Smith, was brought before it, having been arrested in consequence of an affidavit made by one of the female members of the church, in which she set forth that she had been induced to believe that it was necessary for her salvation that she should become his spiritual wife; the result of which was the same that usually accompanies cases where no spiritualism is claimed. On account of the inability of the witness to attend at this term, the case was continued. The defendant says that it all arises in persecution from the Gentiles. As another item on the same subject we may state that Smith has himself now pending in the same court, an application for a divorce, on the ground that his wife, while at Nauvoo, was initiated into the mysteries of, and, as he says, "took seven degrees" in spiritual wifery. So that it seems, according to his ideas of the doctrines of that particular branch of the church militant, what is sauce for the goose is not sauce for the gander."
Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole ?                           New York City, Friday, May 4, 1855.                         2 Cents.

  (under construction)

... [quoting Brigham Young] "You must not think, from what I say, that I am opposed to slavery. No! The negro is damned, and is to serve his master till God chooses to remove the curse of Ham."

Note 1: Brigham Young expressed the LDS Church's doctrine concerning the Negro to John Gordon Bennett's arch-nemesis, abolitionist Horace Greeley, thusly in 1859: "H. G. -- What is the position of your church with respect to slavery? B. Y. -- We consider it of divine institution, and not to be abolished until the curse pronounced on Ham shall have been removed from his descendants. H. G. -- Are any slaves now held in this territory? B. Y. -- There are."

Note 2: On Feb. 18, 1855 Brigham said: "I tell you, in the name of the God of Israel, that their secret reflections tell them [President of the United States and members of Congress] this, unless they are so far depraved by wickedness that the Spirit of the Lord has ceased to strive with them. But as soon as they engage in the turmoil of their daily duties, the hue and cry that 'the Mormons are about to do this and that,' attracts their attention. Formerly the rumor was that 'they were agoing to tamper with the slaves,' when we had never thought of such a thing. The seed of Ham, which is the seed of Cain descending through Ham, will, according to the curse put upon him, serve his brethren, and be a 'servant of servants' to his fellow-creatures, until God removes the curse; and no power can hinder it. These are my views upon slavery." (Deseret News, March 1, 1855)


Whole No. ?                   New York City, Tuesday, June 17, 1856.                 Two Cents.

(advocates Utah statehood, with polygamy -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                   New York City, Sunday, October 19, 1856.                 Two Cents.

Our Salt Lake Correspondence.

SALT LAKE CITY, Aug. 31, 1856.        
Armed Interference of the Saints with the United States Mails -- Brigham Young Advises all True Believers not to Pay their Just Debts -- Attempt to Assassinate a United States Officer -- The Perpetrators of the Outrage Encouraged by the Authorities -- Exhortations in the Temple to "Go and do Likewise" -- Efforts Made by the Mormons to Propitiate the Indians, &c., &c.

The following items of news, which you will not find in the Deseret News, will serve to illustrate to the minds of the people in the States the situation in which the United States officers and the "Gentile" residents in Utah are in, and also the importance of immediate action in respect to the state of affairs in this Territory.

In the first place, when the United States' mail was preparing to leave this place on the 2nd of the month, we were much astonished to see a body of fourteen horsemen, with arms secreted about their persons -- among whom were Bill Hickman, Hiram Clauson, J. C. Little, and Brigham Young, Jr. -- ride down to the United States mail carriages and follow them wherever they went, and forming in a line alongside of them whenever they stopped. They escorted the mail in this manner until it reached the mouth of Emigration Kanyon, when Mr. Maxwell, the conductor, stopped the carriages, and, riding back to the posse, told them that he would proceed no further until they gave him the reasons for their unwarrantable conduct. They gave him as an excuse that when the mail came into the city the mail carriers had shouted and made a great noise, and that to prevent them from doing so in going out they had been ordered to escort them. They then returned to the city, and the mail proceeded on its way. It was, however, rumored in the city, and generally believed, that there were persons who intended to go in the mail carriage whom they wished to prevent from leaving the country.

The following Sunday, Brigham Young told the people in the tabernacle that any man who would sell a bushel of wheat to a "Gentile," would have to give the same amount for the benefit of the church, and that if he persisted in so doing his property should all be confiscated. Again, he said, "If you owe anything to the Gentile merchants, suffer yourself to be sued, and your horses, cattle, lands, &c., to be taken from you, before you allow a bushel of wheat to go from your granaries." Thus simply telling them, that if they did not pay the merchants the wheat, which many of them are under bonds to deliver for debts which they have incurred, in anticipation of the harvest, that he would see that they would lose nothing by being sued. Also, in speaking of the Gentiles he said that he hated the very sight of them, "and if you were all," said he, "real good Mormons -- such Mormons as I should like to see you -- not a single Gentile would remain in the place a minute. It would be too hot for them here. You would make it hotter for them than the southeast corner of a Methodist hell."

But the event which has created the greatest excitement in this city was a most outrageous attempt at assassination, which was made upon a United States officer in the public streets under the sanction and countenance of the authorities of the Mormon Church. The facts are these: -- About dusk, one evening, Mr. Joseph Troskolawski, a United States Deputy Surveyor, went to the store of Messrs. Hooper & Williams to make a few purchases. Here he met Bill Hickman, a notorious member of the "Danite Band," who engaged in conversation with him in a friendly manner, no one having any suspicion that he had the least unkind feeling towards him. Mr. T. then left the store alone, to go to his lodgings. He had gone but a few steps when three men, associates of Hickman, stepped up behind him and knocked him down. One of them then commenced beating him about the head with the butt of a heavy loaded whip, and the others stamped upon and kicked him, being assisted by Bill Hickman, who had followed him up from the store, and who cried out to the other villains "kill the d__d son of a b___h, kill him quick, I'll stand the consequences." Messrs. Hooper [&] Williams, hearing a cry in the street, ran to their door, and seeing these fellows beating a man rushed to the spot just in time to save Mr. T.'s life. Mr. Hooper seized Hickman by the collar when the latter drew a knife upon him. He, however, succeeded in throwing him off. Mr. Williams in the meantime throwing the other two fellows off, liberated Mr. T. who staggered, blind and strangling in his blood, towards the office of the mail agent, and was caught by Mr. Dotson, who carried him in. Hickman and his associates then jumped on their horses and rode off unmolested, yelling and shouting like Indians.

On examination, Mr. Troskolawski was found to be very seriously hurt having received a severe internal injury by being dreadfully cut up and bruised. He had received heavy blows behind each ear and on his forehead. He passed four days in the greatest agony; his friends expecting every moment that he would die; but under the care of Dr. Lee, the inflammation was arrested, and he is now slowly recovering. No cause was assigned for the attack, except that Mr. T. had used too great freedom of speech in expressing his views of Mormon religion. Bill Hickman was in town the next day, boasting of what he had done, and saying that he was not afraid; that he could pay damages and stand a trial, for his counsel was a high one. Towards the middle of the day, Brigham Young, the Governor of the Territory, sent for Hickman, who remained with him some two hours. There was a great deal of excitement in the city and the sympathy of the mass of the people was for Mr. T., although many of the leaders said they were sorry the d___d Gentile had not been killed. Hickman was in town every day that week, and no effort was made by the authorities to bring the offender to justice. It is useless for the Gentiles to make complaint, for there is not the least shadow of law or justice in Utah. Brigham Young is absolute monarch, and his word is the only law acknowledged.

On the Sunday afternoon following, Jedediah M. Grant, the second councillor of Brigham, made the following remarks in the Tabernacle, rebuking the people for the sympathy which they had evinced for Mr. T. He said: -- "I am sick of this sympathizing spirit which you, as individuals, have with the Gentiles and apostate Mormons. I abhor this sympathetic feeling you have towards the wretches who would cut our throats, and of whom I can say, as I have said of Martin Van Buren, that they should be winked at by blind men, they should be kicked across lots by cripples, they should be nibbled to death by young ducks, and be drawn through the keyhole to hell by humble bees. Because a poor d___d scoundrel will come into our streets drunk and fall into a ditch, and some of our 'shanpip' brethren happened to stumble over him, you should sympathise with him, I am ashamed of you." "We ask no odds of the Gentiles; we care not what they say or do, nor fear what they can do." (Brigham repeated, "yes, we ask no odds of any of them.") He spoke in this manner for an hour, using language which would not be tolerated among the lowest and most degraded class of persons anywhere in the world.

After Jedediah had finished speaking, Heber C. Kimball, Brigham's first counsellor, rose and remarked that he agreed with all that Jedediah had said, and then added: "This occurrence alluded to by brother Grant, I never heard of until a day or two ago, and if another such occurrence takes place you'll not hear of it at all," and then continued in about the same strain as the preceding speaker. They then finished by ordering Thomas S. Williams to go on a mission as a reward for his interference in the affair.

The above are the passages which are fit to be published, for some were too indecent to be repeated. The whole drift of the afternoon's discourses was that the church approved this deed and upheld the "shanpip brethren" (not Danite, as formerly,) in what they had done -- that the people had no business to be surprised -- that they reproved them for the excitement which had been created, and that the next time such a deed was committed there would be no occasion for any noise to be made about it.

Bill Hickman was sent out to Green river the week after with a couple of wagon loads of goods for Wash-a-keek, the Chief of the Snake tribe. Why he was sent instead of Armstrong, the Indian Agent, remains to be ascertained; but probably it is part of the excellent peace policy which Brigham has found to work so well, and in pursuance of which he distributes presents to the Indians in the name of the Mormons, (taking care to make the distinction broad between Americans and Mormons,) which presents are paid for by the United States government. The immediate cause of these presents being sent is that news has been received from the upper country that the Snake and Bonnack Indians are all ready at a moment's warning to make war upon the Mormons, and that they are only waiting to hear of the success of the war in Oregon to commence hostilities.

MORMONISM RUNNING RIOT -- ALLEGED ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE A UNITED STATES OFFICER. -- In another colnmn will be found a letter from one of our correspondents at Salt Lake City, which contains some curious statements in regard to the extremes to which the Saints are pushing their fanaticism. We give them as received. So long as the practices of Brigham Young and his associates were kept within -- we will not say decent bounds; but such, at all events, as enabled them to steer clear of a collision with the general laws of the country -- we were averse to interference with them. We felt that any attempt to control their peculiar doctrincs, obnoxious though they are to all Christian-minded people, would only react unfavorably on the principle of religions toleration, and produce far worse evils than were likely to result from quietly allowing the Mormon malady to work out its own cure. The statements of our correspondent show that this view of the case was the right one, inasmuch as the insanity that precedes destruction is now urging on the Saints to acts, which, if true and persevered in, will call for their totaI extirpation from our territories.

It appears that to such an extent is the hatred of these people to the United States employes, and others who have not been inoculated with the beauties of Mormonism carried, that in their dealings with them they treat them in all respects as a proscribed race, with whom it is sinful to have any sort of dealings. Thus, a Mormon owing a debt to a "Gentile" is openly enjoined from the Tabernacle not to discharge his obligations to him, and allow himself to be sued and have all his property taken from him rather than disobey the injunction. Again, Brigham Young tells his people that any man who sells a bushel of wheat to a Gentile will have to give the same amount for the benefit of the church; and that if such traffic be persisted in all his effects will be confiscated. This is carrying the principle of religious exclusiveness and jealonsy further even than Moslemism, and further too than the policy of the constitution, in its toleration of religious eccentricities will permit.

But the worst of these new frenzies of the Mormon mind remains to be narrated. Not satisfied with this system of social proscription, these desperate men, it is asserted, are now resorting to acts of brutal violence to put down opposition to their creed. In the letter to which we refer there is an account given of the attempted assassination of Mr. Troskolamki, a United States Deputy Surveyor, by the notorious Bill Hickman and three of his "Danite" associates, for the expression of opinions adverse to Mormonism. Not only was this cowardly act suffered to pass unpunished by the magistrates, but it received the approval of the Mormon elders in their addresses to the "faithful" in the Tabernacle.

In the extravagance of their vanity and self confluence, these foolish people have committed another offence which is likely to bring them into direct collision with the federal authorities. In order to prevent suspected persons (anti-Mormons) from leaving the Territory, they have had the audacity to send an armed band to watch and interfere with the movements of the convoy carrying the United States mails, in its departure from Salt Lake City. It was not until the mail conductor peremptorily informed the escort that he would not proceed if they continued to follow him, that they were induced to return.

From those statements it will be inferred that the reports which have been current of an intention on the part of the, Mormons to cut the connection with us and set up on their hook, are not altogelher without foundation. If they continue after this fashion to set the authority of the general government at defiance, they may find the movement anticipates in a way that will neither be very convenient nor agreeable to them.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, April 16?, 1857.                         Two Cents.


Merchant's Hotel, N. Y., April 15, 1857.          
Sir -- As myself and Mr. E. K. Hanks are the last persons who have come to the States from Great Salt Lake City, I deem it may duty to bear testimony against the lying scribblers who seem to be doing their utmost to stir up a bad feeling against the Utonians. We left our home on the 11th of December, brought the last mail to the States, and certainly should know of the state of things there. The charges of Judge Drummond are as false as he is corrupt. Before I left for the States I was five days in every week in Great Salt Lake City, and I witness to all the world that I never heard one word of the burning of nine hundred volumes of law, records, etc., nor anything of that character, nor do I know, or every heard, of anything of the dumb-boy story he talks of.

There is only one house between my house and the Penitentiary, said to contain " five or six young men from Missouri and Iowa," and I do know that up to the day I left, there were only in that place of confinement three Indians, who were convicted at the time of Colonel Steptoe's sojourn there, for having taken part in the massacre of Captain Gunnison and party, which Drummond now charges upon the "Mormons," even though Colonel Steptoe and the United States' officers then in Utah investigated the affair thoroughly and secured the conviction of the three Indians alluded to. This is an unblushing falsehood, that none but a man like Drummond could pen.

The treasonable acts alleged against the "Mormons " in Utah are false from beginning to end. At Fort Kearney we learned all about the murder of Colonel Babbitt, and do know that that charge against the "Mormons " is but another of Drummond's creations.

I have but a short time at my disposal for writing, but must say, that I am astonished to find in the States, rumors against Utah. We left our homes in peace, dreaming of no evil, and we come here and learn that we are the most corrupt of men, and are preparing for war.
Yours, &c.,           
            FERAMORZ LITTLE.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Thursday, June 11, 1857.                         Two Cents.

The New Governor of Utah -- His Policy and
Its Probable Results.

The man for Utah has been found -- so our advices from Washington state -- and Colonel Cummings will receive this week a commission from the President as successor to Brigham Young in the government of the Mormon Territory. Gen. Harney is already moving troops across the Plains to support the Governor in taking possession of his new office, should it be necessary, and vindicate the authority of the federal government.

Politicians, who swarm round every appointment that promises spoils and safety, have fought shy of Utah, because it was supposed that it harbored little profit for the purse and much danger for the person. This self-condemnation on the part of the office seekers that besiege the White House is worthy of being remembered by the President in weighing their claims for more promising positions. As for the Mormons and Brigham Young, we have not the slightest idea that they are going to give Governor Cummings and General Harney any serious trouble whatever. They have blustered about what they would do in order to prevent the federal authority from appointing a successor to Governor Young, and their policy has succeeded for a time. Poor Pierce and his Cabinet were outbragged, and dared not show their hands; but a new rule has been inaugurated at Washington, and the federal authority will be duly and properly exercised in the premises.

That is all the Utah question requires. The history of our government shows an abundance of valiant politicians who were determined to resist the federal power to the last gasp; but whenever Uncle Sam fairly put his foot down and said the thing should be so and so, it was so and so. From the whiskey rebellion of 1787 to the Plug Uglies of 1857, the result has always been the same. They load their little swivel with paving stones aud pistol bullets and scraps of iron, and brag most valiantly; but they never fire it. Every grown man in the country remembers the events of the nullification era, when a State with hundreds of thousands of population, unanimous, almost, in their determination to resist the federal authority, and that, too, upon grounds that were defended by some of the first statesmen and logicians ef the time, quietly submitted to a proclamation of the President, backed by an evident determination to use the military arm if necessary.

We anticipate precisely the same result in Utah. If Governor Cummings goes there with the proper spirit -- to meddle in nothing that is none of his business, but to do everything that appertains to him to do under the law and the constitution -- he will find no resistance to his authority. The federal government has nothing to do with the religions creeds of men; nor whether they choose one form of social organization or another. But it has to see that life and property are safe, no matter what a man's belief may be or how many wives he has. And it has further to see that when a form of State government is adopted, every man shall have a free expression of his opinion guaranteed him. As for the religious and social errors of Mormonism, we have no fear that they can successfully resist the lights of civilization and Christianity.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Monday, July 6, 1857.                         Two Cents.

Mormon Celebration of the Forth at Norwalk.

... The Norwalk and Westport, Conn. branch of the Mormon church having invited their brethren from New York and other places to participate with them in a patriotic celebration of the Fourth of July at Norwalk, and judging that they would take that opportunity of making some public exposition of their views regarding the present critical state of affairs in Utah Territory, we despatched a reporter to attend the celebration; and it will be seen by the following report of the proceedings that we were not mistaken. The statements made on this occasion are highly interesting, and will throw much light on the complicated condition of things now existing in Salt Lake City and the Territory of Utah. ... Believing that a statement of their views will prove agreeable to our readers, we publish them in substance, as given to our reporter: --


The policy which Gov. Young pursues towards the Indians, Mr. Mackintosh says, is not what it is represented -- one of conciliation with any view to a friendly alliance against the United States authority His policy is simply that he would rather feed than fight them. He finds it cheaper and more convenient, Sometimes, when they steal cattle or molest his people, he is compelled to chasten them, but he finds a wholesome warning and threats of vengeance accompanied by kindly acts, more powerful in repressing them than an open declaration of hostility. Mr. Mackintosh was secretary to Gov. Young for four years; and is now a missionary appointed to travel in the United States. He to one of those who crossed the Plains lately with the hand carts. He describes that journey of six weeks as being of the pleasantest character, the party resting at night under their teats, and conducting every thing with the precision of a disciplined force.


Mr. Appleby assured our reporter that the necessity of becoming citizens of tbe United States was universally enjoined on all emigrants to Utah. That neither Gov. Young nor any of the elders desired that their people should be other than loyal citizens of the republic. He could testify to the naturalization of thousands, whose papers he had himself signed, as clerk of the Supreme Court, within a few years. Mr. Mackintosh stated that he was a Scotchman from Perthshire, only in the country since 1849, and produced his naturalization papers in proof of citizenship....


Mr. Mackintosh, Brigham Young's secretary for four years, spoke highly of tbe Governor. He says he is a perfect gentleman -- neither drinks nor swears. His moral character stands as high as any living man. He believes in polygamy, to be sure, and practices it; but Mr. Mackintosh could not tell exactly how many wives he had at present. Our reporter having some curiosity to know whether the Prophet was maligned, asked if Brigham was not vulgar, profane, and often blasphemous, in his public speeches; and he was informed that he sometimes used "strong language'' when excited, that he spoke to suit his hearers; but he is really most sublime when he wants to be sublime; that he is not profane, though be may say "D__n your souls to hell;" but that our reporter was assured is only "a contraction of condemn," rather the converse of a contraction, our reporter thought, and withal very nearly akin to profanity, though coming from the lips of a prophet....


On the present crisis in Utah, and the probable course the Mormons would take with the United States troops now on their way to Utah, our reporter made anxious inquiry, and gathered that the Mormons are willing to obey all laws of the United Stales, but will not tolerate corrupt officials. Judge Drummond they condemn, and deny his statements in toto. They acknowledge that with such officials as Chief Jastice Kinney, Judge Shaver and Colonel Steptoe they have no fault to find. President Appleby stated that he heard Brigham Young declare, in the presence of thousands, that if Steptoe was appointed Governor he would be the first to bow to his authority, but they did not want demagogues or politicians to rule over them, and corrupt the stream of justice. "But," our reporter said, "the crime charged against you is that you will not obey any law of the United States that conflicts with your doctrine or opinions." He was promptly answered: -- "They cannot conflict with the United States laws. Our book of doctrines and covenants expressly declares -- 'He that abideth by my law hath no need to transgress the laws of the land.' The issue they seemed to think simple enough. It was this: If the United States soldiers are sent by the government to Utah to see that the laws are enacted, they will not be molested -- no notice will be taken of them; but if they come there to corrupt our wives and violate our daughters, then we will die in resistence...

Note: Commenting on the music played at the gathering, the reporter also said: "The Mormons do not confine themselves to sacred music. All the popular songs of the day -- English glees, negro melodies, and even sentimental ballads -- they bring into their service. Their hymns are for the most part sung to familiar "profane" airs. Judging from the events of the Fourth, solemnity or seriousness of deportment forms no part of their faith; nor do long faces and glum looks constitute with them an adjunct of piety. Jollity, good humor, lively music and kindly feelings were the prevailing features of the occasion."


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Monday, July 27, 1857.                         Two Cents.


We have news from Salt Lake City to the 2nd of July.... we are furnished with the following papers for publication. They make grave charges against Surveyor General Burr, and will probably lead to an official investigation by the government at Washington: --

GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, U. T. June 16, 1857.          
I have read with surprise the reports of some of the government officials sent to this Territory to fill various offices, and I am astonished at the misstatements and false assertions therein contained; more especially am I surprised at those put forth by General David H. Burr, who was sent here as United States Surveyor General. Now, from having been some ten months in his employ, as clerk. copying maps, field notes, accounts, &c., I am tolerably conversant with his accounts, disbursements, &c., I feel in duty bound as a citizen of these United States, and as a man of honor, to throw some little light upon the proceedings of this United States official.

General David H. Burr has done things that if properly brought to light would show great frauds upon the United States Treasury -- receiving pay for work he never did, and for expenses never incurred. When he hired me I made no stipulation with him as to my salary. But when the quarter was up, I signed a voucher for two hundred and fifty dollars; and supposed that I would receive that amount per quarter, which even in the Eastern States would have been but a minimum compensation; but when I came to settle with him, at the end of ten months. he only allowed me two dollars per day, also deducting for days when I was necessarily absent; and General Burr, of course, pocketed the difference. But this is a small matter.

According to the statements of the surveying party, not one in fifty of the mile and quarter section stakes were ever set or mounds raised, nor the comers ever seen by the surveying parties, although reported in the field notes, which lines never were run, although notes have been sent to Washington, certified to as true copies of the original field notes. I know for a fact that Mr. Herrman Ochure compass man, had to fabricate section line field notes in camp, while the rest of the hands were alspeed, and complained much to me of the tax on his imagination and sleep, "because Mr. Troskolawski 'jumped' so much."

It was undoubtedly this fact that caused Gen. Burr to report to Washington that the stakes had been torn up by the people of Utah.

Residents here offered to furnish Gen. Burr all his stakes of cedar wood, and deliver them at the points he should designate, at a cost of $3 per hundred, yet, in his report he asserts that he was obliged to keep a considerable number of mules and men at a-grtjU. expense to provide stakes, &c.

At one time I spoke to Gen. Burr of the law in relation to running lines from south to north, beginning on the east section of a township; He answered me, looking suspiciously at me, that he had a right, as Surveyor-General, to allow his Deputy Surveyors to run their lines as he pleased.

The incidental expenses for surveying, as sent in his returns to Washington, have been greatly exaggerated. For instance, one item while I was with him was two thousand dollars for clerk hire, while his actual expense was not $500, as I was the only clerk at that time. And other expenses were charged in proportion, and a great many were charged which were never incurred at all. And again, the chain carriers, mound men, axe men, and other hands, received twenty-five dollars per month. In the year 1855, Mr. Troskolanski, with a party of fifteen or sixteen men, surveyed about two months. In the year 1856, there were three companies out under Mr. Troskolanski, Mr. Frederick Burr and Mr. David Burr (alias Mr. C. L. Craig). The first surveyed about ten weeks, the two others about four months, including days they were not able to run, although the field notes' dates have been extended much further by Gen. D. H. Burr; and in this short period this vast country is pretended to have been surveyed according to law.

A man by the name of C. L. Craig has signed the contract for the surveys in Rush and Utah Valleys. All persons who know Mr. Craig know that he never was a Surveyor, or a man capable of superintending or carrying.out a survey. This Mr. Craig lent his name at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars per annum for signing contracts which were executed by David A. Burr, a lad 28 years of age, son of Gen. Burr.

After the Rush and Utah Valley surveys were returned to the office, I one day asked Mr. Craig relative to something that was omitted in one of the maps of those surveys. He said to me, "Damn it, you know I know nothing about surveying; I have only lent my name because David A. Burr is too young to be recognized by the Government as a qualified surveyor." Gen. Burr asserts that his surveying parties have been molested by the Mormons while surveying; this is untrue. The presiding officers of said settlements told the people to render the surveyors all the aid needed by them, and to treat them with respect. But there were, in a few instances some trouble occasioned by surveying parties throwing down and leaving down fences around fields of grain, thereby allowing cattle to get in and destroy their crops; also, they turned out their own animals into their fields, and when they were requested to be more careful, cursed and swore, and said that they were United States officers, and they would do as they damned please.

While in Gen. Burr's employ, he gave me great credit for the workmanlike manner in which I exeouted everything he gave me to do; and he discharged me from his service, accusing me of having expressed out of the office, my views and feefiags in regard to the manner he made the surveys, and to his frauds upon government -- to which I plead guilty.

I do not make the foregoing statement as mere surmise; they are facts with which I am well acquainted; and should a committee of investigation be appointed to search into the disbursements and acts of Gen. David H. Burr in this Territory, I hold myself responsible to prove all I have asserted, and much more.

Territory of Utah, Great Salt Lake County, ss. -- On this thirtieth day of June,one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, before me, J. W Cummings,Clerk of the Third Judicial District Court of the United States, in and for the Territory of Utah, personally appeared Charles W. Moeller, to me well known as a person of respectability and credibility, and whose signature, in his own proper handwriting, is attached to the foregoing stateement, who, being by me duly sworn according to law, declared upon his oath that the matters set forth in the foregoing statement are true in every particular.

In testimony whereof I hereunto set my hand and affix the seal of said court, at my office in Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, this 30th day of June, A.D. 1857.
J. W. CUMMINGS, Clerk.         

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 7727.                 New York City, Wednesday, October 28, 1857.                 Two Cents.


The High Priests of Mormonism Stirring up the
Saints to Rebellion -- Ferocious Opposition
to the Gentiles -- The Federal Officers
Doomed to Destruction -- Preparations
for the Conflict, &c., &c.

We have received files of the Deseret News to the 9th of September, and by the arrival of an officer of the army at Washington, Intelligence from Great Salt Lake City to the 16th of the same month.

Elder John Taylor's Opinions -- Some Reminiscences of
Judge Douglas and Others.

The things The things we have heard this morning might sound to some croakers and ignoramuses, who have never examined the subject, and do not understand principle, like treason, as though we were in open rebellion against the United States and opposed to the Government we are associated with -- as though we were going to trample down all law, rule, and order. No such thing. We are the only people in these United States, at the present time, who are sustaining them. I can prove this, and that it is others who are trampling them under foot, and not us. Whilst they are committing acts, themselves, that are treasonable in their nature, and pursuing a course opposed to the Constitution and the very genius of the institutions of the United States, they want to lay the sin at our doors that they themselves are guilty of. Would I, as a citizen of the United States, come out in rebellion against the United States, and act contrary to my conscience? Verily no. Would brother Young? Verily no. Would brother Kimball, or brother Wells? Verily no. Are they not true patriots -- true Americans? Do they not feel the fire of '76 burning in their bosoms? Assuredly they do. Would they do a thing that is wrong? No; and they will also see that others do not do it. That is the feeling, the spirit, and principle that actuate them. There are thousands of you who are Americans, who have been born in this land, whose fathers fought for the liberties we used to enjoy, but have not enjoyed for some years past. There are thousands of such men here who feel the same spirit that used to burn in their fathers' bosoms -- the spirit of liberty and equal rights -- the spirit of according to every man that which belongs to him, and of robbing no man of his rights. Your fathers and grandfathers have met the tyrant when he sought to put a yoke on your necks; as men and true patriots, they came forward and fought for their rights and in defence of that liberty which we, their children, ought to enjoy. You feel the same spirit that inspired them; the same blood that coursed in their veins flows in yours; you feel true patriotism and a strong attachment to the Constitution and institutions bought by the blood of your fathers, and bequeathed to you by them as your richest patrimony. There are others of you that have taken the oath of allegiance to the United States; and some of you, not understanding correct principles, may, perhaps, feel qualms of conscience, and think, probably, that if we undertake to resist the powers that are seeking to make aggression upon us, we are doing wrong. No such thing. You let your conscience sleep at ease; let it be quiet: it is not us who are doing wrong; it is others who are committing a wrong upon us.

  *    *    *  

Who are the transgressors? Are we? Martin Van Buren, the then President of the United States, acknowledged the injustice done to us when he said, "Your cause is just, but we can do nothing for you." And we endured it. We staid in Illinois, lived there as peaceable citizens, and had a city charter, and under its protection improved our city, and had in a short time, by our energy, industry, and enterprize, built one of the best cities in the western country, and had one of the most peaceable societies that existed anywhere, without exception. The first thing they did to aggravate us was to rob us of our city charter; and this very Judge Douglas, of whom we have heard so much as being our friend, was one of the first movers for its repeal. The first time I ever met with him was in an hotel in Springfield, Illinois -- the time they were trying Joseph Smith before Judge Pope. He told me then that they had a right to do it, and that the Judges had decided so. I said, I did not know anything about the Judges. I did not know who he was at the time, and it would not have made much difference if I had, I told him, It is no matter to me what the judges decided about charters; the Legislature had given us our charter for perpetual succession; and for them to take away a charter with these provisions proved them either to be knaves or fools. They were knaves if they did it knowingly, to give what they knew they had not power to do; and if they did not know it, they were fools for giving us a thing they had not power to give. Did they do it? Yes. And that State robbed us of the rights of freemen; and the only chance we had then, when they sent their scamps and rogues among us, was to have a whittling society and whittle them out. We could not get them out according to law, and we had to do it according to justice; and there was no law against whittling, -- so we whittled the scoundrels out. I remember that one of the legislators who had annulled our charter, named Dr. Charles, went to President Young, and says he, "Mr. Young, I am very much imposed upon by the people around here; there are a lot of boys following me with long knives, and they are whittling after me wherever I go; my life is in danger." Brother Young replied, "I am very sorry you are imposed upon by the people: we used to have laws here, but you have taken them away from as: we have no law to protect you. "Your Cause Is Just, but we can do nothing for you." Boys, don't frighten him, don't." They deprived as of the rights of law to protect ourselves, and in doing it. they deprived us of the power of protecting them; and we could not help them when they wanted help.

(A Voice. -- We still have whittling societies.)

Yes, we still have whittling societies, as brother Kimball says. Why did we leave Nauvoo? Had we killed anybody? Had we broken any law? Had we trampled upon the rights of any people? Had we done anything that the laws of the United States or of that State could interfere with us for? If we had, they would pretty soon have dragged us up. The people wanted us to leave; and because the people were dissatisfied -- because there were a lot of religious enthusiasts, political aspirants, blacklegs, and scoundrels, who wanted to possess our property, all bound together to rob us of our rights, we must go away, of course. Judge Douglas, General Harding, Major Warren, and some of the prominent men from Springfield met together in my house in Nauvoo, and these men could go to work and talk deliberately (and there was no less than two United States Senators among them at the time) about removing thousands of people, and letting them be disfranchised and despoiled, as coolly as they would cut up a leg of mutton.

(A Voice -- And you told them of it.)

Yes, I did.
  *    *    *  

What did we do on the road here? Right in the midst of difficulties, in the midst of exile, when we were journeying to this place, this Government called upon us for 500 soldiers to go and fight their battles, when they were literally allowing us to be driven from our homes and to be robbed of millions of property without redress. Did we send the soldiers? We did. Was it our duty to comply with such a requisition at such a time, and under such circumstances? I don't know. I think it was one of those works of supererogation which the Roman Catholics talk about, I do not think any law of God or man would have required it at our hands; but we did it; and I suppose it was wisdom and prudent, under the circumstances, that we should take that course, because our enemies were seeking to entangle and destroy us from the earth. They laid that as a trap, thinking to catch us in it; but it did not stick. What did we do when we came here? We framed a Constitution and a Provisional Government, and reported our doings to the United States again, right on the back of all the insults, robbery, and fraud which we had endured. We still went constitutionally to work. Afterwards, we petitioned for a Territorial Government. Did they give it to us? They did. Is there any step that we have taken that is contrary to law? There is not? They have appointed our Governor, our Secretaries, our Judges, our Marshals; they have done to us the same in this matter as they have done with other Territories. I do not believe in their right constitutionally to appoint our officers. Still they have done it, and we have submitted to it. And they have sent some of the most cursed scoundrels here that ever existed on the earth. Instead of being fathers, they have tried every influence they could bring to bear in order to destroy us. Such have been our protectors. These have been the men who have been sworn to fulfil their public duties; but they have foresworn themselves in the face of high heaven. What law have we transgressed? None. They trump up every kind of story that it is possible to conceive of, but have always been and are now unable to substantiate any of their barefaced assertions; and I declare it before you and the world, that this people are the most peaceable, lawabiding, and patriotic people that can be found in the United States. What have they been doing in Kansas, in California, in Oregon? What in Cuba, in Nicaragua, and at present in New York, if you please? They have been filibustering in Cuba and in Nicaragua; and officers of every grade and condition, both civil and military, have winked at it and suffered those things to go on, right under their noses. The position of affairs in Kansas has been anything but flattering; it has been North against South, and South against North, and Kansas has been the battle-ground. The people there are not, perhaps, much worse than the rest of the people; they are principally emigrants from the North and South, who are arrayed against each other, whilst Kansas is the greatest Sebastopol, where the battle is fought. The inhabitants there are the representatives of Eastern, Western, Southern, and Northern civilization and Christianity, all combined. Are they traitors? O, no! They are only a little excited. We must try and get a Governor who will try and compromise matters between the parties, and we will get things straightened out by-and-by. They send one Governor, he fails; and another, and he fails; and they have sent another; but whether he will fail or not, time must determine. What are they doing in New York? The Legislature of New York passed laws interfering with the city of New York, and the city is in rebellion against the State of New York, and it was raging at the time I left. The State says, "I won't submit," and the city says, "I won't submit." And they had two different classes of officers there to regulate matters in the emporium of the United States: it is the mercantile emporium at least. They are very peaceable -- they are good citizens -- there is no harm in that; it is only a little family trouble that we have to settle; and in doing so, we must use any pacific measure we can. What is the matter with us? Have we broken any law? James Gordon Bennett, a man who is quarrelling with everybody, comes out at last, and says, "The Mormons have the advantage of us, and they know it." And out of all he could hatch up and scrape together against the "Mormons," there is only one thing that seems even in his eyes to supply any pretext for hostilities against them, and that is, the charge of burning some 900 volumes of United States' laws; and this charge is also false. Bennett is one of the most rabid Mormon-eaters you can find, with the exception of Greeley. What are they sending an army here for? I had thought things were a little different until I got here; but I have found, in conversing with President Young, that he knows more about things as they exist in the Eastern country than I did, who had just come from there. I had read all the newspapers, examined the spirit of the times, and tried to get at all the information I could; and I find, from the information I have received since then, that he understood things more correctly than I did. I thought it was a kind of a pacific course which the Administration was taking, in order to pacify the Republicans, that they might have a reasonable pretext to have fulfilled their duties; for I do know that they were apprised of the unreliable character of some of their informants. When I heard that the troops now on their way here had sealed orders, were coming with cannon, and had stopped the mail, it argued that there was the Devil behind somewhere. I will give you my opinion about their present course. The Republicans were determined to make the "Mormon" question tell in their favour. At the time they were trying to elect Fremont, they put two questions into their platform -- viz., opposition to the domestic institutions of the South and to polygamy. The Democrats have professed to be our friends, and they go to work to sustain the domestic institutions of the South and the rights of the people; but when they do that, the Republicans throw polygamy at them, and are determined to make them swallow that with the other. This makes the Democrats gag, and they have felt a strong desire to get rid of the "Mormon" question. Some of them, I know, for some time past, have been concocting plans to divide up Utah among the several Territories around; and I believe a bill, having this object in view, was prepared once or twice, and came pretty near being presented to Congress; but that was not done. Now, they go to work and send out an army with sealed orders, and, if necessary, are prepared to commit anything that the Devil may suggest to them; for they are under his influence. They wish now to steal the Republicans thunder, to take the wind out of their sails, and to out Herod Herod.

  *    *    *  

As American citizens and patriots, and as sons of those venerable sires, can we, without disgracing ourselves, our fathers, and our nation, submit to these insults, and tamely bow to such tyranny? We cannot do it, and we will not do it. We will rally round the Constitution, and declare our rights as American citizens; and we will sustain them in the face of High Heaven and the world. No man need have any qualms of conscience that he is doing wrong. You are patriots, standing by your rights and opposing the wrong which affects all lovers of freedom as well as you; for those acts of aggression have a withering, deadly effect, and are gnawing, like a canker-worm, at the very vitals of religious and civil liberty. You are standing by the Declaration of Independence, and sustaining the the Constitution which was given by the inspiration of God; and you are the only people in the United States this time that are doing it -- that have the manhood to do it. You dare do it, and you feel right about the matter as the vox populi. According to the genius and spirit of the Constitution of the United States, we are pursuing the course that would be approved of by all highminded, honourable men; and no man but a poor, miserable sneak would have any other feeling. I lay these things before you for your information, that you may feel and act understanding. I have carefully criticised these matters, and examined the views of many of those who are said to be our greatest statesmen on this subject -- for I have desired to comprehend the powers of the Government and the rights of the people; and I have watched with no little anxiety the encroachments of Government and the manifest desire to trample upon your rights. It is for you, however, to maintain them; and if those men that are traitors to the spirit and genius of the Constitution of the United States have a mind to trample underfoot those principles that ought to guarantee protection to every American citizen, we will rally around the standard, and bid them defiance in the name of the Lord God of Israel. In doing this, we neither forget our duties as citizens of the United States, nor as subjects of the kingdom and cause of God; but, as the Lord has said, if we will keep His commandments, we need not transgress the laws of the land. We have not done it; we have maintained them all the time. * * *

We are not taking any steps contrary to the laws and the Constitution of the United States, but in everything we are upholding and sustaining them. Gentlemen, hands off: we are free men; we possess equal rights with other men; and if you send your sealed orders here, we may break the seal, and it shall be the opening of the first seal.

A Ferocious Speech from President Kimball.

You all acknowledge Brother Brigham as the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Then you acknowledge him as our leader, prophet, seer, and revelator, and then you acknowledge him in every capacity that pertains to his church calling, both in the church and state, do you not? (Voices: "Yes.") Well, he is our Governor. What is a Governor? One who presides, or governs. Well, now, we have declared, in a legislative capacity, that we will not have poor, rotten-hearted curses come and rule over us, such as some they have been accustomed to send. We drafted a memorial, and the Council and the House of Representatives signed it, and we sent to them the names of men of our own choice -- as many as from five to eight men for each office -- men from our own midst, out of whom to appoint officers for this Territory. We sent that number for the President of the United States to make a selection from, and asked him to give us men of our own choice, in accordance with the rights constitutionally guaranteed to all American citizens. We just told them right up and down, that if they sent any more such miserable curses as some they had sent were, we would send them home; and that is one reason why an army, or rather a mob, is on the way here, as reported. You did not know the reason before, did you? Well, we did that in a legislative capacity; we did it as members of the Legislature -- as your representatives; and now you have got to back us up. You sent us, just as we sent brother Bernhisel to seek for our rights and to stand in our defence at Washington. Well, here is brother Brigham: he is the man of our own choice; he is our Governor, in the capacity of a Territory, and also as Saints of the Most High. Well, it is reported that they have another Governor on the way now, three Judges, a District Attorney, a Marshal, a Postmaster, and Secretary, and that they are coming here with twenty-five hundred men. The United States design to force those officers upon us by the point of the bayonet. Is not that a funny thing? You may think that I am cross, but I am laughing at their calamity, and I will "mock when their fear cometh."

  *    *    *  

Well, the day has come when our Governor has come out of our midst, and be is in the tops of the mountains, just where the Prophets said these things should come to pass; and now the United States are reported to be trying to force a Governor upon us, when the Lord has raised one up right out of our midst. Now, I am going to talk about these things, and I feel as though I had a perfect right to do so, because I am one of the people. If this people should consent to dispossess brother Brigham Young as our Governor, they are just as sure to go to hell as they live, and I know it; for God would forsake them and lure them to themselves, and they would be in worse bondage than the children of Israel ever were. Supposing this thing all blows over, and they don't come up here, but they begin to flatter us and be friendly, what will be the result? They may matter as long as the earth stands, but I never will be subject to one of their damned pusillanimous curses. They may court and flatter as much as they please, but I never will be subject to them again, -- no, never. Do you hear it? (Voices: "Yes.") Do you think we will submit to them? No, never. They have cut the thread themselves. You are the people who have the privilege to acknowledge brother Brigham as our Governor and continue him in his office; and you also have the privilege, through your agency, to reject him, if you please; but it will be to your condemnation if you do, because he has got the keys of the kingdom; and the very moment you reject him, you cut yourselves off from the right of the Priesthood. I will now bring up a comparison. I live in the City of Great Salt Lake. I am a father, a husband, a benefactor to between sixty and seventy subjects: I feed them; I clothe them; and they do not have a pin, a drink of tea, nor anything but what I provide: I provide them houses to live in and beds to sleep on. But suppose that, by-and-by, some stranger comes along, and my family say to him, "We will have you to preside over us," and they reject me, when at the same time they say, "Brother Heber is a good man," but the other man comes with a smiling face, and my family take him and reject me -- what have they done? If they reject me, they reject their head; and, by so doing, they destroy their heirship to the head or limb to which they are lawfully connected. Is not that so? Suppose you acknowledge the man reported to be coming, what do you do? You reject your head, and if so, where is the body, and what will become of it? I will compare it to my body. Supposing the head is cast away, the body will die, won't it'! Yes; and you will die just as quick as that, if you reject brother Brigham, your head. We are the people of Deseret. She shall be Deseret; she shall be no more Utah: we will have our own name. Do you hear it? Brethren and sisters, these ideas are comforting to all of you: they are most gloriously comforting to me. I tell you, the feelings within me are glorious. We are the people of Deseret, and it is for us to say whether we will have brother Brigham for our Governor, or those poor, miserable devils they are reported to be trying to bring here. You must know they are miserable devils to have to come here under arms; but they shall not rule over us nor come into this Territory. What do you say about it? Are you willing, as a people, that they should come in here? You that say they shall not, raise your right hand. (All hands raised.) Mr. Gentile, won't you tell of this to your co-workers for the Devil's kingdom? The reason that I talk as I do is because I don't hold any office in the United States; but this people, some time ago, appointed me Chief-Justice of the State of Deseret, and brother John Taylor and Bishop N. K. Whitney as my associates. You also appointed me Lieutenant-Governor; I always told you I was going to be Lieutenant-Governor. This is a stump speech! We are going to have our own Governor from henceforth. Brigham Young was then our Governor, Heber C. Kimball was Chief-Justice and Lieutenant-Governor. I was a big man then; I felt as big as brother Morley does in the Legislature. The fact is, he does not understand their gabble: if he does, he understands more than I do. It is for us to say, according to our rights under the Constitution, whether we will have those cursed Gentiles to rule over us, or not. I want you to publish this, Mr. Editor. I am giving you a little of my feelings; for I want you to know that you are under no more obligation to receive those men than brother Brigham's family is to receive another man and to reject him as their husband, their father, their friend, and benefactor. I know that what I have said has informed many of your minds, and I choose to present my ideas by comparison. I have a right to say the Gentiles shall never rule over me, although this people might admit of their coming here, I have a right to say, also, that we shall never be ruled over by them from this day forth, while grass grows or water runs; never, no, never.

(Voices -- Amen.)

Well, we have got to sustain these amens, and we have got to sustain these vows. You ladies, too, will certainly have to do your part, or back out. I told you last Sunday to arm yourselves; and if you cannot do it any other way, sell some of your fine bonnets, fine dresses, and buy yourselves a good dirk, a pistol, or some other instrument of war. Arm your boys and arm yourselves universally, and that, too, with the weapons of war; for we may be brought to the test, to see if we will stand up to the line. I never knew it to fail, when men made covenants, but they were brought to the test, to see if they would live up to them.

  *    *    *  

Let us go to work and lay up our grain, lay up wheat, and everything that will and can be preserved; and in so doing, we will save ourselves from sorrow, pain, and anguish; and the Lord will give us a law and a word for us to abide, and he will cut off our enemies; and if every man and woman will go to work, lay up their grain, and do as they are told, the Lord will hold off our enemies from us, until we can lay up sufficient store for ourselves. This is a part of our religion, to lay up stores and provide for ourselves and for the surrounding country; for the day is near when they will come by thousands and by millions, with their fineries, to get a little bread. That time is right by our door. Brother Stewart says he has discovered that this work is five years ahead of what he had supposed. Let me tell you that this people are more than ten years ahead of what they supposed. They were all asleep; but the Lord has waked them up, to prepare them for a time of trial and famine. If you do not see it, and feel it, and taste it, and smell it, it will be because God will have mercy upon you; and he will, if you will do as you are told from this time forth. Do I feel comfortable? Gentlemen and ladies, I never saw the day that I felt any better. I become weary with toil, but I feel well in regard to this work. But there is a spirit of calmness, of peace, that I am jealous of. I never have seen the day for twenty-five years, but before there was a storm there was always a calm. In Kirtland, before the trouble commenced, there was this calm. Joseph and Hyrum were men that would stand the test, but finally they had to flee from Kirtland to Missouri. Well, previous to that, we had received our endowments, and a more calm, heavenly and prosperous time I never saw. Was it so in Missouri? Yes, it was: after they became settled, they became composed; and the year of the trouble we never had such crops in the world as we had then. Was it not .so in Nauvoo? Yes; and the spirit of composure rested upon the people; and it is more or less so now ; and such crops as we have this year never were produced. What does this mean? And the spirit of composure seems to be upon the people more than ever. And what does this mean? I am rather inclined to be jealous of it. Say I, wake up, ye Saints of Zion, while it is called to-day, lest trouble and sorrow come upon you, as a thief in the night. Suppose it is not coming, will it hurt you to Jay up the products of the earth for seven years? Will it hurt you, if you have your guns, swords, and spears in good condition, according to the law of the United States? Some of the States give a man his clearance at forty years of age; others, at forty-five: they call men to train when they are eighteen years of age; but we call upon all from six to six hundred years old: we do not except any; and I want the world to know that we are ready for anything that comes along. If it is good, we are ready for that; and if it is evil, we are ready to stand against it. We are calculating to sow our wheat early this fall, in case of emergency. I throw out these things for you to think upon; and if they are not right, they will not hurt anybody. But wake up, ye Saints of the Most High, and prepare for any emergency that the Lord our God may have pleasure in bringing forth. We never shall leave these valleys -- till we get ready; no, never; no, never. We will live here till we go back to Jackson County, Missouri. I prophesy that, in the name of Israel's God. (The congregation shouted "Amen," and President Brigham Young said, "It is true.") If our enemies force us to destroy our orchards and our property, to destroy and lay waste our houses, fields, and everything else, we shall never build and plant again, till we do it in Jackson County. But our enemies are not here yet, and we have not yet thrown down our houses. Let me tell you, if God designs that Israel should now become free, they will come and strike the blow; and if he does not, they will not come. That is as true as that book (pointing to the bible). Go to work, and lay up your grain, and do not lay it out for fine clothes, nor any other kind of fine thing, but make homespun trowsers and petticoats. What would please me more than for my family, instead of wanting me to go to the store for petticoats and short gowns, to see them go to work and make some good homespun? What would be prettier that some of the English striped linsey, and a bonnet made of our own straw? Those are the women I would choose for wives. If you want virtue, go into the farming country, for there it is homespun. Farming districts contain the essence and the virtue of old England. I do not know that you know what homespun is; but it is that which is spun at home; and it is for your welfare, both men, women, and children, to make your own clothing. It is also for your salvation to equip yourselves according to law. Now, I will tell you, I have about a hundred shots on hand all the time -- three or four fifteen-shooters, and three or four revolvers, right in the room where I sleep; and the Devil does not like to sleep there, for he is afraid they will go off half-cocked. If you will lay a bowie knife or a loaded revolver under your pillow every night, you will not have many unpleasant dreams, nor be troubled with the nightmare; for there is nothing that the Devil is so much afraid of as a weapon of death. You may take this as some of Heber's wild visions, if you please. I have acknowledged myself as one of the people; and now I say, we will take our own name, and we will not be false-named any more. We are the kingdom of God; we are State of Deseret; and we will have you, brother Brigham, as our Governor just so long as you live. We will not have any other Governor. I mean just what I say, and this people say they will not have any other Governor, and especially any one that has to come here under arms; for we consider that any man is a poor, damned curse that has to come here under arms to rule over us. These are my feelings; and if anybody votes against it, they are not of us: but there are but four or five but what vote for us; and they are apostates, and will go overboard. There is not a child but what goes with us in these things. When we reject brother Brigham Young, we reject the head; but we will not do it, for the body shall dwell together, and we are members of that body, and he shall be our Governor just as long as God Almighty will have him to be. Those who are in favour of it, raise your hands.

The vote was unanimous.


Brigham Young Endorses Kimball's Statements.

Brother Heber has been prophesying. You know that I call him my Prophet, and he prophesies for me. And now I prophesy that, if this people will live their religion, the God of heaven will fight their battles, bring them off victorious over all their enemies, and give to them the kingdom. That is my prophecy. I said amen to all that brother Heber prophesied, for it is true; and he may say amen to all that I prophesy, for it is also true.

  *    *    *  

Brother Heber said to you, if the time has come, designed by the Lord Almighty, for the thread to be cut between this people and the residue of the world, then the Lord will suffer our enemies to clip the thread; and I am with him in that sentiment. But if the time is not come, the Lord will not suffer them to come. If He designs that traffic should continue between us and them, that we shall have the privilege of bringing our immigration, of preaching the Gospel and saving the people, let me tell you that they will not come; God will stop them. As for myself, I would just as soon this was the time as any other. If it is the time for the thread, in a national capacity, to be severed, let it be severed. Amen to it. But I will tell you what I have concluded: when we talk of gold, of silver, of riches, of the comforts of this world, with me it is the kingdom of God, or nothing; with us it must be the kingdom of God, or nothing. I shall not go in for anything half-way. We must have the kingdom of God, or nothing. We are not to be overthrown.

  *    *    *  

This army that is reported to be coming to this place know no more about you and me than you know about the interior of China; they go because they are sent. If they knew our real character, the soldiers themselves would turn round and tell their officers to go to hell; they would take a stampede, and if their officers urged them to come and fight this people, they would turn round upon them or tell them to do it themselves. Now, do not feel angry. Are they not to be pitied? Yes. Are you to be pitied? Yes, if you forsake God or your religion. The Saints need to be pitied for nothing but for forsaking their religion. Be careful that you do not get darkness into your minds.


The Platform of the Mormons.

(From the Deseret News.)

A detailed publication of governmental treatment towards Utah as a Territory, contrasted with that of all other Territories from the beginning, would mantle the cheek of every true hearted American with shame at the glaring corruptions so soon o'ertoppimg a just administration of our free institutions, and fill the heart with wonder that any American citizen would be found sufficiently patient to endure such illegal treatment. And since even the New York Herald has admitted that the constitution and laws of the United States do not curtail or in the least infringe upon any act which our citizens have done or wish to do, it might be supposed that there is yet sufficient integrity among the powers that be, to remedy the gross injustice of the past and to mete to a most intelligent and loyal people those equal rights and principals rightly promised to all.

Such, peradventure, would be the case was the administration of our government actually in the hands of the people -- the true sovereigns. But it is not in their hands? No, and never has been since the wily and corrupt institution of caucuses and conventions. The busy traders, mechanics, manufacturers and farmers -- the real virtue, intelligence, and bone and sinew -- are quietly pursuing their peaceful and national prosperity avocations, while the professional politicians, the office holders, the office seekers, corrupt editors, hypocritical priests, grogshop bruisers, bullies and loafers have managed to usurp the administration of the best man-made constitution and laws in existence.

Do not the last-named classes have governmental affairs all their own way, each in turn as they become seated in power, from the Presidential chair in Washington city to the smallest office in Washington Territory. And do not the small fry, who through corruption seize the reins of government, annually control some three hundred millions of public revenue, and every four years march and countermarch, turn out of office and confer office, and all the time wield the power of the nation far more for selfish and low purposes than for the public weal? They do, as all office seekers and their class shriek, and as every good citizen does know.

How has so dire a result been produced? By the entering wedge of corruptly designed caucuses, which were swept sway as demagoguism gained boldness by success, to make room for the present devilish system of conventions, whereby the really intelligent, upright, law-abiding and honestly industrious are overridden by those classes who worship the prince of darkness upon his altars called "love of gold," ''notoriety," "office," "man-worship," "temporal power," "oppression," and so forth and so on. Do such men care for our constitution and laws? No, no further than they serve them as a cloak for successfully carrying on their nefarious schemes.

Under such a condition of things, well known by all men, it is not to be wondered at that the free, just and equal principles of our constitution and laws should be so often and so glaringly wrested to the subserviency of rotten cliques and parties, to the overthrow of all that is pure, strengthening and ennobling. It is a persistency in such a course that causes lies to be so greedily published and swallowed, that is clamorous for the outrageous squandering of the public revenue in pet channels and unjustly withholding it from channels tending to natural prosperity, and advocates the dragooning of citizens for exercising the rights of religious worship

The principles of our government are good, and they will ever be observed and sustained by the inhabitants of Utah; but an administrative violation of these principles, for the express purpose of forwarding the designs of corrupt parties and enslaving American citizens, will eventuate in the direst civil war upon record, and the rending of the fairest governmental fabric ever reared by man. In a free government all just powers, whether of taxation, election, representation or of any other rightful description, are justly based upon the consent of the governed. Continually viciate that great principle, and where, in all the experience of the past or good sense of the present is there any promise of stability?

Americans born and reared knowing our constitutional rights; and privileges (as the Herald admits), governing ourselves strictly in accordance therewith, and daring to advocate and maintain them, it is not presumable that an intelligent people will ever tamely bow to tyranny in any shape. Neither amid the wrigglings of parties, the lies of hypocrites, the howlings of corrupt editors and the rottenness of officials, will they ever be unmindful of "the great republican doctrines of 1798, known as the Virginia Resolutions," which were wisely acquiesced in by the great republican party of that day, and are of right as applicable to Territories as to States, and are in the following words: --
Resolved, "That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact to which the states are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact, as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining, within their respective limits, the authorities, rights, and liberties appertaining to them."


T E L E G R A P H I C.

Washington, Oct 27,1857.           
Major Van Vliet, of the army, arrived here this evening. He left Great Salt Lake City on the 15th of last month. He was detailed by Gen. Harney to proceed to Salt Lake to purchase forage and provisions for the troops which have recently been sent into that Territory. He was at Salt Lake or upwards of a week, and had frequent interviews with Brigham Young. Brigham informed him that he intends to make war upon our army, and that the troops should never enter the Territory, and If they should succeed in getting in not one particle of provisions should they have for love or money, and if it became necessary he would burn and destroy everything in the Territory. Brigham, he says, treated him very kindly, and showed him everything about the city. He has at the present time only sixteen wives. Major Van Vliet however, says the crops of Utah are very heavy, and the Mormons will be more than pleased at having a market afforded them at their doors, and will be the only parties benefitted by the expedition.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                 New York City, Sunday, November 8, 1857.                 Two Cents.

The Mormon Rebellion against the Authority
of the Federal Government -- Curious Letter
from Salt Lake City -- View of his Political
Duties by one of the Latter Day Saints.

GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, Sept. 13, 1867.        
DEAR FATHER. -- Though I have not heard from you for some months, through, I presume, the stoppage of the mail, I think it my duty to keep you posted on the position of affairs here. Before this reaches you the "Gentiles" will have learned the decision which this people have arrived at touching their future relationship with the United States. Doubtless there will be much said against us and much misrepresentation; but to this we have become gloriously indifferent. "He that wears the shoe knows where it pinches" is an old saying, and one which our judges will do well to keep in remembrance before they return their verdict of condemnation. As it is not at all improbable that I may not have, for years to come, an opportunity of writing to my friends in the East, I shall, therefore, render a reason in this letter for the course I have taken in joining heart and soul in the present momentous movement.

From my earliest days you know that I have reverenced the memories of the patriots of all nations, and esteemed the noble souled brave men who fought for the liberty of our own nation as worthy of the highest praise. I never could make any distinction between the men who labored, toiled late and early, and fought for emancipation from tyranny, and those who preached deliverance of the soul from the tyranny of the devil. Joshua, the brave general in Israel, George Washington, "the father of his country," and those who acted in concert with them, have ever seemed to me worthy of as high a pedestal in the temple of fame on the earth, and as bright a crown in heaven, as Peter, Paul, or any of the distinguished preachers of salvation. Fighting for the deliverance of the body from thralldom is as honorable as fighting for the emancipation of the mind from the bondage of superstition. Such being my natural, unacquired feelings from boyhood, Mormonism is my natural religion, as it is destined to bring all who live it into the enjoyment of perfect freedom. My love of liberty, of unrestrained and untrammeled body and mind -- liberty to go, to come, to act, to think, to worship -- in a word, to do everything which it is right for every one to do, without asking the permission of another mortal, makes me cling to Mormonism as a child to its mother's breast for life. Mormonism is to me life; to abandon it is death. I could breathe nowhere else. I have seen joyous times, and seen trouble and death, and think I have passed the rubicon; so that henceforth you may count on finding me with this movement, in any position the Lord in his providence has decreed for it. I shall rejoice in peace, as I prefer it to strife; but if war it must be, then let it come. We fear nothing, and have no choice. We know not the Lord's plans in all their minutiae, but we know enough to trust Him and feel perfectly assured that, come what will, it must be right, and finally all will be well.

Many will call us traitors, and our enemies will point to the present for a justification of the charges made against us from the beginning; and every scapegrace that has thrown mud at us, or belched forth his angry spleen, will now claim to be a prophet, and pride himself in having said all along that we were disloyal. No doubt of it. Still, some will reflect, and some will conclude that had we been better treated -- fairly treated -- we never would have lifted up our heel. I say we never would, for this people are devotedly attached to the constitution of the United States. We never have transgressed any law of the United States, and defy our enemies to cite the first instance of our disloyalty. Our leaders have been called treasonable men, but the charge has ever been without foundation. They have spoken out against the conduct of men in authority, when they have withheld from as our rights; but in every portion of this republic there have been sentiments of dissatisfaction expressed at certain measures of different administrations, yet the men who spoke and have written against one administration or another have never been termed or regarded as traitors. Oh, no; everybody can speak of their grievances, send on their petitions to government, call the attention of Congress to this and the other, and hold their mass meetings and their indignation meetings and there hold up to contempt the chief magistrate, and accuse him of every thing but that which was honorable and fair; but all that is nothing. The Mormons have been abused, they have been robbed and pillaged of everything that they possessed, both in Missouri and Illinois. Hundreds of them have been murdered -- inhumanly butchered, and thousands, from the exposure to inclement weather and deprived of the necessaries of life when driven from their homes in the times of persecution, have filled premature graves, and no steps were taken by the authorities of those States, and the general government confessed itself powerless to interfere, to give redress to the afflicted and homeless outcasts. Right or wrong, the Mormons believed that the indifference to their sufferings and the absence of official protection was simply because that they were Mormons. Of this they have complained -- and have believed themselves justified in watching with jealousy the movements of the government -- but yet they have only complained; they defy their bitterest opponents to show the first act of opposition to the constituted authorities of any State where they have been located. Their speech alone has been their opposition. The leaders have made it policy to "suffer wrong rather than do wrong," and that policy of sufferance has emboldened their oppressors, and the public have been so accustomed to hear of outrages upon the Mormons that their sensibilities have got benumbed, and outrage after outrage is perpetrated without arresting but momentary attention. The heart revolts at persecution, but the feeling is soon lost in the reflection, "'tis only the Mormons." So has it been from the beginning till now.

We never expected to satisfy the religious "Christian*' public that we were a good people, but we certainly did expect fair play from politicians. We have done everything possible for mortals to do to satisfy the nation of our loyalty to the constitution, and hoped that our patriotism, when tested, would satisfy them; but we have been wretchedly mistaken. If the Mormons ever were blameworthy, it has been for their submission. They have been submissive to a fault. We faced the mob in Missouri and could have taken our own part; but, conscious of our own integrity and influenced by the "suffer wrong rather than do wrong" principle, we confided in some called honorable men, and were sold by their traitorism. In Illinois we could have rendered a good account of ourselves when the mob came to drive us, but the same doctrine of "suffer wrong" led us to give up our arms at the request of the Governor. Two days after, our prophet and patriarch, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, the two first men in the church, were brought to Nauvoo cold in death, the victims of traitorous scoundrels: they were murdered when under the pledged promise of the Governor that their persons would be protected from insult and injury. Sickened with traitorism around us and abundantly satisfied that the spirit of murder was in our enemies, we consented to quit our city -- made a solemn agreement to move at a certain time, if protected while making preparations to move; but before our very poor and helpless sick could be moved into the wilderness, the mob, to glut their hellish passion for blood, came upon the remnant of the people; no power interfered to shelter us -- no protection was afforded the helpless. All this have we borne patiently. Not far advanced on the plains, in Indian territory, the general government gave us the unkindest cut of all. Surrounded by red men, prairie wolves and bears, living in tents and mud huts, while trying to increase our store of food, the demand for 600 men to go to Mexico was made. Straitened for help to cultivate the field, to protect the camp, we had, nevertheless, to submit to the outrageous demand No hand had been stretched to protect us -- we were uaworthy of attention when trodden down by our enemies; but. when in march on the desert, we were worthy to be looked after, and 500 of the best men, the most valuable in services, were to be taken from us. In three days, helpless children, ill supplied with the present necessaries of life, had to look to their desolate mothers, almost as helpless as themselves, for food and protection. Ah! those days have not been forgotten. Why the government took that step they know best; but we have certainly ever regarded it as hunting a pretext for hindering our gathering in a community. Be the reason this or something else, for our good it never was intended, and a many a heartrending tale is now told by the survivors of those who perished on the way from Nauvoo to this city.

We got here; and, though the soil was unpropitious for cultivation, we labored in hope. Indomitable perseverance and untiring scheming have made our fields yield support. Ten years only have passed away since our entrance to this basin, and the appearance of the city bespeaks the labor of three times that number of years. We have watched with pride the continual improvements of homes, gardens and farms; and our public places have all indicated in their changes the industry of our population and the future that was in the minds of our leaders. We have been sorely tried with crickets and grasshoppers, but bred through it and felt better for the trial. We each learned economy; what could be endured; and each learned the greatness or littleness of his neighbor's heart and soul. A better acquaintance formed in adversity has weeded the hypocrites and united closer the truly honorable. Thousands must have perished if we had not lived by faith and every word which proceeded from the Presidency. We sowed and watched anxiously for the blade; to see it spring forth was hope; to see the ear form was life; and then a day dark and cloudy brought our scourge -- our hopes died away, and life seemed to perish and wither up within us. We passed this terrible trial, and still felt wedded to our mountain home. The mass of have been industrious, and were satisfied to mind our own business. Occasionally we have learned of the conduct of the federal officers sent among us, and it has seemed strange that the government has sent such men among us. The "suffer wrong" doctrine has passed by many a fault of theirs; and we have lived in hopes that the day was not far distant when the government would deal justly with us. Throughout the settlements the conduct of the officers who had disgraced themselves and imposed upon many would be talked of, and the next tidings were that they had started for home, leaving little room to doubt of their intentions to do us all the harm they could. We see, occasionally, papers from the States. A friend or relative sends something interesting, by which we learn that we have been spending our time in every abominable crime. We return late to our firesides, tired and weary from our toil in the fields, or in the quarry, or on the public works, and are informed by Eastern editors that we have been plotting against the government all our days, and deserve hanging. Our own papers have kept us posted with summaries of what was going on in the world, and while we read of the confusion and strife abroad we were thankful for our peaceful valleys. While we thus were congratulating ourselves, news of coming troops reached us. It looked impossible.

The Fourth of July came on, and as usual we celebrated with a good heart the day of our fathers' independence. Our young men were inspired with veneration, and stimulated by the addresses of our fathers in Israel, were determined to honor the name of their sires who had fought so gloriously for liberty. Twenty days after came the celebration of the arrival of the pioneers in these valleys. President Young had invited all who could make it convenient to meet at the head waters of the Cottonwood Canyon and spend the day in rejoicings. Some thousands of persons were gathered. There were 464 carriages, 1,028 horses and mules, 382 oxen and cows used in bringing them there. Flooring had been laid on the grounds to accommodate those who wished to dance. Our best bands, with their heart cheering music, made the air to resound with sweet melody, and at one time no less than forty-eight cotillions were on the boards. As usual on such occasions, our proceedings were opened with prayer and singing sacred hymns; occasionally an address from the leading men, inculcating gratitude to the Lord for all our enjoyments, would change for a time the order of our day's amusements. In this position were we when definite intelligence reached as of the advance of a new set of federal officers, accompanied by 2,500 soldiers! You may well imagine our feelings. Our Governor, who had led us from Nauvoo, led the advance pioneers to this place, taken every measure to advance the prosperity of the Territory, defended the inhabitants against the inroads of the Indians, and been a friend to the honest poor, against whom the people have preferred no charge, for whom tens of thousands would give their lives to save his, has been superseded by a man from Missouri -- the very State that has done us the greatest injustice. We were informed of this by the arrival of the mail conductors without the mail. This capped the climax. For a few months we had regular mails -- the contractor was a Mormon. The contract has been taken from him on a false pretence; we sincerely believe, for nothing in the world than to prevent us from learning of the measures of the government against us. The people have been summoned together and have been asked to express their wishes, and unanimously have concluded to keep out these troops. All have been at liberty to leave the Territory, and those who had any inclination beforehand to complain have been advised to leave before the snow falls; but I do not anticipate a single departure.

The people are unanimous that the government have gone beyond their legal authority in treating us as they have. We do not throw off allegiance to the government; but we think that we have endured oppression long enough. We can manage our own affairs without any assistance from Washington, and if we cannot be admitted as the State of Deseret, the government most just take what steps they think proper. The responsibility of shedding blood rests with them. In the name of everything that is sacred, why should we be treated as we have been? As citizens of the United States, have we no rights? Have we been consulted in anything for the welfare of the Territory? No, a thousand times no! We have been treated as a set of numbsculls, or lunatics, for whom others should appoint guardians! Tell us charges have been preferred against us. What of that? Is a whole Territory to be robbed of their rights because corrupt scoundrels have been among us, and been despised and treated with contempt? We know what we are, and no honorable man ever said one word against us. We have our homes, endeared as they are by the hardships we have endured to make them; but sooner will we "wander in sheep skins and goat skins and dwell in dens and caves of the mountains," as did the people of God anciently, than submit to be snubbed and trodden down by James Buchanan or any other mortal that may disgrace the chair of Washington.
J. W.          

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 7748.                 New York City, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 1857.                 Two Cents.


Additional  Particulars  of  the  Mormon  Attack
on  the  Government  Trains.

&c.,       &c.,       &c.


Advices have been received by the Administration from Col. Alexander substantially confirming all the reports in the newspapers respecting the destruction of contractors' trains by the Mormons. Brigham Young has issued a proclamation to the United States troops, defying the government and counselling his people to hostilities in the most determined form, and ordering the troops to keep out of Utah. He says that if they desire to remain until spring they may do so, provided they give up their arms and ammunition. Col. Alexander, in reply, states to Young that the troops were there by order of the President, and would be disposed of as the commanding General saw proper.

We annex a sketch of the life of Brigham Young. It is rather favorable to the Prophet as the authorities are all Mormon.




Brigham Young, the President, Prophet, Seer and Revelator of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and Governor de facto of the Territory of Utah, is unquestionably, after Kings, Emperors and Presidents, the man on whom the attention of the civilized world to most directed, at the present moment. To the rulers of nations we have accorded a higher share of the world's attention than to "Brother Brigham," as they are the representatives of their nations; otherwise we should be forced to say that the Prophet-Governor is more spoken of, better known, and closer watched in all his movements than any living man. The recent reports from Utah, indicating that he is about to come before the world in a new role, have induced us to delve among the records of the movements of which he is now the leader for traces of his past life which cannot fail to interest the reader.

Brigham entered upon his mortal career on the 1st of June, 1801, at Whitehaven, Vermont, and is consequently now in his fifty-sixth year. His father was a farmer, originally from near Boston, Mass. When Brigham was about a year old the family came to this State. Of his early life but little has yet been published. In his public discourses he frequently alludes to it, but from all that he has said we can glean nothing remarkable. Believing in the virtue of labor he often claims to have had a rough and plentiful share of it, and gives credit to his parents for initiating him early into the real sources of independence. Brigham is no hot house plant. The only respite he enjoyed from the labor of the field and workshop was during the thirteen days he went to school. Indebted to his parents for moral training, he says of himself: -- "From the days of my youth, and I will say from the day that I came upon the stage of action to act for myself, there never was a boy, a man, either old or middle aged, that ever tried to live a life more pure and refined than your humble servant. I have not infringed upon any law, or trod upon the rights of my neighbors; but I have tried to walk in the paths of righteousness, and live an humble life that I might gain eternal happiness. I make bold to speak thus, though in the Eastern world it is quite unpopular to speak in one's own praise; but, since I have become a Western man, I can make stump speeches."

When about thirty years of age, Mormonism was introduced to him by Elder Samuel H. Smith, a brother of the Prophet Joseph. In 1832 he was baptized, and soon after was ordained to the ministry of the new faith. In September of the following year he joined the body of "Saints" at Kirtland, Ohio, where the leaders of the movement were then located. If was here and at this date that Brigham's career began which has carried him to his present position. Brigham has ever been eloquent in his advocacy of the cause he had espoused, but it was work and not talk that brought him into the foreground. He seems to have conceived, from his first connection with Mormonism, that singing, praying and preaching were all good enough in their place, but if men would be saved they had got to work out their salvation. This distinctive feature in his faith carried into execution soon earned for him the appellation of "hard working brother Brigham." In the beginning of 1834 he was appointed to travel and preach in the eastern States. The ancient doctrine of sending out missionaries two by two was adhered to in the Mormon church at that period, but at his special request brother Brigham was permitted to travel alone. In one of his recent discourses he alludes to this circumstance, and as he is now in a position to speak out what before he kept to himself, he lets out that at that early day he had great confidence in his calling, and had no disposition to risk the marring of his influence by any weakness or folly of fellow laborers. His eastern mission was soon interrupted by a call made by the then President, Joseph Smith for "young and middle aged men" of the church to go to Missouri and protect the Saints in that State against the persecutions to which they were at times subjected. Brigham was among the first whose names were enrolled for Zion's camp He shouldered the musket and passed through the trying journey on foot without a murmur. He was closely attached to his leader Joseph, and when troubles surrounded him "from foes without or foes within," Brigham was on hand and ready with his services. Affairs being arranged between the Saints and the Gentiles without the shedding of blood at that time, the camp soon got back to Kirtland. At that place, in February of 1836, he was ordained an apostle of Jesus Christ, and blessed and set apart to his calling under the hands of Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Martin Harris, the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon. The following month the twelve were appointed a mission to the Eastern States, Brigham being especially appointed to "open the door to the remnant of Joseph who dwell among the Gentiles."

In 1836 he was present at and assisted in the dedication of the temple at Kirtland, on which occasion he is reported to have delivered an address in another language, or to him unknown tongue, "by the power of the spirit" as did the ancient Apostles on the day of Pentecost at Jerusalem. From this time he preached much in the States and took a lively interest in building up the gathering places, both in Ohio and in Missouri. In the former the young Prophet Joseph had a sea of troubles to contend with, to which the unfaithful disciples contributed largely. Brigham stood by him in his troubles, and thereby drew upon himself probably quite as much enmity as that which had fallen to the lot of the Prophet, by reason of which he had to fly for his life, to December, 1837. He then went to Missouri and with his family settled there.

The troubles in Kirtland and Missouri led many to apostatize, even in the very highest ranks of Mormondom. The President or the Twelve Apostles having jostled over, Brigham, by seniority, succeeded him and was consequently at the head of the second quorum in authority. In 1838 the Saints in Missouri had great difficulty to get along with the Gentiles. It was a dreadful year of trouble which Brigham had a full share. His usual activity and prominent position signaled him out as a man to be got rid of. The Anti-Mormons bore down heavily upon him and to save sweet life he had to fly a second time. His second flight brought him to Illinois.

During the residence of the Prophet in Missouri a revelation had instructed "the authorities" to lay the foundation of a great temple in Jackson county at a certain time. This oozed out and got to the ears of the Gentiles. The latter determined to hinder its accomplishment, and before the appointed day not a Mormon was left in the county. Regardless of the threats that had been profusely made against any Mormons returning, Joseph Smith, with Brigham and the Twelve, had come in different directions to a given rendezvous, and between midnight of the 25th and dawn of the 26th of March, 1830, they rode into the public square together, passed through the ceremony of layng the foundation of the "Lord's House," held a conference and transacted the appointed business. At this conference Brigham and others of the Twelve received a mission to England. Brigham was then very poor -- he had lost everything. His family were living to Montrose, Iowa, nearly opposite Nauvoo. They were sheltered in a shanty, without doors or windows: but, ever obedient to authority, Brigham started and left his family "in the hands of the Lord." On the 9th of March, 1840, he sailed from this port on board the Patrick Henry, with other apostles and elders, and landed in Liverpool on the eleventh anniversary of the organization of the Mormon Church.

While Brigham was in England he did a great deal of preaching and superintended a considerable business for "the interest of the church." The Millennial Star, the organ of the church there, was started at Manchester, with P. P. Pratt for editor. A hymn book was compiled for the use of the Saints, and an edition of the Book of Mormon was issued. Other missionaries had been there before Brigham, and had accomplished a considerable work, but during his stay it was greatly extended; conferences were organised, and emigration commenced. Under his superintendence the first company of Mormon emigrants left England on the 6th of June, 1840. He continued in the country till the 21st of April in the following year, when he left Liverpool for this port with a company of emigrants, over whom he presided. Just previous to his departure he had two copies of the Book of Mormon bound and presented to Queen Victoria and her royal consort Albert. From the period of his return to Nauvoo up to the assassination of Joseph Smith, he spent his winters in that city attending to church business, and the summers he spent in preaching in the States.

Just previous to the assassination at Carthage Joseph had offered himself as a candidate for the Presidency of the United States. Brigham learned of his murder when in Boston on electioneering business. He immediately returned to Nauvoo, and, sustained by the other members of his Quorum and the majority of the people took the reins of government in his hands. Mormonism at that time had to pass through many trials -- enemies without and traitors within; Brigham was at the helm, and brought the disciples through the darkest and most cloudy day in the Mormon history. The aspirants for the leadership had to clear the way for Brigham, as the faithful soon declared that the mantle of their martyred Prophet had fallen on his shoulders, and though Joseph had gone beyond the vail, his spirit and priesthood were with Brigham. At the October annual conference of the same year, Brigham and the twelve were almost unanimously recognised the "First Presidency of the Church." The dissenters soon cleared out of the city, following different leaders, and Brigham was to all intents and purposes the guiding spirit of the movement.

To build the temple and carry out Joseph's measures was the rule which Brigham laid down for himself and [his] people. He made no pretensions to new revelations in his own favor, but claimed for Joseph the highest place in their affections, and declared that the martyr had laid out work enough for them for twenty years to come. In the midst of trouble and constant threatenings from the anti-Mormons Brigham kept the Saints on the Temple till the very day of their abandonment of the city.

After the death of Joseph, Brigham became, at he termed it, the target for the fire of the enemy, but he resolved on a different policy to that of his former leader. Joseph had been dragged before courts forty-eight times. Brigham resolved never to be taken. He warned his enemies to keep off, for he should never submit to the outrages he had seen Joseph subjected to, and sooner than be dragged from the people he should defend his life at every cost; and from that day he is reported to have carried arms. A short time before the expulsion from Nauvoo he was put to the test; but instead of resorting to the terrible he very handsomely outwitted the United States Marshal, and saved his powder and the et ceteras which such a use of saltpetre and brimstone would undoubtedly have brought about. The Marshal came to town, and as one of their free and easy poets has it: --
Searched the temple up and down.
And told the Saints, both old and young.
He'd serve a writ on Brigham Young.
--- But it was no go; Brigham was fully posted, and eluded the vigilance of his pursuer. His carnage stood warning for him at the temple door; the Marshal and his posse watched it, as they had abundant evidence that he was within that edifice. Brigham perceiving that the Marshal would linger round, placed his cloak and fur cap on a faithful elder of his own stature and much of his appearance. Being rather cold, the representative of the Prophet had the advantage of drawing his cap well down on his cranium and muffling up. Accompanied by another elder, who escorted him to Brigham's carriage door, shook hands cordially with him and wished him good-bye. Bogus Brigham was just stopping in when the Marshal politely informed him that he was a prisoner. After "By what authority?" and a few kindred questions, the Marshal and his prisoner, followed by the posse, rode off to the house of a Mormon lawyer. Every preliminary step being taken for the defence of the prisoner, the Marshal, prisoner and counsel were hurried off to Carthage. The Marshal, much pleased with his success and having no unpleasant feeling for the prisoner, was chatty on the way, and laughed heartily when he told how one time he had placed the wrong man in the hands of an official on some trifling business. "Bogus Brigham," as the representative was afterwards called, smiled but kept his secret. Arrived in Carthage the news soon spread. The curious flocked to the hotel where the prisoner was confined and well guarded by the posse with drawn swords and ready pistols. Some outside friends of Brigham came with them, and before they retired to rest the joke was played out. The Marshal, half afraid to pop the question, at last got out "Are you not Brigham Young?'' The representative assured him that he had never said so, which, being acknowledged they shook hands and had a hearty laugh. The Marshal expressed his regret at the trouble he had caused the wrong man, and being assured that the amusement quite compensated for the inconvenience, they separated, the Elder to tell the joke and the Marshal to eat his leek as best he could.

Brigham managed to keep his word -- he never was taken. Difficulties increasing in Nauvoo, he brought up the journey into the wilderness. It was resolved upon. The fury of the mob forced on the Saints an early start early in February, 1846, Brigham led off the immigration. They crossed the Mississippi on the ice, and continued their journeyings till they arrived at "winter quarters," now called Florence, N. T. As they journeyed Brigham ordered them to halt several times and plant and sow for the advantage of the poor who were behind, so that by his care and continued watchfulness the weary pilgrims escaped many trials incident to such a journey under such adverse circumstances as those in which they were placed. It was just before the arrival of the camp at winter quarters that the government call for five hundred men to go to Mexico was received. Had Brigham been absent it is very questionable if any notice would have been taken of the order; but it was [his] policy to comply, and Brigham was not the man to allow such an evidence of their loyalty to pass by unembraced. In three days he rallied under the stars and stripes the Mormon Battalion of five hundred, and, with a splendid ball, made those most affected by the measure feel the best they could at parting.

In the spring of 1847 he started at the head of 143 picked men, to discover a resting place for the Saints: They entered the Great Basin, or Great Salt Lake valley on the 24th of July, and there stuck stakes for Great Salt Lake City. After setting the pioneers to work -- ploughing, sowing, &c. -- Brigham retraced his steps, and arrived at winter quarters on the tost of October.

Here, at a conference held on the 34th of December, the former Presidency of Three was restored to the Mormon Church; Brigham was accepted by the people as the President of the Church, and be chose his two counsellors, who, united, formed once more the "First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints" Brigham remained in winter quarters till the month of May of the following year, when he started again for Utah. Soon after his arrival there, the State of Deseret was provisionally organised, and Brigham was accepted by the people as Governor. In April, 1840, the First Presidency commenced their General Epistles, which have continued ever since -- epistles in which Brigham and his counsellors give a general review of what has transpired of particular moment for the Church, and through it instruction to given to the Saints throughout the world.

Congress not favoring the application for the admission of the State of Deseret, a bill to establish a territorial government for Utah was passed September 7, 1850. The following month President Fillmore, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appointed Brigham Governor. When his term of office expired, in 1864, Colonel Steptoe, then at Great Salt Lake City, was offered the Governorship of the Territory, but refused. Brigham has, therefore, up to the present moment, been Governor of Utah.

Having traced Brigham's progress from his connection with Mormonism to the present time, a few general remarks seem called for. There to no man upon the earth has a greater influence over any community than Brigham has over the Mormons. His word to law. By anti Mormons he is represented a tyrant, by friends he is loved as a father. Before the public, Brigham is the "Lion of the Lord;" in private -- at home -- he is represented as a hospitable gentleman. He must be very wealthy, as he is engaged in much business. He is come-at-able by the poor and generous to the unfortunate; but he is hard upon loafers. His sermons in general are intended to convey instruction for the world that is, as well as for the world to come, in which he will instruct the husbandman and the housewife on the operations in the field and in the kitchen, as well as the elder or priest on the preaching of salvation. He has labored much to build up Mormonism; and wo to the man whose conduct brings reproach upon it. No man is spared by Brigham. An apostle who has got out of the traces or done anything contrary to the interest of the church falls in for the lash as readily as a humble member. His best friends get a turn as well as his enemies. In fact, the man who gets a terrible thrashing from Brigham is generally considered a good man, or the Prophet would not have taken the trouble to speak of him. Whatever may be thought of Brigham by outsiders, it is impossible to associate with Mormons without perceiving that he is deeply reverenced by his brethren. A Mormon, in full faith, would go to the ends of the earth on a mission if Brigham only told him so. Brigham has spread Mormonism over the face of the civilised world. Since his inauguration as President he has sent some hundreds of missionaries to England, Scotland and Ireland. Others he has sent to France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden; to Africa, China, the East and West Indies, to Australia, to the islands of the Pacific; in fact wherever there was a possibility of sending an Elder with any chance of being heard, there some one has been sent and all that at their own expense and with the assistance they might pick up by the way.

What story the future may tell of Brigham Young, the past certainly shows that he to an extraordinary self-made man.

(Correspondence of the Buffalo Courier,)

FORT LEAVENWORTH, K. T., Nov. 5, 1857.        
An express from Col. Johnson with despatches for the War Department, arrived here last night. The intelligence is important.

The Mormons attacked a provision train of the army of Utah, and have burned up seventy-three wagons, containing about 160,000 rations. Col. Johnston nevertheless, goes on, and it determined to establish himself in Salt Lake City. He declares himself resolved to winter there or nowhere. He is a man to inspire the fullest confidence and will certainly do what he says. I fear our poor fellows will have a hard time of it and will be forced to make headway against the largest odds. The expedition marched from here less than 1,400 strong, including the six companies Second dragoons, (about 400 men,) who were detained here by Governor Walker so long after the others had left, that it is very doubtful if they will be able to get through this season. Col. Johnston cannot, therefore, have had with him on his arrival in Utah, more than 1,300 men -- supposing the dragoons to have succeeded in getting through. If they did not, he will not have more than 900 men. This is a very small force for the work to be done. There remains now but one course for the government, and that is to send out next Spring, at the earliest moment the grass on the prairies will admit of it, a force sufficiently strong to "wipe out" these scoundrels.

Can it possibly be that Bernheisel, the delegate, (who passed here on his way to Washington ten days ago,) will be permitted to take his seat in the house?

P.S. -- Seventy-five instead of seventy-three wagons were destroyed, and they contained tents and clothing, instead of rations. This train was in rear of the infantry and artillery, but some distance to front of the cavalry. Colonel Johnston, with 5th and 10th Regiments, infantry, and the two batteries (one light and one heavy), was en route to, and but a small distance from a Mormon village on Bear river, where he proposed to winter -- it being considered a more desirable place than Salt Lake City.

The dragoons, under Lieutenant Colonel Cooke, had passed Fort Laramie, and were pushing on as rapidly as possible on half rations of forage. The snow had fallen in their front to the depth of seven inches. It was believed, however, by Lieut Col. C. that he could get through, and effect a junction with Col. Johnston.

The attack on the train occurred on or near Green river. There was no military escort with it, it was protected solely by hired men in the employ of the contractor for transportation a civilian.
CAMP ON SWEETWATER, Oct 13, 1857.          
Col. Smith, of the 10th infantry, with a portion of his command, consisting of about sixty-five men, rank and file are encamped here for the night. Lieut. T. J. Lee, with fifty men, were at Laramie to escort Governor Cumming on, when he comes that far. Our camp is thirty-five miles east of Pacific Springs, which are the first that empty their waters on the west side of the South Pass. An express has just reached us from Green River, bringing news to us as unexpected as its important, and I avail myself of a halt to give you a succinct statement for the public. The Mormon problem is solved. They have seized upon the very first opportunity afforded them of perpetrating an act of war. On the night of the 5th instant, about 10 o clock, they seized and destroyed seventy-eight heavily loaded wagons, containing government supplies for the army. The wagons and teams were the property of Messrs. Russell & Waddle, contractors. The trains were some forty miles distant from each other. This proves that there were more than one company of Mormons. My informant says that the notorious "Destroying Angel," Bill Hickman commanded one, and ___ Locksmith [sic] the other party, of about 80 men each. One train of twenty-six wagons was destroyed 61 miles west of us, and the other, of fifty-two wagons, was taken near Green River, thirty miles west of Col. Alexander's train. There were no soldiers with these trains, and the teamsters offered no resistance.

For their docility in this respect the Mormons gave them one wagon and some provisions, with which to make their way back to the States, and burnt the residue. They profess to have between the Devil's Gate, on this river, and the Mormon Ford, on Green River, seven hundred men under arms. On hearing of the loss of the trains, Colonel Alexander, who was encamped on the Ham's Fork, sent Captain Marcy, with four hundred men, back to Green River, and enabled the teamsters to collect their cattle and take them on to headquarters. He also sent on a Frenchman to us. On the next day they ordered a Mr. Ficklin, of Captain McGraw's party prisoners. These were men sent by McGraw on to Salt Lake to buy flour for his party.

Our express brought in his moccasin an order from Captain Marcy, which I have been permitted to read, ordering the trains to halt until Colonel Smith came up. We have three or four trains of twenty-six wagons each up with Colonel Alexander -- one a few miles in advance of us, and two behind us, and the road is lined with merchants' and settlers' goods for one hundred miles in our rear.

Colonel Alexander has broken up his camp on Ham's Fork, and changed his course of the Bear River route, and we are expected to collect and guard these trains to his camp near Soda Springs. There is yet plenty, of provisions for us until spring, except forage. We have no corn, hay or oats for our animals, and must rely upon grass. This the devil saints may burn, unless the snow prevents it, and then our mules can profit little by it. Our force, rank and file, is about sixty-five men, but I am informed that the teamsters will be armed with rifles to-morrow, and made to stand guard over their trains at night. Our expressman believes we shall have to fight for our trains in a day or two more, and it may be so. If attacked Col. Smith will fight to the last There will be no surrender. One feeling pervades officers and men. Col. Chapman, old veteran in war, Lieutenants Elwood and Kinsel, and Judge Eckels, Mr. Brown and Mr. McCormick, are with us, and will all use the rifle if necessary. We shall do our duty. Will the people of the States do theirs? I believe they will send us men and supplies soon. California could give us soldiers even in winter.

I think the Mormons will attempt to emigrate in the spring to the Sandwich Islands or to Vancouver. Let a close lookout be kept for them.

(Correspondence of the Tribune.)

CAMP, 260 MILES FROM FORT LARAMIE, Oct. 13,1857.    
During Captain Van Vliet's stay in Salt Lake City last month, he overheard but one remark which induced him to believe that the declarations by the Mormons of intention to resist the troops were not earnest. That was an observation by Brigham Young to the effect that his intention was unaltered, "unless he should get another revelation to the contrary, which he was sure that he should not."

The result has certainly justified the Prophet's confidence. No such revelation has been received by him up to October 6, on which date acts were committed under his direction which cannot fail to end in bloodshed. On that day the two regiments of infantry and the artillery and ordnance batteries were encamped on Ham's Fork, which branches from Black's Fork, which is a fork of Green River. The two nearest supply trains were but a miles distant from Green River, on the east bank, and about thirty miles from Col. Alexander's camp. The next on the road had advanced about twenty miles west from Pacific Springs, which rise at a short distance beyond the South Pass. About eleven o'clock at night these three trains were surprised and seized by parties of Mormons, their contents examined, and what was worth pillaging was stolen and the remainder destroyed by fire. Each train consisted of twenty-six wagons, and belonged to number sent out by Messrs. Russell & Waddell, of Leavenworth City, contractors for the transportation of stores to the army and for the supply of beef cattle. The teamsters made no resistance, and were unharmed. These Mormon bands are understood to be under the command of "BilI" Hickman, although it is rumored that Heber C. Kimball attends them. They are well mounted and armed, each man being provided with a California horse, and with a rifle and from one to three revolvers. Hickman is supposed to have directed the proceeding near Pacific Springs, while a man named Locksmith [sic - Lot Smith?] commanded near Green River.

Immediately upon the receipt of the news of this attack, Colonel AIexander sent Captain Marcy, of the Fifth Infantry, with five companies, back to Green River. He arrived, however, only in season to take charge of the cattle of the trains, which the Mormons had left, with the polite request that the troops would fatten them over winter, when they would be in good condition for Mormon eating in the spring. Another of their jeux d'esprit was a remark to the teamsters that they "had only burned the wagons this time, but would be likely to burn the wagoners the next." Colonel Alexander also sent despatches to Brevet Colonel Smith, from whose camp I am writing, and Capt. Marcy sent by another messenger a circular letter to the trains on the road, advising them, for the sake of safety, to place themselves under Colonel Smith's protection. Both expressmen were intercepted by the Mormons, but as nothing suspicious was found on their persons, and it did not appear on what errands they were bound, they were released. The one from Colonel Alexander, perceiving that it was impossible to avoid arrest, destroyed the despatches to Colonel Smith, according to his instructions, and we are ignorant of their contents. The other brought Captain Marcy's circular safely through in the toe of his moccasin.

We know, however, in the absence of the official despatches, that Capt. Marcy has rejoined Col. Alexander, and that the entire force has moved to the north along Bear River toward Soda Springs, where it will probably await the arrival of the remaining supply trains, the sutlers' trains of the 5th and 10th Infantry, and of Col. Smith's battalion. The reasons for this movement do not appear, by a glance at the map, to a person unacquainted minutely with the conformation of the country and the character of the climate. The direct road to Salt Lake City, passing Fort Bridger, Medicine Butte and the Needles, which Col. Alexander has abandoned, is possibly by this time impassable to wagons or artillery on account of the weather. The season, which had been uncommonly favorable up to the beginning of October, has resumed its natural severity. Ice has formed in our buckets every morning but one since we left Fort Laramie. The northern slopes of the mountains are completely whitened with a covering which will not melt until 1858, and even the southern slopes are powdered scantily with snow, of which there was a fall on Saturday night that chilled our road on Sunday and Monday and has muddied it to-day The Mormons have probably burned the grass along that entire route, and obstructed the defiles in which it abounds in such a manner that only artillery could clear them. But if the army concentrates at Soda Springs it will have before it a road along a valley, open, it is said, even at midwinter, direct to Salt Lake City. I know of no chart which exhibits all the lines of road on which these movements will be made, and, indeed, I am unable to gather from our guides such information as to trace them accurately on Captain Stansbury's map, which is the largest chart of this country that I possess; but I believe them to be substantially these: The direct route from California to the States crosses the Wahsatch mountains far to the north of Salt Lake City, and continues almost due east to its junction with the main road to that city which passes Fort Bridger, and then runs on through the South Pass, dividing, however, near Ham's Fork, into three branches, which cross the Green River and unite beyond the Big Sandy. From one or the other of these branches a road leads up into Oregon, toward Fort Hall, passing Soda Springs, from which, at the Springs, there is a cut off into a road direct from Fort Hall to Salt Lake City. It is over these latter roads and the cut off that Colonel Alexander's march will be directed.

The Mormons who intercepted the express men told them that they had a force of 700 men scattered along through the mountains as far east as the Devil's Gate, through which the Sweetwater flows, about 200 miles from Fort Laramie, and near which is a dismantled Mormon mail station, at a fire from some of whose logs we warmed our feet not a week ago. But this must he a gross exaggeration. Neither of the parties which burned the trains exceeded one hundred in number, and it is difficult to conceive how a force of even that strength could have gained the rear of the army unobserved. It is a fact, however, that ever since the Mormons settled on Salt Lake they have been assiduous in collecting information concerning the topography of the country, and many of their lenders understand it as thoroughly as the most experienced mountain guide. The employment of a great part of their young men in herding cattle has made them acquainted with every little stream and canyon, and inured them to the saddle. It is these young men, and these almost solely, who constitute the element of the Mormon force from which there is danger to be apprehended. They possess the ability, if they have the will, to carry on an annoying guerrilla warfare, sweeping down from mountain passes upon single travelers and unprotected trains.

I am unable to make an estimate of the amount of stores destroyed by them in their foray of October 5. The original amount intended for the Utah expedition was an eight months' supply for 2,500 men, and each train was assigned a proportion of all the articles to be transported, including even ordnance stores. Whether different arragements were made when it was thought necessary to leave the 2d Dragoons with Gov. Walker in Kansas, I am not aware. At any rate, it is the general impression that the loss of so great a quantity of provisions as the seventy-two wagons must have contained, would necessitate a movement toward Salt Lake Valley, were not such a movement on other accounts a consequence of their destruction. The season will forbid the transmission of any further supplies or troops from the East than are now already far on their way. Whether Col. Sumner's command has returned from its pursuit of the Cheyennes to the Arkansas; whether Col. Cook is marching his dragoons toward us to fill out so far as is now possible the original programme of the army of Utah, which was disturbed by Gov. Walker's schemes in Kansas; or whether Gen. Harney, Col. Johnston, Gov. Cumming, or any of the new Territorial officials are on their way west, we are not informed; for the most recent advices we have received from the East extend no later than September 1. Ignorant as we are of what may have occurred there during the last forty days, it is impossible for us to fix the responsibility for the delay so accurately as yourselves upon those on whom it belongs; but some one is certainly to blame for the fact that of the 2,500 men originally destined to the expedition, hardly 3,400 are now available, and for the other fact, that of all the newly appointed territorial officials, only one, to my knowledge, (Chief Justice Eckles,) is anywhere near his post of duty. Mr. Morrell, the Postmaster of Salt Lake City, who was appointed by President Pierce, last year, but whose commission was stolen from the mail, is also an exception. He is encamped near the South Pass, and will place his wagons under Colonel Smith's protection to-morrow.

This news, of the actual rising of the Mormons in arms, cannot surprise you more than it does those on the scene of action. The presence of Dr. Bernhisel with Capt. Van Vliet, on his journey, to the States, seemed of itself an offset to all the threatening messages of which the latter was the bearer. It seems incredible that the Mormons should have the assurance to send a delegate to Washington to uphold them in Congress, when they were in actual rebellion. That they have been excited to a forcible outbreak only by the grossest misrepresentations, I cannot doubt. As an instance of these, I may specify one, which is by no means the most absurd. When the general orders from the headquarters of the army for Utah, for the establishment of three new [military] posts in the Territory, reached Salt Lake City, the circumstance that they were to be "double ration posts" excited the utmost indignation. Supposing that it meant all the garrisons as well as the commanding officers were to draw double rations, laughable as it may appear, it is a fact that they believed that the extra ration was to be furnished to each soldier, to enable him to marry and support a wife, whom, of course, he would seduce from among them. Capt. Van Vliet found this illusion universally prevalent.

In consideration of the journey of Dr. Bernhisel to Washington, while affairs are in such a condition among his constituency, I feel bound to send you the following information concerning the mode of his election, for the accuracy of which I do not vouch, for it is not of my personal knowledge, but for which I send you privately my authority. It has been stated to me that on the Sunday before the day fixed by law for the election, Brigham Young rose in the Bowery, where an audience of several thousand was collected, and spoke substantially to this effect: --

"Brethren, to-morrow, you know, is the day to vote, for delegate to Congress; so the law says. But I don't see why to-day isn't just as holy, and why we shouldn't take a vote to-day. Brother Bernhisel, brethren, has done well enough in Congress, though nobody's of much use there; and it it's worthwhile to send anybody to Washington, I guess we might as well send him back; if he can't do us any good, he won't do us any harm. So all you that are in favor of sending Brother Bernhisel back, will please rise."

Accordingly the whole audience rose. The next day at the election, but few votes were cast, and those all for Dr. Bernhisel, it being felt useless to oppose him, although he is said to be very unpopular in Salt Lake City. lf I do Dr. Bernhisel any wrong by this narration, I am sure you will be willing to correct anything I which he shall prove to be inaccurate.

As another item, which I have neglected to insert in its proper connection, it is reported that the Mormons have taken prisoners two men belonging to Dr. Magraw's party, who were sent on business toward Salt Lake City.

(From the Huron Ohio Reflector.)

Mr. Henry Buckingham, of Norwalk, Huron county, who went to Oregon seven years ago, has returned by the overland route, making the journey by way of California in a little over one hundred days.

Mr. B. gives the following memorandum of the number of emigrants, cattle, horses, sheep and wagons that had passed the Devil's Gate this season, as kept at the Mormon mail station: --
Emigrants 12,500
Wagons 360
Cattle 67,000
Horses and mules (about) 2,600
Sheep 10,000
There were several large droves of cattle taken on speculation, but as a general thing the emigrants took only what they thought they would need on the Plains, and for a good start when they got there. I noticed a few fine blooded cattle.

About fifty wagons would have gone the Oregon route, but were afraid of the Indians. Nearly all the emigrants went by Soda Springs to avoid Mormondom. There did not seem to be much love between the Mormons and Missourians.

The Mormon emigration is not included in the above list, which Mr. B. thinks did not exceed 1,000. He thus describes the new propelling power which "the Lord revealed unto the Latter-Day Saints by the Prophet Brigham" last year, whereby a saint can become a "perfect boss" on the Plains -- a hand cart train!

It was certainly the most novel and interesting sight I have seen for many a day. We met two trains -- one of thirty and the other fifty carts -- averaging about six to the cart. The carts were generally drawn by one man and three women each, though some carts were drawn by women alone. There were about three women to one man, and two-thirds of the women single. It was the most motley crew I ever beheld. Most of them were Danes, with a sprinkling of Welsh, Swedes and English, and were generally from the lower classes of their countries; scarcely one could speak English plain; most could not understand what we said to them.

The road was lined for a mile or two behind the trains, with the lame, halt, sick and needy. Many were quite aged and would be going slowly along supported by a son or daughter; some were on crutches; now and then a mother with a child in her arms and two or three hanging hold of her, with a forlorn appearance, would pass slowly along; others whose condition entitled them to a first class seat in a carriage, were wending their way through the sand. A few seemed in good spirits, journeying to the promised land; but the majority thought "Jordan a hard road to travel."

The advance party of surveyors of the Pacific wagon road, was met at the South Pass, August 16. The main party were at Fort Laramie, August 25, and it was expected they would winter at Fort Hall. The advance provision train of the Utah expedition was met August 20 at the Devil's Gate, and Mr. B. thinks it is the intention to winter on Green River, or at Fort Bridger. He found settlements 100 miles up the Platte River, and where, seven years ago, it was a wilderness, there are now, he says, fine houses and large fields of corn.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         N. Y., Monday, November 30, 1857.                         Two Cents.


The News of the Massacre Confirmed -- Perils of the Emigrants --
Complicity of the Mormons with the Indians --
Warlike Preparations of the Mormons --
Declaration of Mormon Independence.

(From the San Francisco Herald, Nov. 3.)

We have dates from Los Angeles to the 24th of October, and from San Diego to the 17th of the same month. The news is exceedingly important.

The report of the late massacre has been fully confirmed. The number of persons slaughtered by the Indians was 118. Great excitement prevailed in Los Angeles on the announcement, shortly after the receipt of the news, that parties were in town who corroborated all the statements that had been previously made. A public meeting was called, and the persons referred to attended it and made statements -- a condensation of which we give. Their names are Power and Warn. They had lately returned from Salt Lake City. Mr. Power, in his narrative, says: --
We found the Mormons making very determined preparations to fight the United States troops, whenever they may arrive. On our way in we met here companies of one hundred men each armed and on the road towards the pass over Fort Bridger. I was told at Fort Bridger that at Fort Supply, twelve miles this side of Fort Bridger, there were four hundred armed Indians awaiting orders; they also said that there were sixty thousand pounds of flour stored at Fort Bridger, for the use of their army. We found companies drilling every evening in the city. The Mormons declared to us that no United States troops should ever cross the mountains. And they talked and acted as if they were willing to take a brush with Uncle Sam.

We remained in Salt Lake five days, and then pushed on, hoping we might overtake a larger train, which had started ten days ahead of us, and which proved to be the train that was massacred. We came on the Buttermilk Fort, near the lone cedar, one hundred and seventy-five miles, and found the inhabitants greatly enraged at the train which had just passed, declaring that they had abused the Mormon women, calling them w__s, &c., and letting on about the men. The people had refused to sell that train any provisions, and told us they were sorry they had not killed them there; but they knew it would be done before they got in. They stated further that they were holding the Indians in check until the arrival of their chief, when he would follow the train and cut it to pieces.

The next place where we heard of the train was on our arrival at Beaver, 230 miles from Salt Lake. Here we learned that when the train ahead was encamped at Corn Creek, which was thirty-five miles back, and at which place we found the Indians so friendly, an ox died, and the Indians asked for it. Before it was given to them, a Mormon reported that he saw an emigrant go to the carcass and cut it with his knife, and as he did so would pour some liquid into the cut from a phial. The meat was eaten by the Indians, and three of them died, and several more of them were sick and would die. The people at Beaver seemed also to be incensed against the train for the same reason as before reported. I asked an Indian, at Beaver, if there was any truth in the poisoned meat story; he replied, in English, that he did not know; that several of the Indians had died, and several were sick. He said their watermelons had made them all sick, and he believed that the Mormons had poisoned them.

On Friday, the 18th of September, we left Parowan, and arrived at Cedar City, some eighteen miles, about one o'clock. During the afternoon an express arrived from the Indians, stating one of their warriors had run up and looked into the corral and he supposed that "only five or six of the emigrants were killed yet." These were the words of the expressmanParowan. The same night four men were sent out from to go and learn what was the fate of the train, and, as they pretended, to save, if possible, some of its members.

I omitted to mention, in the proper place, that Mr. Dame, President of Parowan, informed me that the attack on the train commenced on Monday, the 14th of September. I asked him if he could not raise a company and go out and relieve the besieged train. He replied that he could go out and take them away in safety, but he dared not -- he dared not disobey counsel.

On Saturday at 12 o'clock, we left Cedar city. About the middle of the afternoon we met the four men who were sent out the night previous returning in a wagon, Matthews and Tanner held a council with them apart, and when they left, Matthews told me the entire train had been cut off; and, as it was still dangerous to travel the road, they had concluded it was better for us to pass the spot in the night. We continued on, without much conversation, and about dusk met Mr. Dame, (I did not know that he had left Cedar city,) and three other white men, coming from the scene of slaughter, in company with a band of some twenty Indian warriors. One of the men in company with Mr. Dame was Mr. Haight, President of Cedar city. Mr. Dame said they had been out to see to the burying of the dead; but the dead were no buried. From what I heard, I believe the bodies were left lying naked upon the ground, having been stripped of their clothing by the Indians. These Indians had a two-horse wagon, filled with something I could not see, as blankets were carefully spread over the top. The wagon was driven by a white man, and beside him, there were two or three Indians in it. Many of them had shawls, and bundles of women's clothes were tied to their saddles. They were also well supplied with guns or pistols, besides bows and arrows. The hindmost Indians were driving several head of the emigrant's cattle. Mr. Dame and Mr. Haight and their men seemed to be on the best terms with the Indians, and they were all in high spirits, as if they were mutually pleased with the accomplishment of some desired object.

While in San Bernardino, I heard many persons express gratification at the massacre. At the church services on Sunday Captain Hunt occupied the pulpit, and among other things, he said that the hand of the Lord was in it; whether it was done by white or red skins, it was right; the prophecies concerning Missouri were being fulfilled, and they would all be accomplished.
Mr. Warn, in his statement, says that on his journey through the settlements, which was a week or ten days subsequent to the passage of the murdered train, he everywhere heard the same threats of vengeance against them for their boisterousness and abuse of Mormons and Mormonism, as was reported; and these threats seemed to be made with the intention of preparing the mind to expect a calamity, and also when the calamity occurred, it should appear to fall upon transgressors as a matter of retribution.

Mr. Warn says, according to his memorandum: --
"On the 5th of September we encamped at Corn creek. Here I had conversation with the Indian Agent concerning the poisoning of the ox. He said that six Indians had died; that others were sick and would die. Upon one of them the poison had worked out all over his breast, and he was dead next morning, as reported. Afterward I conversed with an Indian, said to be the war chief Ammon, who spoke good English. I inquired how many of his tribe had died from eating the poisoned animal. He replied not any, but some were sick. He did not attribute the sickness to poison, nor did he give any reason for it. His manner and that of his people towards us was not only friendly but cordial; and he did not mention the train which had been doomed. Besides the Mormon train there were encamped at this place two or three emigrant trains, amounting to fifteen or eighteen wagons, with whom the Indians were as friendly as with ourselves."
One reason that may be assigned for the massacre of this train is, that it was known to be in possession of considerable valuable property, and this fact excited the cupidity of the Mormons. It was said that they had over four hundred head of stock, besides mules, &c. They were well supplied with arms and ammunition, and element of gain which enters largely into all Mormon calculations. The train was composed of families who all seemed to be in good circumstances, and as they were moving to California, their outfit indicated that they might be in possession of considerable funds. The men were very free in speaking of the Mormons; their conduct was said to have been reckless, and they would commit little acts of violence for the purpose of provoking the Saints. Feeling perfectly safe in their arms and numbers, they seemed to set at defiance all the powers that could be brought against them. And they were not permitted to feel the dangers that surrounded them until they were cut off from all hope of relief.


A few days after the above meeting took place, Mr. Honea, of Arkansas, arrived at Los Angeles from the plains. In the train in which he came they were subjected to constant and harassing attacks from the Indians ever since they left Salt Lake City. They were behind the train which had been so cruelly massacred at Santa Clara canyon. Two of the men belonging to the train which Mr. Honea accompanied were wounded in a fight with the Indians, and 326 head of cattle driven off. No one who reads the statement given by Mr. Honea, says the Los Angeles Star, can for a moment doubt the complicity of the Mormon leaders in these scenes of crime and outrage. The immense sums paid to the interpreters, and their refusal to fulfill the terms of their contracts -- not to say what is very plainly charged against them by our informant -- that they conspired with the Indians to commit the depredations and outrages complained of -- would alone convict them of a participation in these murderous assaults.

From the statement published by Mr. Honea, we extract the following: --
With the exception of an attack by the Rappaho Indians, on the Arkansas river, on the 20th of June, on the company of Capt. Henry, of Texas, who lost 151 head of cattle, nothing of interest occurred on the journey, nor did they perceive any symptoms of opposition, or of armed bands, till they came to Fort Bridger, in Utah Territory. Here they saw a large quantity of provision stored a considerable number of Indians encamped all round the fort, and heard the people generally speaking of making preparations to go out and meet General Harney. At Fort Bridger, was told by a merchant that at Fort Supply over 400 Indians were encamped, awaiting orders to attack the United States troops. About thirty miles from Fort Bridger met three companies of men, generally mounted, and all well armed, having abundance of baggage, their wagons being numbered in messes.


Here had a conversation with one of the Mormon soldiers, an Englishman, who camped with our company, and over the camp fire became communicative. He referred in bitter terms to the treatment the Mormons had received in Illinois and Missouri, reflected on the injustice and tyranny of the people of the United States, and said that the time was come to get even. He said they were on their way to meet General Harney, to see what he was coming for: -- "If he was coming peaceable we will let him come; but if not, we will drive him back," were the words used. Another Mormon named Killion, an old man who lives about seventy miles from Salt Lake City, spoke bitterly against the United States, denouncing Judge Drummend and all the federal officers, and rejoiced that the time had come when the Saints would be avenged on their enemies -- that men were found who could face the enemy, and that Harney, with his 2,509 men, never would enter Salt Lake City. He also stated that Governor Brigham Young had ordered the people to prepare for war; that they should not sell emigrants anything; that they must lay up provisions; that the men and women must not dress up in store clothes any more, but that all must be saved to forward the cause of the church against the common enemy; that the men must be content with buckskin instead of broadcloth, and have plenty of guns and ammunition.


On the 17th of August passed through the city of Salt Lake. Remained only three or four hours. Had a conversation with a merchant -- a Gentile -- who stated that on the previous Sunday, Brigham Young had declared, in the Temple, that henceforth Utah was a separate and independent Territory, and owned no obedience or allegiance to any form or laws but those of their own enactment, and called upon the people to stand together and support him in maintaining the cause of God and the church. Was told that the house of Gilbert & Garrison had orders from Brigham to pack up and leave before the 1st of November. * * *


Next morning the Indians sent down an order by the Bishop of Beaver, demanding cattle from us. Whilst in consultation on this demand, intelligence was received that five of the Corn Creek Indians had come down, and the Bishop went off with the Indians without waiting for our answer. Here it was considered necessary to remain some time, as the grass was good, and our men went up to the Bishop to obtain permission to stop, and also to have smithwork done in the town. * * *


Dame advised us not to pass where the other train had been massacred, but to take a left hand trail, which we finally did, having first proposed to go and bury our deceased countrymen; but the interpreters objected, saying that the Indians would serve us the same way. Here we met the two horse thieves, the brothers Young, who stated that the Indians were very troublesome on the Muddy, and advised us to hire additional interpreters, especially Hatch. We hire Hatch and four others, paying them $500 in advance. Their contract was to come with us to the Cottonwood Springs.


While they were with us, they made us give beeves to the Indians on the Santa Clara, and advised us not to swear before the Indians, as they would know us to be Americans, and probably kill us.

On passing down the Rio Virgin we had to give more beeves to the Indians, who stole a horse from one of the company. We lost several head of cattle; Hamblin, the interpreter, sent Indians to search for them, who drove them back to Hamblin's house; other cattle strayed off, and were immediately killed by the Indians. On the Virgin, Mr. Samuel Weeks lost $302 50 from his wagon. A thorough search was made in the train, but it could not be found. The opinion was that the interpreters had stolen it, as most of the company knew of the money being there. A man named Lovett Joined us here, who had no ostensible reason for coming to us. He lived with Hamblin, and it was the opinion of the company afterwards that the plan was concocted here between Hamblin and Hatch for our robbery. * * *


Proceeded about eight or ten miles along the canyon. The cattle were in advance of our wagons about half a mile. The cattle were stopped to enable the wagons to come up. While waiting, observed Hamblin on the top of the hill, apparently looking for Indians. He came down from the hill, and by this time the wagons had joined the advance party, and the train moved on. Before this, however, Hamblin had a conversation with a young Indian who accompanied us from the Muddy, and who pointed out to him where the Indians were located. When we started on, the Indian asked for water; there was none in any of the vessels, and he then ran in advance of the cattle and gave a whoop. The yelling then became general along the hills, where previously we could not perceive a single Indian. At this time, three of the four interpreters who remained with us were in the rear of the train. The other advised the captains to fall back and leave the cattle, and guard the wagons with the women and children. This was done, when a large body of Indians, over two hundred, made a descent on the cattle and run them off, to the number of 326 head and five horses. Some of the party prepared to fire on the Indians, but the interpreter prevented them, saying we would all be killed. He then rode in among the Indians, and soon returned, saying that they had sent work if we wanted to fight to come on. He was requested to go again to the Indians, when he asked to exchange an old gun for a valuable navy revolver. It was given him. He then started off, in company with some of the train, on the condition that, if danger threatened, he would fire the pistol, which would be the signal for them to return to the wa-gons. He fired the pistol -- all the interpreters left the train, and were not again seen. * * *


The train which has been so cruelly massacred was under the charge of Captain Baker, familiarly known as "Uncle Jack," from Carroll county, Arkansas -- Silas Edwards and William Baker, son of the Captain, are also known to have been in the train. At Cedar City, Mr. Honea saw President Haight riding a large bay horse which he recognized as having belonged to Mr. Silas Edwards; was informed by Hatch that young Baker had an opportunity of escaping, and went a short distance, but returned; was afterwards wounded in the arm; again escaped from the massacre, and had proceeded about ten miles this side the Muddy when he met the Youngs, who had escaped from San Bernardino. He was advised to return to the Muddy, which he did, when he was met by Hatch and the Indians, and by them cruelly murdered.


Mr. Honea says that in coming into San Bernardino, about fifteen miles the other side of the sink of the Mohave river, he met the mail wagon for Salt Lake City, having a large quantity of pistols and ammunition. The driver wished to purchase arms from the party, but they refused to sell.

To give an idea of the fraud and extortion practiced by the Mormons on emigrants, Mr. Honea states that their company paid to interpreters, six in all the enormous sum of $1,815. The duty performed by these guides and interpreters was to conduct the company from Cedar City to Cottonwood Springs, a distance of not over three hundred miles; yet this contract was not fulfilled, although payment was made in advance.

(From the San Francisco Herald, Nov. 5.)

Three emigrant families arrived yesterday in Sacramento, by the Carson Valley route. They report, says the Union, many sad evidences of outrage and murder at different points along the route, particularly in the vicinity of Goose Creek. Near this creek their attention was attracted by the appearance of a human foot protruding from the ground, and on examining the spot the remains of three murdered men were found buried only three or four inches below the surface. Upon another grave there lay two dogs, alive but much emaciated, and so pertinacious in retaining their lonely resting place that no effort could entice or drive them from the spot. Their master was most probably, the occupant of that grave, and their presence there, under such circumstances, was a touching exhibition of canine instinct and devotion. A few miles further on, they came upon another scene of murder, where upon the ground were strewn a few bones, and also knots of long glossy hair, torn from the head of some ill-fated women. Near by were the remains of three head of cattle, with the arrows still sticking in them.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         N. Y., Friday, December 4, 1857.                         Two Cents.

Complicity of the Mormons in the Late
Emigrant Massacre -- The Indians were
Tools in the Hands of the Saints.


The late horrible massacre of more than one hundred emigrants on the Spanish trail from Utah to California, deserves more than a passing notice at the hands of the press. The San Francisco papers give the substance of several statements, tending to show the Mormons were cognizant of the massacre and probably instigated it. The fact is undoubtedly this: The Mormons must have planned and executed it with the Indians, or it could not have occurred. The writer has spent a year in Utah, and during the spring of 1855 passed over the route from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles, California, in command of a detachment of United States troops. Previous to this march he had seen several months service among the Indians who occupy the country in the vicinity of the late massacre. These Indians have for years been under the tutelage of the Mormons. Their chiefs, Canoshe, Ammon, and others, are members of the Mormon church. Their villages are in close proximity to the Mormon towns, and their fields of grain are adjacent to those of the Mormons. Missionaries reside constantly with the Indians and control their movement. In the event of the death of a chief, his successor is always the one designated by the Mormons. The Indians are armed with rifles and have an abundance of ammunition supplied by the Mormons, and these supplies are purchased with United States money, supplied to Brigham Young in his capacity of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The whole instruction of the Mormon missionaries has been that the Americans area weak and infirm nation compared with the Mormons, and the natural enemies of the Indian. For years past no small party of Americans has ever traveled this route without assuming the character and name of Mormons as an absolutely necessary precaution to pass through safely. The Mormon settlements stretch from Fillmore City to the Vegas river, at intervals of a few miles; and so close is the connection between the Mormon people and the Indians, that it is absolutely impossible for a train to be attacked anywhere on this route without the knowledge and consent of the Mormons. I beg leave to say that this is no charge hastily made -- no inconsiderate evidence -- but an incontestable fact; and its truth can be attested by hundreds of people in California who have traveled the route, and called themselves Mormon to avoid a fate similar to that of the hundred and eighteen men, women and children slaughtered at Mountain Meadows.

The writer of this letter camped two days at Mountain Meadows, two days on the Santa Clara, and two days on the Muddy. At the approach of the troops the Mormon missionaries left the Indian tribes and went to the nearest Mormon settlement, after instructing the Indians to attack the troops. Nothing but an exhibition of superior strength and constant vigilance prevented repeated attacks. Several times the mules and horses were driven oft by the Indians, and as often recovered. The chiefs of the tribes on the Virgin and Muddy rivers told the writer of their instructions to attack the troops, and of the representations of the Mormons that the Americans were a weak people and the enemy of the Indian. I repeat that it is not reasonable to suppose that this massacre could have been committed without the complicity of the Mormons. The circumstances of the case show that they could have prevented it, or rescued the greater portion of the train, as the fight lasted many hours, and they were made aware of it by expresses.

The facts here stated with reference to the Instructions of the Mormon missionaries, and the march of the troops, have been on file in the War Department, in the form of an official report, more than three years.     ARMY.

ASTOR HOUSE, Nov. 30, 1857.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                   New York City, Sunday, January 3, 1858.                   Two Cents.


Our San Francisco Correspondence.

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 19, 1857.        
Mormonism Troubling the Waters -- Extract from the Mormon Western Standard -- Heber's Dirk Business -- Mormons in Trouble -- More about Lieut. Gunnison -- Samuel Brannan's New Bank, &c.

I did anticipate, a few days ago, that the John L. Stephens would steam off to-morrow without anything very special for the attention of the folks in the East; but as luck, good or bad, would have it you will receive a batch of news from Utah. The horrible tales related about the massacre of an emigrant train somewhere between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, which were laid to the Indians and Mormons, as some refutation of the story had been made by some of the survivors, and that to the advantage of the Saints; but the mail arrives with the Deseret News up to October 7, and we are once more red with excitement. It is unnecessary for me to relate what Brigham says that he is going to do with Uncle Sam's army. You will have a rich treat in the Prophet's sermons. If ever he meant to "send the Gentiles to hell across lots" -- favorite expression -- as he has so often promised, surely the time for the performance of the astounding feat is nigh at hand. Well, we'll see what we shall see; and if President Buchanan picks up the glove and faces the Patriarch in the style that the Gentiles in California would counsel him, not many months will roll over our heads before we shall have something to chronicle besides idle boasting.

At present every one has his conjecture about what will be done. The general impression is that the United States army should march into Utah from the Pacific side. Everything necessary for the equipment of any number of troops can be had here on the shortest notice; besides, if wanted, any number of men can be found, either in the capacity of volunteers or as regular troops, who would like nothing better than the opportunity of measuring arms with the Mormons. From what I learn, our Senators will be urged to recommend to the President the starting of a large force from this place in the spring, and few doubt the success of their labors in that direction.

The editor of the Western Standard, a Mormon publication, of this city, is by no means alarmed at the approaching crisis; but, on the contrary, would have us believe that he is more pleased than otherwise. He comes out with an editorial on the recent news, and withal is plucky -- excuse the vernacular of the diggins. He says: --
Our contemporaries think that a crisis is approaching. In this we agree with them. It is time that there should be a change of some kind; we care but little what it may be. With the Lord to uphold the cause of the just, it can not be any worse than it has been. For ourself we are sick and weary of enduring such treatment as we, in common with our co-religionists, have endured for years past. We have borne the yoke so long that our patience is nearly exhausted. This continual abuse and piling on of false charges -- this eternal whine about Mormon treason, Mormon aggressions, Mormon licentiousness, with these oft-repeated threats of whipping us into an abjuration of our principles and of exterminating us, we are tired of hearing. We know that the Mormons in Deseret are an industrious, peaceable, God-fearing people, and that they have been most foully abused and vilified. All they have asked or now ask, is justice; all they desire is their guaranteed rights. These they never have had; but we, as one individual whose interests are wholly identified with theirs, feel that the time has arrived when it is but right that they be demanded, and if needs be, contended for.
If the Mormons only can fight as well as they can talk -- which is seldom the case -- we shall have lots of glory to record. But Brigham's intimation, that a trip to the mountains is not at all unlikely, would seem to justify the conclusion that they would sooner depend on their heels than their arms. Be their fighting talents superior or inferior to their swiftness, or the one more likely to be oftener tested than the other, there is no doubting the fact that they have for some time back been laying in a large stock of arms and ammunition. Since the famous sermon of Heber Kimball on the women and children arming themselves with pistols, dirks, or anything come-at-able, it would appear that the fair sex have got the fever and feel considerably pugnacious. Surely "Brother Kimball'' does not mean to send out a troop of Amazons to meet Uncle Sam's boys -- surely not. I think the "dirk" is meant for home use. The Mormons are great sticklers for some little items of history, particularly those which suit the times. It is recorded in the Book of Judges that one Sisera, the captain of the opposing force to ancient Israel, got into the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, and while there reposing his weary limbs, and locked in slumber's sweet embrace, she drove a nail through his temples, and finished him; and that finished, the fighting. Who knows if modern Heber does not count on the blue jackets getting into warm quarters the other side of the Rocky mountains? The toys had better look out for the dirks. Note that down for me.

The Mormons are not in over safe keeping outside of their Territory. The Los Angeles correspondent of the Alta, after giving an account of the meeting at that place in reference to the recent massacre of emigrants, says: --
Just while we were greatly interested in the report of these outrages, there arrived at San Pedro, a vessel from Australia, with over seventy converts, the fruits of the labors of a fellow named Wall, who is recognized by persons here as a Danite from Fillmore, and as they say, one of the biggest rascals alive. He came to town the night of the meeting and remained till morning, when he was waited upon by a committee (self constituted) who greeted him in such a decided manner, that he was glad to escape, declaring that he had too much regard for his own life to endanger it by remaining here. The deluded wretches he was conducting to Zion were all women and children but nineteen.
Brother Silas G. Higgins, Mormon missionary to Oregon, writes to the Standard as follows, concerning his treatment in the southern extremity of the Willamette valley: --
On Sunday, the 20th of September, we went to fulfil an appointment at a schoolhouse some six miles distant, where we met a goodly number who had come to hear; but were prevented from preaching by a gang of rowdies, headed by one Henry Small. This Small used such profane and vulgar language that some of the ladies present exclaimed aloud they never saw Mr. Small before, and hoped that they never should be disgusted with the sight of him again.
I presume the faithful here will soon follow the example of their brethren in the East, and shut up shop.

The Alta California has been for some time after the brothers with a sharp stick, and has been poking into their ribs whenever he thought he had a chance. He has up the murder of the late Lieutenant Gunnison, and charges it home upon the Mormons. In an article headed "A Clue to the Murder of Lieut. Gunnison," he says that a pamphlet published in Sydney, New South Wales, makes the admission. The passage referred to is in reply to some reviewer. The Mormon writer says: -- "Let the reviewer go back to school, study his Bible, and learn to know that the moral law of the Lord will be established in Zion as it was formerly, and our man who does not keep it, but seduces his neighbor's wife, must die, and no jury there could find him guilty of murder; it is his duty to execute its just demands for they keep no hangman there. And in that case it came very hard on them there, but if they had come to Sydney some of your acquaintances, or your co-religionists, might have helped them to some of your exquisites of Sydney, or may be more near -- one of your acquaintance's hearths. It would not come very hard on them here, if we are to believe our police reports, and some of your teacher's examples we have had lately. They who live in glass houses should not throw stones," &c.

However much we may all be inclined to condemn, and would all rejoice in seeing the life of a good man atoned for by his guilty murderers, it does seem a pity, when we have a real long score of outstanding debts, undisputed debts, to settle with them, to see attention drawn to a charge which The Los Angles Star, taking that view of the matter, publishes the following: --
In connection with the above, and to do full justice to the Mormons, in this matter also, who have been so repeatedly charged in public speeches, and also in newspapers, with complicity in the murder of the late Captain Gunnison, we make the following extract from the Report of Lieut. E. J. Beckwith, who succeeded Gunnison in the command of the party, and who completed the survey commenced by that officer -- to which our attention has been directed during the week. The extract is from the report made to the Hon. Jefferson Davis, late Secretary of War: --

"The statement which has from time to time appeared (or been copied) in various newspapers of the country since the occurrence of these sad events, charging the Mormons or Mormon authorities with instigating the Indians to, if not actually aiding them in, the murder of Captain Gunnison and his associates, is, I believe not only entirely false, but there is no accidental circumstance connected with it affording the slightest foundation for such a charge.
The Alta plays upon the expression, "it came very hard upon them there." A little reflection would satisfy the unprejudiced that no Mormon would make such a voluntary admission if mere words referred to the famous passage in the report of the officers who left the Territory in 1851, when they complained of "polygamy creating a monopoly which was hard upon the United States officers sent to reside there," a hardship by no means experienced in Sydney. That is all.

Samuel Brannan's Bank meets with considerable opposition; his former connection with Mormonism is not forgotten. He says that "Depositors are secure... for their redemption and that he is himself in the city worth $150,000, come-at-able any day. He has large posters all over the city describing his property, that the depositors may be assured that there no humbug in the concern. His lady has signed over all to the trustees before some officials in Switzerland, so that by this it appears she is at present in Europe. Times have changed greatly in favor of Samuel Brannan. Esq., and lady. Eleven years ago they sailed from the port of New York, in the City Brooklyn, for this place, simply "Brother and Sister Brannan," among a crowd of Mormons. Sammy has made a good spec in California. The Bulletin goes into "Brannan's paper Currency,' and calls upon the District Attorney to look after him and prevent the issue of shin-plasters. I have not yet seen any of the new paper money...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                       New York City, Saturday, January 16, 1858.                       Two Cents.


The Mormons Not Going to Vacate the Territory.


November 7, 1857.
Con/trencc at Great Salt Lake City -- Brethren with Arms at Hand -- Brigham Young Claims to be only an Apostle of Joseph Smith -- Lorenzo Snow Testifies that "the Lord has Revealed to Brigham" to Take his Present Position -- Apostle Orson Hyde Mindful of Senator Douglas -- Predicts Terrible Thing to Come -- General Rich very Mild -- Apostle Amasa Lyman Declares the Mormons Cannot Leave Utah -- Seasons against the Possibility of Being Driven Out -- Apostle Erastus Snow Satisfied -- A Conference to be held next April -- Couriers ply between the Mormon Outposts and the City -- the People United -- The Women to go to the Fields -- Everybody Ready for a Fight, &c., &c.

The previous mail from this place left on the 8th of October, the morning after the termination of the Semi-Annual Conference. I had not, therefore, the opportunity of giving you a report of our proceedings. So long as we have the privilege of partial communication I shall keep you informed on general movements, leaving to your own mind the task of drawing inferences from the discourses you may read in the News.

The Conference commenced on Tuesday, the 6th of October, at 10 A. M. Faces that had never been missed from the congregation since our arrival in these valleys were absent. I presume others felt, as I did, a disposition to curse the ambitious demagogues and tyrants whose folly and madness had forced from our midst our best men to stop the progress of their armed tools. President Young alone, of the Firet Presidency, was on the stand. President Wells was out with the "Eastern expedition,'' to give direction to all its movements, and President Kimball, was out to aid by his counsel; so, likewise, were Presidents Taylor and Smith. The following were therefore on the stand, representing their various quorums: --


President Brigham Young.


Orson Hyde. Wilfred Woodruff, Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow and Franklin D. Richards.


Joseph Young, Zera Pulsipher, Benjamin L. Clapp


John Young,


Edward Hunter


John Young, Isaac Morley.


Daniel Spencer, David Fullmer.

By the foregoing list of the leading elders present, you will see that a sprinkling are out with the expedition in some department or other -- counselling, directing, managing, and some in the ranks.

In the absence of President Kimball, President Young attended to the business of the conference himself. His introductory remarks were rich with instruction. He said that he knew not how long the conference would be continued; but as he understood that the brethren were pretty much in readiness for anything, and had their guns close at hand, they would attend to business first, and, if required, could start at any moment for the canyons. The harvest had been abundant, and. as there was a time for everything, he never saw a better time to secure potatoes and ether crops. They would, therefore, have but a short conference, that they might secure the products of the earth. He spoke of the changing scenes of life, and the happiness of those who were ever ready to do the will of God, and pass through life with the confidence that whatsoever should come to pass would tend to increase the experience and ultimate salvation of those who trusted in their Redeemer: and terminated his remarks with exhorting the brethren to secure their crops and to be ready, if our enemies came, to defend ourselves.

The presiding authorities were put to the vote, for future support and confidence or rejection. When the President read the motion that he should be sustained as "Prophet, Seer and Revelator," he remarked: -- I will say that I never dictated the latter part of that sentence. I make this remark because those words in that connection always made me feel as though I am called more than I am deserving of. I am Brigham Young, an Apostle of Joseph Smith, and also of Jesus Christ. If I have been profitable to this people I am glad of it. The brethren call me so, and if it be so I am glad.

Contrary to the expectation of the Saints, no one was appointed at conference to fill the vacancy in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, caused by the assassination of brother P. P. Pratt, in Arkansas. The names of the other members of the Twelve were read over and sustained, without any successor being alluded to.

After the authorities had all been sustained by vote, the recently arrived missionaries were called to "the stand. Elder Hoffheins rendered an account of his mission to the Germans in the United States. Elder Musser related some particulars of his experience in India, and gave some items of the mythology of the Hindoos, Mahomedans and Parsees. During the afternoon session the elders from the British mission rendered an account of their labors, after which President Young spoke on the fulfillment of prophecy, &c., which terminated the first day's conference.

On the opening of the conference the second day we had an excellent address from


In alluding to the troops the other side of the mountains, he said: -- As a general thing, I presume to say that the people before me to-day feel that all is well, that all is right, notwithstanding an armed force is only about 147 miles distant from us, full of their hellish designs for our destruction, and have formed their schemes for the purpose of entering into our settlement for the destruction of the principles of righteousness and to gratify their hellish lusts. The least idea never entered their hearts that the people would be found here that would dare to oppose them. I presume the Saints feel all this will be well as a general thing and to see these feelings existing in the bosoms of the Saints this day is pleasing and gratifying to my feelings, and I feel assured that whatever shall take place, whatever course shall be pursued by our enemies or be taken by ourselves, that all will terminate for the glory and exaltation of the Saints of the living God. The kingdom of our God is bound to prosper and to go forward.

*    *   *

In the days of brother Joseph the mob came and took individuals: brother Joseph suffered them to take him; he suffered them to take possession of the brethren's houses, to come in and shake hands with him, as traitors, and in every instance they sacrificed every principle of virtue, of honor and purity. This course of conduct continued year after year. We suffered them to come upon us in Jackson county, and they there sacrificed every principle of virtue and righteousness. In Nauvoo, also, the devils incarnate were there, again laying their hellish plots for the destruction of every holy principle; and after the death of Joseph the Prophet, President Brigham Young and others of the servants of God swore that if their enemies laid their hands upon them they should die. But the brethren never declared this until they had suffered from their enemies until forbearance was no longer a virtue.

*    *   *

When we kindly, generously, and with the utmost courtesy, asked the President of the United States if he could possibly let us choose rulers out from among ourselves, and if that was not agreeable to go so far as to let us have kind, decent sort of men, men that have some interest here, men that would themselves obey the laws they came to administer; the government were offended, and hence they are sending an army -- men that wear epaulettes. Probably these are the citizens which they consider will be interested in our welfare. The power of the Almighty bears record in every heart that the position for us to take is not to suffer them to come in here, and this is the universal feeling in this community, and it is the power of the Holy Ghost which testifies to every man and to every woman that this is our position. The Lord has preserved us in every position; and although we have suffered he has been with us by the power of the spirit. He has suffered us to give up our arms and to exhibit his mercy. He did this in the Far West and in Nauvoo. He suffered Brother Joseph to give himself up, and now we see what they have done. But now it is altogether different. We are in a different position from what we were then. The Lord has revealed to Brother Brigham to take the stand which we are taking.

*    *   *

Look 147 miles eastward -- there our enemies are contemplating what they may do, how they may come or send an armed mob here. They would hire and bribe a posse, if they could, to come and take President Young; and they are all the time plotting and scheming how they may subvert this people. When, our brethren were amongst them they were all the time singing their lustful songs and damning those holy principles which we have embraced. Look across the wild sage plains, over the deserts to the United States and the same spirit is there: they are studying how they may rid the United States of the principles of righteousness. Now which will prevail? (President B. Young: -- "Truth will prevail.") Yes, the truth will -- the Saints of the Most High will prevail. It is the Lord Almighty that has called his Saints -- he has chosen his sons and daughters. It is not our work, but it is the work of our Heavenly Father, and we are called to be engaged in it. The storms must arise, the oppressor must lay his hand upon the people, or it could not be taken off.

Elders recently from England, Denmark. Australia, Canada and Texas occupied the attention of the conference the remainder of the forenoon session.

In the afternoon. Presidents Orson Hyde, C. C. Rich, Amasa Lyman and Erastus Snow spoke on the war question, and as you are doubtless interested to learn their sentiments, I give you a few notes from their addresses.


spoke as follows: -- The last Eastern mail. I think, brought me a pamphlet or tract written by Elder Orson Pratt, of Liverpool, England. Subject, "Gathering of the Saints, and building up the kingdom of God." The whole matter is handled in a masterly way; free from blind obscurity -- unchecked and unrestrained by fear, and untrameled by the religious or political dogmas of the age. It is the product of a clear head, of a strong heart and of an unflinching hand. In short, it is Heaven's eternal truth. I do exceedingly regret having mislaid it, for I would like to send it to Senator Douglas, with a request that he read it faithfully before he applies the knife to "cut out the loathsome ulcer." Having read it. then, if he shall be disposed and able to cut, cut away and carve up to suit his own peculiar appetite, and that also of his friends. Will some person, having said tract or pamphlet, be kind enough to mail it to Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, Washington City, D. C. But, let all men, however, know, that if what the honorable gentleman calls the "loathsome ulcer" be cut out according to his views and suggestion, the United States will be cut of from being a nation; and her star of empire set, and set in blood.

*    *   *

When we were driven from Missouri and Illinois, leaving all our property, except what little we could take in the hurry, there was no army sent to reinstate us, neither to punish our persecutors. Then thousands of our men, women and children were forced away from their homes, at the point of the bayonet, at midday and at midnight -- in the burning rays of a scorching sun and in the gloomy shades of a wintry night. Our judges, magistrates, civil and military officers, were all forced to go, and no army sent to reinstate them or to punish the persecutor and the oppressor. Oh, ye rulers of the land, look at your injustice. When the innocent cried to you for help, when the persecuted, for conscience sake, implored your fatherly interference, and with tears of blood said to you, "Help us lest we perish," you then said that our cause was just, but you had no power. But now that the wicked and guilty profligate cries to you to protect him in his corruption, and force him upon us contrary to our wishes, you and yourselves invested with all the power necessary to urge an unhallowed warfare against the very people whom you refused to protect. Oh, Lord God Almighty, in the name of thy Son, Jesus Christ, I ask thee to let the arm and sword of thy justice interpose, and decide this matter according to thy righteousness, and get to thyself honor and a name that shall never be forgotten!

*    *   *

The kingdom and government of God are the only legitimate jurisdiction that ever did exist. All other kingdoms and jurisdictions stand before God in the same light that many divorces stood in the days of Moses. "For the hardness of your hearts, Moses wrote you this precept, but from the beginning it was not so." For the hardness of men's hearts, God has suffered them to exercise temporary jurisdiction. But does this temporary jurisdiction authorise them to oppose him when he begins to take to himself his great power and reign. No! "The little stone cut out of the mountains without hands, will roll and fill the whole earth;" while the great image will be broken and fall, and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of our God. Now, therefore, oh, ye kingdoms of this world! resist the decree of Jehovah if you can, and if you will. Fall upon this little stone cut out of the mountains without hands and be broken if you wish. But know ye that the way of the transgressor is hard, and his final cup is bitter. God bless the meek and pure. Amen.


said -- I had been looking for the time of deliverance, but I did not expect it so soon: but I know it cannot come too soon to meet with a hearty welcome. I have been through some of the difficulties, as some others have said, and can tell you that ia all I have passed through from the beginning I have felt paid as I have gone along. I have always felt that the course to do right was the best, and that there would be the most joy and happiness in doing right. So far as our enemies are concerned, I feel about them precisely as our brethren have expressed themselves. I do not fear them; but I feel that the Lord will take care of his Saints and of his Kingdom. All we have to do is to do as we are directed, and all will be well. I feel well; I never felt better, nor never had less fears of our enemies than I have at the present time.


delivered a very lengthy address, and though less of a military man than Brother Rich, spoke more of the war than the latter. He said: -- I can say that I have been gratified, edified and blest in various ways since the commencement of our conference; I have not been anything but blessed, that I know of. Nobody seems to be alarmed; all seem to feel confident that the contest that is in prospect is to decide the question; it does not seem to be who will prevail, it does not seem to be asked at all who will conquer; but the matter is all settled, that Israel will prevail. I cannot see any place nor conceive of the existence of a possibility of a failure. "Why," says one, "there is no room for a failure -- the truth upon which is predicated, upon which is based the declarations of the servants of God in ancient times, that when God should act his band to build up his kingdom that he would build it up, that it should be established, that it should triumph over every other kingdom and stand for ever -- that truth is so broad, so extensive, that there is no room for a failure; there is nothing on which to hang a doubt or on which to ground a single exception." I am not preaching now of what may be my fate, but I am speaking about the fate of the work we are interested in, that we are engaged in, that has brought us together, that holds us together, and that at the present moment is influencing us.

*    *   *

Well, then, should we be driven away from here, or should we be trodden down here? To admit this is to admit that this is not the kingdom and work of God. This is the work of God and this is His kingdom: and we are here, not because the devil would have us here, for he is very sorry that we are here; neither are we here because our enemies have desired to have us here, but because it was the design of our Father to bring us here; His own right hand has brought us here, and His Spirit has led us and dictated His people and servants until He has brought us here. What should we be driven away from here for? Has God any purpose to serve by our being annoyed -- by our being again driven away? If He has, it is something that I do not know of. He has brought us here through immense labor and toil. We thought it was awful hard when we came here: we nearly had to waste away all that we had, all that was given to us -- not what we had of our own in reality, but what was given to us: we have had to lose nearly all that we had to get here, and now we are in the place where God designs we should be. Will He build up his kingdom on the earth? Yes, he will. Well, then, we will not be driven away. Has he found the people -- the material out of which to build his kingdom? Yes, he has. We have been travelling and preaching backward and forward to prepare us for these things. Is there a people here that is capable of being governed, and not only that, are capable of being governed but capable of becoming governors? In Nauvoo, when our enemies repealed the charter, we were better off than we were before, and I do not suppose that we have retrograded, but we have come out here and have made a government, a State government, and then Uncle Sam thought he would have a finger in the pie, and he made us a Territory and we have got along very well. I expect that the next time we are made anything, it will be the kingdom of God and no amalgamation, and it will be made of the material that God has manufactured in the course of the training that we have had. This is what we are here for. We have found the place and the material of which to build the kingdom; and this leads me to think that we will not be driven away, for I can see the hand of God in our coming here -- and why? -- one may ask. Because he said, in the beginning, that this was his work -- to build up his kingdom -- and knowing that there must be a place to build it upon, and then seeing the Lord lead us to a place, and seeing his servants building it up, through his guidance and counsel, cannot I see the hand of God in it? I can, for he told me this in the beginning. Is not this a simple thing, that this is God's kingdom, and that he has allowed our enemies to kick us until they have kicked us to this point. And when they reached at anything else they have always been restrained: but while the devil was kicking us to this point, the Lord was well satisfied and he kept His hand over him and said, "Now, old fellow, do not kick too hard: these are my people; when you have kicked them so far, all well; but you must not kick any farther." Now the Lord has got us here, our enemies want to drive us off further still, but now comes the declaration that meets with a hearty response -- "Israel is free!" Free from what? From labor, from toil, from watch? No, not at all. Then what are we free from? From the restraint that we have been under: now we are declaring boldly that we are the kingdom of God, and that in the strength of God we are determined to defend it add to defend the truth. Now, all these things considered are among the things that make me feel well. This is the reason that I think we shall prevail that is, in the strength of our God.


after bearing testimony to the truth of the work said: -- It is not enough for us to know that our Father in Heaven will suffer nothing to come upon us, only that which is to prepare us to receive the good He has in store for us? Ask this people -- are the soldiers coming in here? Are we going to have a fight this fall? Are they coming in on our emigration road, or going round by Fort Hall? What will the United States do? Will they raise 50,000 volunteers next spring? Shall we burn up what we have got and take it Indian fashion? What is to be the result of all these things? Ask anybody to tell you, and who is there that will describe the course God will mark out before this people and the course our enemies will take towards us, or the precise details of the programme that is before us. Who is there that can tell us? Ask this or that elder if he has any revelation on the subject, or appeal to the congregation of the Saints, and who is there that can answer it? I confess I cannot answer it, nor have I ever heard it answered by anybody else in detail, and I conclude the Lord will take his own course; and doubtless he will show us the programme as fast as we are prepared to act, and that will be fast enough. The Lord has shown us both ends of the drama; as to the particular scenery of the different parts of the drama it will be made manifest from time to time. When the curtain is raised we shall see it, if we are on hand to play our part. I am fully persuaded we have a good manager, and he is our God. It is He that is moving upon the checker board of nations, and he understands the game and will make the right moves. I feel first rate. All is right with the Lord; all is right with His kingdom and with everybody that is right; and may the Lord help us to keep his commandments forever. Amen.


spoke before the termination of the Conference. He bore testimony that this is the kingdom of God upon the earth: said that the kingdom might have been given to the Saints years ago, if they had been able to receive it; exhorted the Saints so to live that they could have the Spirit of the Lord to be with them all the time; prophesied that the law that would go forth from Zion would be the law of the whole earth yet; spoke on the importance of union in families, that their prayers might avail with God, &c.; prophesied that if this people will live their religion, the thread that is now cut will never be united, and you and I will soon have the privilege of saying, "Here is the kingdom of God." On motion of President Orson Hyde, the Conference adjourned to meet on the 6th of April, 1858, at 10 o'clock. A. M., at this place.

President Young dismissed the congregation with his blessing, and thus terminated an eventful conference.

This lengthy report is perhaps all that you will receive on the subject, as I do not learn anything of the general epistle which usually follows conference. Probably the separation of the first Presidency to different duties at considerable distances from each other, may be the cause of this change from our ordinary course.

You will perceive by the extracts from the speeches of the Twelve, that we feel first rate, though our enemies are like hungry wolves, waiting for the opportunity of devouring us. Their every movement is known here in a few hours. There is a regular line of couriers established between this city and the advance of the Eastern expedition at the mouth of Echo Canyon; the distance -- 113 miles -- over that country, is made in 10 hours regularly. On the arrival of the couriers the Governor's office is filled with anxious listeners, and for the information of the whole people the correspondence with the Governor and the officers in command of the troops, is read on the Sabbath at the public meetings.

Since conference President Taylor has returned to the city, and, with President Young, has sent letters to the officers of the army, inviting them to visit us during the winter and get any information they may require on the state of feeling here. Should they come, they will be well received, and that kindly, and find that every portion of this community is determined to strike for liberty. The sisters are willing to work in the fields during the absence of their husbands, and it is expected of every man who is at home that his whole strength and time will be devoted to the benefit of the families of these who are in the expedition as well as for his own. During harvest the bishops have been charged with the duty of seeing the crops of the absent brethren [are] brought in to their families, so that all things work harmoniously. The public works are stopped, and the brethren engaged elsewhere. When once the snows are deep enough to hedge up the route and render the watching of the troops the work only of a few, we expect a general return of our brethren and many happy evenings during winter.

I have never seen this people more united than at present. Woman as well as men are doing their utmost to contribute to the defence of Zion. It fortunately happens that the history of Joseph Smith which has been published in the Deseret News, in weekly portions since the commencement of that journal, contains now that portion of his history the most interesting to the Saints -- the days preceding his assassination. If anything had been wanting to decide the Saints to oppose the intrigues of the government, who seek the overthrow of President Young and his brethren, this history would have supplied amply every stimulus. It is scarcely possibly to see a person with the News, who does not feel that the death of that man of God has yet to be atoned for, and to submit to be handled again as we have been would lead to nothing less than the destruction of his successor, and to this we shall never submit, though all earth and hell shall combine against us. For rather would we see the whole fraternity of us laid on the altar -- one great sacrifice -- than see one hair of his head injured by sacrilegious hands. Before they can lay hands upon him they will have to wade through scenes of blood of which there is no parallel in history. We shall not be the first to shed blood, as the Lord has commanded His people to support all things, and to suffer unto the shedding of blood; but when that time has come, woe to them by whom that blood is shed, and woe to them who applaud and sustain them.

We have lived on roots and cowhides when we could find nothing better; we have been assailed by crickets and grasshoppers, and seen want and misery stare us in the face and know just what we can endure. These afflictions we bore in humility as the chastening hand of the Lord for our offences. We repented and turned to the narrow way, and the lord has blessed us with abundance, but under the present difficulties our hearts are light; we feel that the Almighty is with us, and if now the time has come for Him to be avenged on His enemies we are ready and every thing is ready. We have not sought this time -- it has come upon us years sooner than we expected it: but we know not if we could, in even having our utmost desires, circumstances could be better arranged than those in which we and our enemies are now placed. Let the Saints everywhere be faithful and obedient to those placed over them in the Lord, carrying out the counsels of the priesthood, carefully observing the laws of the land, living above reproach, and they will find the Lord will overrule all things for their good and salvation.

MORE SHINPLASTERS -- A MORMON CAT IN THE FIELD. -- A friend encloses us a specimen of the issue of "The Drovers' Bank of Salt Lake City, Utah: B. Hunter, Cashier; R. Connolly, President." The most prominent figure is the vignette is a healthy Taurus, which our correspondent thinks is designed to symbolize Brigham Young. We presume nobody is big enough fool [to pay] anything for these pictures by the ream, notwithstanding they have as solid claims on the public as their relatives from Nebraska. We are not aware whether any one in Illinois or Iowa has become step father to the Drovers' Bank of Utah, but it to not at all unlikely that one may be engaged in trading it off for Florence or [Sambeek], or Nebraska Valley, on the principle that a fair exchange is no robbery. -- Chicago Tribune.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 7814.                     New York City, Sunday, January 24, 1858.                     Two Cents.

Interesting  Intelligence  about  Utah
and  the  Mormons.




Prospects of our Army at Fort Bridger.




The Best Way to Send Troops to Salt Lake.

Sketches of the Apostles Orson Hyde and John Taylor,
&c., &c., &c.

Many and diversified are the opinions of the people outside of Utah on the future intentions of the Mormons in that Territory. Recommendations have been held out to Brigham to turn his attention to Sonora, and some have thought he might go north, through Oregon and Washington Territories, into the British possessions; or, what was not impossible, further on still, into Russian territory. What course the prophet may have decided on, or may yet decide upon, is as yet kept a secret front outside barbarians. While the disciples outside of Utah have been impressed with the idea that a wholesale migration was intended for some part of the world, beyond the jurisdiction of the United States government, the leading men in the Territory have reiterated, time and again, their intention of remaining; and, if put to the worst, burning up and going into the mountains, and "taking it," as one of the apostles remarks, "Indian fashion.'' In spite of the Utah discourses, which probably would be regarded as a ruse de guerre, the last despatches from the expedition indicate that Colonel Johnston was fully under the impression that Brigham was going northward in the spring, and that pioneers had already left the city in that direction -- news which was received with some degree of pleasure, as the greater portion of the inhabitants of the States would rather see the backs of the Mormons in flight, leaving our dominions forever, than learn of the terrible and prolonged warfare which is reasonably to be expected if the troops and the Mormons have to contend for supremacy at the point of the bayonet; or, what is still more perplexing, guerrilla warfare. The arrival of the California mail, bringing with it the Deseret News, furnishes again fresh grounds for believing that the Mormons mean to stand their ground and contest for supremacy. From the complexion of affairs at Salt Lake City all doubt as to their remaining seems set at rest. The apostle Amasa Lyman, recently arrived from the seat of his presidency at San Bernardino, contends, not for staying, but against the possibility of being driven by the superior power of the Gentiles. We scarcely think it possible that men of the stamp of the Utah leaders, whose influence with the brethren must be proportionate to the consistency of their speech and prophecy with their action and the fulfilment of their own words. They mean, then, to remain.

In the last batch of news we had little from brothers Kimball and Taylor, who have heretofore been very fluent in their denunciations of the Gentiles, as it appears they have been taking a peep at Colonel Johnston's command. Other apostles who have been on missions away from the seat of power had arrived in time to take part in the conference, and supply their places, and express their sentiments, which, by-the-bye, demonstrate that the rebellion, treason, or whatever it may be called, is not of one man or half a dozen men, but is as wide-spread as Mormonism. The end thereof is not yet.

We proceed to give some highly interesting extracts and correspondence relating to the state of affairs in Utah, the prospects of the approaching campaign, the condition of our army, the probable intentions of the Mormons, and the Mormon feeling in England. We also present our readers with sketches of the lives of two prominent leaders in Utah -- Orson Hyde and John Taylor -- obtained, of course, from Mormon sources, but none the less valuable on that account.




WASHINGTON, Jan. 21,1858.        
Notwithstanding all the prophecies, I am unable to see any signs of the Mormon exodus towards Sonora in the spring of 1858. When the Mormons first explored the Utah valleys with a view to leaving Illinois or the Western States, these valleys were Mexican territory. By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the country became ours, but the Mormons did not the less continue in their original intention of creating an independent State. They have carried out their intention virtually from the first -- under the law, so far as the Governorship or Legislature is concerned, for these were in their own hands -- outside of the law, in their own judiciary, (for no United States courts have ever executed United States laws, their good intentions having been frustrated by Mormon juries or by summary expulsion of the United States Judges) when convenient. The Probate Court of the Territory exercises criminal jurisdiction, and has always refused to send up its records on appeal to the United States courts. The establishment of the Southern Mormon settlements did not look towards migration to Sonora. The declared intention of the Mormons has always been to own a port on the Pacific. They selected San Diego -- own, or did own, large interests in real estate -- and proposed to land their emigrants from Europe at San Diego, and thence by a short march through their San Bernardino settlement to the Vegas river, where they have established a small town, and thence on to their villages on the Virgin and the various towns in Iron county. The whole secret of their line of Southern settlements is to have a direct line of communication with the Pacific coast.

The obstacles to a migration into Sonora are very great, and the advantage doubtful. They could be successfully opposed by an American force on the Gila and Colorado. Twenty thousand men can be raised in California, in an inconceivably short time, and this force can be landed at Fort Yuma, on the Colorado river, in two weeks from San Francisco by steamers. With equal ease supplies for this force can be landed at any desired point on the Colorado. A large force could also be despatched from Los Angeles. Southern California, through the Cajon or Tejon pass, down the Mohave only fifty miles, and thence by a short march to the Colorado -- clearly the Mormons must follow the Colorado down to afford water for so great a mass of humanity. But the Mormons are not going, at least not this year. The fanaticism of men does not reason. The delays and accidents to the gallant force now in Utah are regarded as special interpositions of God in behalf of the Mormon people. They believe, with good reason, that they have an almost impregnable position; and there are many valleys where they could make a decided and determined stand against a greatly superior force. Besides, revelation after revelation has been given them by Brigham that they are not to leave the "peaceful valleys of the mountains" until they march eastward to Missouri and Illinois, and plant the "banner of Israel among their enemies." These opinions may not be worth much, but the writer knows something of "Utah and the Mormons" from personal contact and experience, and his opinions are shared by others who are fully capable of judging.       S. M.




BALTIMORE, Jan. 15,1858.        
As a practical question the suppression of the Mormon insurrection seems everywhere admitted to be the most important now before our government. And yet how tardily and lamely does performance lag behind promise, and behind the public expectation. President Buchanan seems, at least, to appreciate fully the exigencies of the crisis in which Brigham Young has involved his people and the United States government, and recognizes most distinctly in his message the necessity for prompt and vigorous measures. He says: --
To trifle with this rebellion would be to encourage it, and render it formidable. We ought to go there with such an imposing force as to convince these deluded people that resistance would be vain; and thus spare the effusion of blood.
These are certainly bold words, but not less true than bold. What, then, is the President's idea of an "imposing force" -- one which is to strike such terror into these reckless and resolute fanatics, as to bring them to terms without the disagreeable necessity of firing grape into them?

One would naturally suppose that to answer such a description the force contemplated should be at least equal, if not superior, in point of numbers, to those whom it is intended thus to overawe into submission. And although the various estimates as to the actual military strength at the command of Brigham Young differ very widely -- some allowing him an available force of 25,000 fighting men -- yet it will hardly be contended, considering the rate at which emigration has flooded into Utah for the last ten years, that 10,000 is more than a moderate estimate for the army of the Saints, leaving entirely out of view the Indian auxiliaries, will no doubt render efficient and formidable aid to the cause of the rebels.

It would seem then to be simply ridiculous to talk of any force as an imposing one which should not be able to muster, when concentrated at the seat of hostilities, at least ten thousand efficient and able troops of all arms. And these troops should be all in readiness, with their supplies, in ample time for vigorous and telling summer campaign in 1858. If they are despatched so as not to arrive until late in the fall, as was the miserable case of Colonel Alexander's column, they had far better not be sent at all.

What, then, are the present prospects for meeting this exigency? The force now in winter quarters on one of the forks of Green river at this moment does not number over 1, 400 men, viz.: -- Fifth infantry 500; Tenth infantry 500; Phelps' battery 50; Reno's ordnance 50; Col. Cook's dragoons, (six companies) 300; Total 1,400

On the supposition that this force will not be cut off in detail by the Saints, the question is, how much of it will be, left to take part in the military operations of next summer?

The chances, too, of this snow-bound little army having the necessaries of life depend altogether upon the probabilities of the supply trains, now in the rear, being safely escorted through by the small force whose duty it is to guard them.

It is truly a sorry and mortifying reflection; but think I am not going too far when I say that of the 1,400 brave and able-bodied men composing the much talked of Utah expedition of 1857, in all human probability, scarcely a miserable remnant will be left to take an active part in the military movements of 1858.

Where, then, are the ten thousand men who are to make this imposing demonstration? Congress will of course respond to the President's recommendation, and give him the four new regiments -- that is, when they have got through mourning for deceased members, and become tired of squabbling about Kansas. That will make three thousand men -- that is, when they get to Utah; but will these four regiments be voted, enrolled, officered, organized, equipped and disciplined in time to take part in the next summer campaign? The solution of this question depends altogether upon the exercise of a degree of promptness and energy on the part of government, no evidence of which has as yet been perceived.

According to the report of the Commander-in-Chief, however, these four regiments are no more than are required to meet the ordinary demands of our service, without reference to the Mormon war.

Taking all these things into consideration, and judging of the future by the past, I cannot but entertain the conviction that, unless unusual energy and despatch is manifested at headquarters, our operations against the Mormon rebels for the next campaign, at least, will, like the operations of the present year, be attended with a mortifying and disgraceful result. "To trifle with this rebellion," the President justly says, "would be to encourage it, and render it formidable." And the mischief would be incalculable which would result from repeating the unpardonable blunder of the present year, and setting on foot another inadequate and insufficient expedition, to be cut to pieces among the defiles of the mountains, or wasted away amid the snows and storms of another winter.   O. P. Q.

(Correspondence of the Boston Post.)

WASHINGTON, Jan. 19, 1858.        
The Mormon Question -- Can it be Settled Peaceably? --
The Lawrence & Stone Case.

Some interesting and important discussions have taken place lately among gentlemen in high positions here, involving suggestions which look to a peaceful settlement of the Utah question. Such a settlement is undoubtedly eminently desirable, but it seems, hitherto, never to have been thought of since a hostile attitude has been assumed by Brigham Young, and since it appeared that he was determined to resist the authority of the United States government by force. The general idea has been, that, in order to vindicate the authority of the government, we must burn, destroy, and kill, and such are the disgust and horror of the country at the doctrines and practices o the Mormons, that we have contemplated the summary destruction of this large community by ball, bayonet and sabre, without a voice being raised in flavor of more gentle counsels. Perhaps this entire want of sympathy with the Mormons -- perhaps the reason why the wish for devastating retribution has been thus uppermost in the minds of the American people -- has been because it was the general belief that Brigham Young was at all hazards determined to hold Utah, and to maintain his theocratic despotism against the authority of the United States, and also within them. How far these feelings, now undoubtedly entertained by the whole country, and how far the views of the administration might be changed, were it understood that the desire of the Mormons is not to contest the authority of the United States, but simply to place themselves in a spot where they would conflict with no government, and where they might be independent without being traitors, is one of the questions which has lately been discussed. A suggestion has been made that the immense expense which must attend the carrying on of a protracted Mormon war might be saved to our depleted treasury, and a frightful destruction of human life and property be also avoided, should Brigham Young and his followers be found willing to remove peacefully out of the territory of the United States and set up their temple in some spot which might be detached from any other sovereignty, and become the inheritance of the Saints. Perhaps Mexico might be willing to sell Sonora, or perhaps an island in the Pacific might be found where the New Jerusalem or new Zion might be built without interfering with anybody. Both these projects, I have reason to believe, have been thought of in quarters which give them weight, and though possibly not authority also, as yet, still the semblance of it. It is estimated that it will cost this government, to reduce the Mormons by force -- which means their entire destruction -- not less than thirty millions of dollars. The devastation of property cannot of course be well estimated, but it would necessarily be immense, since Great Salt Lake City and the Utah valley would unquestionably be left at the end a more melancholy desert than it was before the band of the white man ever turned up its virgin soil. The destruction of human life is a matter for the Peace Society, but it will also doubtless temper the conclusions of every humane individual who reflects upon the subject.

I say that considerations of this sort have pressed themselves upon the attention of gentlemen here, who occupy the position of legislators of the nation. What they will come to I cannot undertake to say....



(From the San Francisco Herald.)

We have reason to know that measures are now being adopted by the government to concentrate as large a body of troops as can be spared from the various posts in Oregon and Washington Territories, at some point in this State convenient for their prompt despatch across the border, so soon as any overt act of rebellion shall be committed by the Mormons of Utah. It is evident that, in the event of a difficulty with those-headstrong people, the most available avenue for the transportation of men and munitions of war would be through the valleys that open from California into Salt Lake. On the eastern approach to the valley there are natural impediments, which, though they would undoubtedly not be effectual in long arresting the march of an impetuous and enthusiastic body of United States troops, would nevertheless be easily rendered available to retard its progress for a time. No such natural obstacles exist on the western approach. The valley is so easy of access from California, that Brigham Young has recognised the necessity of drawing across his western frontier a cordon of bloody minded savages, of whose willing aid he would avail himself to harass an army on its march from this side. It is evidently his policy to guard the eastern passes with his main force of resolute men, and to keep his main body together with the numerous tribes of Indians under his control -- for field operations against an army approaching from the west. The course of the government will therefore doubtless be, not to augment the force under General Harney to a greater extent than is necessary to provide for its safety and to enable it to keep a portion of the enemy engaged on that side: and at the same time to pour into Utah, through the outlet from California, such a formidable body of troops as will, with the least possible delay, and with the smallest possible expenditure of blood and treasure, crush out the rebellion. A large receiving depot could be established at some eligible point in California, where the volunteer companies (if such should be called out) and the drafts from the various recruiting stations, might be sent, and where they might be kept ready to march at a day's notice on Deseret. Independent of the military advantages of a descent from this side instead of from the east, it has likewise in its favor the strong argument of economy. Stores can be procured and transported from this State at far smaller expense. With the single exception of arms, abundant supplies can be had here, and at rates greatly less than the aggregate cost of their purchase and transportation to the western border of Missouri. All these facts have not escaped the attention of the government; and it may be confidently expected that should rebellion break out in Utah, California will be the depot for the main body of the army of invasion.

The same paper of the 28th ult. says, with regard to the Eastern route: -- We will state, for the information of our readers, that a wrong impression exists with many in relation to the difficulty of entering Utah from the east. It has been supposed necessary to force the formidable pass of Echo Canyon, before access could be had to Salt Lake; but this is a great mistake. Fort Bridger is the nearest fortified point to Echo Canyon; and, arriving at that point, the troops have only to file to the northward and proceed to Fort Hall, from whence a broad and handsome valley, some nine miles in width, leads directly to Salt Lake City. There are some dangerous passes that exist between Fort Bridger and Fort Hall, that may, possibly, be occupied by the Mormons or their Indian allies, which would render communication difficult and hazardous. But, even in that event, the troops could proceed to the South Pass and enter the lower portion of Deseret, which is thinly populated and entirely without defences. Here there is a fine field for cavalry operations, an arm in which the Mormons are exceedingly deficient. To oppose an attacking force at this point, the Mormon leader would be obliged to march his array three hundred miles from Salt Lake City, affording opportunity for a highly favorable diversion from the north. For the better information of our readers, we will add that Fort Laramie is five hundred miles east of Salt Lake, on Laramie River. just at the forks of the Platte. Fort Kearney is about two hundred miles east of Fort Laramie, and three hundred miles west of Fort Leavenworth, which is located on the banks of the Missouri river. These locations and distances we believe to be nearly correct.

A correspondent of the San Francisco Alta, writing from Los Angeles, makes the following statements and speculations concerning the proposed operations at Salt Lake: --
The plain inference to be drawn from the words and teachings of Young, and the movements of his worshippers, is, that he has resolved to abide the fortune of rebellion. If he intends to resist the execution of the laws, and enter into a strife of arms with the government and people of the United States, it is time measures should be taken to prevent, as far as possible, his obtaining any advantages by an unexpected movement. His first care will be to dispose of the command under Colonel Johnston, which was escorting, through the Indian country, the newly appointed officers of that Territory. Having accomplished that object, and knowing that his eastern frontier is unapproachable before July next, he will have the whole winter, spring and until midsummer to fortify and strengthen his position. There is but one point where large armies could be concentrated, and from which Utah is accessible, both in winter and summer. This southern part of California offers the facilities required. From the valley of Los Angeles, embracing the town and lands of San Bernardino, the country, after passing the defile of San Bernardino, is open, and presents no obstacles to the marching of large or small bodies of men to the Salt Lake at any season of the year. The climate, north from the Cajon Pass, is dry and salubrious. There, in these three southern countries, could be concentrated and maintained, without difficulty, large armies, which could march upon Utah in the depth of winter or in midsummer. From this point he well knows that he may, at any season of the year, be attacked. It will not require the eye of military science to indicate to the Mormon chieftain the importance of this section of California. As if in the anticipation of an attack from this point, he has been throwing out his outposts of walled towns more than half way from Salt Lake City to this valley. With the closing in of winter -- Colonel Johnston satisfactorily disposed of -- he can turn his attention hitherward, and march an army into this valley, which shall first bring us the news of the defeat of Colonel Johnston and the armed rebellion of the Mormons. He could lay waste and impoverish these counties, and, with the herds and flocks, return in safety to Salt Lake. This would not only strengthen Young, but would greatly retard and hinder, if not prevent, the occupation of this point by the national forces. He could even occupy San Bernardino, where he can support an army from the spoils, and from whence he could advance to the coast, or rapidly countermarch, and render assistance to defend his eastern frontier. If Young attacks and defeats the command under Col. Johnston, I shall not be much surprised if this news first brought to our knowledge by the sudden arrival of his troops in this valley. Without making any pretensions to military science, I hazard the opinion that, should Young make a movement of this kind, be would be able to accomplish it before any organized opposition could, under any possible circumstances, be brought into the field to prevent its complete realization. Judging from the evidence before the public, I am compelled to admit the probability -- even the almost certainty -- that before now Brigham Young has raised his fratricidal hand against his brethren and drawn the sword which will revel in a brother's and father's blood, which will let loose and urge on the cold, vindictive and remorseless Indian to deeds of savage blackness too horrible to anticipate.



Orson Hyde, the President of the Twelve Apostles in the Mormon church, is, after the members of the First Presidency -- Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Daniel H. Wells -- the next personage in authority in the Mormon hierarchy, and the person on whom would devolve the guidance and direction of the movement, should the Presidency be removed by death or any unlooked for event, unless a successor to Brigham should have been previously designated, ordained and set apart to that office, through, in ecclesiastical language, "revelation or by the direction of the Holy Spirit.'' On the assassination of the Smiths, in 1844, Brigham, then President of the "Twelve," attained to the highest position the church; Brother Hyde, now occupying his former position, may one day be called to the chair of Joseph, a position which few even of the faithful would accept if offered and refusal was at all admissible. Brother Orson is a man of considerable ability, has travelled extensively in the Old and the New Worlds, is a very eloquent preacher and a clear and forcible writer. Aside from his profession and practice of the peculiar faith, he would figure in any society as a gentleman of education and a person destined to rise in the world, and one who would leave a name and history on the records of time for future generations to real and study. His name being now prominently before the public, connected with Utah affairs, we have traced his course since his relationship with Mormonism, which, while it furnishes some knowledge of the man, throws considerable light on one of the missionary enterprises of the movement scarcely if at all known in the world.

The subject of our sketch was born on the 8th January, 1805, and is, consequently, now in his fifty-second year -- what the Mormons in the mountains would not regard as more than the prime of life. Of his birthplace and parents we know nothing, and his early life we are nearly as ignorant. At his baptism, in October, 1831, he says: --
He was left in his infancy an orphan, with none to look upon him with a father's eye, and feel for him with a mother's heart. The hand that wiped his infant tears was still; the breast that nursed him was cold, and slumbered in the arms of death. He was thrust abroad upon the cold and friendless bosom of an unfeeling world, so that for twenty long years he saw no one in whose veins flowed a drop of kindred blood, and, consequently, grew up as a wild and uncultivated plant of nature, &c.
At the time of his baptism into the Mormon church he was a clerk in the store of Brothers Gilbert & Whitney, in Kirtland, Ohio; but previous to his acquaintance with the Mormons he had been initiated into the Baptist church, and was a student for the ministry under Sidney Rigdon, who in course time became counsellor to Joseph Smith. Soon after his baptism, Orson was "designated as one of the chosen men of the Lord, to bear His word to the Nations," and before he was a month in the new faith he was appointed one of a committee of six elders to "instruct the several branches of the church." The following month a revelation was given to him and a few others, in which his missionary labors were early sketched out. He was "to proclaim the everlasting Gospel, by the spirit of the living God, from people to people, and from land to land, in the congregations of the wicked, in their synagogues, reasoning with them, and expounding all scriptures unto them," &c. To this commission was added the promise that the blessings enjoyed by the first Christians should be imparted to the faithful repentant believers who should receive his testimony, and himself, the promise: --
Unto you shall be given to know the signs of the times, and the signs of the coming of the Son of Man, and of as many as the father shall hear record, to you shall be given power to seal them up unto eternal life, &c.
His first years in Mormonism were spent principally in Kirtland, where he had constant and intimate relationship with Joseph Smith. At the numerous conferences where the Prophet presided Orson's name figures generally as Secretary. In the capacity of scribe he seems to have rendered considerable service to the young cause. When the Saints in Jackson county, Mo., had their first difficulties with their neighbors, Brother Hyde was despatched by the Prophet to give them counsel add advice in their unfortunate circumstances. On his arrival there he and another elder were appointed to visit the Governor of the State, at his residence in Jefferson City, with a petition, setting forth the persecutions which the Saints had endured through the charge of tampering with the slaves and inviting "free negroes and malattoes from other States to become Mormons and settle among us," &c. Having had an unsuccessful mission, so far as redress for losses and the armed protection sought from the Governor were concerned, the deputation returned to Jackson county in time to have a share in a greater muss than that of which they had complained. Orson soon returned to Kirtland with the news of the riot. His account of the affair was published at the time in the Missouri Republican, and gained for him no blessing from his enemies.

In the beginning of 1834 he was chosen one of the twelve High Priests, who were appointed "to settle any important difficulties which might arise in the church." The troubles in Missouri continuing, brother Hyde was appointed, with another elder to come to the Eastern States for "assistance from you." Donations were few and far between, and not large at that, so that but little good was effected in that direction. In the beginning of June, 1837, he was appointed to accompany Heber C. Kimball on the first English mission. About the middle of the month he left home and found his way to this city, which had been designated as the rendezvous for the missionaries. They got here very poor, and had much difficulty to raise their passage money to Liverpool. While in this city they had to rent a room in an unfinished store house and took lodgings on the floor, and there eat their bread and drank their water until they went on shipboard. During their short stay in that uncomfortable position brother Hyde managed to send a copy of his "Timely Warnings" "to each of the sectarian priests in the city."

He left this port on the 1st July with the other missionaries, on board the ship Garrick, and was the elder chosen to preach on deck the Sunday before their arrival at Liverpool. Soon after his landing in the Old World he was full of business. With his brother missionaries he made quite a stir in Preston, in Lancashire. The third Sunday Brother Hyde was preaching in the market place, where he had the good fortune to be opposed by a minister. He soon demolished his reverend opponent, without much trouble, and much to the delight of their new friends. The same evening the elders confirmed between forty and fifty persons. So successful had they been in that neighborhood, they were enabled to hold a conference on Christmas day in a large and commodious building, where were met three hundred persons who had been baptised. That day fourteen were confirmed, and about one hundred children blessed. Another conference was held in April, at which eight elders were ordained, besides a considerable number of priests, teachers and deacons. About sixty children were blessed, and twenty persons baptised, that same day. In the evening a council was held, at which fifty official members were present -- such had been the success of Mormonism. through the labors of Elders Kimball, Hyde and one or two others. Having accomplished his mission Brother Hyde returned to this country, and on the 29th July, 1838, preached at Far West, Missouri, where he rendered an account of his labors.

At the first General Conference of the church, held at Nauvoo. Illinois, on the 6th of April, 1840. Elder Hyde addressed the congregation at some length, and stated that it had been prophesied some years before that he had a great work to perform among the Jews; and that he had recently been moved upon by the spirit of the Lord to visit that people and gather up all the information he could respecting their movements, expectations, &c. and communicate the same to the church, and to the nation at large: stating that he intended to visit the Jews in New York, London and Amsterdam, and then visit Constantinople and the Holy Land. Following this address it was moved that "he proceed on his mission to the Jews, which was unanimously sustained by the conference. As this mission to that people is the most important event in the life of Brother Orson, and touching a subject on which orthodox Christians are interested -- the return of the seed of Abraham to the land of their fathers -- we have purposely hurried over his other missionary labors, to devote greater apace to this, that our readers might know what the Mormon apostle had done, in his way and manner, for the accomplishment of that which few, very few indeed, expect ever to see realized, but of which much is heard at missionary meetings.

In a small work, which was published by some of the elders for the benefit of his family during his absence, we find, in the introduction, a relation of a vision in his own words. He says: --
Something near eight years ago Joseph Smith, a prophet and servant of the Most High God, did predict upon my head that I should yet go to the city of Jerusalem, and be a watchman unto the house of Israel, and perform a work there which would greatly facilitate the gathering together of that people -- the particulars of which it is not necessary to mention here.

Year after year has passed away since that period, and my labors in the ministry have been confined to the Gentiles on both sides of the Atlantic.

In the early part of March last, (1840,) I retired to my bed one evening as usual, and while contemplating and inquiring out, in my own mind, the field of my ministerial labor for the then coming season, the vision of the Lord like clouds of light, burst upon my view. The cities of London, Amsterdam, Constantinople and Jerusalem all appeared in succession before me; and the spirit said onto me, "Here are many of the Children of Abraham whom I will gather to the land that I gave to their fathers, and here also is the field of your future labors." A strict observance of the movements of the Jews, and a careful examination of their faith relative to their expected Messiah -- the setting up of his Kingdom among of the present kingdoms and governments of the Gentiles, will serve to open the eyes of many of the uncircumcised, when faithfully laid before them, that the great day of the Lord comes not upon them unawares as a thief. Take, therefore, proper credentials from my people, your brethren, and also from the Governor of your State, with the seal of authority thereon, and go ye forth to the cities which have been shown unto you, and declare these words unto Judah, and say: -- 'Blow ye the trumpet in the land; cry, gather together, and say, assemble yourselves, and let us go into the defenced cities. Let the standard be reared towards Zion. Retire! stay not; for I will bring evil from the north and a great destruction. The lion is come up from his thicket, and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way, he is gone forth from his place to make thy land desolate, and thy cities shall be laid waste without inhabitants. Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned, for she hath received at the Lord's hand double for all her sins.' Let your warning voice heard among the Gentiles at you pass, and call ye upon them in my name for aid and for assistance. With you it mattereth not whether it be little or much, but do as it has been told you. All things shall work together for your good if your are humble and keep my commandments, for it must needs be that all men be left without excuse, that a righteous retribution army be awarded to all."
To this Brother Orson adds: --
Many other things were shown and told me in the vision, which will be made public at the proper time and places. The vision continued open for a number of hours that I did not close my eyes in sleep.
Thus instructed, the church soon furnished the "proper credentials," to which Governor Thomas Carlin added in a brief note his approval of Mr. Hyde's preaching that he had heard, and witnessed that he and another apostle, who was appointed accompany brother Orson, were "gentlemen by reputation, for talents and Christian-like deportment unexceptionable, and were entitled to the respect and kind treatment of all."

In eight days after his appointment the apostle the Jews was ready to start, "without purse and scrip," on a mission to Jerusalem, an undertaking which has ever been regarded by the Saints as a great demonstration of his faith. His "warning voice" was heard among the Gentiles throughout the States till the 13th of February of the following year; on that day he left New York for Liverpool. The other apostle, from some cause or other, caved in, and returned to Nauvoo, to give an unsatisfactory account of himself -- this retrograde step, by-the-by, being the first which led to his apostacy, and illustration of the sad effects of disobedience orders, held up to the gaze of the faithful from that day to this.

The missionary got across the waters, and was warmly received by the Saints in England, who took a lively interest in his mission, and helped him some of the needful to defray his travelling expenses; for, however willing he might be to travel "without purse and scrip" and be unremunerated for his labors, he found that the Caesars of the railroads and steamboats were not precisely of the same faith, and strong on rendering to "Caesar the things that are Caesar's."

While in London he wrote to Dr. S. Hirschell, President Rabbi of the Jews there at that time, desiring an interview: but in consequence of a severe accident which had recently befallen him, he was confined his room and could not receive him. The apostle, however, wrote him a very lengthy address, related his vision, referred to the ancient glory Israel, "which once gave them a transcendent elevation above other nations," and very delicately and very neatly alluded to their ambition now being "the accumulation of sordid gain, by buying and selling the stale refuse with which their fathers would never have defiled their hands." Having touched upon some Jewish reminiscences, not over agreeable, he assured the Rabbi that his pen with pointed with friendship and dipped in the fountain of love and goodwill towards his nation, concluding with a touching exhortation to backslidden Israel: --
Now, therefore, o ye children of the covenant: repent of all your backslidings, and begin, as in days of old, to turn to the Lord your God. Arise! arise! and go out from the Gentiles: for destruction is coming from the North to lay their cities waste. Jerusalem is thy home. There the God of Abraham will deliver thee (Joel, ii., 32). There the bending heavens shall reveal thy long looked-for Messiah in fleecy clouds of light and glory, to execute vengeance upon thine enemies; and lead thee and thy brethren of the ten tribes to sure conquest and certain victory. Then shall thrones be cast down, and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of our God. Then will they come from the east, west, north and south, and sit down in the kingdom of God with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. But the children of the kingdom (Gentiles) shall be cast out and the kingdom restored to Israel. The Mormon church, believing in the literal fulfilment of the unfulfilled Hebrew prophecies, the apostle, in the foregoing quotation, just meant what he wrote about the Gentiles going down and Israel coming up, an operation which, to most people, seems to be yet very distant, but which by the Mormons is regarded as "at the very doors."
On the 20th of June he left London for Rotterdam, in Holland, where he published a small work in the German language, setting forth the visions of Joseph Smith, the restoration of the ancient priesthood and the first principles of Mormonism. While here Brother Hyde says that he discovered he was an American, realizing "absence makes the heart grow fonder." When he espied some of Columbia's fine merchantmen lying in the waters of the Rhine, with the wide spread eagle in glittering gold on the stern, and the stars and stripes conspicuously floating in the breeze, he says his heart leaped into his mouth, the tears burst from his eyes, and before reflection could mature a sentence his tongue involuntarily exclaimed "I am an American." He adds, by way of apology for this burst of feeling, that while at home the warmth and fire of the American spirit lay in silent slumber in his bosom, but the winds of foreign climes had fanned it into a flame. From Rotterdam he passed on to Amsterdam, and on and on till he reached Jerusalem, about the middle of October.

On his way he had hard times, was many days at sea without food, had eaten snails in considerable quantity, but had ultimately to mourn that even they were not to be had in sufficient number to satisfy the cravings of nature. Brother Hyde had tight place to pass through. On his passage from Beyreut to Jaffa he says: --
At one o'clock, as I was meditating on the deck of the vessel, as she was beating down against a sultry schroke wind, a very bright glittering sword appeared in the heavens, about two yards in length, with a beautiful hilt, as plain and complete as any cut you ever saw: and what is still more remarkable, an arm, with a perfect hand, stretched itself out and took hold on the hilt of the sword. The appearance really made my hair rise, and the flesh, as it were, to creep on my bones. The Arabs made wonderful outcry at the sight. "O Allah! Allah! Allah!" (Lord! Lord! Lord!) was their exclamation all over the vessel.
The apostle says:
I mention this because you know there is a commandment to me which says unto you it shall be given to know the signs of the times and the signs of the coming of the Son of Man."
Brother Orson's troubles were not at an end. He had an introduction to an American missionary, and growing out therefrom a confab with several other missionaries which led to discussion and burst up in acquaintanceship. The missionaries were satisfied with old revelations, and as the modern apostle had not come recommended from any orthodox society, they gave him the cold shoulder and refused to introduce him to either Jew or Gentile. Orson was keen and cutting in his replies, and pitched into the chilling blasts of sectarianism, and concluded that --
The course which the popular clergy pursue in relation to the divine economy looks as though they would say: "O Lord! we will worship thee with all our hearts, serve thee with all our souls, and be very pious and holy. We will even gather Israel, convert the heathen, and bring in the millennium, if you will only let us alone that we may do it in our own way, and according to our own will. But if you speak from heaven to interfere with our plans, or cause any to see visions or dream dreams, or prophecy whereby we are disturbed or interrupted in our worship, we will exert all our strength and skill to deny what you say, and charge it home upon the devil or some wild fantastic spirit as being its author."
In spite of obstacles, however, the Mormon missionary worked his way to acquaintanceship with some of the house of Israel, told his mission, reasoned with them, and distributed his work in French, German and English.

There are many very interesting items in Orson's "Voice from Jerusalem," aside from his own mission, which we would take pleasure in quoting, but such would demand more space than we can devote to this purpose. A few extracts, therefore, must suffice. On the manners and customs of the East, he says: --
They are so similar to what they were in the days of our Saviour, that almost everything which the traveller beholds is a standing illustration of some portion of Scripture. For example: I saw two women grinding wheat at a little hand mill, consisting of two small stones, with a little rude tackling about it, the whole of which one man might take in his arms and carry almost anywhere at pleasure. One would turn the top stone till her strength was exhausted, and then the other would take her place and so alternately keep the grinder in operation. It appears that our Lord foresaw the perpetuity of this custom, even to the time of His second coming; for He said "Two women shall be grinding at the mill -- one shall be taken and the other left;" and, for aught I know, these two were the identical ones. I also saw the people take kind of coarse grass and mix it with some kind of earth or peat that had been wet or reduced to the consistency of common mortar, and then lay it out in flattened cakes to dry for fuel. I then, for the first time in my life, saw the propriety of our Saviour's allusion -- "If God so clothe the grass of the field, which today to, and to-morrow is cast into we oven," &c.
He adds:—
One may read of the customs of the East, but it is not like seeing them. To read of a good dinner may brighten up a man's ideas about eating, especially if he be a little hungry; but to sit down at the luxurious board and eat is far more satisfactory.
The apostle ascended Mount Olivet, and very eloquently alludes to the peat, and furnishes the Baptists a very excellent morceau. --
As I stood upon this almost sacred spot and gazed upon the surrounding scenery, and contemplated the history of the past in connection with the prophetic future, I was lost in wonder and admiration, and felt almost ready to ask myself -- Is it a reality that I am here gazing upon this scene of wonders, or am I carried away in the fanciful reveries of a night vision? Is that city which I now look upon really Jerusalem, whose sins and iniquities swelled the Saviour's heart with grief and drew so many tears from his pitying eye? U that small enclosure in the valley of Kedron, where the boughs of those lovely olives are waving their green foliage so gracefully in the soft and gentle breeze, really the garden of Gethsemane, where powers infernal poured the flood of hell's dark gloom around the princely head of the immortal Redemer? Oh, yes! The fact that I entered the garden and plucked a branch from an olive, and now have that branch to look upon, demonstrates that all was real. There, there is the place where the son of the virgin bore our sorrows: there the angels gazed and shuddered at the sight, waiting for the order to fly to his rescue; but no such order was given. The decree had passed in heaven, and could not be revoked -- that he must suffer, that he must bleed and that he must die. What bosom so cold, what feelings so languid, or what heart so unmoved that can withhold the humble tribute of a tear over this forlorn condition of the Man of Sorrows?

From that place I went to the tombs of the prophets in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and on my way around the city, I entered the pool of Siloam, and freely washed in its soft and healing fountain. I found plenty of water there for baptizing; besides a surplus quantity sent off in a limped stream, as a grateful tribute to the thirsty plants of the gardens in the valley. The pool of Bethsaida, which had fine porches, yet remains in the city, but in a dilapidated state there being plenty of water to meet the demands of the city of a better quality and more convenient, this vast reservoir is consequently neglected. This pool was unquestionably as free and accessible to all the people of Jerusalem as the Thames is to the cockneys, or the Mississippi to the people of Nauvoo; and from its vast dimensions it would certainly contain water enough to immerse all Jerusalem in a day -- so the argument on the doctrine of immersion, on the ground that there was not water enough in Jerusalem to immerse five thousand persons in one day, is founded in an over anxiety to establish the traditions of men to the subversion of a gospel ordinance; and it will be borne in mind, also, that the day of Pentecost was in the month of May, just at the close of the rainy season, when all the pools and fountains in and about the city were flush with water.
The apostle's mission included a blessing upon Jerusalem. To fulfil this, he says --
On Sunday morning, October 24, a good while before day, I arose from sleep and went out of the city as soon as the gates were opened, crossed the brook Kedron, and went upon the Mount of Olives, and Were, in solemn silence, with pen, ink and paper, just as I saw in the vision, offered up a prayer to Him who lives for ever and ever.
This done, the apostle erected on the top of the Mount "a pile of stones as a witness, according to the ancient custom." He adds: --
On what was anciently called Mount Zion, where the temple stood, I erected another, and used the rod, according to the prediction, upon my head.
Though forced to the conclusion that very many of the covenant people had a greater love for the gold of this world than for the god of their fathers, he was, nevertheless, satsified that many had faith in the fulfilment of ancient prophecies, and that, from that day, the gathering to the Holy City and the building up of her waste places would commence. Brother Orson was not afraid of the other starched churchmen, and recommended orthodox missionaries doing a great deal for the conversion of the Jews. The lady of one of the American missionaries told him that only four Jewish people in Jerusalem had been converted and baptized by the English minister after a siege of a long spell of years. The Englishman, however, had told a wonderful woodchuck story to the Exeter Hall Christians, and raised enough to commence the erection of an English church in the Holy City.

There are many interesting events in the career of Orson Hyde which show that the labors of the Mormon elders in this country and in Europe, and in fact in Arabia and Africa likewise, have been much more extended than any outsider will have given them credit for. His Jerusalem mission has, however, occupied so much space that we can only glance at his travels and occupations from that time to the present. From Jerusalem he returned to England and thence to Nauvoo. He passed sometime there aud in the States. He was id Massachusetts when he heard of the assassination of the Smiths. With the others of the Twelve he hastened to Nauvoo and took part In all the affairs of that time. When the leaders of the church, with the greater portion of the Saints left for the Rocky Mountains, he was left in charge of those who remained, and had the superintendence of the finishing of the Temple. His position was anything but agreeable, from the frequent menaces of anti-Mormons; nevertheless he saw that edifice finished, and left for winter quarters. But a short time there, he received a mission with the apostles, P. P. Pratt and John Taylor, to set the church in England in order. As an example of the readiness of men of that stamp to carry out orders, it is stated that when their President, Brigham, inquired when they could get ready to start, they answered "to-morrow, but if business is urgent we can leave this afternoon." They immediately settled their affairs, left their families in the wilderness, living in tents, and started off for England, where they arrived about the beginning of October. Being president of the deputation, Orson had the direction of affairs and became editor of the Millennial Star. Mormonism in England at that time was rather sickly, but in a few months the three apostles completely changed the face of things, and "the wounded lion was again himself." The three returned to the wilderness. Orson was appointed to watch over the Saints who remained at Kanesville and those scattered in the States. In the autumn of 1848 he started there the Frontier Guardian, in which he set forth Mormon doctrines and Mormon politics, and was considered by the Saints a thorn in the sides of his enemies. In the summer of 1850 he visited Utah, and returned to Kanesville the same fall. He visited Utah again in 1851. On his way to Great Salt Lake City, somewhere the other side of Laramie, the Pawnee Indians came upon him and his two fellow-travellers, and being under the impression that the three could travel much better with less baggage, the Pawnees helped themselves to everything that took their taste. Unfortunately for brother Orson, his wardrobe attracted most attention, so that he lost all be had. Resistance would have been madness, so none was offered; but the apostle thought it was more than a joke when the red skins ordered off his nether. As compliance with peremptory demands alone could save sweet life, the Indians had all they sought for. Brother Orson got some little assistance from his fellow-travellers; but with that he had hard work to reach the city. His horses had been taken to increase the stud of the chief. In a few weeks he returned to the Frontier Guardian. In 1852 he took his family to Utah, where they have since resided.

Soon after his arrival he was appointed United States Commissioner, which office he held till appointed Probate Judge of Carson Valley. From there he went on business to Sacramento, during the winter of 1855, and came nigh being lost in a severe storm. His companion returned with the mules, but neither he nor the animals were ever more seen; Orson persevered and reached the place of destination through much suffering. In the spring of the present year he returned to Great Salt Lake City.

Brother Orson has been a great preacher, and during his connection with Mormonism has been a great worker, always engaged in some business. He is much liked by the Saints, and has escaped many of the attacks from outsiders to which other apostles have been subjected. As a politician, he has said and done little except when editor of the Guardian. We have looked over his discourses, and find but one real stave on politics. At the celebration of the Fourth of July, 1854, he delivered an oration, in which he spoke in the highest terms of the patriotism of the Mormons, and their determination to stand by the constitution....

Note: Parts of the Herald's account of Orson Hyde was copied from the Millennial Star of April, 1845. For more on the biography of Orson Hyde see the Deseret News of May 5, 1858 and May 12, 1858.


Whole No. 7844.                   New York City, Monday, February 3, 1858.                   Two Cents.


Arrival from Great Salt Lake City of the last Gentile Merchant -- His statement of the Morality of the Mormons -- Polygamy -- Death the Penalty of Seduction -- Treatment of Gentiles -- Federal Officers -- Charges of Murder -- Special Commissioners Expected -- No Preparations for Burning -- Mountain Retreat -- The Army of Defence -- Manufacturing Pistols and Gunpowder -- Colonel Johnson well watched -- Brigham in Business -- The Firm returns unconverted -- Great Emigration from California to Utah -- Indians Saucy and in Arms -- The Indian Chiefs on the War Question, &c.

Mr. Bell of the firm of Livingston, Kinkead & Co., of Great Salt Lake City, having arrived here within the last few days, direct via California and being the last of the "Gentiles" who left that Territory, our reporter sought an interview for the purpose of obtaining reliable information on matters and things generally in Mormondom, and submits the following as the substance of an interesting talk with that gentleman: --

Mr. B. went out to Utah with one of the principals of the firm, in 1849, for the purpose of establishing business relations with the inhabitants of that Territory. Being well received, they immediately opened store, and from that time till the 8th November last, with the exception of six months absence, Mr. B. has been a resident of Great Salt Lake city. From his long residence there, and the nature of his business, throwing him in contact daily with every class of citizens, probably no one who has been to Utah has had better opportunities of forming an opinion of that people, nor could speak with more certainty on the courses of their procedure.


Of a people as a community, he represents them honest, sober, and very industrious, fully convinced themselves that they are the people of God, and that Brigham is his Prophet. Notwithstanding there are plenty of persons in the Territory who are far from being ornamental to society or models worthy of imitation. Some of the rising generation are fond of a spree, fun and frolic, not over particular how they raise a shindy nor at whose expense they have it. Of this class there are a sprinkling who betimes forget the wholesome teachings of Father Matthew. With all their faults, admitting, he says the legality of polygamy there is, "taking them all in all," not a more moral community in the world than is to be found in Utah, nor indeed any so moral anywhere that he knows of.


The "peculiar institution" is still in its infancy and some irregularities doubtless occur now and again. Some of the fair sex have not got sufficiently acquainted with the traces to run easy and will have their hours of sadness; but as a general thing, the "sisters" have as much faith in the righteousness and divinity of the principle of polygamy as the "brethren," and therewith are contented. "Scenes" that we outside barbarians would naturally expect are of very rare occurrence the patriarch seems to enjoy as much peace at home as the "bachelor" monogamist.


Prostitution or seduction is not tolerated in the Territory. Death is the penalty for adultery, for both parties. There have doubtless been transgressors who have escaped; but the non-execution of the law has been, probably more to avoid difficulty with the general government than from a want of will to carrry it through. Should the Mormons be able to assert their independence now, and become a separate people from the united states or become a sovereign state of the Union, the law against the adulterers will doubtless be honored in the observance.


Outsiders or "Gentiles," have not been subjected to abuse or annoyance on account of negative faith in Mormonism. The troubles between the Gentiles and the Mormons have sprung from meddling unnecessarily and unwisely on the part of the former. Many had come to Utah with the idea that the new faith and "peculiar institution" were matters which everybody had a right to criticise, talk about, joke about, ridicule and oppose, and such have invariably got themselves into trouble; but others who have gone there and who have regarded Mormonism and polygamy as matters pertaining to the Mormons and attended to their own affairs, have lived in peace and been respected by the community. That a prejudice exists against Gentiles in general is very certain, but it has no practical results, if they mind their own business.


Mr. B. says that he has seen federal officers arrive and seen them leave. He has watched their proceedings but never took part for or against them there; and here he purposes to pursue the same course. Some federal officers were much respected by the Mormons; and they had always amicable intercourse with each other; hence he infers that all might have had the same experience. A federal officer who would go there without prejudice against the people and attend strictly to his own business would have no difficulties; but if he began to meddle with Mormonism; his peace was at an end. No name nor position could shelter him from the contempt of the community. If the Mormons were attacked and they decided on retaliation, they could make the place too hot for the comfort of the offender; and it is not at all unlikely that before the affair ended the sinned against would become the sinner.

Mr. B. thinks it is a pity that special commissions were not sent to Utah to investigate the charges preferred against the Mormons and those preferred by the latter against some of the United States officers. Much interesting information would have been gathered. The fact should not be concealed from the public that the commencement of difficulties has almost invariably sprung from personal matters -- not official.


Mr. Bell has no doubt of the good faith of some of the recent officials in preferring charges against the Mormon leaders; but on such grave charges as those of those of the murder of Capt. Gunnison, of Col. Babbitt, and of poisoning Judge Shaver, preferred by Drummond, he considers it his duty to protest against the imputation of such crimes being laid at the door of the Mormons. There is no room for doubting the murder of the two former by the Indians far from the influence of the Mormons, and under circumstances which demonstrated that it was entirely an Indian affair. At Judge Shaver's death Mr. B. was called on the Coroner's jury, and there were no grounds for the insinuation of the Judge being poisoned by the Mormons, nor were any such thoughts expressed or entertained by any of the jury, or any person cognizant of the circumstances attending his death.


The present position of Brigham Young and the inhabitants of the Territory is the consequence of the past difficulties with such persons as Drummond -- so they believe. They are therefore determined to oppose the approach of the army. Their labors heretofore have been confined solely to crippling and hindering its advance with a view to preventing the effusion of blood. Mr. B. had a lengthy interview with Brigham just previous to his departure and assures us that such was his explanation of the stampeding cattle &c. Brigham thinks that through the winter the government and Congress will have time to consider the matter thoroughly, and, if they wish, withdraw the troops and send in special commissioners. To an investigation, they would never have objected, and he thinks they will not even now object; but to an army entering their valleys under such circumstances, they will not consent; and sooner than the army should enter they will fight, and if overpowered burn all their possessions and take to the mountains. Some have thought Brigham's discourses were for effect outside of Utah, but our Informant thinks to the contrary, and considers that Brigham's works sustain his words.


The people are devoid of fear touching the future. They are in hopes that there will be no fighting; but if it must come, that victory will perch on the banners of the Saints. Nothing has been done by way of preparation for the burning. Brigham has counseled the Saints in all the settlements to sow, plant, build and improve the same as usual, and he attends to his affairs as before.


This going to the mountains has been learned from the Indians. The Mormons could never whip the indians when they retired to the mountains; so now that they are friendly, the red skins have taught their Mormon brethren mountain warfare and there are numerous places, as Brigham says, where they could retreat and no army could reach them. Echo kanyon, which is considered the gauntlet for Colonel Johnson's army, is really nothing compared with many kanyons leading out from Salt Lake Valley, beyond which the Mormons will doubtless take shelter.


Three thousand armed Mormons are in Echo kanyon, where they have plenty of timber for fuel and for building shanties; many of which they have erected for their comfort during the winter. It is not intended that they should at any time go out and have a fair stand up fight with the troops -- if war it must be, guerilla will be fashionable. The Mormon boys enjoy camp life and would play a good part at guerilla warfare. This trip to the mountains affords them opportunity of exhibiting their tact and willingness to serve the cause, without which many of them would have remained in the back ground for years to come and perhaps forever.

Lieutenant General Wells dons the cocked hat and plumes, gold epaulettes, gold tinsel fixings here and there, and stripes down the pants; the spurs also do something at glittering. His staff have their military ornamentations and cut quite a dashing appearance in the mountains. Several companies are regularly uniformed; but by far the greater portion of the army is in ordinary dress. The officers generally are in uniform.


Shortly before Mr. Bell's departure he visited the Armory, where mechanics were busy in the manufacture of revolvers. They were turning out Colt's holster revolvers at the rate of twenty per week. The Mormons were quite pleased with their manufacture of this article and consider it equal, at least, to Colt's. They have often tried unsuccessfully the manufacture of gunpowder, but they have now got over their difficulties. In October a powder manufacturing company was formed and an excellent sample of the article bad been presented to Brigham and met with his approval. Before they require it, in the spring, they will have it in abundance.


The commander of the expedition will not be able to steal a march upon them. Scouting parties are out in every direction. From the mountains round the west south sides of the camp of the expedition the Mormon scouts can see all that is going on without incurring risk. The redoubtable Porter Rockwell told Mr. Bell that he and his company stood on the Fort Hall mountains by the side of which Colonel Alexander was marching his command on the Fort Hall route,, and so near that they could have thrown rocks upon the troops passing. An express leaves the neighborhood of Bridger every evening with an account of the movements of the expedition during the day, and Brigham has it at his breakfast table the next morning, and everything of note is communicated to the people from his office.


The firm had extensive business transactions with Brigham -- from first to last probably to the amount of $500,000. They speak of him as an honorable business man, whose word or honor cannot be questioned. An attempt had been made by some parties to trouble the Gentile stores, but immediately on the intelligence reaching Brigham, he and General Wells came and gathered all the information they could, and the following Sunday denounced from the stand the conduct of the offenders, and predictions have since been uttered against all who may be found guilty of stealing, even from the army.


Mr. Bell reports that during his stay of nearly nine years among them he had no difficulty with the Mormons, though he was doubtless regarded as a full blooded Gentile, of whom they could entertain no hope, further than he might yet have the privilege of being boot black or teamster to some of his Utah acquaintance[s] in "The Kingdom to come." When the firm went in 1849 they told Brigham that they had come for business -- wished to have nothing to do with Mormonism, did not want it preached to them, and having stuck to their text they have returned to the States as great Gentiles as when they left for Zion.


Business arranged, our informant, with his lady and child, clerks of the store and others -- in all 16 men and 4 women -- left on the 8th November, by the southern route for California. They met the November mail 10 miles east of Rio Virgin, and with it seven wagons returning to Salt Lake from the lead mines, heavily loaded with precious lead for the "Army of Defence." How many wagons had been on the same errand our informant could not say, it is very probable that they were neither the first nor the last but it is very probable that they were neither the first nor the last.

Two days after, about the middle of the Rio Virgin, the company met five or six wagons with Mormon emigrants from San Bernardino, with horse and mule teams. They were well contented, happy and enthusiastic about going home to Zion. Two days after a larger company of Mormons from San Francisco was met with in a similar position and frame of mind, singing the songs of Zion's deliverance, by the way. On the Mohave river a company with 10 or 12 wagons was met. They had fine mule teams, and were from the upper country -- probably from the diggings. They had in addition to their teams a fine drove of 150 horses. Twenty miles on they met a company with 20 wagons, and came up on the same evening with a company and 15 or 18 wagons. Next evening, at the head of the Mohave river, they came upon several companies in camp with probably 20 wagons. The emigrants seemed well, and appeared a people who had been in comfortable circumstances. Their wagons were very heavily loaded with creature comforts and probably well supplied for the assistance of Zion, as the colony at San Bernardino was among the wealthy Mormons and at such a time the yellow metal is not expected to be tied in a napkin and hid in the ground. Every dime is to be consecrated to the purchase of redemption.

Mr. Bell's company passed next morning over the Sierra Nevada mountains with much difficulty, owing in a great measure to the large number of Mormon emigrants who were to be met with all the way from the mountains to San Bernardino. Probably there were from fifteen hundred to two thousand persons met with on this route. The whole settlement was in motion. Many who had been before luke warm and expected to apostatize surprised the Mormon authorities by selling out and taking the route for Salt Lake.

The call for the "Defence of Zion" has met with a vigorous response in the outside settlements, and the emigrants have taken the road with enthusiasm. The wrongs in Missouri and Illinois warms the blood of those who suffered there or lost relatives in the troubles in those States; in fact the present movement is not the labor of one man or of the leading men; it is the movement of the people. They think they have been trampled upon and that further submission to injustice would draw upon them the just indignation of Heaven.


This company was provided with passes, but notwithstanding had great difficulty to persuade "brother Kanosh," the Indian chief, that all was right. Kanosh was in excessive bad humor and his band very much excited. The poisoning of the springs of water causing the death of several Indians, is too true. Several of the California emigrants had been killed in retaliation but the Indians were far from being satiated in vengeance.

Brigham counselled the company to engage interpreters and get the assistance of the bishops in the neighborhood of the Indians, which was wholesome advice, for even with their assistance and Brigham's papers, Kanosh was no more than satisfied. Mr. Bell had frequently seen the Chief at Salt Lake and had been on shaking hands intimacy with him, but with it all, on this occasion, he was very cold and even suspected that Brigham's passes had been forged. They made him what presents of blankets, shirts, tobacco, &c., they could spare, and he escorted them for two days through the dangers of the road. Kanosh was dressed as a citizen but the band was clothed in Indian fashion. They were mounted on good horses, and had fine rifles in addition to their bow and arrows.


Kanosh had a word to say on the Utah difficulty. "Washington," said he, (meaning Mr. Buchanan,) "would not like Mormons and Indians to kill Americans; why should Washington send Americans to kill Mormons and Indians?" On Mr. B. assuring Kanosh that he would advise Washington to let Mormons and Indians, alone he seemed amazingly pleased and his services rendered, they parted in peace.

The heavy demand of two thousand dollars for the protection of that company on the trip from Great Salt Lake to Los Angeles, as reported by the Los Angeles Star was a mistake or misrepresentation; that figure was named as the cost of the trip. The interpreters charged high enough unquestionably; but they ought to be fairly represented. Mr. Bell reports a strong prejudice against the Mormons in California.

Mr. Bell found the Indians very favorably impressed towards religious people, or at least professors of religion. The Mormons had their services morning and evening and asked a blessing on their food before partaking. The other emigrants, who were strangers to this observance of the Mormons, were marked as "no good," and found the route to California a dangerous road to travel. In fact it was necessary to be a Mormon or appear to be one, to pass quietly on through the bands of Indians.

Though Kanosh's band and a considerable number of others were favorable to the Mormons, as, in fact, very many of them have been baptized into the Mormon faith, yet some of the tribes are not counted upon as steady friends. Mr. B. relates that only a short time previous to his departure two northern Indians stole a few horses from California emigrants on the northern route. They were pursued, overtaken and one of them was shot; upon which a band of 150 took the road to retaliate upon the emigrants. They did so, killed some and returned with considerable spoil. The Indians had broadcloth for themselves, and silks satins, shawls and gew-gaws for their squaws, with which they immediately clothed themselves. Their vengeance against the whites still unsatiated, they threatened to attack the Mormon settlement at Box Elder and it was only after Lieutenant Colonel Kimball and a company of the military under his command got there that the Indians could be treated with. The Indians demanded some beaves and got them before peace was established.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 7825.                    New York City, Tuesday, February 4, 1858.                    Two Cents.


The Latest News from the Utah Expedition -- Will There Be a
Compromise? -- Views of the English Mormon Organ -- French Opinions --
The Native Indians -- Sketch of Utah Territory, &c., &c., &c.

(under construction)

An express arrived at Leavenworth on the 22d ult., direct from Camp Scott, near Fort Bridger... Brigham Young had delivered another warlike sermon in the Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, in which he enjoins upon the Saints to stick by him.

Col. Johnston's impression was, from every demonstration made in the valley, that the troops would have to fight.

Added to his own troops (regulars) Col. Johnston has five full companies of volunteers...

The rumored propositions of the Utah delegate, Dr. Bernhisel, to President Buchanan, for the adjustment if the difficulties in that Territory are now the subject of conversation and criticism here... Dr. Bernhisel... that he should have come 3,000 miles from home to sit in Congress without any object to accomplish, is very unlikely. That he should present such an arrangement is neither unlikely nor unworthy of such a journey.

If President Buchanan can get rid of the Mormons by negotiation instead of by the sword, he will find many to sustain him in this measure....

Fanaticism is an unmanageable thing. Once bloodshed, there would be no quarter, and no possibility of arrangement. To calculate on what has been will not serve as a basis for calculations for what shall be in this case. The Mormons have had trouble with their neighbors, and had battles, or something resembling the tempest in a teapot; but the perusal of their organs and the correspondence from the Territory are sufficiently clear to lead us to the conclusion that this is to be the great struggle. They are under the impression that they are fighting for constitutional liberty, and what they call the "kingdom of God." Brigham strenuously maintains that his interpretation of the organic act of the Territory requires him to oppose the approach of armed bands, which he calls the army, unless that he has been notifued of their approach. This is of course regarded as a mere quibble; but it is enough to satisfy the inhabitants of that Territory that he is right, and that they are right in sustaining him in his opposition. No one has shown them the fallacy of their conclusions, and on this Dr. Bernhisel is reported to ground his claim for a commission....

It is probably premature to speak of withdrawing the troops; but that histilities may be retarded to permit of the last effort being made to settle peaceably the difficulty, by vacating the Territory or by some other compromise, is neither impossible nor improbable. You would be astonished to see how many favor this new move, Mormons are no strangers in Washington, and where they have business and relationship they naturally enough do their utmost to set their version of matters forward....

Note 1: The above set of front-page articles contain a very lengthy description of Utah territory, detailed information on the the "Utah Expedition," etc.

Note 2: The New York Herald's "special correspondent" with the Utah Expedition of 1857-58 was Captain Jesse A. Gove. His letters to the newspaper were later reprinted in Otis G. Hammond's 1928 book, The Utah Expedition, 1857-1858: Letters of Captain Jesse A. Gove... In one excerpt Capt. Gove records this bit of wisdom, spoken by Elder Heber C. Kimball: "In our city there are a great many poor women. I am aware of that, and they will be eternally poor, for they waste everything they can get hold of, and they are nasty and filthy... Now you look, when you go out of this meeting, and see if you do not see several of them.... I was speaking to a lady, the other day, about long dresses, and, said she, 'That's the fashion Queen Victoria established;' says I, "What the hell has Queen Victoria to do over here?"


Whole No. 7931.                     New York City, Friday, May 21, 1858.                   Two Cents.


Arrival of Col. Kane and Abbe Gilbert at Leavenworth --
Additional Details of the Late Important Advices
from Camp Scott,
&c.   &c.   &c....


(From the St. Louis Republican, May 18.)

As a matter of course great interest was felt Sunday and yesterday to ascertain whether the news of peace in Utah, which was made public on Sunday, was correct or not. Some had their doubts, who had really no personal interest in the matter; while those who had such interest were hopeful that it would turn out to to be incorrect. So the matter stood until yeasterday morning, when the telegraph brought the following dispatches for the associated press: --

LEAVENWORTH, May 14, 1858.        
From BOONVILLE, May 17.        
An unofficial dispatch was received yesterday at, Fort Leavenworth, stating that Gov. Cumming had made a peaceable entry into Salt Lake City on the 1st of April. No resistance was offered to the army, which had not entered the city, but which was in readiness to march in case of an emergency.

A private letter received by Colonel Rich at Fort Leavenworth, corroborated the foregoing statement, which is universally credited here.

During the day, we received the following note from a source certain to be well informed in the matter: --
LEAVENWORTH CITY, May 13, 1858.        
Some startling news reached here this morning from Camp Scott, to the effect that peace had been made between the Mormons and Uncle Sam.

Whether peace has been made or not no one knows, but it is certain that the man Kane of Philadelphia, sent out from Washington last winter, via California, to Salt Lake City, went through to Col. Johnston's camp, and after several consultations in camp, returned to the city in company with Gov. Cumming. This leads to the surmise of peace. I get the news from a person I know, and it is reliable.

At a still later hour we had an interview with a Mr. Gerrish, an intelligent gentleman, who was a passenger on the J. D. Perry, and who left Camp Scott on the 10th of April, and stopped a short distance from that camp for two days. His information from that camp is therefore to that date, and from Salt Lake City to the 9th. While his information does not corroborate the news already given to the full extent, it leaves no room to question the fact that Governor Cumming had entered Great Salt Lake City. In order to account for this change in the aspect of affairs, it may be well to premise that Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who was sent out as a Peace Commissioner by way of California, arrived in Great Salt Lake City on the 25th of February; that he remained there eight days; that after that time he proceeded to Camp Scott; that, while there, he frequently passed from the camp to a place of conference with the leading Mormons, outside of the city; that, in pursuance of negotiations then entered into, Governor Cumming left Camp Scott for Great Salt Lake City on the 5th, and was met by a gentleman on the 9th, on Weber river, two days' travel from the city. He was accompanied by Colonel Kane, and escorted by Porter Rockwell, H. Egan, and other Mormons. His arrival was anticipated on the 11th, and handsome apartments were provided and preparations made to receive him in good style. A gentleman who knows all about the Mormon people, and was just from Salt Lake City, told our informant that the general feeling was in favor of peace, only a portion of the leaders, perhaps those who had offended against the laws, advocating resistance.

Mr. Gerrish was only nine days in making the trip from Camp Scott to Fort Laramie. Before his departure, a scouting party, in charge of B. F. Ficklin, about whose safety some apprehensions had been felt, returned to the camp.

The provision trains intended for Camp Scott left Fort Laramie on the 24th April. Col. Hoffman, with his escort of cavalry, was to leave on the 25th. On the arrival of these supplies, Col. Johnston’s command would be put in possession of everything necessary to their comfort.

Capt. Marcy, with his force from New-Mexico, and horses, mules, and some three thousand sheep, was heard from, on what is called the Cherokee trail, 200 miles to the south of Fort Laramie. He had not been joined by the three companies of troops detailed by Gen. Garland as an escort, and was waiting for them when heard from. The large number of animals attached to his command made his progress necessarily very slow, but he was certain to reach Camp Scott by the 20th of May.

The incoming party experienced heavy rains from the time of leaving Fort Laramie, and the roads were in wretched condition. Mails were met at various points on the road, and the mail of the 26th March, from Camp Scott, has arrived at Fort Leavenworth.

Gov. Powell and Major McCulloch, the Peace Commissioners, were met on the 6th of May twenty miles west of Fort Kearney.

(From the St. Louis Democrat, May 18.)


We have been favored with the following extract from a private letter to a gentleman of this city, from Fort Bridger, dated April 10: --
Mr. Gilbert, partner of Mr. Gerrish, reached here yesterday from California and Salt Lake. He met Gov. Cumming on Weber river, escorted by Porter, Rockwell, Egan, Van Etton and others. He was to have a public reception in Salt Lake City to-morrow. Mr. Gilbert also reports that the Mormons were leaving.

The Governor left Camp Scott on the 5th of April for Salt Lake City. Mr. A. F. Gerrish, the gentleman alluded to above, arrived on the John D. Perry, yesterday, and to him we are indebted for the following interesting information.

He left Fort Bridger, which is one hundred and thirteen miles from Salt Lake, on the 12th of April.

Governor Cumming went into Great Salt Lake City, in company with the Mormon ambassador, Col. Thomas L. Kane. Whether the Governor was or was not invited to the city Mr. Gerrish does not know, and doubts if any one in the camp knows.

Mr. Gerrish left Fort Laramie on the 24th of April, arrived at Fort Leavenworth on the 13th inst., and left on the 14th.

At Fort Laramie he met Col. Hoffman, who had arrived there from Fort Leavenworth with, as was said, 174 wagons. Forty miles this side of Fort Laramie, on the 25th of April, Mr. G. met the express mail from Fort Leavenworth. On the 26th, this side of Scott's Bluffs, he met Miles & Jones' mail, which left Fort Leavenworth on the 1st. Within twelve miles of Fort Kearney, he met the peace commissioners, ex-Governor Powell of Tennessee, and Hon. Benj. McCulloch, then nine days from Fort Leavenworth, prospering finely. Other carriages accompanied them.

At Big Sandy appeared the back mail of Miles & Jones. Some forty of the freight trains of Messrs. Majors, Russell & Waddell successively passed.

To Fort Laramie the grass is in fine order. The roads to Fort Leavenworth are greatly cut up by the recent rains.

Colonel Cook is at Smith's Fork, fifteen miles from Camp Scott, and has a large lot of government live stock.

On the 19th of April, Capt. Marsh was at a point some 200 miles south of Fort Laramie, on Cherokee trail. He has there a large quantity of horses and mules, and some 3,000 head of sheep, for sale through him by private individuals.

The health of the camp is described as all that can be wished.


The United States transport Mink arrived yesterday, at 9 a. m., from Fort Leavenworth. She left that point on Friday, the 14th inst., at 5 P.M., one day after the J. H. Lucas.

The officers of the Mink report no change in matters at the Fort, but things were progressing briskly, and vast preparations were still going on for a general departure. The detachment of 314 dragoons, being companies A, B, and C, which she conveyed to the Fort, were about to start for Fort Riley, and thence they were to march for the City of the Saints. Their object in going to Fort Riley was to conduct supplies to that position.

A messenger had arrived at Fort Leavenworth from Salt Lake City, the day before the arrival of the Mink at the former place, but Lieut. Reno stated that no news of any account was brought by him. The officers, privates, citizens, and all, seemed to understand, by the latest information, that the Mormons were as determined as ever to resist the troops, and the last express messenger brought tidings to the effect that from Salt Lake City the women and children, in large numbers, were being sent southward, as if to be out of harm's way.

A rumor, which is of little consequence -- as it was contradicted almost as soon as started -- prevailed at Leavenworth to the effect that the Mormon forces had an encounter with Col. Johnston's command, routing them, killing 650, and driving the latter before them for a distance of 150 miles.

(From the Washington Union, May 20.)

It is hardly necessary to say that we distrust the telegraphic news which announces the capitulation of the Mormons and the establishment of peace in Utah. It is not improbable that Mr. Kane, who is but a private person, having no commission of any sort from the government, has succeeded, through his mysterious personal relations with the Mormons, in inducing that people to invite Governor Cumming to Salt Lake City, and to recognize his official authority. If this be so, and Governor Cumming has actually proceeded to the Mormon city, some armistice or truce may hereafter result from his presence in the city; but it is altogether improbable that the war has come to the sudden and abrupt termination announced by the telegraph.

These advices, through private channels, it must be remembered, are unaccompanied, as usual, by concurrent advices through official channels; for no confirmation has been received of them by the government. The latest advices, public or private which had been received previously to these, were the advices from Camp Scott of the 14th of March. But four or five days have passed since these advices were received; and yet, we are suddenly put in possession of intelligence from the camp of as late a date as the 12th of April, later dates by twenty-eight days being received at this end of the line after a lapse of only four days. It is not easy to account for this hop, skip, and jump over twenty-four days; and it does not add to the authenticity of the intelligence to allege that it comes through Mormon messengers. These may have been able to outstrip the usual rates of travel by twenty-four days; but yet the report, when brought, does not gain much credence from the fact of coming through Mormon channels exclusively.

The late period of the session of Congress, and the effect which such news might naturally have upon bills before that body making provision for prosecuting the military operations in Utah, furnishes an additional reason to distrust this suspicious news, and for exercising great caution in respect to all advices of the same character which reach here at this time through Mormon channels.


WASHINGTON, D.C., May 18, 1858.       
The recent news from Utah is precisely what might have been expected. It all originates from Mormon sources.

Mr. Kane, of Philadelphia, is a Mormon, and not sent, out by the President, or any authority of the government. Colonel Rich, through whom the intelligence comes to the St. Louis Republican, is one of the Twelve Apostles of the so-called Mormon church, and was, till called home last Fall by Brigham Young, the apostolic head of the Mormon settlement at San Bernardino, California. Deception is the great lever by which they hope to overthrow the republic. They deceived Mr. Fillmore and his cabinet, who appointed Brigham Young Governor of Utah. They deceived Mr. Pierce and his cabinet, and led them into the same inactive policy that so unfortunately characterized Mr. Fillmore's administration. They hoped and relied on their agents, "not known as Mormons" to deceive and mislead Mr. Buchanan and his cabinet; hence the prophecies of Brigham to his followers, that there would be "no fighting" -- "the Lord would fight their battles for them" -- "they would live in Utah to wake and gather many crops unmolested" &c., &c. On these prophecies the people relied with, religious faith, as did Brigham and his coadjutors, till it was discovered that Mr. Buchanan and his cabinet could not be deceived and misled by them. Now we are assured that Mr. Kane has succeeded in his mission, that the "Mormons have laid down their arms, and invited Governor Cumming into Great Salt Lake City." We are further assured that some of the people are leaving for the White River Mountains.

This district of country is situated in the southwestern portion of the Territory of Utah, bounded on the west by the Sierra Nevada mountains, on the north by the Humboldt River mountains, on the east by the Desert and the southern spurs of the Goose Creek Mountains, on the south by the Sierra Nevada and the intervening spurs of the great Sierra Madre mountains. This throws them about six hundred miles further into the mountain fastenings of the continent in the midst of the richest gold district on the Pacific coast. By this movement they hope to allay the apprehensions of the government and the public at large, while they will push forward with redoubled force and energy their schemes of immigration, colonization, and accumulation of native wealth and munitions of war. They can never submit.

The fact that they recommend a suspension of the military movement now directed against them is sufficient to stamp all these rumors with the design to baffle the government, if not to falsify and mislead.

I hope the government will adhere to its exalted policy, and "crush out the rebellion." If for nothing else, the decisive action of Mr. Buchanan and his cabinet in this instance should entitle them to the lasting gratitude and praise of the American people -- gratitude tor having averted civil strife, and praise for having conquered so secret and formidable a foe.

Again -- I say the Mormons will never submit to the federal government; they must be driven out, or they will, in time, drive the Government. They pretend to submit only to obtain a firmer hold. I write from personal knowledge, having lived among them about a year.   UNION.

THE MORMONS -- WHAT WILL BRIGHAM YOUNG DO? -- It is an ascertained fact that the blustering Mormon Prophet has admitted without resistance, into Salt Lake City, the new Governor appointed to supersede him. Having consented to this, it strikes us that nothing remains to Brigham but a complete surrender to the government, or an early stampede or exodus of the Mormon establishment to some New Jerusalem. The great trouble with the Mormon Prophet and his brethren, possessed of a large plurality of wives, is the approaching army. Some two years ago an army detachment passing through Salt Lake City was joined by some sixty or seventy strong minded women, who seized this opportunity for an escape from Mormonism and followed the troops to California. What, then, would be likely to follow the irruption from a long desert march into the Holy City of three thousand gallant soldiers, fully impressed with the belief that the polygamy of the Saints is nothing more than a horrid system of despotic concubinage and female slavery? Very likely the harem of the immaculate Prophet himself would soon be despoiled of its most beautiful doves. This, then, is the vulnerable point with the Mormon hierarchy, and they may rely upon it that they do not overestimate their danger.

We understand that it is the settled purpose of the government to keep a permanent force of regular troops in Salt Lake City. It is impossible that such a force, without wives, can long remain upon terms of harmony with the Mormon ecclesiastics, who have their five, ten, twenty, fifty and sixty wives apiece, and many of them ripe for "a revolt in the harem.'' Brigham Young knows this, and will have discovered that his only alternative for the safety of his plurality system is to pull up stakes as soon as possible and clear out. In this view we should not be surprised if Brigham had deliberately made up his mind to treat for the sale of the property of the faithful of his people which they cannot take away, and for their right of way out of the territories of the United States, bag and baggage. Their next destination will most probably be Sonora, in Mexico, for there they may encamp either with or without the concurrence of the government. In that direction lies their most feasible route of escape; and there, convenient to the Gulf of California, they will be conveniently situated for removal, should a safe and permanent resting place be found -- for instance, in Central America or South America, or in some cluster of unappropriated Islands ta the Pacific Ocean.

From the inevitable necessities of their position Brigham Young and his twelve apostles, seventy elders, and other plurality favorites of his patriarchal despotism, must consent to the breaking up of their harems, or to a prompt evacuation of the territories of the United States. Unquestionably he will adopt the latter alternative. Many of his oppressed, robbed and outraged followers may prefer to remain behind, as seceders from Mormonism and as good citizens. Should he delay his departure until alter the arrival of the army in the Holy City, these seceders may constitute a very respectable number of his people; but should he act at once he will not have a rebellion so formidable to deal with in his own camp. We are, therefore, fully prepared for a definite treaty for the complete evacuation of Utah by the Mormon leaders, and as many of their followers as they can at once take away, the rest to bring up the rear as soon as the pioneer camp shall have found a new location.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 7973.                   N. Y., Friday, July 2, 1858.                 Two Cents.




(From the Troy Times.)

Within our recollection, Mormonism was "a speck, not bigger than a man's hand." The original Impostor, Joe Smith, came to the writer of this article, only thirty-two years ago, with the manuscript of his Mormon Bible, to be printed. He then had one follower, a respectable and wealthy farmer of the town of Macedon (Palmyra,) who offered himself as security for the printing. But after reading a few chapters, it seemed such a jumble of unintelligible absurdities, that we refused the work, advising Harris not to mortgage his farm and beggar his family. But Joe crossed over the way to our neighbor Elihu F. Marshall, and got his "Mormon Bible." -- Albany Journal.

All this is not within your "recollection," Mr. Weed. Mr. Elihu F. Marshall did not print the Mormon Bible. It was printed by Mr. Egbert B. Grandin (now deceased) at the office of the Wayne Sentinel, Palmyra. We happen to know this fact. Mr. John H. Gilbert, now residing at Palmyra, did the press work, and a large portion of the type-setting of the Bible. If Mr. Weed doubts this, we can show him a copy of the first Mormon Bible with the imprint. --Troy Times.

The story of the printing of the first edition of the "Book of Mormon" is truthfully as follows: -- Joe Smith, the pretended prophet, and finder of the original "metallic records," Oliver Cowdery, amanuensis of Smith, and Martin Harris, the "chosen" dupe for the payment of expenses, constituting, as they claimed, the "inspired" nucleus of the dawning "Church of the Latter Day Saints," applied about the month of June, 1829, to Mr. Egbert B. Grandin, the then publisher of the Wayne Sentinel newspaper, and a job printer at Palmyra, for the printing of the book referred to, commonly called the "Golden Bible." Harris, who was a forehanded farmer at that town, an honest and respectable citizen, but noted for his superstitious and fanatical peculiarities in religious matters, was the only man of the party whose pecuniary respectability was worth a dollar, and he offered to give security by a mortgage upon his unencumbered farm for the cost of the printing and binding of the book. Grandin at once advised them against the supposed folly of the enterprise, and with the aid of other neighbors and friends of Harris sought to influence the latter to desist and withdraw his countenance from the imposture. All importunity of this kind, however, was resisted with determination by Harris (who, no doubt, firmly believed in the genuineness of Smith's pretensions), and resented with assumed pious indignation by Smith. After repeated interviews and much parleying on the subject Grandin was understood to refuse to give it further consideration. Harris, it was thought, became for a time somewhat staggered in his confidence, but Joe could do nothing in the matter of printing without his aid, and so he persevered in his seductive arts, as will be seen with ultimate success.

About this time, in the fore part of the year 1829 (as recollected), the same party, or a portion of them, applied to Mr. Weed, of the Anti-Masonic Inquirer, at Rochester (who, by the way. seems in his reminiscences to have confused Mormonism with anti-Masonry), and there met a similar repulse, as stated by the Journal. Mr. Marshall, or spelling book notoriety, who was also engaged in the printing and publishing business at Rochester, gave his terms to Smith, and his associates for the execution of their work, and his proffered acceptance of the proposed mode of security.

The Saints then returned and renewed their request to Mr. Grandin, assuring him that the printing was to be done at any rate, and explaining that they would be saved much inconvenience and cost of travel (as the manuscripts were to de delivered and the proof sheets examined daily at the printing office) by having their work done at Palmyra, where they resided. It was upon this state of facts and view of the case that Mr. Grandin, after some further hesitation, reconsidered his policy of refusal, and finally entered into a contract for the desired printing and binding of 5,000 copies of the book, for the price of $3,000, to be secured by mortgage as proposed; which contract was faithfully performed on his part, completing the work in the summer of 1830, and as faithfully fulfilled in the payment by Harris. Major Gilbert, as stated by the Troy Times, took the foremanship of the printing, and did most of the press and composition work of the job. He still retains an original copy of the book in sheets as he laid them off in a [file] from the press in working. The manuscripts. in Cowdery's handwriting, were carried to the printing office in daily installments, generally by Joe or his trusty brother Hiram, and were regularly withdrawn for assurity and preservation at evening. The pretension was that they were written out by the amanuensis Cowdery from translations verbally given by the prophet Joe, who alone was enabled to read the hieroglyphics of the sacred plates by means of a wonderful stone and magic spectacles that were found in the earth with the "records." In the performance of this task the "chosen" decipherer was always concealed in a dark room, and by special revelation neither Cowdery or any other persons than the said "chosen" was permitted to see the plates on penalty of instant death. Such was the pretension. The handpress which did the printing (Smith's patent) has been in continued use in the Sentinel office since that important era in the rise of Mormonism.

A word in regard to the origin of Mormonism, whose advent has furnished so marked an illustration of the susceptibilities of human credulity even in the present age of boasted enlightenment, may not be without interest in this connection, now after the lapse of some thirty years. As early as 1820 Joe Smith, at the age of about nineteen years, began to assume the gift of supernatural endowments, and became the leader of a small party of shiftless men and boys like himself, who engaged in nocturnal money digging operations upon the hills in and about Palmyra. These labors were always performed in the night, and during their continuance, many marvelous accounts and rumors in regard to them were put afloat in the neighborhood. Joe professed from time to time to have "almost" secured the hidden treasure, which, however, just at the instant of attempting to grasp it, would vanish by the breaking of the spell of his magic power. Numbers of men and women, as was understood, were found credulous enough to believe "there might be something in it," who were induced by their confidence and cupidity to contribute privately towards the cost of carrying on the imposture, under the promise of sharing in the expected gains; and in this way the loaferly but cunning Smith, who was too lazy to work for his living -- his deluded followers did all the digging -- was enabled to obtain a scanty subsistence for himself without pursuing any useful employment.

The silly imposture was persevered in by Smith and the digging performances occasionally continued by his gang without success, for some eight or ten years, when in 1828 or '29 the climax was reached in the discovery of the wonderful golden record of hieroglyphics, of great antiquity, "written by the hand of Mormon upon plates taken from the plates of Nephi," the translation and publication of which are the foundation of Brigham Young's polygamous empire at Salt Lake, were, according to the published testimony of Joe Smith, "found in the township of Manchester, Ontario county, New York."

The intervening annals of the rise and progress of this Mormon imposture, and of the career and martyrdom of Joe Smith, need no particular notice in this sketch, for these are to be found in various forms of recorded history already extant.

The discovery of the pretended ancient plates, "resembling plates of gold," has a significant connection with a scheme of cupidity plotted by one Sydney Rigdon, a deposed clergyman of Pennsylvania. He had surreptitiously possessed himself of a curious manuscript from the pen of a Rev. Mr. Spaulding, late of Ohio -- a romance, written primarily as a pastime exercise during a lingering decline of health, in 1812 and 1813 -- and Smith's marvellous revelation was an opportune event in the furtherance of Rigdon's speculation. Whether the resulting connection of these two conspiring schemes was incidental or contrived, or whether Smith's part in the conspiracy was the invention of his own cunning or the emanation of his co-worker's perverted mind, are questions that have never been satisfactorily settled in public opinion. Spaulding's production, purporting to have been written by one of the lost nations of Israel, recovered from the earth by some miraculous interposition of Providence, was to have been entitled, if published, "Manuscript Found." An effort was made by the writer, shortly before his death, to procure its publication as a source of profit, but no printer could be found of sufficient faith in its paying expenses to undertake the printing. He died in 1816, and Rigdon, with this manuscript dishonestly procured, as before intimated, happening or designedly appearing in Palmyra about the time of Smith's pretended unearthing of the mysterious plates, the two speculations were joined together, and the two well matched schemers conspired to start the fraud from which originated the myth of the Golden Bible or Book of Mormon, with the attendant fame of Joe Smith, and the world renowned belligerent power of Mormonism in Utah.

The pretended translations of Smith were no doubt transcripts from the Spaulding romance as altered for the occasion by Rigdon. The latter was the first preacher of the newly revealed "Gospel according to Mormon," and made his appearance at Palmyra in that capacity immediately after the publication of the book, but his mission was there a dead failure. Whether he is now alive or dead, or what finally became of him, is not publicly apparent. His Mormon fame appears to have been of short duration. Of course there were never any converts to the Mormon gospel at the locality of its advent, beyond the cases of Harris and three or four similar victims of fanaticism or lunacy. Where its founders were known, the imposture was regarded as too stupid for serious notice by any body possessing a rightful claim to common intelligence or sanity.

The above able resumé of the early history of Mormonism, and the circumstances under which its written gospel first saw the light, we copy from the Wayne Democratic Press. It was furnished for that journal by Mr. Pomeroy Tucker, the founder of the Palmyra Sentinel, in the office of which the "Book of Mormon" was printed, and who was personally cognizant of all the facts relating to its origin. It can be relied upon as an entirely accurate statement.

Martin Harris, the farmer under whose self sacrificing generosity Smith was enabled to get his fictitious Bible into print, was morally and pecuniarily ruined by the superstition. He followed Joe Smith, and the deluded fanatics of both sexes whom he was able to gather in Western New York, to Kirtland, Ohio, where he remained some time, but finally for some reason fell under the ban of the Prophet's displeasure, lost caste in the church, and as he had been forewarned by the thoughtful and friendly Grandin, bankrupted himself by his fanaticism.

The plates on which it was alleged the Bible was engraved, as above described, said to have been found by Smith and his companions while they were digging in a hill in the town of Manchester, some three miles from Palmyra, Wayne county, now known as "Mormon Hill." This hill was situated in a detached valley, and being a small, sugar loafed affair, seemed to bear out the declaration of Smith, that it was a mound in which had been buried the scattered remnant of the lost tribe of Nephi. To this hill the Prophet claimed to have been directed by an angel in a vision.

The manner in which Smith translated these plates was by placing himself behind a screen, and putting on a pair of magic spectacles that he found lying in the "mound" beside them, reading them with perfect ease. Oliver Cowdery, his scribe, or amanuensis, stood outside the screen, and as he read, transcribed them in ordinary manuscript. The sheets as they were finished, were taken possession of by Mormons in waiting, and carried thence to the printing office. They carefully watched them during the process of composition, and took possession of the sheets as they came from the press, much in the same manner as bank notes are watched while in the printer's hands, that no extra copies might be issued. Nevertheless, despite his precautions, Smith declares that he lost one hundred and eighteen pages of his Bible. It might be supposed that with his "plates" before him, he could easily have supplied the omission. And so he no doubt would have done, had he really been the translator of the book as he pretends to be. But to explain his inability on this score, he cunningly pretended to have received information from the Lord that his enemies had altered portions of the lost manuscript, with a view of confounding him. and to have been forbidden to re-write it. Some suppose that the one hundred and eighteen pages of manuscript alluded to were lacking in the original copy surreptitiously obtained by Rigdon from the widow Spaulding, and others that he only pretended to have lost them, in order to make a still stronger impression on the minds of the superstitious.

We have before us the "Book of Mormon." It is printed in octavo form, on coarse type, and with a middling good quality of paper. The Prophet precedes it with a preface, in which he alludes to his real or pretended loss of manuscript, in this manner: -- [The 1830 Preface, Testimony of Three and Eight Witnesses, and a few comments follow.]

... Oliver Cowdery was the scribe who wrote the Bible as Smith "translated" it; Harris was the poor dupe who paid three thousand dollars for the printing of the work, and ruined himself by giving Mormonism a "start;" the five Whitmers were respectable farmers; Joseph Smith was the father of the prophet, who previous to this dispensation supported himself by digging and peddling "rutes and yarbs;" Hyrum Smith was a brother who was killed with the prophet at Nauvoo; and Samuel H. Smith is the brother who recently denounced Brigham Young as an impostor, a renegade and a traitor.

And from such insignificant seed sprang the great evil which now on the soil of a distant Territory threatens the troops of the United States, subverts all principles of law, order and social right, builds a mighty hierarchy of falsehood and lasciviousness, and will draw millions of dollars from the Treasury for its suppression. It is a significant fact that this is not the only humbug of the age that has had its origin in Wayne county. The Fox girls first began their toe cracking experiment at a place called Hydeville, in the town of Newark, in that county, within eight or ten miles of "Mormon Hill," and were looked upon by the sensible people of the neighborhood, as were Joe Smith and his followers at the outset of their career, as vulgar and shameless impostors. Yet Spiritualism, like Mormonism, is now a power in the land, and numbers its dupes by tens of thousands. Great is humbug!

Thus we have got upon record all the facts relating to the origin of the "Book of Mormon," as called for by Mr. Weed, and furnished a chapter long wanting in the history of this startling delusion.

Note 1: Thurlow Weed published similar statements, regarding his encounter with Smith, in an early 1846 issue of his Albany Evening Journal and again on July 31, 1854. The May 19, 1858 Weed statement is quoted by Dan Vogel in his Early Mormon Documents, III, but Vogel does not supply the full text. The May 19th paragraph was quickly responded to in a mid-May issue of the Troy Times, (exact date unknown, text reprinted above). Weed, in turn, replied with his own article in the May 21, 1858 issue of the Journal.

Note 2: The "able resumé" referred to above (a May 26, 1858 article by Pomeroy Tucker) begins with the words: "The story of the printing of the first edition..." Near its end, the above account also paraphrases parts of Tucker's June 2, 1858 follow-up article. Tucker's two 1858 articles appear to have supplied the historical kernel from which he later developed his 1867 book, Origin... of Mormonism. The above paraphrase of Tucker, with its quaint "rutes and yarbs" phraseology, was, in turn, one of the sources James H. Smith used for the section on Mormonism (pp. 152-54) in his 1880 History of Chenango and Madison Counties.


Whole No. ?                         N. Y., January 22, 1860.                        Two Cents.

The Mormons -- Letter from Judge Cradlebaugh.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 18, 1860.    
Wm. H. Hooper, Territorial Delegate from Utah: --

Sir -- I see from time to time the New York Herald's correspondence from Utah, in which denials are made of the charhes preferred against the people you represent, and false suggestions expressed as to the condition of affairs in that Territory.

Now, to the end that the country may know the truth respecting these matters, I have thought it right and necessary to address you this communication. I assert --

1. That the Mormon people are subject to a theocratic government, and recognizes no law as binding which does not coincide with their pretended revelations as promulgated by their "Prophet, Seer and Revelator," Brigham Young.

2. The have taught, and still teach, treason against the government of the United States.

3. That they practice polygamy in a manner shocking to the moral sense of the world, and aggravate the iffence by incest and murder.

4. That they teach the doctrine of "the shedding of human blood for the remission if sin," as defined by their own ecclesiastical code, and these teachings are carried into practice. The murders of Jones and his mother at Poidtown, of the Parishes and Pitter at Springville, of the Aiken party at Chicken Creek, the mud fort at Salt Creek, and at the bone yard, and of Forbes at Springville, are the natural results of these vile doctrines.

5. That they teach the doctrine and practice it, of castrating men, and have declared from their pulpit, with public acquiescence, that the day was near when their valleys would resound with the voice of eunuchs.

I am prepared here and now with proofs to sustain these charges, unpremeditatedly taken from numberless enormities; and occupying the position which you do here -- a member of the Mormon church, having received your endowments and taken upon yourself the oaths and obligations of the church -- I have to say to you that I will at any reasonable time and place of your own selection meet you face to face before the people and Federal authorities here, ready, but sorrowfully, to substantiate every specification herein contained.

I have a file of the Deseret News, your church organ, running from 1850 to 1859, containing Mormon history of current affairs during that period; and should you accept this proposition for calm, fair comparison of testimony on these subjects before a discerning public, this file will be at your call for reference.   Respectfully,

Note: The above letter also appeared in the New York Times of Jan. 21st. The Times reprinted the piece from the Washington Star. See also the Utah Valley Tan of Feb. 22, 1860.


Whole No. ?                   N. Y., November 4, 1860.                 Two Cents.

Interesting Utah Affairs.

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                   N. Y., October 29, 1869.                 Two Cents.


SCHISM AMONG THE MORMONS. -- A serious schism is threatening the Mormons. Mr. Stenhouse, the editor of the Mormon paper, heads the opposition to Brigham Young and has been suspended from the editorship or tne church organ. At Brigham's death it is thought a revolution will be inaugurated that will sweep away polygamy.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 13,276.                   N. Y., Thur., Dec. 26, 1872.                 Four Cents.


Sidney Rigdon, the reputed author of Joe Smith's Mormon Bible, has been stricken with paralysis at his home in Alleghany county, N. Y. Polygamy was not permitted by Rigdon's Bible...

Note: President Rigdon lingered on for another three and a half years following his decline in health in 1872, before passing on to his great (?) reward. It is a telling fact that little was recalled by the 1870's of his many contributions to Mormonism -- other than that he had been accused of writing the Book of Mormon, and that he was not a polygamist.


Whole No. 13,173.                       New York City,  September 14, 1872.                       Four Cents.


Letting In Light on the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

A Participant in the Slaughter Confesses.

Men and Women Were Murdered in Cold Blood --
Only the Children Spared.


Horrible Record of Bloodthirstiness

                                               SALT LAKE CITY, Sept 13, 1872.
The following is the affidavit in full by one of the least guitly among the participators In the affair, showing conclusively that the terrible Mountain Meadows massacre was the act of the Mormon authorities. It will be remembered that a large company of emigrants on their way to California are known to have been all killed, with the exception of the young children. When their massacre was discovered tne Mormons set afloat the story that they had perished at the bands of the Indians, but from time to time circumstantial evidence has appeared indicating that they were


by the Mormons In revenge for previous outrages upon the latter perpetrated In Illinois and Missouri. A competent witness now says under oath that the Mormon millitia attacked the emigrants, and, alter a flght of several days without result, sent a flag of truce offering them protection if they would lay down their arms. The terms being compiled with, the entire party was butchered by their captors.


State or Nevada, County of Lincoln, ss. -- Personally appeared before me, Peter B. Miller, Clerk of Court of the Seventh Judicial District of the State of Nevada, Philip Klingon Smith, who being duly sworn on his oath, says: -- My name Is Philip Klingon Smith. I reside in the county of Lincoln, in the State of Nevada. I resided at Cedar City, in the County of Iron, in the Territory of Utah from A. D. 1852 to A. D. 1859. I was residing at Cedar City at the time of the massacre at Mountain Meadows, in said Territory of Utah. I had heard that a company of emigrants was on its way from Salt Lake City, bound for California. Said company arrived at Cedar City, tarried there one day, and passed on for California. After said company had left Cedar City


for the purpose or committing acts of hostility against them. Said call was a regular military call from the superior officers to the subordinate officers and privates of the regiment at Cedar City and vicinity, composing a part of the militia of the Territory of Utah. I do not recollect the number of the regiment. I was at that time the Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints at Cedar City. Isaac C. Haight was President over said Church at Cedar City and the southern settlement in of said Territory. My position as Bishop was subordinate to that of said President. W. H. Dame was President of said Church at Parowan, in said Iron County. Said W. H. Dame was also colonel of said regiment. Said Isaac C. Haight was lieut.-colonel of said regiment, and John D. Lee, of Harmony in said Iron county, was major of said regiment. Said regiment was duly ordered to muster, armed and equipped, as the law directs, and prepared for field operations. I had no command nor office in said regiment at that time, neither did I march with said regiment on the expedition which resulted in said company's being massacred at the Mountain Meadows in said county of Iron. About four days after said company of emigrants had left Cedar City that portion of said regiment then mustered at Cedar City took up its line of march in pursuit of them. About two days after said company had left Cedar City, Lieutenant Colonel I. C. Haight expressed in my presence a desire that said company might be permitted to pass on their way in peace; but afterwards he told me that he had


of said company of emigrants except the little children. I do not know whether said headquarters meant the regimental headquarters at Parowan or the headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief at Salt Lake City.

When the said company had got to Iron Creek, about twenty miles from Cedar City, Captain Joel White started for the Pinto Creek settlement, through which the said company would pass, for the purpose of influencing the people to permit said company to pass on their way in peace. I asked and obtained permission of said White to go with him and aid on in his endeavors to save life. When said White and myself got about three miles from Cedar City we met Major John D. Lee, who asked us where we were going. I replied that we were going to try to prevent the killing of the emigrants. Lee replied, "I have something to say about that."

Lee was at that time on his way to Parowan, the headquarters of Colonel Dame. Said White and I went to Pinto Creek, remained there one night, and the next day returned to Cedar City, meeting said company of emigrants at Iron Creek. Before reaching Cedar City we met one Ira Alien, who told us that "the decree had passed


After the fight had been going on for three or four days a messenger from Major Lee reached Cedar city, who stated that the fight had not been altogether successful, upon which Lieutenant Colonel Haight ordered out a reinforcement. At this time I was ordered out by Captain John M. Higby, who ordered me to muster "armed and equipped as the law directs." It was a matter of life or death to me to muster or not, and I mustered with the reinforcing troops. It was at this time that Lieutenant Colonel Haight said to me that it was the orders from headquarters that all but the little children of said company were to be killed. Said Haight had at that time just returned from headquarters at Parowan, where a military council had been held. There had been a like council held at Parowan previous to that, at which were present Colonel Dame, Lieutenant Colonel I. C. Haight and Major John D. Lee. The result of this first council was the calling out of said regiment for the purpose already stated. The reinforcement aforesaid was marched to the Mountain Meadows, and there formed a junction with the main body. Major Lee massed all the troops at a spring and made a speech to them, saying that his "orders from headquarters were to kill the entire company except the small children." I was not in the ranks at that time, but on one side talking to a man named Slade, and could not have seen a paper in Major Lee's hands.


Said Lee then sent a flag of truce into the emigrant camp, offering said emigrants that "If they lay down their arms he would protect them." They accordingly laid down their arms, came out from that camp and delivered themselves up to said Lee. The women and children were then, by the order of said Lee, separated from the men, and were marched ahead of the men. After said emigrants had marched about half a mile towards Cedar City the order was given to shoot them down. At that time said Lee was at the head of the column. I was in the rear. I did not hear Lee give the order to fire, but heard it from the under officers as it was passed down the column.


except seventeen little children, whom I Immediately took into my charge. I do not know the total number of said company, as I did not stop to count the dead. I immediately put the little children in baggage wagons belonging to the regiment and took them to Hamlin's Ranch and from there to Cedar City, and procured them homes among the people. John Willis and Samuel Murdy assisted me in taking charge of said children. On the evening of the massacre, Colonel W. H. Dame and Lieutenant-Colonel I. C. Haight came to Hamlin's, where I had the said children, and fell into a dispute, in the course of which said Haight told Colonel Dame that if he was going to report of the Killing of said emigrants "he should not have ordered it done." I do not know when or where said troops were disbanded. About two weeks after said massacre occurred said Major Lee (who was also Indian Agent) went to Salt Lake City, and, as I believe, reported said fight and its results to the commander-in-chief. I was not present at either of the before-mentioned councils, nor at any council connected with the aforesaid military operations, or with said company. I gave no orders except those connected with the saving of the children, and those after the massacre had occurred, and said orders were given as a Bishop and not in a military sense. At the time of the firing of the first volley


I did not fire afterward, though several subsequent volleys were fired. After the first fire was delivered I at once set about saving the children. I commenced to gather up the children before the firing had ceased. I have made the foregoing statement before the above entitled Court for the reason that I believe that I would be assassinated should I attempt to make the same before any Court in the territory of Utah. Alter said Lee returned from Salt Lake City, as aforesaid, said Lee told me that he had reported fully to the President (meaning the commander-in-chief) the fight at Mountain Meadows and the killing of said emigrants. Brigham Young was at that time the commander-in-chief of the militia of the Territory of Utah; and further deponent saith not.
Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 10th day of April, A. D. 1871. -- P. D. Miller, County Clerk.
[District court, Seventh Judicial district, Lincoln county, Nevada. Copy of seal.]
Utah Territory, county of Salt Lake: --

I, O. F. Strickland, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Utah Territory, hereby certify that I have carefully compared the foregoing copy of affidavit with the original of the same, and that the foregoing copy is a true literal copy of said original, and that such comparison was made the 4th day of September, 1872.   O. F. STRICKLAND.

Territory of Utah, Salt Lake county: -- I, James B. McKean, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of said Territory, do certify that I have carefully compared the above copy of an affidavit with the original of the same, and know the same to be in all particulars a true copy thereof. Dated September 5, 1872.
JAMES B. McKEAN, Chief Justice, &c.    

The Mountain Meadows Massacre --
A Terrible Revelation.

Fifteen years ago a very wealthy train of emigrants left Arkansas for California, there to seek new homes. From all reports it was considered the most comfortably outfitted company of emigrants that ever crossed the Plains. In addition to the usual wagons, freighted with provisions, clothing and the portable valuables of their former homes, together with the implements of agriculture and mechanics, there were several carriages for the more convenient traveling of the ladies, the young and the aged. Altogether, the appearance of the train and the excellent conduct and pleasant associations of the emigrants with one another bespoke the moving of farmers and tradespeople in comfortable circumstances. They rested every seventh day in their journey, and engaged in religious exercises in their own way, as had been their custom at home. They appeared to be related to each other by families or by marriage, and with the toddling infant playing in the camp at night might be seen the venerable patriarch of three score years and ten. All seemed happy together. Such was the emigrant train that passed through Utah in 1857 and perished on the Mountain Meadows, two hundred and fifty miles south of Salt Lake City.

During the past fifteen years this Mountain Meadows massacre has been frequently charged to the Mormons, but with unyielding pertinacity they have denied the implication, and with the boldness of their assertions they have managed to induce even astute Congressmen to believe that the massacre was the work of the Indians. But, singularly enough, on the fifteenth anniversary of that foul and treacherous deed, in which one hundred and twenty men, women and children were murdered, there comes to us from the city of the Prophet Brigham the full and frank confession of one of his own bishops that the bloody work was ordered by the Mormon leaders and executed by their militia.

Philip Klingon Smith makes oath before the Clerk of the Circuit Court of the Seventh Judicial district of the State of Nevada that the massacre of the large body of Arkansas emigrants on their way to California was perpetrated by the Mormon militia, and by order of the Mormon authorities at "headquarters." We need not recite the horrifying story as related in Smith's affidavit, for that can be seen by our readers. Smith was a bishop in the Mormon Church, and was a member of the force sent by the Mormon authorities to massacre the Arkansas emigrants. There seems to be no reason to doubt the statement he makes under oath, and he was certainly in a position to know the facts. We would willingly believe if we could that no people claiming to bo civilized could be guilty of such a horror and base treachery as he describes; but the details are so circumstantial, and the crime was so much in accordance with the fanaticism and revenge of the Mormons generally at that period that the statement cannot be doubted. The motives given for this dreadful butchery are many. One is that it was conceived and carried out in revenge for the injuries sustained by the Mormons in Missouri and Illinois; another is that it was to revenge the killing of a Mormon some time previous in Arkansas by the husband of a woman whom the Mormon had carried off. Of course there would be no justification either of the crime of the Mormon in taking another man's wife or or the husband in taking the life of the wife stealer; but that the Mormons wrought their vengeance on a body of innocent emigrants because they happened to be from the same State as the murderer makes a shallow excuse which the most confessedly brutalized wretches in the world could not expect to pawn off as the true cause. It was, undoubtedly, the desire of the Mormon leaders in carrying out the atrocity to strike such a deadly fear into emigrants that the route across the Territory would be looked on as a grave. They wanted no knowledge of the Territory to go abroad, and they wanted no settlements within, it, save such as filtered through the Mormon Church. This is nakedly what the order to exterminate the Arkansas emigrants meant, no matter what other pretences may have been cunningly circulated to account for it, even among the ignorant Mormons, who would do for revenge what they might fear to do in furtherance of such a bloody policy.

What makes it more horrifying is that after these brave emigrants had fought successfully against their assassins, the Mormon militia, for four days, they were treacherously entrapped by a flag of truce and induced to lay down their arms under a promise of security, and then mercilessly butchered. None but the small children were spared, and these only, perhaps, because the treacherous and brutal Mormons thought they could appropriate persons of such tender years to their own use. There is nothing in the history of civilized countries more fearfully atrocious than this massacre, and no act of treachery dastardly than that by which the emigrants were induced to lay down their arms.

It is an awful confession, and one that will awaken the whole United States to demand that this dark page in our history be illuminated by a full investigation and the prompt punishment of the guilty wretches who slew innocent and unoffending men, women and children. It was with this confession before them that a few honorable citizens of Utah asked Congress, during its last session to so provide for the holding of courts that the murders in Utah could be properly investigated and the guilty brought to punishment. Brigham Young, who knew what was hanging over his head, sent a deputation of two Mormon Gentiles and their wives, together with his favorite Apostle Cannon, to lobby and corrupt where they could, to prevent legislation. And while that was natural enough for Brigham Young to do, it was currently reported that his financial agent at the seat of government had permanently secured in the judiciary committees of both the Senate and the House all the influence necessary to frustrate every measure that promised the dreaded investigation.

With such a record now sworn to by an eyewitness and a participator in the foul deed it will be interesting to watch the action of the Government. Even at this late day it should promptly investigate tho whole matter and bring the guilty wretches to condign punishment A people who could commit such a crime, and a community that would tolerate and cover it up are unfit to be recognized. as civilized. Fortunately, the frightful ulcer of Mormonism in Utah is in process of being eradicated, and the sooner it is completely removed the better.

Note: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 13,174.                       New York City,  September 16, 1872.                       Four Cents.

U T A H..

The Mormon Press on Bishop Smith's Statement.

                                               SALT LAKE CITY, Sept 15, 1872.
The Herald (a Mormon Journal) of this city this morning says of Bishop Smith's affidavit on the Mountain Meadows massacre that he is either a murderer on his own confession or a perjurer and calls for his arrest and trial on a requisition from the Governor of Utah. It also protests against charging the massacre on the Mormons as a people.

Note: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 13,1??.                       New York City,  September 30, 1872.                       Four Cents.


Mountain Meadows massacre. -- [We] deny the assertion of the Mormon organs that he is either a murderer or a perjurer. The Mormon press do not contradict the truth of the suits are about to be commenced the Mormon city...

Note: A wire service item, originating with the Salt Lake Tribune.


Whole No. 13,322.                   New York City, Monday,  February 10, 1873.                   Four Cents.


A Lecturer Bearding Brigham in His Stronghold.

Additional Details of the Mountain Meadow Horror.


Why, How and When the Terrible Butchery
Was Accomplished.

SALT LAKE CITY, Jan. 31, 1873.    
On last evening a lecture was delivered at the Liberal Institute in this city, by C. W. Wandell, ex-Supreme Court Commissioner for the Territory of Utah, on the "Mountain Meadow Massacre." To me it seems absolutely wonderful to look back a few short years and contemplate the horrid deeds that could, With absolate impunity, be perpetrated on all who came within the influence of the Mormon power, when the seeming interest of the Church or the malice of its leaders desired sacrifice; and last night, in its very stronghold and headquarters, to listen to an able lecturer publicly laying the blame of a most hideous atrocity at the door of the men who were in power. It all looks more like a visit to dreamland or a fairy tale than a reality. But it plainly shows that Mormon supremacy is at an end, that even without actual legislatlon (which we hope soon to have on the matter), it would have to "knuckle under" to Yankee progress, even in the far West. Knowing the infuence of your great paper on all public questions, and thinkng it may help to strengthen, in the eyes of the public, the affidavits on the same subject publiShed in the Herald of the 14th September last, I send a


The lecturer opened by saying that it was originally his intention not to say a word about the ism or Mormonism, but a piece which he read having appeared in the Church organ denying the endowment oath and defying proof, he thought it only right to give that statement a public contradiction and brand it as false; that he himself had, when he first joined the Mormon Church, to take the oath, part of which was "to maintain the priesthood and avenge the blood or the prophets." All of this he did not at first understand, but subsequent events opened his eyes. He then applied himself to the original purposes of the lecture, gave a glowing description of the journey between the island of Santa Cruz, and the Californian coast, and Cedar City, Utah, stating that he was one of a party or train, which was formed early in November, 1857 (four months [sic - days?]after the massacre), bound for the latter place. When they reached San Francisco rumors of a large train having been destroyed by the Indians were afloat. At Fort Tejon, where Captain Carleton was in charge, they first heard of white men being suspected as accomplices in the deed. The captain tried to dissuade them from following the usual and now supposed dangerous route, but they refused to believe the reports and continued [on] their way. As they progressed evidence as to white men having been engaged multiplied and became stronger. On the confines of Nevada, and Utah the party met a man well armed whom Mr. Wandell knew. On being questioned he stated he was merely hunting, but it afterwards came out that he was placed there as a sentinel to pick off any stragglers who may have escaped the massacre. Thus the lecturer continued, leading the audience step by step along the route he then travelled, giving vivid descriptions of places, and weaving in interesting incidents of the journey. At one place


one of their animals having died five minutes after drinking it, and though they had but a small quantity with them and had a dreary desert before them which they should traverse, they were forced to proceed without being able to replenish supplies. The horror experienced by this party at the scene of the massacre it was impossible to describe. Evidences were lying thick around. An attempt had been made to bury the dead, but it was a very poor one. Skeletons of men, women and children were lying thickly around, as well as broken wagons, furniture and bones of animals. The lecturer described himself as having taken up one of the skulls (evidently a woman's, pierced with bullet holes, and fitting thereto tresses he found lying a few yards off. The impression produced, he said, could never be removed, and he then and there vowed he would sift out the truth of the whole affair.


In part second of his lecture, Mr. Wandell described how in the Summer of 1857, in the northwestern part of Arkansas, a camp was formed, and as splendid a train, as far as fittings and personnel was concerned, as ever crossed the plains, was got together. It was composed, it is believed, of about one hundred and twenty-seven souls in all. All were comfortable; but many were persons of property, who took not only comforts but luxuries -- beautiful furniture, carpets, splendid clothing, jewelry -- one family actually having a splendid piano, which could, he ventured, almost confidently, to say, be found, if proper search were made, at present in Salt Lake City. Their intended destination was California; but they were fated never to reach it.


They travelled by easy stages, and were all in such good spirits when they reached Salt Lake that they dressed out with flashy ribbons a beautiful animal of the bovine species and called him, in honor of his long-tail family, "Brigham Young." The joke touched a sensitive part of a certain high personage and the eyes of the autocrat were brought directly to bear on the emigrants. In consequence of Johnson's threatened invasion, as it was called, the Territory was placed by the Governor under martial law. Various rumors to excite and frighten the people were set afloat. Brigham exercised supreme authority, and under this authority the high-spirited, independent travellers, who dared to desecrate his name in his very stronghold and make a laughing-stock of it before the eyes of his people, were immediately ordered out of the Territory without giving them time for refreshment, or the privilege to purchase necessaries. Brigham's aide-de-camp preceded the travellers, warning the Mormon settlers to have no intercourse with them and not to sell them necessaries, under pain of severe penalties. Thus they were greatly incommoded, and it was only under the friendly shelter of night ands by great caution and secrecy that they could procure the merest necessaries. A little Englishman, named Mitchell, who had brought some provisions to the camp was prevented selling them by the Bishop's son drawing a knife on him and using threats. But at Beaver they met a whole-souled woman, Mrs. Curshaw, who, to her everlasting honor be it said, sold them everything she could spare, and did them other kindnesses, in spite of the Bishop's threats. Though they were then travelling on the main and public route, the road having cost the United States government $25,000, after leaving Beaver they were obliged to deflect from it and take another and less open course, for What purpose may be easily surmised.


At Cedar City they were allowed to purchase wheat and corn and get them ground, as they were sure not to be allowed to consume them. When they started from here three young men requested to be allowed to join them, stating they were Mormon apostates and in great poverty, and could not possibly get out any other way with safety. They were treated kindly and hospitably, but what return did they make? They acted as spies, and every night communicated with Mormon emissaries. One night, after they had left Iron creek (three days journey from Cedar), while conferring in the sage bushes with Bill Stewart, two men of the train party approached. Bill ordered the young man to mark one and that he'd "take down" the other. Bill fired and shot his man. The young man's heart failed him; he was not yet hardened in crime, and Bill angrily snatched away his gun, took aim and shot the second man. This was the commencement of the tragedy. They soon after reached the fatal spot, but before they could get within a mile or so of the spring at Mountain Meadow were designedly


out of the reach of water. When they saw the hostile demonstrations of what they at first took to be a hostile band of Indians they immediately corralled their wagons, took in the animals, piled bedding, furniture, &c. on the inside, dug out the centre of the enclosure, the loose earth acting as a breastwork, and put the women and children into the excavation for safety. For three days they stood the siege with hardly any loss, but they suffered fearfully for want of water. All expedients to get it had failed. As a last resource the dressed two of their little girls in white and sent them to fetch a pail of water, vainly thinking their years and innocence would protect. them. Foolish thought! The children were not allowed to reach the spring alive. On the morning of the fourth day a flag of truce was sent them, saying that if they surrendered and laid down their arms they would be allowed to pass in safety out of the Territory. They had no alternative but to accept these terms, or otherwise perish slowly for want of food and water, as every Mormon who could bear arms above the age of sixteen had been called out and they were that morning told by the person in command, whom the lecturer said was John D. Lee, that he had


belonging to the train, except the children. After the surrender the men were separated from the women and made to lay down their arms, and all were then marched off, well guarded. When they had proceeded about half a mile the command "Halt" was given. Then came the order to "fire," and the fearful work of destruction commenced. Out of that beautiful band only seventeen children were allowed to live. Then came the division of the spoils and the pillage of the dead. Men, women and children were stripped naked and left exposed on the plain for the ravenous birds and beasts of prey to feast on. Two of the children were soon after put out of the way for making "certain remarks."


Three weeks after this shocking tragedy, on the 15th [sic] of September the Mormons met in solemn conclave in Salt Lake City. Was it to institute inquiry by order of the Governor? No; but John. D. Lee and Isaac Haight had come up with their spoils -- 400 head of cattle -- the proceeds of the sale of which were turned over to the Church store, and they were to receive the sacrament in public. With Brigham at the communion table, to show their innocence, and to receive the assurance that their fidelity had been proved and appreciated. I sincerely hope that no part of our noble country will ever again be disgraced by the record of such a damnable deed.   D. W.

Note: See also the Herald for May 18, 1877 and "Charles W. Wandell's 'Argus letters'"


Whole No. 14,231.                     New York City, Monday,  August 9, 1875.                     Three Cents.


Thurlow Weed's Reminiscences of the
Old Time Tragedy.



A Double Identification of a
Drowned Man.


    The recent inauguration of massive Masonic Hall and Asylum in this city and the imposing demonstration of Knights Templars from various parts of the Union recalled an event in the history of that institution which occurred almost fifty years ago and was the occasion first of local and subsequently of general inquiries and excitement. This is known and remembered as the "Morgan Abduction." Having been connected with that question as a member of an investigating committee and as the editor of an anti-Masonic journaI, I have been called on by the New York Herald for information concerning the body of a man found on the shore of Lake Ontario, alleged to be that of William Morgan, but claimed afterward to be the body of Timothy Monroe. The allegations of mutilating that body, of palming it off upon the public for political effect and of boasting that it was a "good enough Morgan till after the election," were publicly made, widely circulated and at a distance generally, believed. I was painfully conscious of this in meeting strangers at home and abroad for more than forty years. In 1843, when in London, by a strange chance I lodged in a hotel near Blackfriars Bridge, which had been the ancient "Freemasons' Tavern" and which was then frequented by the oldest London lodges. My presence, as I was surprised to learn, from its host, was the subject of inquiry. While In Paris a few weeks afterward I was informed by my friend, B. Perley Poore, that my visit had occasioned some uneasiness among Freemasons in that city. I had been repeatedly informed by gentlemen in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, &c., that until their minds were relieved by long and intimate acquaintance, their intercourse with me had been embarrassed with the early impression that had, for political effect, been guilty of a highly discreditable act. Prompted, therefore, by appeals, first in the Herald and then in the Albany Argus, I determined to furnish the facts and circumstances out of which the


accusation originated. The completion of this narrative, however; has been unexpectedly delayed. In returning, although this question opens a wide field, I will endeavor to compress it. To do so I must assume preliminary questions as fixed facts. In regard to these fixed facts there will be no controversy amongg those who have made themselves acquainted with a truthful history of that most extraordinary event.

I did not personally know William Morgan, who was for more than two months writing his book in a house adjoining my residence, at Rochester. When applied to by Mr. Dyer, my next door neighbor, where Morgan boarded, to print the book purporting to disclose the secrets of Masonry, I declined to do so, believing that a man who had taken an oath to keep a secret had no right to disclose it. Although not a Freemason I had entertained favorable opinions of an institution to which Washington, Franklin and Lafayette belonged. On my refusal to print his book Morgan removed to Batavia, where he made the acquaintance of David C. Miller, editor of the Advocate, also a Mason, who became his publisher. I pass briefly over a series of facts which were judiciously established, embracing the arrest of Morgan, his conveyance to, and confinement in the county jail at Canandaigua, from which he was released and conveyed by night in close carriages through Rochester, Clarkson and along the Ridge road to Fort Niagara, in the magazine of which he was confined. While thus confined a Knight Templar encampment was installed at Lewiston. When at supper the zeal and enthusiasm of the Templars, having been aroused by speeches and wine, Colonel William King, of Lockport, invited four men (Whitney, Howard, Chubbuck and Garside) from their seats at the banqueting table into an adjoining apartment, where he informed them that he had an order from the Grand Master (De Witt Clinton), the execution of which required their assistance. This party was then driven to Niagara, reaching the fort a Iittle beore twelve o'clock.


Upon entering the magazine Colonel King informed Morgan that his friends had completed their arrangements for his removal to and residence upon a farm in Canada. Morgan walked with them to the wharf, where a boat was held in readiness for them by Elisha Adams, an invalid soldier, into which the party passed and rowed away. Adams remaining to warn the boat off by signal, if on its return any alarm had been given. It was nearly two o'clock in the morning, when the boat came back, having, as Adams expressed it, lost one man, only five of the six being on board when the boat returned. When the boat reached a point where the Niagara River empties into Lake Ontario, a rope being wound around Morgan's body, to either end of which a sinker was attached, he was thrown overboard. It is due to the memory of Governor Clinton to my that Colonel King had no such order and no authority to make use of his name. It is proper, also, to add that none of these men survive. John Whitney, of Rochester, whom I knew well, related all the circumstances connected with the last act in that tragedy to me at Albany in 1831, in the presence of Simeon D. Jewett, of Clarkson, and Samuel Barton, of Lewiston.


In October, 1827, more than a year after the abduction of Morgan, a body drifted on shore near a small creek which entered into Lake Ontario. A coroner's inquest was held, and a verdict rendered that it was the body of an unknown person. The Coroner wrote out a minute description of the body and published it along with the finding of the jury in an OrIeans county newspaper. That description, attracting the attention of persons well acquainted with Morgan, excited considerable interest. The widow and several intimate friends of Morgan seemed so confident that it was his body, that the committee appointed to investigate the abduction determined to hold another inquest, on which public notice was given. On the day appointed some sixty or seventy people assembled at the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, where the body of the unknown man was interred. Before opening the grave Mrs. Morgan and Dr. Strong described certain marks upon Morgan's body by means of which it could be identified. When the rude coffin was opened the body it contained disclosed the peculiarities described, and after deliberate examination the jurors declared it unanimously the body of William Morgan. From this verdict no one present dissented, and for a week or ten days the question seemed to be settled.


Later in October there came a report that the body declared to be that of William Morgan was claimed by his family to be that of Timothy Monroe, a Canadian, who was swept in a small boat over Niagara Falls eleven days previous to the time that the body was washed ashore at the mouth at Oak Orchard Creek. The remains in the meantime had been taken by Mrs. Morgan to Batavia. A third inquest was now to be held for the purpose of establishing the claim of Mrs. Monroe. A large concourse of citizens was in attendance. Mrs. Monroe appeared, and gave a description of her husband's person and of the clothes in which he left home on the morning of the day he was drowned. Previous to her examination Bates Cooke, chairman of the Morgan Investigating Committee, examined the clothes taken from the body and carefully preserved, by the Coroner with great minuteness. This enabled him to test the accuracy of Mrs. Monroe's knowledge and memory.

Neither Mrs. Monroe nor any person sympathizing with her or interested in the identification of the body as that of Monroe had access to it or had seen any of the wearing, apparel of the deceased. And yet Mrs. Monroe not only gave a general description of each garment, but underwent a rigid cross-examination by Mr. Cooke of more than an hour, in which she described with singular accuracy every rent and patch found in each garment. She indicated buttons she had sewed on the pantaloons to replace those lost which did not match the others. She also described one stocking that had been darned with yarn of a different color. In a word, her description of the clothing was so accurate every particular as to leave no doubt that each article had been under her special care. But, wonderfully accurate as she had been on this point, she was most strangely wrong in her description of the body, Monroe being at least three inches taller than the corpse. She described her husband's hair and whiskers as coarse and black, adding that his hair had been cut quite short a few days before he was drowned, while that upon the head of the deceased was long, silky and of a chestnut color. Monroe's son confirmed his mother's testimony relating both to the clothes and the body. No attempt was made to impeach either, nor was there any doubt that Monroe had been drowned, as alleged. It was difficult to reconcile these conflicting statements. Mrs. Monroe was as clearly right about the clothes as she was wrong about the body found in them.


resulted in finding that the body previously adjudged to be Morgan's was that of Timothy Monroe. There were other circumstances connected with the disappearance of both Morgan and Monroe assuming that both had been drowned in Lake Ontario, calculated to complicate the questions of identity. The body was found at Oak Orchard Creek a full year after Morgan's disappearance; of course it could not have been drifting about that length of time. it was known, however, that Morgan was weighted heavily when thrown into the lake; and, two months before that body was found, the mouth of the river and that part of the lake where Morgan was supposed to have been thrown overboard had been thoroughly raked. In this way it was supposed that the body had been released from its weight, risen to the surface and drifted to Oak Orchard Creek. Monroe was drowned on the 26th or 27th September. The body at Oak Orchard Creek was found on the 8th day of October, leaving but eleven or twelve days to drift a distance of forty miles, where it was found. It is understood that drowned persons remain several days under water. It was ascertained by meteorological records that, during the interval between Monroe's death and the finding of the body at Oak Orchard creek, the wind blow most of the time up the lake. Now, as there is no current in Lake Ontario, and as objects float with rather than against the wind, it seemed impossible that the body found should be that of Monroe; while on the other hand it seemed equally improbable that a man drowned in the latter part of September, 1826, could, have been found in a tolerable state of preservation in October, 1827. So that there were irreconcilable facts and circumstances connected with this strange history.

Mrs. Morgan and the intimate friends of Morgan described marks upon his person before seeing that body, which left no doubt in the minds of all present that was the remains of her husband. Strangely enough, however; she repudiated every article of clothing found upon the body. And yet Mrs. Monroe, who came from Canada, readily described every article, garment by garment, with minute and startling accuracy, while, therefore, up to the time that Mrs. Monroe appeared there were no just grounds for discrediting the correctness of the second inquest, yet after the third inquest had been held at Batavia there was a strong reaction in public opinion. Although the gentlemen associated with me in the investigation were still strongly of the opinion that the body was that of William Morgan, my own previously clear and strong convictions were a good deal disturbed. Nor can I now, after nearly fifty years' anxious inquiry and reflection, say that I am satisfied that it was or was not the body of William Morgan.

The discrepancies about hair and beard between Mrs. Morgan and Mrs. Monroe, after the conclusion of the third or Batavia Inquest, induced those who claimed the body to be that of Timothy Monroe to say that the hair was pulled out and the whiskers shaven off to make it resembe Morgan. That could only have been done in the presence of between sixty and seventy persons, some of whom were democrats and others Freemasons, and yet all must have seen and consented to the fraud. The last inquest was held only a few days before the election. No other question entered into the canvass. The excitement was greater than I had previously or have since witnessed.


A few evenings before the election I went into a billiard saloon to see my friend Gustavus Clark. A number of gentlemen were present, and among them Ebenezer Griffin, who, as counsel for several persons indicted for the abduction of Morgan, had conducted the inquest at Batavia. As l was leaving the room Mr. Griffin said, "Well, Weed, what are you going to do for a Morgan now?" I replied, as I was closing the door, "That is a good enough Morgan until you bring back the one you carried away." This remark was reproduced in the Rochester Daily Advertiser, with an apparently slight but most important variation, instead of what I did in fact say. I was represented as saying, "That is a good enough Morgan until after the election." What I did say in reply to Mr. Griffin's question was a proper and harmless response, while what I was erroneously accused of saying was highly discreditable, and has subjected me, at home and abroad, for nearly fifty years to reproach and obloquy. Mr. Dawson, senior editor of the Albany Evening Journal, who resided at Rochester during the Morgan excitement, recently wrote an article on the subject, in which he said: --

The phrase had its origin something in this wise. In 1827 a few months after William Morgan disappeared, the body of a drowned man was found near the outlet of Oak Orchard Creek. It was believed by many who saw it to be the body of the kidnapped and murdered Morgan, while others alleged to be the body of another missing man -- one Timothy Monroe. The latter met with this difficulty however. Monroe had whiskers; this body had not. But to overcome this important fact the then editor of the Rochester Advertiser charged that Mr. Weed had shaved off Monroe's whiskers, and by doing so had made ''a good enough Morgan until after the election" then pending. The slander was industriously used at the time, and has been a thorn in the side of Mr. Weed from that day to this. Of course its repetition is less irritating now than it was forty-eight years ago, but its use even as a joke has always chafed Mr. Weed, and his more intimate friends were careful never to allude to it in his presence.

Mr. Dawson's article brought a correspondent of the Albany Argus "to the front," who not only reiterates the charge against me, but furnishes what purports to be an affidavit of the person who saw me commit the offence. The Argus correspondent says: --

William Morgan was a man of medium size very bald and shaved his whiskers off, even to the top of his ears; and the body, which was found and called Timothy Monroe, was six inches longer than the height of William Morgan. Besides, the face of the body found was covered with whiskers, and it was said that to make the body found appear like Morgan some of the committee who were sent to Oak Orchard Creek to an immense mass meeting of anti-Masons, among whom were Thurlow Weed and his right hand man Friday, named Jack Marchant, had pulled out the whiskers and shaved the face of Monroe. Some time after this in the fall of 1827, when anti-Masonry had become rife in politics, Mr. Weed, who was younger then than he is now and quite poor, and desirous of making himself somebody, became the leader of the anti-Masonic party, and entertained much hatred and contempt, for all who did not vote the anti-Masonic ticket, especially for those democrats who were not Masons, to whom he gave the name of "Masons' Jacks." And some Jack Mason, as I then understood it, was rallying Thurlow about his false Morgan, when he, either jocosely or in earnest replied, "It is a good enough Morgan till after election." Such has alawys been the understanding until the Journal contradicted it, as above stated. As prima facie evidence that he did say so, I wlll relate a fact to show the animus of Thurlow Weed then. In the fall of 1828 General Jackson was the democratic candidate for President, Martin Van Buren for Governor and Enos F. Throop for Lieutenant Governor. The polls were open three days in different places in the town. Your correspondent was then a resident of Rochester and was one of those offensive animals called "Jack Masons." At that election about four miles southeast of Rochester the polls were held, and our venerable friend, then quite young, to show off his ineffable contempt for Jack Masons, led up to the polls a jackass and put a vote into its mouth, and pushed its head toward the window where votes were taken, whereupon your correspondent read in quite a loud voice the printed copy of an affidavit, which was in these words: --
Monroe County. ss. -- Zephania Green, of the town of Henrietta, in said county, doth depose and say that he saw Thurlow Weed pull out the whiskers of Timothy Munroe, and Jack Marchant he did shave the same. And further deponent saith not.

Sworn to before me, September 1827,


The Argus correspondent, it will be seen, claims to have had personal knowledge of the matter about which he writes, and is evidently one of those who believed, and still believes the accusations against me to be true. Relying, as he evidently does, on his memory, I will not hold him severely responsible for utterly misstating every material fact in his article. The election to which he refers was not held in 1828, but in 1827, when neither General Jackson, nor Martin Van Buren nor Enos T. Throop were candidates. The affidavit which he says he read aloud at the polls at that election is a mere skeleton perversion of an affidavit which was published in handbills and freely circulated, not only at the polls referred to, but throughout the county. I preserved and still retain in my possession one of those handbills, of which the following is a literal and exact copy: --
William C. Green, being duly sworn, deposeth and says that he the said Green, with others did attend the poll of election held at Haward's, in the town of Gates, in the county of Monroe, and that there Mr. Thurlow Weed did say that he the said Thurlow did pull the whiskers from the face of the body found at Oak Orchard Creek, and that John Marchant did shave the same, he the said Thurlow being one of the Morgan Committee.     WILLIAM C. GREEN.

Subscribed and sworn, this 6th day or November, 1827, before me --
This affidavit appeared in the Rochester Daily Advertiser November 7, 1827, and was circulated in handbill form at the polls the same day. I preserved one of the handbllls, from which the above is a literal copy. The affidavit is signed by William C. instead of Zephania Green. Mr. W. C. Green swears that he "heard me say thaI I did pull the whiskers from the face of the body found at Oak Orchard Creek." 'The Argus affidavit maker, "Zephania Green," swears that he "saw me pull out the whiskers," &c. Now, the fact is no such affidavit appeared or was read at the poll of the election referred to; nor, as far as I know, was there any such man in, or about Rochester as Zephania Green. But I did know William C. Green, a democratic electioneerer, by whom, it was arranged, I should be followed and importuned with questions, about Timothy Monroe's hair and whiskers. The object was to keep me so surrounded and occupied as to withdraw my attention from the electors as they came to vote. Discovering its object I determined to put an end to the by-play, and when asked by Green if I pulled out Monroe's whiskers I anwered affirmatively, and to the question "Who shaved the body," I replied "John Marchant." This turned the laugh against my opponents. Nobody, however, was misled by it for all received it as it was intended. Green's occupation was spoiled for that day. On the following morning, however, his affidavit appeared in the Daily Advertiser, and was circulated freely at the polls. Green swore to the truth, but in a manner to make truth a falsohood. All who heard me, including Green himself, knew that it was a joke. Judge Miller, the then young Justice of the Peace before whom the affidavit was made, is now a venernble citizen of New Haven, Conn. I had no reason to complain and did not complain of the use made of my jocose admission:


however, namely, of boasting that the body found at Oak Orchard Creek was a "good enough Morgan till after the election," though an utter perversion, proved serious and enduring. My action in reference to the body in question was influenced by a sincere and earnest desire for truth. I realized, in every step taken, the high responsibility of the investigation. I knew that a mistake upon a question of such exciting and absorbing interest would react powerfully. Thus impressed, I exerted myself personally to induce all who knew Morgan, whether Masons or anti-Masons, democrats or whigs, to be present at the second inquest.

In looking back upon the event which occurred nearly half a century ago, with the asperities and impressions which it occasioned allayed and corrected, and in view of the embittered feeling existing between the editor and proprietor of the Rochester Daily Advertiser and myself, I am free to admit that they had provocations which, from their standpoint, excused the use of such political weapons as they found available. It was a sort of hand-to-hand conflict, in which I remember to have been unsparing. The term "Mason Jacks," freely applied to all who acted, poltically against us, was a pecuIiarly offensive one, and most especially so to the editor, and publisher of the Advertiser, neither of whom were Masons. Even now it is evident that the correspondent of the Argus has not forgotten or forgiven, that offence. In conclusion, I affirm, in the original language and in the broadest sense, that I acted in perfect good faith throughout the investigation touching the body found at Oak Orchard Creek, and that I have truthfully repeated a playful and innocent reply to a question, out of which grew the unfounded charge of boasting that it was a "good enough Morgan till after the election," under the odium of which I have rested forty-eight years.

It may not be out of time or place to add that in this case it is not too late to "vindicate the truth of history."

The then editor of the Rochester Daily Advertiser is now a resident of this city. He was as actively and warmly opposed as I was devoted to the cause of anti-Masonry. He was familiar with the question from the beginning to the end.

I have never conversed with him upon this subject, nor do I know what his impressions are, but if he is in possession of evidence either that I mutilated the body in question, or boasted that it was a "good enough Morgan till after the election," he will, doubless, regard this a fitting occasion to produce it. T. W., August 6, 1875.


Thurlow Weed Upon the Masonic Morgan Affair

The letter which Mr. Thurlow Weed has addressed to the Herald will be read with deep interest, as it is the first explanation which that distinguished politician has made of his knowledge of the mysterious disappearance of William Morgan and his first reply to the notorious charge that when a dead body was, found in Lake Ontario he declared it to be "a good enough Morgan until after the election." Recently, when the Masonic Temple was dedicated in this city, and Masons from all parts of the world took part in the impressive ceremonies, we thought the occasion a proper one for Mr. Weed to reveal all he knew of the Morgan affair, and to our request his letter is a frank, full, and, in most respects, a satisfactory answer. After nearly fifty years of silence Mr. Weed has given to the readers of the Herald his explanation and vindication.

As a vindication this letter is unnecessary, for long ago the public ceased to believe that Thurlow Weed had mutilated a dead body for the purpose of throwing upon the Masons the odium of murdering an apostate member of their organization. Mr. Weed himself has been too proud to attempt a refutation of the charge till now. We may, therefore, simply refer to those portions of the letter which include his personal exoneration, while we congratulate Mr. Weed upon speaking at last with such candor upon a subject, which has hardly lost any of its profound interest by the lapse of half a century.

But though Mr. Weed's personal character may not require defence in respect to this affair, the light he throws upon the Morgan mystery is of historical importance. Masonry is quite as much on trial as Mr. Weed. There is no doubt that Morgan wrote a book intended to betray the secrets of Masonry, and, according to Mr. Weed's testimony, he was kidnapped and drowned in Lake Ontario. At all events, Morgan disappeared forever, and the identification of a body as his, coupled with its subsequent identification as that of one Monroe, forms one of the most puzzling chapters of the story. But whether Morgan's body was found or not Mr. Weed does not hesitate to express his belief that the man was murdered. He says that all the circumstances of the tragedy were narrated to him by John Whitney, whom we infer to have been one of the principal actors in the assassination.

Disbelief in the murder of Morgan would naturally rest upon a priori grounds. Why should he be murdered for revealing a secret when no secret existed to be revealed? It may be safely assumed that the Masons have no secret which is their especial possession and privilege. Mysteries of organization they possess undoubtedly, but the Alpha and Omega of their purposes are intended in common human society. It is known that they have no secret by the fact that if they had it would have been long ago betrayed.

Adequate motive for the murder of Morgan is, therefore, wanting in the constitution of the Order itself. The man had nothing to betray that would justify his murder. We cannot believe that men like Washington, Jefferson, Franklin and many other patriots and philanthropists could countenance and support a society in which fidelity to an oath was to be insured by the penalty of death, to be privately and unlawfully enforced. This is incredible, and an Order which is believed to have been founded by Solomon could hardly depart so utterly from the teaching of his wisdom. These are the reasons why many persons refuse to believe that Morgan was ever murdered at all, and why others, who believe he was killed, acquit the Masons of any responsibility for his death.

The truth, probably, is that Morgan's murder was a political crime. Masonry was not merely Masonry at that time, but it was the occasion of the bitterest political strife. It was a misfortune that a secret Order should have been forced into the arena of politics, and that American citizens should have voted as Masons or anti-Masons. But this was the case in New York in 1827, and if Morgan ever was murdered he died by the hands of his political foes, who thought him a traitor to their cause. Masonry, as an ancient and honorable Order, could not have authorized an act so terrible. We may learn from this event, and the bitter feelings it caused and which have been kept alive, for generations, how dreadful it will be for America if ever the question of religion is introduced into our politics. The people who wish to put "God in the constitution" forget that, if He is omnipresent, He must be there now, and they merely scheme for a religious war. We think that the Morgan affair ought to convince every reasonable man that neither secret societies nor religious denominations should have anything to do with political parties, and in evidence of this we refer the render to the profoundly interesting letter with which Mr. Weed has replied to the accusations of half a century.

Note: See The Orleans Whig of Oct. 10, 1827 and subsequent newspaper items linked to in its comments section for the original reports relating to William Morgan and Timothy Monro.


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Thursday,  March 22, 1877.                        Three Cents.


(under construction)

The Mormon Murderer Lee's Confession --
More Light Wanted.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                       New York City, Saturday,  March 24, 1877.                       Three Cents.


Execution of John D. Lee at Mountain Meadows.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Wednesday,  April 11, 1877.                         Three Cents.


Evidence Accumulating That It Was Garbled by the
Law Officers in the Interest of Brigham Young.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Monday,  April 16, 1877.                         Three Cents.


How Time Reveals His Responsibility
at Mountain Meadows.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,866.                       New York City, Saturday,  May 5, 1877.                       Three Cents.


Brigham Young Preparing to Resist Arrest.


Reorganizing and Equipping the Famous Legion.



Drilling and Midnight Meetings In and Near Salt Lake.


SALT LAKE, Utah, May 4, 1877.      
The indignant feeling aroused throughout the United States by the testimony at John D. Lee's trial relative to the Mountain Meadows massacre has led the Latter Day Saints to apprehend the arrest Of Brigham Young and other heads of the Church who are accused of sanctioning the commission of that horrible crme. The Saints have detemined to resist any movement against Brigham Young by the federal authority, and to this end they are secretly arming and drilling throughout the Territory or Utah. Orders have been privately issued by the military commanders of the famous Nauvoo Legion requiring that dilapidated organization to be in readiness for active service on the 21st of the present month.


The following is an exact copy of an order from Colonel William H. Dame, one of the chief men indicted for participation In the Mountain Meadows slaughter: --


PAROWAN, U. T., April 13, 1877.  }     

In pursuance to orders -- First, you are hereby directed to cause a muster drill and inspection of arms of your company, to be held on its respective parade ground on the 21st day of April, A. D. 1877


Second -- As far as your company is disorganized, or In a partial state of disorganization, you will cause an election of officers to be held promptly and the ranks to be filled without delay by enrolling all persons liable to military duty not now enrolled.


Third -- You will make out the returns of the condition of your company as soon as possibie and forward them to the headquarters of the regiment.
Commander First regiment.    
JOSEPH FISH, Adjutant Iron Milltary District.

Preparations for hostilities are particularly active among the southern settlements, to which four boxes of breech-loading rifles were shipped last week from the co-operative store in Salt Lake City.


Night meetings and drills of squads of Mormons are going on in Salt Lake City itself, and it is reported some of these proceedings are conducted within an inclosure, in the immediate vicinity of Lion House, where Brigham Young resides.

Brigham Young has boldly asserted within the last few days that the Mormons, who have been driven so often and so far, will be driven no longer. It remains to be seen how far General Emery, Governor of Utah, will sulfer these seditious preparations to go.

Fresh  News  From  Utah.

The intelligence from the Salt Lake country which we print to-day will attract wide attention. there is a piece of news of remarkable significance. The Mormons are industriously reviving and perfecting their military organization, and secretly arming and drilling their able-bodied men. The explanation given by our correspondent of these busy and clandestine military preparations is an apprehension that Brigham Young will be arrested as an accomplice in the Mountain Meadows massacre, and a determination on the part of the faithful to protect and defend him to the last extremity. The whole Mormon community is sensible of the feeling kindled against it by John D. Lee's confession, and the Saints have formed a desperate resolve to stand their guard.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,867.                           New York City,  May 6, 1877.                           Three Cents.


Cedar City, April 30 1877. -- Having received at Salt Lake on the 12th inst., a telegram from Brigham Young, saying, "If you come quick you will find me at St. George," I started early next morning on the journey leading in that direction, across the vast deserts, over the wintry divides and through canyons of Southern Utah. A second dispatch apprised me on the way that the President would leave St. George for the north before I could possibly arrive there. Cedar City, the remote little Mormon settlement from which this letter is written, was appointed as the place of meeting. Here at the foot of an enormous mountain, looking westward across a desolate plain toward the scene of the Mountain Meadow massacre and of John D. Lee's execution, I was welcomed this morning at the home of the the hispitable Mormon Bishop Henry Lunt. Late in the afternoon President Brigham Young and his party, in a train of five carriages, drawn by four mules or horses draw up at the Bishop's home. As evening descended lights shot through the windows from the broad fireplaces within, and a supper was spread in the dining room amid sounds of jollity and cheer.

Shortly before eight o'clock, having returned from a long walk, I entered the house and was introduced to John W. Young, who prepared the way for my audience with his father, the President. Crossing the hall, he led me into a large or grand room. beaming withlight from logs of pine and cedar, and containing a small and distinguished company. Near the walls sat or stood several Mormon elders of this and neighboring districts. In front of them two or three bishops were seated. Grouped around the centre table were several of the most elevated dignitaries among the latter day priesthood. John W. Young, First Counsellor of the President, took a seat with his back to the fire, looking as handsome, as wise and amiable as he is really known to be. Brigham Young, Jr., was not present, being conifined to his bed by illness. To the right of John W. Young sat Daniel H. Wells, Vice President, his great head, iron gray hair and beard and resolute features making a picture of themselves. Wells was one of the earliest Mormon emigrants across the plains from Nauvoo, and has since been among the strongest defenders of the latter-day faith. He commanded the Mormon army which checked the advance of Johnson's troops, 1857-58. Opposite Wells lounged in his overcoat, and at his accustomed ease, George Q. Cannon, First Apostle of the church and Delegate of the Territory to Washington. His face glowed with a benevolent expression and his manner showed all that politeness which is natural to him. In the furthest corner and in shadow, however, sat the most commanding person in the room. Brigham Young never looked more thoroughly like the patriarch that his people love to call him than he did on this occasion. His tall, broad form was enveloped from shoulder to feet in a robe or cape of dark cloth generously edged with fur, a glimpse of the red lining of which showed from a corner turned up over his shoe> He wore a hat of peculiar shape, yet not unbecoming to his looks or to denote his dignity. Under his pale and pleasant face was revealed a spotless cravat, and the huge collor of silver fox which flared away from his throat and back behind his head set off his features finely.

My reception in the "Grand Room" was graceful and hearty, and after I had been introduced as "Mr. ____," who represents the New York Herald, I was placed in the vacant seat at the centre table.

The followitng conversation then took place, lasting without intermission nearly three and a half hours. I opened it by describing as accurately as I could the excitement, in the East and West, caused by recent developments in regard to the Mountain Meadows massacre, and the strong disposition evinced in some quarters to fix responsibility on President Young. I instanced especially Lee's testimony respecting George A. Smith, one of the twelve apostles at that time, whom Lee asserts went forward ahead of the Arkansas emigrant company, preaching against them and and stirring up the feelings of the people against them, until the timee was ripe for their destruction.

Brigham Young -- George A. Smith visited this whole southern region regularly, and held meetings as we are doing now. In fact he was the founder of Parowan -- the first settlement to the north -- on his way home northward. This was the year of the massacre. They met the company of the Arkansas emigrants not far from Fillmore. It was at Meadow Creek, I believe. Some of the emigrant company came up to him and passed some remarks inquiring about the roads &c. Brother George A. Smith gave them all the desired information. Some of the cattle belonging to the company died, which they poisoned, and from the effects of the poisoned meat some of the Indians who found and consumed the carcases died. These carcases also poisoned some springs. This raised the wrath of the Indians.

Here President Young turned to Daniel H. Wells, his second counsellor, saying, "Brother Wells, do you remember if Brother George A. was down here at that time for any thing special?"

Daniel H. Wells -- No, sir, he was not. He was preaching in the settlements between here and Salt Lake, as we usually do. He had part of his family living in Parowan, having built a residence there, and his being here was only one of several visits.

Brigham Young -- Brother George A. Smith's testimony in regard to this is published to the world, and I believe it to be true. It can be found among Howard's reports. George A. Smith knew no more about that company or about their being interfered with than you did in New York. Had he possessed that knowledge I would certainly have heard of it, for he would have told me of it. He knew nothing about the company until he met them on his return north near Fillmore. There was at that time no telegraph line running down here; no mails were carried to Utah. The United States government had stopped the mails, and we had no mails running from settlement to settlement as we have now.

Correspondent -- The conviction is settled in the east, especially by the testimony on the Lee trial, that there was some powerful direction of the part taken by the whites in the massacre. This conviction has strengthened by the statements in Judge Cradlebaugh's speech.

Brigham Young -- There is no doubt that the affair was directed by John D. Lee, and he evidently was a white man.

Correspondent -- It appears incredible to outsiders Lee would have undertaken a task like that on his own responsibility; the responsibility attaches in their opinion, to the Mormon Church, even to its highest individual officers.

Brigham Young -- My disposition is such that had I known anything about it I would have gone to that camp and fought the Indians and white men who took part in the perpetration of the massacre to the death, rather than such a deed should have been committed.

J. W. Young -- John D. Lee in his testimony, says he informed President Young of the affair when he visited Salt Lake City. I happened to be present when he came in father's office, and I was present during the interview. He commenced to relate the circumstances of the Indians killing the emigrants, but did not intimate a single word about the whites taking part in the killing. When he commenced to speak of the manner of the deed father stopped him, saying that the rumor which had already reached him was so horrifying that he could not bear to hear a recital of it

Brigham Young -- I never knew the real facts of this affair until within the last few years. I myself proposed to Governor Cumming, who came here soon after the massacre, to render him and Judge Cradlebaugh every assistancein hunting up the perpetrators and bringing them to justice, and if Mr. Cradlebaugh knows anything about this affair he must know that to be true. That proposition was made in the spring of 1856 [sic - 1858?].

Daniel H. Wells -- There are plenty of witnesses to that, for I heard him make it in public.

Correspondent (to Brigham Young) -- What of your own experience as Governor and ex-officio Indian Ggent at the time?

Brigham Young -- Governor Cummings took it away from me. This point too was difficult to reach from Salt Lake, and besides, according to the rumors that reached us, the people thought themselves that they would do well if they escaped the vengeance of the United States troops. The burden of these rumors was that the Mormons were to be massacred.

Correspondent -- To what do you ascribe the massacre?

Brigham Young -- If you were to inquire of the people who live hereabouts, and lived in the country at that time, you would find, if it should be according to what I have heard, that some of this Arkansas company boasted that they had the promise from the United States that the Mormons were to be used up by the troops, and that they had boasted, too, of having helped to kill Hyrum and Joseph Smith and the Mormons at Missouri, and that they never meant to leave the Territory until similar scenes were enacted here. This, if true, may have embittered the feelings of those who took part in the massacre, and the probabilities are that Lee and his confreres took advantage of those facts and the disturbed state of the country to accomplish their desires for plunder, which under other circumstances would not have been gratified.

Correspondent -- Have you an opinion of Klingensmith's testimony?

Brigham Young -- I do not know anything about it.

Correspondent -- How was it that Lee was at last and not at first, convicted by a Mormon jury?

Brigham Young -- the supposition is that there was not evidence enough against him at the first, that there was sufficient evidence against him at the last trial, and that the people of Utah could not obtain justice with any other jury.

Correspondent -- considering that your people believe thaey get their inspiration through you, do they not consider themselves responsible to you for their acts? What excuses them for crime?

Brigham Young -- what causes me to steal or commit any sin? Do I prompt them? No; but the devil and his agents do. All evil doing is to our covenants and obligations to God and to one another as members of the Church.

Correspondent -- Do you believe in blood atonement?

Brigham Young -- I do, and I believe that Lee has not half atoned for his great crime. The saviour died for all the sins of the world by shedding his blood, and then I believe that he who sheds the blood of man wilfully, by man shall his blood be shed. In other words capital punishment for offenses deserving death, according to the laws of the land. And we believe the execution should be done by the shedding of blood instead of by hanging. If the murderers of Joseph Smith were to come to me now, giving themselves up, I would not feel justified in taking their lives, but I would feel justified in having them taken to Illinois and there tried for murder.

Correspondent -- Recurring to the Mountain Meadows massacre, you are satisfied that Lee could not have received any previous intimation from the north as to what might be done in the cease of the Arkansas company who were coming down from Salt Lake?

Brigham Young -- None that I have any knowledge of and certainly none from me.

Correspondent -- You did not give any direction whatever as to the disposition of the emigrants' effects?

Brigham Young -- I knew no more about them then you, nor do I to-day. I have heard that they have been made use of, which I suppose is correct, Klingensmith, who was a Mormon and an acting bishop, [I suppose] shared in the spoils, and because he held such a position it is believed that the Church used it

Correspondent -- Was he the Church?

Brigham Young -- No, he was only a poor miserable sinner.

Correspondent -- In this southern country do the Bishops exercise the functions of Justices of the Peace?

Brigham Young -- I do not know that any of them do; and if any do it is not because they are bishops, but because they are elected justices according to the laws of the land.

Correspondent -- The Mountain Meadows massacre was so unique that many curious questions are asked in regard to it -- for instance why were the Indians angry against the Arkansas emigrants only? Other emigrant parties were passing through the country and were not molested.

Brigham Young --As I understand it, for poisoning the water and poisoning dead cattle, which some of the Indians afterwards are of and died. I would, however, refer you to the settlers of Crow and Meadow creeks, who lived there at the time.

Correspondent -- Is it true that George A. Smith advised the people not to sell their grain?

Brigham Young -- We have been scarce of breadstuffs, and the nature of his counsel was not to use their grain for feeding animals, neither to sell it to emigrants for that purpose; but no such word was ever uttered by him not to sell it for breadstuff. We have always made a practice of selling wheat and flour to the emigrants for food ever since we came here and I will say that I am at the defiance of the world to prove that the heads of the Church had anything to do with the Mountain Meadows massacre.

Correspondent -- with regard to Haight and Higbee. Have you anything to say as to their reasons for getting out of the country?

Brigham Young -- No sir. I presume however, they are trying to evade the law

Correspondent -- You do not consider yourself in the least degree responsible for them?

Brigham Young -- No, sir; not any more than Mr. Beecher or any man of your city is.

Correspondent -- It is understood at the East that the Mormon Church is a structure far more closely cemented than this would imply -- an exclusive organization, standing in the midst of the continent, and governed from the head downward by a system which renders its leaders peculiarly responsible for the people over whom they preside?

Brigham Young -- If the people over whom I preside do as I tell them to do there never would be such occurrences. But if a member of our church lies, cheats, steals or kills his neighbor, Brigham Young is not responsible for his evil acts any more than, if a Catholic were to kill, the Pope of Rome would be responsible for his crime. I am responsible only for the doctrines I teach; but I cannot make people do right unless they choose to. I am responsible for no man's acts save my own.

Young Person (in shadow) -- Then under no circumstances does the power of the President of the Church of the Latter-day saints extend so far that men's lives are at its mercy. For example, were you today to say, "Let such a person be killed," would the wish be in any instance compililed with?"

Brigham Young -- If I were to say. "Kill this or that man," I myself would be a murderer; or to say, "Take such a person's money," I would be a highwayman.

Correspondent -- Yet, is it possible that such a thing could be?

Brigham Young -- It never has been tried.

Correspondent -- I want to find out what is the power of the Mormon Church.

Brigham Young -- The church has no power to do wrong with impunity any more than any single individual.

Correspondent -- Yet we know, do we not, Mr. President, that such power has been exercised in the world's history?

Brigham Young -- You ask a question that does not apply to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Daniel H. Wells -- Judge Brocchus once said that if Brigham Young "had crooked his finger," &c. he (the Judge) would have been torn to atoms; but all there was to that was, President Young did not crook his finger.

Correspondent (to Brigham Young) -- what of the alleged order of Danites?

Brigham Young -- That is all folly.

Correspondent -- Then as to the extent of the temporal power of the Church?

Brigham Young -- It extends only as far as membership is concerned. I may, however, advise a man how to build or improve his garden or field, and if he chooses to he may either receive it or reject it without involving his fellowship.

Correspondent -- Does not the temporal government of the Church in extreme cases, assume the functions of courts?

Brigham Young -- We have what we call bishops' courts, which to referees in ordinary cases of business, and in cases of disagreement between members or immoral conduct. From these courts cases may be appealed to our High Council, which consists of a president, two councillors and twelve members. Their power extends no further than membership in the Church is concerned.

Correspondent -- How far does the authority of the Church go in dealing with cases of apostacy?

Brigham Young -- We have nothing to do with them; we let them seriously alone. They say the Church authorities injure them. They lie. We have no dealings at all with such men, for their acts prove their unworthiness of membership in our Church.

Correspondent -- How do protect your faith outside influences -- how do you keep it isolated?

Brigham Young -- We are different from all other Christian sects. We are believers in the Bible, as well as all the revelations the Lord has given to the children of men, as contained in the Old and New Testament, Book of Mormon, and Book of Doctrine and Covenant, and also what he reveals through his authorized servant when speaking or preaching under the influence of the Holy Ghost. When a man speaks by that spirit it is revelation, and if his hearers are possessed of the same they are able to judge of the correctness of what he says. Job says, "There is a spirit in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth him understanding." This is what I refer to. The object of my labors among the people is to get them the truth, and the whole truth, as it has been revealed. And they must live so that this good spirit can bear witness to them. Were it otherwise I might deceive them; but as long as they have this spirit no man can deceive them.

Correspondent -- You, like the old prophets, receive direct revelation from God?

Brigham Young -- Yes, and not only me, but my brethren also.

Correspondent -- Does that extend to all the Church without reserve or rank?

Brigham Young -- Yes, and it is just as necessary for the mother to possess this spirit in training and rearing her children as for anyone else.

Correspondent -- It is not absolutely necessary, then, that each person receive revelation through you?

Brigham Young -- Oh, no; through the spirit of Christ, the Holy Ghost; but to dictate the Church is my part of it.

Correspondent -- And your authority to dictate is given directly by heavenly inspiration?

Brigham Young -- Yes, I can relate a little circumstance which explains that and which may be interesting to you. When I, with others of the Twelve, was sent to England on a mission in the year 1840, I frequently asked Joseph Smith how we should do this and that? Said he: -- "Brother Brigham, I want you to understand doctrine as it is. When you reach England the Lord will teach you what to do, Just as he teaches me how to act here." This I found to be verily true. Brother Heber C. Kimball and I started on that mission in poor health, without money and without clothes. My family, too were sick and but poorly off, we having been driven from our houses in Missouri. We started from Terre Haute and travelled to Ohio; every place I stopped I found money in my trunk, and our expenses only amounted to $86, and as I live I had no more than $13.50 when I started. I have one gratification --- when I tell people that anything is true, they know it is true just as well as I do.

The prophet whose massive figure occasionally swerved and trembled in its seat in the shadowy corner I have spoken of, lifted his face and both his hands with this last utterance, making an impressive and reverent gesture.

Correspondent -- If all members of the Mormon Church are thus endowed with divine vision, how is it possible that any number of Mormons could have brought themselves to the commission a crime as the Mountain Meadow massacre, if they did not find an excuse for doing so in their own faith, or if they did not believe it would be approved by the Prophet?

Brigham Young -- Because the men who did it were wicked.

Correspondent -- What defect is there in the organization of your Church that it allowed the prepetration of that deed to go without instant punishment?

Brigham Young -- That was a matter that pertained to the law of the land. That alone inflicts punishment. There is no defect in the organization of the Church -- the defect was in those who took part in the massacre. The laws of the land are good, but still men do not always keep them. The Saviour says that "the wheat and the tares will grow together until the harvest." If we had none but good men among us such sad experiences would never happen, but because we have some wicked men, should we be blamed for their actions?

Correspondent -- Were not some of the men who figured in the massacre chiefsin your Church?

Brigham Young -- Lee was a farmer among the Indians, but held no presiding office. P. K. Smith however, was an acting bishop.

In regard to the participation of the Indians in this affair, the following conversation took place --

President Young -- When I was at St. George, General C. C. Rich of Bear Lake, told me that he met part of this company in Salt Lake City; he had just come in from California, having traveled this southern route. And talking with me he told me that he advised them to go north, and he believed they went as far north as Bear River. They returned, saying they would take the southern road. They lay idle over six weeks, when they should have been traveling, and when they moved they moved slowly; and it was believed, for they said it themselves, that they were waiting for the arrival of the army. It was very noticeable that they did not hurry along like other emigrants.

Daniel H. Wells -- And that company, remember, was not in the Territory when George A. Smith left Salt Lake to make his southern tour. How then, could he, as has been said, kill the people by arousing a malicious feeling against the emigrants -- saying they poisoned springs &c. -- at a time when the emigrants were hundreds of miles away, when he had not seen any of them, and no one knew any of their names, and when the emigrants themselves had not yet determined upon their route through Utah? Parties travelling to California either take the northern route, by way of Bear River, or the southern route, which they took. As for the advice about not selling grain, that was founded on a principle having no particular reference to individuals or classes. When he went back to the city Brother George A. Smith met these emigrants at Meadow Creek, as the President has stated. They were afraid of the Indians, and they came to him asking if he was not afraid of Indians, and he answered no, and then they turned out their horses too at Meadow creek. He was informed of the conduct of these emigrants in Utah also; that one Indian had died from the effects of eating poisoned meat, and that they had tied one Indian to a wagon, kept him there some time and whipped him, which made them mad. Of this be true, and I have no reason to doubt it, what could we do about it? We had all we could do ourselves to keep peace with the Indians at that time, in 1856 and 1857. Our crops failed, and from that time more or less until now have the people been counselled to care for their grain, and not dispose of it unless in case of necessity.

Brigham Young -- The thousands of emigrants that have passed through here can testify that we have always sold food to them, even in times of over-scarcity. And although I have been offered $1 a pound for flour, I have never taken from them more than the ordinary price.

Daniel H. Wells -- The truth about this Mountain Meadows massacre, sir, is that it was the result of a combination of circumstances such as will probably never exist again in any country. Your people at the East cannot understand it in all its aspects though they maay be able to understand some of them. Even the people west of us who occupy a country similar to our own have blinded themselves in a great degree to everything which would give them an acccurate view of the affair. Our previous history, the condition of our people and their crops at the time, our relations with the Indians and the extraordinary news and rumors which accompanied the simultaneous advance on Utah of Harney's United States army and the Arkansas emigrants -- these things ought to be looked at carefully, and examined before a great people are censured and a great church is prejudged according to the perjury of a few wicked members. The previous exodus of our people had taught them what a threat from the United States government to drive them from any ground they had chosen might lead to. They had been expelled from Missouri and Illinois by thousands and from other states by hundreds within the recollection of the majority of adults then living, and forced to travel across the American desert under circumstances and against obstacles which would certainly have subdued the courage of communities whose members are not upheld by a religious faith or "fanaticism," superior [to] selfishness or pride. Every one of those wagon trains and handcart trains and mule pack trains which brought the early Mormons, and the later, away up and over the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific slope, brought those and only those who were anxious to escape from the dangers and unhappiness they had endured in the East and to find on the whole continent of America that solitary place for settlement which was never likely to be invaded by other peoples, while the surrounding and fairer portions offered so many advantages to agriculture, mining and other pioneer pursuits.

we came here, in fact, because we believed nobody else would want to come here. We were willing to go through and we did go through weeks months and years of privation and self-denial such as I honestly believe were never endured by a Christian community. But now we had made the desert to blossom; established ourselves, in fact. Our possessions were surveyed, known and understood to us. We had numerous settlements thriving towns and villages, cities, even. Though the climate had caused us temporary disaster we were proud of our increase and of our improvement. At such a juncture we had heard news of Harney's advance upon us; that unauthorized advance which, as you know was subsequently repudiated by the United States government. After the many years since we left the States, mutual struggles, sufferings, helpfulness, extending through the period of planting and forming Utah itself, all of the settlements in the Territory had been informed that the United States army was again advancing to drive them out of it into some other place, perhaps to destroy them all together. Many Eastern gentlemen well recollect the fury that flamed when that news entered Utah. Our folks were desperate. It seemed they had nowhere to turn; every one prepared to resist; there was not a man, woman or child who was not for resistance. Now, when it was whispered, and it soon began not only to be whispered, but asserted, that these Arkansas emigrants were leagued with the soldiers, and that some of them had been engaged in the murder of Joseph and Hiram Smith, at Nauvoo, the air might have seemed almost as heavy over Lower as it certainly was over Northern Utah. Everybody remembers how the people behaved when ordered out by President Young to prevent Johnson from entering the Territory, at what might have seemed to another man a most dismal moment of his career, the President issued an order which, while it obliged us to burn forage in advance, set fire to the grass at night, carry off animals and do various other things to hold back the enemy, absolutely forbade a single man to shed a drop of blood.

I remember when a young officer of my command was captured by one of your troops, a wallet found on him contained an order to him, signed by me, on the back of which was the usual inscription, "Shed no blood." That order was taken first to Johnston and was afterwards taken to Washington, and brought out in the famous debate of the next session. When the Arkansas emigrant company passed through Utah, and were in many parts forgotten almost as soon as reported, there seems no doubt that much of the disgusting and blasphemous braggadocio with which many of the men were charged must have been very aggravating at the time. This impression I receive of course, from what I heard long years after. There may have been some settlement scuffles on the route -- profanity and ribaldry arrayed against each other perhaps; and the emigrants' greater height and strength warranted him in almost any kind of domineering. But I don't believe that eyen a man like Lee -- old, crafty, experienced and sympathetic as he was -- could have got together a force of Mormons in all Utah to do deliberately, knowing that they went to do it, the deed that John D. Lee, perhaps a crony or two and a lot of dupes and thieves and savages under his command, are actually proven to have done in that dark valley.

General Wells having spoken for some ten minutes as vehemently and forcibly, some one said, as he ever did in his life, your correspondent found, by a nod from President Young that he was at liberty to proceed

Correspondent -- Do foreigners generally admire your system of organization?

Brigham Young -- Yes; only excepting their surprise that each man is responsible for his own acts. A gentleman from Pennsylvania who greatly admired our organization, when he was about to leave asked me it I believed the Mormons were perfect. The question was so absurd that I had to laugh. If we were perfect we could not remain here on the earth; while we ourselves are imperfect the doctrines wwee teach are perfect.

Correspondent -- could the Church ever have accepted from John D. Lee the explanation that he murderedthe emigrants at Mountain Meadows to shed their blood for the remission of their sins?

Brigham Young -- No; that expresses the same old folly of our enemies. Many men do wrong and afterward repent and become, perhaps, even better men than they were before. Peter did wroung in denying the Saviour, but still he repented and became a great and good man. Anybody may lean over church walls after thorough repentance and, forsaking their sins, may return to membership

Correspondent -- after the faces I have seen and the hospitality I have experienced in Utah, Mr. President, I don't think I need inquire particularly at this late hour about your present system of polygamy.

Brigham Young -- I do not believe in polygamy -- the definition of which means a plurality of wives and husbands; but I do believe in polygyny, which means a plurality of wives.

Correspondent -- What is there to warrant the saying that the of polygamy has a tendency to check the growth of intelligence?

Brigham Young -- The most satisfactory proof that such a saying is untrue would be to attend either day or Sunday schools. Look at one particular effect of it -- see how it assists child-women. A woman in child-bearing should not cohabit with her husband, and neither should she exhaust her strength in any other way. This order of marriage, when carried out according to its laws, is the very highest order of marriage. Scientific men who have visited us say that if we adhere faithfully to our order of marriage there can no question that we can have the finest race of people on the earth. We believe, too, in all learning to work and being industrious; and that every man and woman should have the opportunity of developing themselves mentally as well as physically. In the present condition of the world this privilege is only accorded to a few.

Correspondent -- Do you know anything about the origin of what is called the Spaulding story which has said to be in reality the origin of the Book of Mormon?

Brigham Young -- I will tell you all I know about it. Joseph Smith and I were born in the same State, and though unacquainted we lived near each other. And years before I was a "Mormon" I read in the newspapers befored persecution arose against him, that a young man by the name of Joseph Smith, living near Palmyra, had it revealed to him by an angel where there was a record concealed of the aborigines of our country. And who knows (it said) but what the Indians will have a bible as well as the Jews in Palestine? This was in 1819 [sic], long before the Spaulding story arose, which has often been proven false and eleven years before the church was organized.

Correspondent -- The people of the East are anxious to know something of the agreement with the women in polygamy.

Brigham Young -- It is none of their business no more than it is our business to inquire of them what agreement they make. I have been a protector of virtue all the days of my life.

Correspondent -- How could the women consent in their hearts to share the same husband?

Brigham Young -- we believe that the plural order of marriage is true, and the truth is just as applicable for woman as man. I dare say there are men to-day who wish they had another wife; and there are single women who wish they were married to such and such a man. This is without any regard to divinity. And if the law of the land did not prevent men from marrying more than one wife, there would not be to-day so many thousand old maids in the State of Massachusetts. Plural marriage appeals to noblest feelings because we regard it as a divine principle. It is carnal gratification; if it were we need not go to the expense of keeping and educating several families, for we might adopt the cheaper and more popular way. It is the highest state of social moral society, and will sooner or later be recognized as such.

Almost a Confession from Brigham Young.

The Mormon Colonel William H. Dame, indicted for participation in the cruel Mountain Meadows massacre, is preparing to face justice in a somewhat startling manner. Our correspondent at Salt Lake City telegraphs that Colonel Dame has issued an order to the officers of his regiment for drill and inspection of arms, an election of officers and the filling up of the ranks of the regiment. He reminds us of the course of a Calaveras county rough, as related by his friend and fellow murderer:-- "Jim Long was the quietest man you ever see; he just hated to be shooting people; but when he saw the constnble coming to arrest him his feelings were hurt, and he just drew his revolver and shot him. What else could he do? He couldn't run away."

We suppose the Mormon colonel, like Jim Long, cannot run away; he means to face justice, and he is getting his revolver ready. In the Southern Mormon settlements our correspondent reports military preparations are particularly active. Four boxes of breech-loading rifles were shipped to those parts last week from the co-operative store at Salt Lake City -- "Zion's Cooperative Store" it used to be called on the sign -- and there are night meetings for military drill in the city itself. Finally, Brigham Young has said that "the Mormons, who have been driven so far and so often, will be driven no longer." If it is generally believed among the Saints that the Prophet Brigham has said so much as this we advise Governor Emory to be on his guard. That the Mormons would have the folly to attack United States troops directly we do not believe, but they are capable of desperate things, and Brigham Young and the other leaders evidently dread a further investigation of the Mountain Meadows massacre. They gave up Bishop Lee after vain but energetic efforts to save him, and they evidently imagined that this one sacrifice would quiet justice. Now that they find that the great horror is to be further pried into by the courts they are desperate.

We print elsewhere a long and interesting conversation with Brigham Young and several other Mormon chiefs, held with the Herald's correspondent on the 12th of April. The Mormon leaders talked very freely, as will be seen, and while, of course, all of them denief any knowledge on their part or concern in the massacre of the Arkansas train, a careful perusal of their statements does not decrease, but, on the contrary, seriously increases, the suspicion that the dying confession of Lee, as made to our correspondent, is true, and that he was only acting under the orders of the heads of the Mormon Church when he took part in the cruel massacre of the emigrants. They united, of course, in imputing all the blame to Lee, who is dead. But they talked so freely that they entered into minutae which, as we have said, confirm the suspicion that Young and the other Mormon chiefs could not but have known all about the matter. We think it worth while to point out a few of these suspicious admissions.

John W. Young, Brigham's son, said to the Herald correspondent that he was with his father when Lee came to report the details of the massacre, and that Brigham would not hear them. "Father stopped him, saying that the rumor which had already reached him was so horrifying that he could not bear to hear a recital." Now, nobody who knows the thorough and almost militnry organization of the Mormon colony under the dictatorship of Brigham Young, and the extremes to which espionase was carried by him so as to give him an absolute command of his people, will believe that Young ever refused to hear news, if it was news to him. If he refused to listen to Lee it was because he already knew all that Lee had to tell him and did not mean to be further concerned in it. In those days and for many years later nothing, no trivial incident, even, could happen in Utah without being brought to the ears of Brigham Young and his chief counsellors. They interfered constnntly in all the affairs of their people. Young made himself their earthly Providence; they lived where he placed them, planted what he told them to, moved away when he ordered them, bought and sold at his instructions -- as, indeed, it was admitted to our correspondent that orders had gone out not to sell corn for feed to the emigrants. No travellers could enter Utah without the knowledge of Brigham, and it the federal officers will investigate with sufficient persistency they will discover that no one could leave Utah without Brigham's permission,

When Young, therefore, told our correspondent that he was merely the spiritual head of the Church, with no temporal authority, and suggested that he was not rigidly obeyed, he related what must have made his Mormon listeners smile. But Daniel H. Wells, who spoke at great length to our correspondent, made even more damaging admissions than Brigham Young. He spoke bitterly of the persecutions the Mormons had suffered, of the Harney expedition which had been sent against them, of Johnston's expedition, of the excitement of the people and of "the simultaneous advance on Utah of Harney's United States army and the Arkansas emigrants" -- a very strange phrase when we remember that the federal troops were regarded with the bitterest hostility as enemies of Zion, and the Arkansas emisrants "in league with them" were murdered at Mountain Meadows. When Wells added that "it was whispered and soon began to be asserted that these Arkansas emigrants were leagued with the soldiers, and that some of them had been engaged in the murder of Joseph and Hiram Smith at Nauvoo," we seem to hear not a denial of Brigham's complicity in the massacre, but a plea in justification; and when Wells went on to describe the extent of Brigham's authority and the abject obedience rendered him when he ordered the people to destroy their farms in order to stop Sydney Johnston's advance, the picture he draws seems to us to prove positively that the massacre of the Arkansas train could not have occurred without Young's permission. These are the remarkable words of Wells:-- "Everybody remembers how the people behaved when ordered out by President Young to prevent Johnston from entering the Territory, at what might have seemed to another man a most dismal moment of his career. The President issued an order which, while it obliged us to burn forage in advance, set fire to the grass at night, carry off animals and do various other things to hold back the enemy, absolutely forbade a single man to shed a drop of blood."

Anybody can see that Young could not afford to go to war with the United States; he dared not order an attack on the troops, but on the Arkansas emigrants, their allies, as Wells says they were believed to be -- that was another thing. In short, Wells and Young together seem to us to have made some very damaging admissions to our correspondent. We trust the investigation of the massacre will continue. Young himself professes that to murder is agninst the Mormon religion. Very well; if he is innocent of this murder he will not object to a full investigation. The arming and drilling of Mormon militia look suspicious. Nobody here intends any injustice to the Mormon leaders. Is it justice they fear?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,869.                       New York City, Tuesday,  May 8, 1877.                      Three Cents.

A Mormon  Theory  and Mormon  Facts.

The Mormon theory of the Mountain Meadows massacre is that the Indians murdered the emigrants and that the Mormons were unable to protect them, but managed to save some of the children.

But in the long and interesting conversation of several of the Mormon leaders with a Herald correspondent, which we printed on Sunday, Daniel H. Wells made an extraordinary statement about the circumstances surrounding the massacre. He asserted, of course, that the Mormons, Lee excepted, were guiltless, but he said:-- "All the settlements in the Territory had been informed that the United States army was again advancing to drive them out of it into some other place, perhaps to destroy them altogether. Many Eastern gentlemen well recollect the fury that flamed when that news entered Utah. Our folks were desperate. It seemed they had nowhere to turn; every one prepared to resist; there was not a man, woman or child who was not for resistance. Now, when it was whispered -- and it soon began not only to be whispered, but asserted -- that these Arkansas emigrants were lengued with the soldiers, and that some of them had been engaged in the murder of Joseph and Hiram Smith, at Nauvoo, the air might have seemed almost as heavy over Lower as it certainly was over Northern Utah."

Now, we cannot see how the fury of the Mormons, their hatred and desperation, which the Prophet Wells so vividly describes, could affect the Indians. The Indians could not read; they were not infuriated by what alarmed the Mormons; they could not hear, except from the Mormon authorities, that the Arkansas people were in league with General Harney, and they would not have cared if they had heard it. The Indians did not care whether or not these emigrants had murdered Joseph Smith years ago. In all we have quoted from Wells there is abundant reason for suspecting the Mormons: not an iota for suspecting the Indians. Nor do these suspicions diminish when Wells goes on to describe how obediently the Mormons burned the forage, set fire to the grass and carried off the animals -- in fact, destroyed their own farms to impede the advance of the federal troops. He only shows that Brigham's authority was absolute over his people, as everybody knows it was. But it was hardly less so over the Indians within the Territorial limits, who were for years in Brigham's pay and his allies against all outsiders. The latest revised Mormon theory of the Mountain Meadows massacre, therefore, is that, because the Mormons bitterly hated the emigrants, and were furious with fears of an invasion, therefore the Indians murdered them. That hardly holds water.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,871.                       New York City, Thursday,  May 10, 1877.                      Three Cents.


Disgusting Rules Which Enslaved Men and Women.


Putting an Offender "Over the Rim."


Dame's Orders to Murder the Arkansas Emigrants.

Salt Lake City, may 3, 1877.      
That was a delightful state of society in Southern Utah about the time of the Mountain Meadows massacre in 1857. The Mormon settlements at Beaver, Parowan, and Cedar City may be said to have been isolated from the world. They consisted of fugitives from Missouri and Illinois, sore at heart because of their many persecutions and the outrageous killing of their Prophet Joseph Smith, at Carthage Jail, and of hundreds of foreign fanatics culled from the nethermost populations of England, Scotland and the Scandinavian countries. Some of their leaders were fairly educated, shrewd, able to cope vigorously with their rude environment. All were inered to hardships; all were inveterate Mormons, ready to die for the faith. Garth the swineherd was no more the born thrall of Cedric the Saxon was any one of those bronzed and burnt-haired saints the thrall of Brigham Young. From his eyrie in the north he controlled them, as he still continues to do. At that time, to be sure, there was no telegraph line stretching down as a does now hundreds of miles to St. George. Nor was there a regular stageroad. But Bigham Young could at any moment despatch a messenger at speed who would be sure of a frsh horse at any point on his journey; and chain of videttes was complete along the whole eastern frontier. He was apprised of the advance of Johnston's army, in the autumn of 1857, in ample time to delay it by harassing the General's trains, and although he has denied to me repeatedly that he heard of the approach of the Arkansas emigrants in season to give any instructions in regard to them to George A. Smith before the latter started off on his southern mission, his denial accuses of gross demerit a system of espionage which has been praised as faultless.


The settlements of Southern Utah, as I have intimated, were isolated from all tidings of the outside world which Brigham Young did not choose to send them. Having personally visited the region, where I had ample opportunities to converse with the oldest settlers, my information in this respect comes from the lips of the Mormons themselves. They know little, they say, of events which were occurring in Europe or America. They obtained only scattered information, doled out by itinerant bishops and elders, of what was going on in Salt Lake City. They received, however, regular "counsel" from the Church authorities in the North -- counsel which, filtering down to em through the various grades of church officials, informed them what to do in respect to nearly all matters pertaining to their daily life and conduct. At this time John D. Lee and all the men indicted and accused in common with him for the crime at Mountain Meadows were at the height of their repute as members of the Church of Latter Day Saints. Some if them were exalted officers of the the Mormon military organization known as the Nauvoo Legion. W. H. Dame was at once the Presiding Spiritual Head of Parowan and a Colonel of the Legion. Isaac C. Haight was the Presiding Spiritual Head of Cedar City and Lieutenant Colonel of the Legion. George A. Smith was one of the Twelve Apostles and Brigadier General of the Legion. One John Hyatt, of Parowan, acted as Dame's aide-de-camp. All the adult males in the southern settlements were armed and drilled and trained in military tactics.


Having thus sketched for you the condition of affairs in these remote settlements in the year when the Mountain Meadows massacre occured, I Introduce a witness whose testimony in regard to the events of that year is new, trustworthy and important. This witness is Mr. James McGuffie, one of the oldest members of the Mormon Church, who left its fold at a time and under circumstances most propitious for the exit. Mr. McGuffie was in fact one of the original Mormon pioneers. In company with George A. Smith, John D. Lee. William H. Dame and more than one hundred others, he journeyed in the winter of 1850-51 down South, organized Iron county and located Parowan as the county seat. In 1854 General Fremont came into Parowan with his exploring party. which had been for some time lost in the mountains west of Fort Bridger. Two of his men were frostbitten, and when Fremont proceeded to California he left one of these men, named Sherman. to the tender mercies of the Mormons. After about three months' residence in Parowan Sherman got better and one day divulged the fact that Fremont had hidden some dahuerrotype and other instruments in the neighboring mountains. The brethren, says McGuffie, at once proposed to go and unearth the treasure. Sherman was to be their guide. At this juncture one Simon Howd managed to get drunk and quarral with Sherman. Having got the worst of it he circulated about the settlement a malicious lie to the effect that Sherman had threatned to steal a horse while the exploring party went searching for the instruments and make his escape. This charge against Sherman by Howd resulted in Sherman's mock trial before a Mormon Court and a sentence that he should be put over the "Rim of the Basin." "I didn't know," said Mr. McGuffie, "what these words implied. I took it that Sherman was literally to be conducted over the Rim of the Basin to St. George or some such place and banished there. I had no idea that the man was to be murdered -- first, because Simeon Howd had failed to prove his charge against him, and next, because Sherman, during the few months he stayed with us, had become a general favorite. He was taken away, as myself saw, by Barney Carter, now a resident of San Bernardino, Cal.; Job Hall, now residing at Pinto Creek, Iron County; Charles Y. Webb, who is still living in Parowan, and 'Old Man Gold,' who is dead.

"These men returned on horseback from the South in the afternoon at of the same day on which they had left departed in the morning with their prisoner. They reported that they had 'put him on his way.' It was not long before Gold began to boast that he had laid Sherman out with his pistol. Afterward he boasted many times to John Rogerson, who lives in Parowan, and to Josiah Rogerson, telegraph operator at Beaver, that he shot Sherman when he was on horseback and left him at the mouth of a canyon for the wolves to eat. You can judge from this," continued Mr. McGuffie, "of the readiness to take human life, which was, and according to my observation has always been, a characteristic of the Mormon people."


I asked Mr.McGuffie to what he attributed this propensity to slaughter.

"Well," replied the stalworth Scotchman, "I believe it was owing to the fact that they were Ishmaelites, driven from the world. Again their faith taught them to obey counsel. Pretty counsel they received! Why, sir, for years after our settlement the policy of the Church virtually prohibited us from all intercourse whatever with outsiders. The Deseret alphabet was invented and intended to be taught to the rising generation instead of the English alphabet. The Post Office was carefully guarded. People of malure years were not allowed to receive newspapers from the States or from the old country which contained anything derogatory to Mormonism. Letters addressed to settlers were frequently opened -- some of them at Salt Lake and others at Beaver and Parowan -- and such as contained matters which were not thought fit for our perusal were seized or mutilated. We were taught to believe that we were the only people fit to inhabit the Territory we had chosen and that all other people were interlopers, worthy only to be regarded with a kind of malevolent distrust."


"Was the shedding of blood of strangers, then," I asked, "a common thing in Parowan?"

"Indeed it was, sir. I could tell you some things which would astonish the readers of the Herald in the East; things which, nevertheless, really happened there. When I look back upon it now, sir, it seems as if that little village of Parowan, where I lived so long, and through which you tell me you passed so recently, fairly smoked with blood offerings. Let me tell you one horrible fact. It is a fact which was notorious at the time, not only in the community of Parowan, but in the whole range of settlements in Southern Utah. No old settler will dare gainsay it. Now to the story:--

"A man named Weston, an Englishman, kept a distillery on the outskirts of Parowan. Another man, also an Englishman, known as James Bosner, kept a grist mill near by. Weston enticed wandering emigrants into his distillery, got them drunk and when they were advanced in stupor murdered them by striking them on the temples with a kingboldt. The killing done, robbery of the bodies was the next thing in order. The spoil was shared between Weston and Bosner, the owner of the grist mill, to whose premises the remains of the murdered Gentiles were dragged and fed to the hogs Bosner kept.

"This was the way in which scores of American citizens were destroyed, beset and slain. Their bodies were never buried save in the bellies of swine, and the friends they had left in the East and those they were on their way to meet in California lived and died, in ignorance of their horrible fate, which I have described to you."


"How was it possible, Mr. McGuffie, for you to live in the midst of such scenes as you describe and make no effort to escape from them?"

"Now, sir, I assure you, on my honor, that that's what I can't understand myself. I can only explain it by saying that, like all the rest of the people, I was locked in. In other words, I felt like a cat in a cage -- desperate at times, but helpless. What could I do? What could any of us do but look on and see things take their course, and pray in a kind of a dumb way at night that we might not ourselves be mixed up in such horrors? If we complained, if we objected to anything which the bishop or the elders tacitly consented to, we knew not what might be our individual fates. The odor of blood was on the air; the scent of human carrion actually on many a night loaded the breeze that swept past my chamber windows. There was an old man named Jo Walker -- I believe he still resides in Parowan -- who claimed that he had seen the spirits of those poor murdered emigrants whose bodies were thrown to the hogs near Bosner's grist mill sitting around ghostly camp fires and gesticulating to one another at midnight."

"In respect to the Mountan Meadows massacre, Mr. McGuffie, have you any knowledge of that affair?"

"I suppose, sir, that I know as much about it as any person who was not there."

"Will you go on then, and tell your own story in regard to it, first understanding this fact, that Brigham Young positively assures me that George A. Smith took no message from him concerning the Arkansas emigrants, when he went down, in 1857, into Lower Utah, and that, in fact, the approach of the emigrants was not known to him (Brigham Young) until long after George A. Smith had departed."


"Brigham Young may say what he pleases, but if he says that, I venture to say that he lies."

"Do you believe, then, that he gave orders for the massacre?"

"I believe it as I believe in God. There is no doubt of it in my mind. Brigham Young had those emigrants spoiled, He had his spies; he knew of their approach, and long before they reached the borders of Utah it had been reported to him that there were men among them who had a hand in the killing of Joseph and Hiram Smith and in the expulsion of the Mormons from Nauvoo. There is some confusion in the public mind relative to George A. Smith's agency in what subsequently occurred. Undoubtedly that apostle was intrusted with verbal advice or counsel by Brigham Young which prepared the way for the massacre. His counsel to us at Parowan distinctly referred to the Arkansas emigrants. It was to the effect that we should let the emigrants have no supplies whatever; it was as strict in this direction as strict could be. Following close on George A. Smith's appearance among us, Dame, who, as I have said, was not only colonel of the Nauvoo Legion, but the presiding spiritual head at Parowan, ordered that Parowan be absolutely shut up against the approaching emigrants. He forbade the people to trade with them on any condition, and when the emigrants arrived and encamped near Parowan Dame reiterated his orders, attaching severe penalties to their violation. I recollect, however, that one easy-going Mormon named Morgan Richards visited the camp of emigrants and traded some provisions for a cooking utensil. On his way back to town he was met by his Bishop's chief counsellor, Sam Lewis, who took him by the beard and exclaimed: -- 'Take it back, by God, and leave it where you got it.' Richards meekly obeyed. Another resident of Parowan was marked for death because he gave some onions to one of the emigrants who strayed into his garden. He was sent off on a mock mission and told to encamp the first night at a certain place. Suspecting treachery he avoided the designated encampment and thus saved his life. These incidents will indicate the vigor with which the policy of no trade with the emigrants was carried out under the personal direction of Apostle George A. Smith.


"I have said," proceeded Mr. McGuffie, "that verbal instructions were given to George A. Smith by Brigham Young. But the instructions which ordered the massacre at Mountain Meadows were not conveyed in any wise through George A. Smith, nor were they addressed to John D. Lee. This was the way of it: -- Brigham Young did not himself use the pen. He dictated his instructions, which were written out by J. W. [sic - V.] Long, and addressed to the officers at Parowan and Cedar."

"Who were those officers?"

"Colonel Dame, of Parowan, and Lieutenant Colonel Haight, of Cedar City."

"Have you any knowledge or any opinion in regard to the distribution of the property of the murdered immigrants?"

"Sir," answered Mr. McGuffie, "I can only recite to you some facts. After the massacre John D. Lee went up to Salt Lake City to report the facts to Brigham Young. Lee out the gold and silver -- the tithing of the murdered emigrants -- on the table in Brigham Young's room. Mrs. Decker, of Parowan, wife of Zechariah Decker, and a former wife of John D. Lee, was present. Brigham Young looked at the money, wrung his hands, swept it off the table and said he would not have it, for it was the price of blood. After this byplay John D. Lee gathered up the money and left the room. He went south and paid the money as tithing to Bishop Davies, of Kanarra, a settlement six or seven miles south of Cedar City. Bishop Davies came up a while afterward to Salt Lake City, bringing with him the gold and silver of the murdered emigrants with other tithing, and Brigham Young received it and blessed him in the name of the Lord."

"What effect did the news of the massacre have in the Southern settlements?"

"A shocking effect, but nobody dared to openly comment upon it. The leaders took courage from the reticence of the people, and President Dame, in his sermon delivered the next Sunday after the massacre, addressed the women of the congregation thus: -- 'Remember this: these are peculiar times. If any of you happen to look out your windows in the morning and see the dogs go by with the heads of your husbands or brothers in their mouths, ask no questions. Stranger things than this may come to pass among you. Be careful lest you too, be suddenly taken away.'"


"This man Dame, then, you believe to have been concerned with the fate of the emigrants?"

"Yes. He is an evil man. He married as his third wife Sally Ann Carter, by whom he had three children. One of her brothers, Barney, was chief among the Destroying Angels. Her second brother, Arthur, used to steal cattle from the settlers, take them to Camp Floyd and exchange them for groceries, then steal United States mules at Camp Floyd, bring them to Parowan and sell them at a profit. Dame himself," said Mr. McGuffie, with a twinkle in his eye, "liked a sharp bargain, and that's why I got out of the Mormon Church. He came to me one fine day and said to me, 'McGuffie, you are a hard working, industrious man, and I've a chance for you to make some money. I know of four spans of mukes, and you can have them all for $400, provided you turn over one span to me.' Now, I being a Brittisher, and, therefore, somewhat acquainted with horses and mules, concluded I would take two or three days to consider. It leaked out to me that the mules had been stolen from the United States government. I therefore declined to purchase them, and will you believe it, I was immediately called before the Church to be tried for my fellowship for disobeying counsel. What counsel? Why the counsel of the spiritual head of the Church that I should buy a lot of stolen army mules and give him a pair of them. Erastus Snow, one of the twelve apostles, was chairman of the meeting that tried me. He stated broadly that I ought to have bought the mules, made a present of one span to Dame, sold the others and put the money in the Emigration Fund. 'And because I wouldn't do this,' exclaimed Mr. McGuffie, 'I wasn't a good Mormon. I told them, in effect that I would see them damned first. I left the Mormon Church, and have seen reason to thank God for it from that hour, and I have since prospered so well in this life that I am able to live in Salt Lake City on the interest of my money and to sit here in this chair and tell you the truth without fear of Brigham Young or any of his proselytes."

Mr. McGuffie, valuable as his testimony is, is not the most original witness whose statements I shall bring to your attention.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,872.                       New York City, Friday,  May 11, 1877.                      Three Cents.


The Saints Disgusted at the Exposure of Their Plans.


Action of Previous Executive Regarding the Nauvoo Legion.



Salt Lake City, Utah, May 10, 1877.
The Herald despatches sent back here by telegraph are quoted by the Mormon newspapers with expressions of disgust. What these papers say is of no account except so far as it illustrates the duplicity practised by the leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints when in trouble. At present there is more real danger to the tenure and the necks of the Mormon chiefs in this Territory than ever impended over them before, and they strive by all means available to stimulate their followers and deceive the people of the United States.


During the last three weeks the counsels of the priesthood throughout Utah have been belligerent, and the orders from commanders of the old Nauvoo Legion have summoned that body to get ready for action.


Brigham Young has indicated to an immense congregation of Mormons at the Tabernacle, in pariphrases which necessity long ago taught him to use, willingness that they should be ready to defend him and the church from impending danger; yet he dislikes to have this meaning conveyed to the outside world. While the Mormons are arming he desires the authorities at Washington and the people beyond Utah to believe that they are organizing merely for a holiday, and newspapers here which are edited in the interest of the Mormon Church, describe the opposite view as sensational.


Governor Emory, who has had his attention called to the facts, still deliberates whether or not to take action in regard to them. One crucial fact before him is that the Nauvoo Legion is a military organization utterly dissimilar to any other in the United States. It is composed exclusively of Mormons who were branded for treasonable resistance to the United States troops under General Johnston, and it was subsequently disbanded or rather forbidden to assemble without his order by Governor Shafer in 1870. In the following year Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells attempted to call out the legion to parade in Salt Lake City on the Fourth of July. Governor Shafer being then dead, George A. Black, Secretary and acting Governor of the Terrirory, called Wells' attention to the Governor's order, which had not been revoked, and forbade the assembly of the legion. The Lieutenant General insisting on its right to parade, Acting Governor Black summoned from Camp Douglass a detachment of federal troops, who came down to the city, commanded by General Detrobriand in person, and prevented an armed procession of the heroes of Nauvoo.


There was never any doubt of the right of the Governor to regulate and control the movements of the militia, but Governor Emory awaits fuller legal advices before imitating the resolute example of his predecessors. He is aware that a dozen men in this city can control the action of every Mormon in Utah, and he is besought by Gentiles who have millions of capital invested in mining and mercantile enterprises to hold on until he is absolutely certain of approaching mischief. Whether he will let his perogative rust or take the Mormon bull by the horns and prepare the way for a peaceful exercise of judicial authority here during the coming summer is a question which will probably be answered within the next few days.



(From the Salt Lake Tribune, May 5.)

(view original article from Utah paper)

Brigham  Young's  Sermon.

The Mormon Prophet has, our Salt Lake correspondent telegraphs, sent out a report of his last Sunday's discourse in which some of the threatening sentences are eliminated. But even Young's own authorized version is sufficiently full of words of blood and hints of slaughter; and our correspondent telegraphs that the threatening language originally imputed to him was heard by many persons ready to testify of it. It is certain that Young's language last Sunday was such as to alarm many of the "Gentile" residents of Salt Lake City and induce them to make preparations for sending their families out of the Territory.

In the authorized report of the sermon, however, there is sufficient to awaken the curiosity, at least, of "Gentile" readers. What has happened in Utah or elsewhere affecting Mormonism that should put the Prophet upon thoughts of blood? There are no threats uttered anywhere against the Mormons as citizens or as religionaries. Even the question of polygamy rests for the present; nobody is discussing it. The people of the United States just now believe that this social fester will presently disappear of itself. Why, then, should Brigham Young preach a sermon full of dark hints of coming slaughter?

There is but one cause for it all that any one can see. The United States Grand Jury meets at Salt Lake City on the 21st of this month, and before it are to appear a number of witnesses whose testimony, there is reason to hope, will reveal the authors of and the actors in the cruel massacre of Mountain Meadows. There is no doubt that the emigrants were murdered; there is no doubt that they were hated with great bitterness by the Mormons, for the Prophet Daniel Wells himself told our correspondent this only a few days ago; there is no doubt that prominent Mormons took part in the murder, for Bishop Lee was shot for his share in it, and his confession showed that he was acting under orders, while other papers he left behind him, and of which we shall publish a part to-morrow, show that Young was not without knowledge of this and many other murders. Finally, there is no doubt that the Mountain Meadows massacre was not investigated by Brigham Young, then Governor of Utah; he never mnde any attempt to bring its authors to punishment. Now comes federal justice. slow, very slow, but apparently sure, at last; Lee, after two trials. has been executed; the Grand Jury is to meet for a further investigation; and suddenly Brigham Young gets visions of blood and slaughter. Is it because he sees justice on his own track?

We should like to see the President taking a public and decided interest in this matter. We should like the people, Mormon and Gentile, in Utah, to have some public and conspicuous assurance that this hideous crime is to be probed to the bottom, and that its authors, no matter who they are, shall be brought to justice. We should like to know that the Attorney General is awake to his responsibility in this important matter, and that he is taking upon his own shonldcrs some part of the heavy burden of this investigation and is not leaving it all in a perfunctory sort of way, to his subordmates at Salt Lake. Young and the other Mormon leaders comprehend very well the meaning and the probable consequences of this investigation; they know that unless it is stopped in some way, a dark and terrible story of long continued murder and lawlessness will be exposed, in which many of them will figure as the responsible actors. They do not intend to let the investigation proceed; and they have still very great power over their deluded subjects and great wealth and influence with which to corrupt and coerce their opponents. Is the Attorney General, in whose department this matter falls, awake to this?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,873.                     New York City, Saturday,  May 12, 1877.                     Three Cents.


(From the Salt Lake Tribune, May 6.)

The Sultan makes things lively once in a while by threatening to unfurl the standard of the Prophet. This flag is a tremendous power in his hands, and should he throw it to the breeze, there would be a perfect storm of blind fanaticism loosed... Our own Prophet, too, the leader of the hosts of Israel, seems to be preparing to unfurl his blood-drenched rag. He is arming and drilling his followers with great activity, and appeals to their fanaticism are being made in the rehearsal of the story of "our persecutions." ...Brigham's little close corporation, set up in the heart of a free Republic, has also become a public nuisance, and the voice of the American people is pretty unanimous in demanding that it be overturned. Polygamy is an abomination a Christian community cannot [away?] with, and his obstinate misrule stands so in the way of progress and development that it can no longer plead a reason to be. The brutal excesses wreaked by the fanatical Turkish soldiers upon a defenceless population produced a thrill of horror throughout the civilized world. And so the treacherous assassination of the Arkansas emigrants, with the many other deeds of blood done in this darkened land, "in the name of God," have caused such a horror in the American people that they demand justice upon the heads of those who are responsible for the crimes and ask that this dangerous ecclesiastical organization be effectually broken up.... if in Zion "the damned, cussed hounds of the law" become too familiar in their attentions to Brigham, he can crook his historic little finger, unfurl that red bandanna of his, and unsheathing his bowie-knife hide in the last ditch... but the car of progress will roll on, and any bovine that seeks to hinder it will experience a terrible upheaval for his obduracy.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,874.                     New York City, Sunday,  May 13, 1877.                     Five Cents.


The True Inwardness of Mormonism Exposed.


The Organization and Purposes of the Danites.


How the Blood of the Martyrs was to be Avenged.


Horrible Stories of Open and Secret Assassination.

Salt Lake City, Utah, May 4, 1877.
John D. Lee, who has been paraded as the heavy villain of the Mountain Meadows massacre, and who was undoubtedly chief of the Mormon cutthroats on that occasion, has been lampooned since his execution for not having implicated Brigham Young, his Mormon chief. His published confessions have been ransacked in vain for a direct accusation of the Prophet. Although the terms of these confessions frequently signify his resentment toward Brigham Young, and even go so far as to accuse him of betraying and sacrificing his life-long servant, they falter on the verge of a distinct arraignment of the Prophet as the author of the massacre. That there was a strong reason for Lee's hesitation to pronounce judgment upon his chief respecting the Mountain Meadows affair is apparent to all who understand the ties between Mormons. Lee, condemned by the law, but still having hope from the Church, forbore, except in secret, to testify against his master. Superstitious to the last he expected from that master his release. I am told by the United States Marshal who conducted him from his prison to his coffin and by several of the special marshals who accompanied him along the way that Lee constantly relied upon Brigham Young for a rescue. Trusting thus in the friendship of his ancient chief. he kept out of his written communications to his lawyer and the United States District Attorney anything directly accusatory of the heads of the Mormon Church. It was only at the last, when all hope had deserted him, that he penned some manuscripts, not yet published, which have fallen into my hands. The first paper -- in Lee's handwriting like the rest which I shall quote from -- deals with that period of Mormon history which preceded the advent of the Saints in Utah. Brigham Young has denied the existence of Danites, or Destroying Angels or any other organization similar to them in connection with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Let us observe Lee's specific testimony against that denial: --


"Before reciting these facts," Lee writes, "allow me to say that I have suffered imprisonment for two years, a portion of the time fettered with chains before I could get the consent of my conscience to come out and tell what I kniw. Even then I could not have done so if our leaders had proven true to the sacred trust committed to them and me. An old adage has it that what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. If my superiors can betray their trust and sacrifice my life through falsehood then there cannot be much harm in telling all I know. I am fully convinced now that corruption is at the bottom of the Mormon religion; that it is only a wicked scheme to lull people to sleep in carnal security, the better to enslave them, and after robbing them, to sacrifice and send them "cross lots to hell," to use Brigham Young's own expressive language. Under his direction the Mormon people have cut assunder every sacred chord of love and tie of friendship and humanity. He has broken every bond by which a people can be bound together, and I now feel free to speak and tell what I know. In fact, I feel it my imperative duty to aid in bringing to light the damnable secrets and acts of corruption which have come to my knowledge, and to endeavor to correct the abuses entailed upon the people by spiritual wickedness in high places."

"I begin my narrative with the year 1844. In that year, at Nauvoo, a police force of forty men was organized to guard the city, but more especially to guard the Prophet and leading men in the Church. I belonged to that guard, and was the seventh man chosen. My first post was at the Prophet Joseph's mansion; after his death I was assigned to guard Brigha Young. The guard to which I belonged was sworn in secrecy, and to put out of the way every suspicious person whomsoever. Any one who dared to threaten the life of Joseph Smith, Briqham Young, or any leading man of the Church, was marked for slaughter. When a certain job was arranged to be done by one or more of the guard, the men designated to do the job were prohibited from asking any questions as to its justice or legality. If it was to kill a man, to rob a house, or do anything else, no questions were to be asked why or wherefore; the only assurance given to us was that the Chief of Police would order no man killed unless he ought to be killed. We were fed with maxims such as these: -- That the left hand should not know what the right hand did. We were told that whatever we should do, the blame would not rest on us, since we had only to obey our leaders. If anything wrong was done our leaders would bear the whole responsibility, and we would not be called on to make no atonement whatever."

"Now," says Lee, interjecting an indignant outcry in the midst of his narrative, "see what I have come to by obeying such counsel! I ask Brigham Young and the leaders of his Church to live by their own doctrines; it is too late in the day now for them to back water. Let them take heed as to the measure of their own guilt."


"Fortunately," continues Lee, "I was never called on but once while a policeman, and on that occasion I broke through orders. A man had been seen going into the house of Widow Clawson, Hyrum B. Clawson's mother, after dark and leaving just before day. I with another guard, was sent to watch the house, with instructions to knock the man down as he came out and castrate him or kill him. This was a greater responsibility than I was willing to take without knowing what the man had done. I wanted to know why he should receive such treatment. The thought of doing such an act rendered me miserable. The nearer evening approached the more wretched I became, until I was unable to resist my feelings, which continued to revolt against the commission of such a crime. I finally went to see the Prophet Joseph, and lay the matter before him. He was absent, but his brother Hyrum saw that something was wrong and induced me to explain. He told me I was right in resisting the order I had received; said that the man who visited that house had a right to go there, because Mrs. Clawson was his celestial wife, ordained by the priesthood, and therefore more truly a wife than any woman married by the law of the land. This was my first lesson as a Destroying Angel, and here, for the first time, I was taught the meaning of polygamy. This, too, was the only occasion in my life, except the Mountain Meadows massacre, wherein the destroying of life was occasioned. There were plenty of willing adherents to do such dirty jobs without me. I am not a man of blood, and never was. I met the police once a day and heard the report of that day's doings -- whether any one had been killed, and how or by whom, and anything else that had happened. At these daily meetings the business of the night and the following day was arranged, and this business was kept secret under oath."


"A duty assigned to the police was to watch all strangers that came into the city and whittle every supicious person out of town. This whittling process was peculiar. Some ten or fifteen Mormons would get around the man they wanted to drive away, each with a keen ground butcher knife and a piece of soft wood in his hands. They would crowd close up to him and commence whittling, all cutting toward him, but no one apparently paying the least attention to the stranger. Surrounded and threatened thus, the poor man was compelled to retreat from the town. On his retreat he was surrounded by whittlers whittling, some of them making skittish lunges toward his breast and arms. If he took his escort quietly, very well. If he was foolish enough to resist or threaten, he was very likely to be put out of the way."

"Human life," says Lee, "was of little value in those times, almost as valueless as it was in later times in Utah. For example, two men were arrested in 1845, and taken to the Nauvoo Masonic Hall. I don't know what their offence was; I only know that they were kept there till night, and that they were doomed. A hole was dug for one of them in a patch of corn near by. The corn was dug up and set on one side. The man was taken out and treacherously deceived. He was lured to the edge of this hole, and told to reach down into it and hand up a jug of whisky for the crowd. As he bent over to do this, he was struck on the back of the head with a police club, and dropped into his grave. A small cord was tightened around his neck to shut off his wind. He was then covered up, and some three feet of the hills of corn were set back on him, making it appear that nothing had been done. The other man, his companion, was taken out in the current of the Mississippi river at night, and sunk by a stone for fish bait."


It is painful to follow this villain Lee through his narrative of crimes, which would set a New York thug shuddering with dismay. But what he says in these pages before me throws so much light upon the hideous policy of the Mormon Church that it cannot well be dispensed with at this time. Lee proceeds: --

"Soon after the death of Joseph Smith, two young men named Hodges were brought to trial at Nauvoo for murdering an old man and his wife and then robbing them. The circumstances were such as to implicate Brigham Young. In fact, two elder brothers of the murderers, named Amos and Urvine, were very free spoken about the affair indeed. They said Brigham Young was the man who caused their brothers to get into that trouble, and threatened that if he deserted them, by the Eternal his blood should atone for it. This was a fatal threat. Soon after dark that same evening Hodges was met on his way home by two of the police, by whom he was knocked down and stabbed four times in the left breast. He rose bleeding and ran to, and fell within a few feet of Brigham Young's gate. There, lying prostrate, he cried to Brigham Young, entreating him to come out and lay hands on him. But Brigham Young was not near; he was at my house when the deed was done, as he had often been before when similar murders were to be committed. I went home with him that night, as I was on duty as guard. We came upon the dead man. I do not recollect the precise remark of Brigham Young as we passed along, but it was in substance this: -- 'It is no worse for Hodges to die than it would be for me.'"


Wading along through his bloody narrative, Lee proceeds to say: --

"Four of the police -- Ed. Richardson, Daniel Kearns, J. W. Laughby and Samuel Liyttle -- went above Nauvoo some ten miles to rob an old miser, as they called him. They rapped at the door about eight at night, and, being challenged, responded that there were no lodgings to spare and were directed to the houses of near neighbors. They withdrew a short distance, took counsel, and finally assaulted the house. Richardson was met by a shot from the old miser, which shattered his right arm, near the elbow. All then made their retreat without booty. I allude to this as one of many instances of robbery, burglary and theft which were continually committed with the tacit approval of Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and other high officers of the Mormon Church. I have heard Brigham Young say, more than once, that such and such men would do for dirty jobs like plundering, or like killing mobocrat officers and burying them. He became very haughty and presumptuous before the Mormons were forced out of Nauvoo. In his office there I saw him raise his hand and heard him say, 'I swear by the eternal heavens that I have unsheathed my sword and that I will never return it to its sheath until the blood of the prophets is avenged. This whole nation,' Brigham shouted, 'is guilty of the shedding of their blood. It has sanctioned their murder by not bringing to justice and punishing their murderers. Every man who does not raise his voice against it is guilty, and our enemy, and on his garments lies the blood of the Prophet Joseph, of Hyrum his brother, of David Potter and of all the saints who have died martyrs for our glorious religion. Now betray me,' again exclaimed Brigham Young, 'any of you who dare.'"

"In the winter of 1845," says Lee, "the Mormon Temple was completed and as many received their endowments as the shortness of the time would allow. All who went through the endowment ceremony, male and female alike, took a solemn oath to avenge the blood of the prophets whenever an opportunity should be offered, and to teach their children after them to do the same thing. That oath or obligation, which extends to the present time, I have no doubt is administered in the Temple now at St. George. All who oppose Mormonism are called Gentiles, aterm which means enemies to the priesthood and the faith. The Mormon doctrineis that their religion and the religion of the Gentiles are two elements which cannot dwell together. They believe that the kingdom of Latter Day Saints is destined to grow and fill the whole earth; therefore no other kingdom or religion can exist beside it; all other kingdoms or religions must be destroyed or give place to it. Thus the Mormon sect is at positive war with every other sect, and this is the secret spring of the animosity evinced by Mormons towards the strangers who have from time to time invaded their Territory. It accounts for unnumbered murders and midnight assassinations. I say unnumbered, but I believe that these crimes have been actually numbered from the murder of Joseph S. Day down to the present time as far as 1000."


"Many a man among the Mormons," continues Lee, "has had to suffer for a slight association with Gentiles. It hasd been considered an offence even to treat Gentiles as human beings. I will mention the case of General Jonathan Dunham, one of the most faithful Mormons who ever lived. He was known as Captain Blackhawk, from his shrewdness as an officer during the Missouri troubles. He held the rank of brigadier general in the Nauvoo Legion, and was Chief of the Police, or Joseph Smith's Life Guard, when the two Smiths delivered themselves up to Governor Ford and were assassinated. It was said that Joseph Smith had requested Dunham to come near Carthage Jail with his men by night and lie in ambush to repulse the mob. Governor Ford's order, forbidding any troops to leave Nauvoo prevented Dunham from obeying this counsel. The blood of the Prophets was therefore found in the garments of General Dunham and it was decided that his blood must be shed as an atonement. This could not be done while we were in Nauvoo, as our Destroying Angels were watched too closely. But while we were on our exodus to the mountains General Dunham was appointed on a mission to the Pittawottamie Indians, together with two Destroying Angels of the old Nauvoo police force. The three were absent some for or five days. At the close of the fifth day the two police officers returned with the sword and clothing of General Dunham, and reported that he had died of fever on the way."

"Time," says John D. Lee, "passed rapidly. The western exodus took place. In 1850 I removed to the southern part of Utah; consequently I am not well acquainted with the many secret murders that have been committed north of Parowan. I heard of some of these murders in 1849 before I went south, and Brigham Young was the man who incited them."

"Brigham Young ordered Ira West, a brother of Chauncey West, Bishop of Ogden, to be slain for killing a bull and eating of its flesh when he was suffering from hunger in the desert. In fact, Brigham Young always held that a thief was as worthy of capital punishment as a murderer. His argument was that the only way to get rid of thieves is to destroy their tabernacles -- meaning their bodies. The matter was discussed in council when I was present. John Taylor spoke against the punishment, quoting in the teeth of Brigham Young, the scriptural passage, 'He that sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.' To this Brigham Young responded angrily, 'If you are so afraid of doing wrong, bring this culprit to me, and I will serve him as Samuel the prophet did Agog, the King of the Amalekites.' Old Judge W. W.Phelps moved that the case be laid before the people, saying that if the man was to forfeit his life the whole multitude should sanction the sacrifice and do as ancient Israel did -- help bear the responsibility by each one casting a stone. The matter finally went over till Sunday, when Lorenzo Young moved that the man who first proposed the taking of life for the offence in question be the man to execute the law. The matter here dropped, as the adoption of the motion would have made Brigham Young the butcher. A brother of Chauncey paid a fourfold redemptiojn of the bull, but this specific settlement did not stop the shedding of blood. Murders increased in frequency and horrror. No man felt safe from his neighbor, and some were distrustful of members of their own households. Two of B. C. Mackey's sons were killed; also John Lord and H. Wells and many more whose names have escaped my memory. They were not all Gentiles; many of them were Mormons, indifferent or weak in the faith. But in his moments of leisure he was always planning against the Gentiles. There were certain Gentiles who, he said, 'must be put aside.' One mountaineer there was in particular who offended him. No man's life was safe with him, whether Mormon or Gentile. If Brigham Young or one of the twelve apostles or even one of our little one-horse bishops said to a fanatical Mormon, 'Go and kill this or that man, woman or child,' the man thus instructed to do the killing would do it. Mr. Vincent Shurtleff told me but a short time ago that a Dane showed him where hem by order of Brigham Young, had killed and sunk a Gentile in a spring near his place. Shurtleff is a witness who will not fail."


"I now," continues Lee, "turn to Parowan, Iron county, the place that I, together with George A. Smith, located and helped build up in 1852. John C. A. Smith succeeded George A. Smith in the Presidency at Parowan. Under his reign murder throve. Numerous travellers (Gentiles) were sent 'over the rim of the basin' -- that is to say, to their last long home. The same thing was done after Colonel W. H. Dame became the spiritual head of Parowan. I heard different presidents tell the sisters publicly that if they should get up in the morning and see the dogs running about with their husbands' heads in their mouths they need ask no questions. In 1857, when the Arkansas emigrants passed down by Parowan, a young man named Aden, attached to the emigrant train, recognized William Lang [sic - Leany?] among the Mormons as an old acquaintance whome he and his father had saved from mob violence in Tennessee. Lang, glad to meet Aden, invited him to his house and gave him some garden sauce. This being reported that same evening to Colonel Dame, the latter crooked his little finger to Barry Caster [sic - Barney Carter?], his brother-in-law and an angel of death. Without a word Caster walked out, went to Lang's house with a picket in his hand, called Lang out and struck him on the head, fracturing his skull and leaving him on the ground to perish. C. Y. Webb and Isaac Newman, President of the High Council, both told me that they saw and noticed Dame's signal. James McGuffie, then a resident of Parowan, but since forced by oppression to leave there, would be a first rate witness in this connection."

Such is the hitherto unpublished testimony of John D. Lee relative to the readiness of the Mormon people to shed blood up to the time when the Mountain Meadows massacre was committed. He directly accuses Brigham Young of sanctioning assassination and murder, and it is corroborated by other evidence in my possession, which will shortly be placed before you. What I desire now to impress on the minds of Eastern readers of the Herald is some adequate notion of the unique and shocking indifference to the shedding of human blood, which is part and parcel of the Mormon religion. Every true Mormon believes in blood atonement for his sins. He dreads hanging, but he is willing to be shot, often glad to have his throat cut. Many and many a time has an ignorant fanatic in Utah, oppressed with the burden of his transgressions, gone to Brigham Young and begged him to let his (the supplicant's) throat be cut as a remission of his sins. This explains the singular Territorial statute which gives a capital criminal in Utah the choice of three modes of death. Being sentenced to death, he can elect to be hung, to be beheaded or to be shot. No Mormon sentenced to death was ever hung by his own choice, and it is safe to say that the mode of death selected by John D. Lee will always be preferred by Mormon criminals. They find in it no terror -- only expiation.


Lee's behavior on the scene of the massacre and his subsequent demeanor while lying under sentence of death vividly illustrates two phases in the life of an inveterate Mormon. Everything goes to show that Lee, who led the first assault of the Indians upon the emigrants, acted under a profound belief that he was serving the Church and pleasing its Prophet. Nothing in history is more impressive than the desperate determination of Lee, after he had once imbrued his hands in the blood of the emigrants, to finish them up so thoroughly that no trace of their fate should ever pass out into the world. His determination to kill, kill, kill, outran the ferocity of his superiors and inferiors alike. One ghastly incident of the massacre will illustrate the cruel pertinacity of the man. In the midst of the last melee two beautiful girls escaped together from the camp of the emigrants and concealed themselves in a neighboring thicket. An Indian chief discovered their refuge and sought them in it. At the same moment an Indian boy attached to Lee's person discovered the whereabouts of the girls and the curiosity of the chief and ran to Lee and informed him. Lee turned at once and hastened to the thicket. There he found the trembling fugitives and confronted the chief who asked him what he was going to do with them.

Lee responded, "they are too old to live."

The Indian answered, "They are too pretty to kill."

At this juncture the eldest of the two threw herself on Lee's breast, and wound her arms about his neck and said, "Oh, sir, for God's sake, for your mother's, for your wife's, for your sister's sake, please let us live! Don't kill us; I can't bear to die. Oh, sir, I'm too young to be put to death so cruelly! If you will let me live I promise to be your faithful servent; to tend upon you, to see to all your wants, to be everything you could wish a poor girl to be, all your life long. And poor Ella, sir, she's younger than I. For the love of the Saviour, don't let the Indian do her harm. Please sir, as you hope to rest beyond the grave, let us have our lives!"

The Indian, not understanding a word that was sais, again asked Lee, "What shall we do with them?" According to the testimony of the Indian boy who stood near, Lee said, not to the Indian but to the wretched girl whose arms were locked around his neck, "It is beyond my power to save you. I am acting under orders."

At this the girl who stood apart, named Ella, drew her sun bonnet down over her eyes. The Indian chief, overawed by Lee's authority, took a humane and certain aim, and shot her directly through the forehead. She dropped to the ground without a moan. At the same moment Lee, untwisting from his neck the arms of his victim, drew her head back across his breast and cut her throat from ear to ear with his hunting knife. Even the Indian turned in disgust from tgis callous butchery -- a butchery, however, which Lee persisted to his death in regarding as a part of his duty as a Latter Day Saint.


He did not lack reward from Brigham Young. Already he had received from Salt Lake City the following note: --
President's Office, City, March 24, 1857.      
Brother Lee: --

As you request an increase to your family, it is your privilege. Be kind as a father and wise as a son of God. Your sincere friend,   Brigham Young.
Soon after the massacre, Lee, in company with Haight, was elected to the Legislature and enjoyed at Salt Lake his share of the loaves and fishes. He continued to live in comparative clover until his arrest in 1874. After that period his existence may be compared to that of a live trout upon a frying pan. He had hopes until almost the very hour of his execution that Brigham Young would save him. The last hours of his life, while this hope was fading, were devoted to the writings I have introduced to you and to the following farewell message to his family and friends: --
Camp Cameron, March [23], 1877.      
Since my confinement here I have reflected much upon my sentence, and as the time of my execution has come, I feel composed and calm as a summer morning. I hope to meet the bullets with manly courage. I declare my innocence. I have done nothing designedly wrong in that lamentable affair in which I have been implicated. {Here Lee protests at some length and in the same strain with his published confession that he did what he could to save the emigrants, and that he had wept and mourned over their fate. He believes in a heavenly reward, prays that he may meet his loved ones in heaven, and bids farewell to his dearly beloved children. He then proceeds.} I have been treacherously betrayed and sacrificed by him who should have beeb my friend and whose will I have diligently striven to make my pleasure. In return for all my faithfulness during the last thirty years, my fidelity to him and his cause, he has sacrificed me in a most shameful and cruel way. I leave them in the hands of the Lord, who will deal with them according to his crimes, and make final restitutionin all things.

To the mothers of my children -- I beg of you to teach them better things than to sacrifice to their own interest the meanest wretch on earth, much less a neighbor and a friend, as their father has been sacrificed. Be kind and true to each other. Do not contend about my property; you know my mind concerning it. Live humbly and faithfully before God, that we may meet again in the mansions of bliss that He has prepared for His faithful children. Remember the last words of your most true and devoted friend on earth. Let them sink deep into your tender, aching hearts. Many of you I may never see in this world again, but I leave my blessing upon you all. Farewell.



San Francisco, April 12, 1877.    
A Eureka, Nev., press dispatch says: -- To-morrow the history of Ed. Gilman, on this coast, will be published. He has lately obtained considerable notoriety in connection with the confession of J. D. Lee as delivered to District Attorney Howard on the field of execution. Gilman lived at Austria, Nevada, from 1863 to 1867, when he went to the Sweetwater mines. At Austria he was regarded by everybody as a worthless fellow, deserving of no consideration whatsoever. He pretended to be a prospector, but was never known to do a day's work. After going to Sweetwater he got to be Deputy Sheriff at Green River, He also married the widow of a man killed in a riot at the same place.

Returning to Salt Lake he purchased a small house and lived apparently happily with his wife for a time. Finally, however, he got tired of her and sold both the house and wife (?) to John Hall, formerly a White Pine saloon keeper, for $800. The transfer was absolute and made in good faith, Hall taking possession of both. His late exploits in the Lee matter were probably prompted and paid for by the Mormons. He is declared to be unworthy of belief.

Note 1: The Herald's purported John D. Lee "manuscripts, not yet published," are not otherwise mentioned by historians. It appears unlikely that the excerpt published under his name in Herald's May 13, 1877 issue is a genuine Lee production. If the document was indeed composed in Lee's handwriting, then it is possible that the writer had merely copied information from some third party. If the source was not in Lee's handwriting, then its publication by the newspaper was either a mistake or a hoax. The contents read something like James McGuffie's testimony, as featured in the May 10th issue. As an example of how the contents differ from John D. Lee's known writings, compare the Herald's episode in which William Leany was assaulted by Barny Carter, with the following passage from Lee's 1877 Autobiography: "The next day Laney was accused of being unfaithful to his obligations. They said he had supported the enemies of the Church and given aid and comfort to one whose hands were still red with the blood of the prophets. A few nights after that, the "Destroying Angels," who were doing the bidding of Bishop Dame, were ordered to kill William Laney in order to save him from his sins, he having violated his endowment oath, and furnished feed to a man who had been declared an outlaw by the Mormon church. The "Angels" were commanded by Barney Carter, a son-in-law of William Dame, who now lives in Los Angeles, California. The "Angels" called Mr. Laney out of his house, saying that Bishop Dame wanted to see him. As Laney passed through his gate into the street, he was struck across the back of the head with a large cedar club in the hands of Barney Carter. His skull was fractured and for many months he lay at the point of death and his mind still shows the effect of the injury then received."

Note 2: The John D. Lee "Farewell" printed by the Herald differs significantly from the version published in Lee's Autobiography. Possibly journalists inserted some lines from his final words on the day of his execution, into a written text -- or, the entire thing may simply be an alternative, discarded draft copy.


Whole No. 14,875.                       New York City, Monday,  May 14, 1877.                      Three Cents.


The Methods by Which He has Controlled Federal Officials.


False Statements Intended to Make Him Appear as Shielding the Prophet.


Salt Lake City, May 5, 1877.    
It has been the misfortune of nearly every able, independent and resolute federal officer in Utah to fail in his contest with the Mormon power. Whom Brigham Young finds to be his enemy he assails with such cunning or such ferocity as have seldom been equalled."Sir," said he at the Lion House only a few days ago, "look at the facts of those who have fought against us. Every one of them has been defeated, has fallen, and they can never lift their heads again in this Territory." In fact, Brigham Young, by means of his men and his money here and at Washington, has decapitated federal judges, secretaries, district attorneys and marshals whose devotion to their duty he could not shake and whose good will he was unable to buy. The pathway of officers whom the Church could appease by flattery or paralyze with bribes has been usually smooth. So popular and well beloved did one Governor of the Territory render himself among the Mormons in Salt Lake City that his board bill during the entire tenure of his office here was paid by the grateful corporation.


The United States officials, who, as President Young says, have "fallen," have, most of them, the bitter consciousness that they fell under foul blows. At the present time, when the attention of the country is directed with greater interest than ever to the institution of Mormonism and the hideous atrocities committed by its devotees, and when a nearer approach than ever is being made toward the apprehension of the men really responsible for the Mountain Meadows and other massacres, the Mormon Church is employing its old and hitherto infallible tactics against those who seek to bring the guilty to justice. the man here who, of all others, deserves at this time the gratitude and encouragement of friends of law and order throughout the Union, and who has fairly earned the hatred of the Mormon leaders, has met within the last few weeks that calumny which is always the reward of a sin against the Church. I refer to Sumner Howard, United States District Attorney, who convicted John D. Lee of the crimes for which he has been executed, and who has obtained, during and since Lee's trial, more evidence on which to base indictments of the other members of the Mormon hierarchy than had been collected by all his predecessors together. The assault on Mr. Howard in Gilman's affidavit had its effect in the East, doubtless, where Gilman may be supposed to be a reputable, discreet and truthful person. It was a cowardly, unwarrantable statement, for parts of which Gilman has since expressed his regret. It ought to be known as such in Washington and throughout the country, that Mr. Howard's effort to supplement his recent success by additional convictions of murderers may not be weakened or impeded by lack of confidence in his fidelity and honor.


The hostility first manifested toward the present District Attorney at the Lee trial was caused by his unmoved adherence to a line of policy he had adopted to secure Lee's conviction. He conceived, whether rightly or not I will not undertake to say, that one reason of Lee's escape at his first trial was the animus manifested by the prosecution against Brigham Young. He determined, therefore, to keep Brigham Young in the background on the second trial, and he worked directly for the conviction of Lee. "there will be," he said, "more testimony bearing against Brigham Young, if I appear not to seek it, than if the questions put to witnesses constantly point in his direction. The jury, too, will be left unprejuduced and Lee will be sure to be found guilty. A verdict of guilty once procured, let the rest of the parties implicated look out for themselves."

That Mr. Howard's judgment was sound I do not for a moment doubt after the opportunities I have had of examining the startling evidence which will eventually be produced against those members of the Mormon priesthood who are seeking the destruction of the enemy who holds the cards against them.


The attempt to incriminate Mr. Howard by making it appear that he served Brigham Young by withholding from publication a portion of Lee's confession implicating him in the Mountain Meadows massacre, and the insinuation that Howard afterward received money from Brigham Young for this service utterly fail to stand the test I have applied to them. [Edwin] Gilman, whom I have interrogated, alleged (1) that on the 8th of February last he went to the Penitentiary and delivered this message from Howard to Lee: --

"When you have got through fooling with your lawyers then I will talk with you;" (2) that on the 10th of February Lee sent a letter to Howard by a messenger named Barrington, consenting to talk with him, (3) that on the 11th Howard and Nelson, the United States Marshal, came up to the Penitentiary and had a long talk with Lee: (4) that on the 13th Nelson came alone to the Penitentiary and had a long talk with Lee; (5) that Nelson and Judge P. H. Emerson visited ine Penitentiary on the 14th and had another long conversation with Lee; (6) that on the 15th Howard and one Jerome P. Cross came to see Lee, and Howard was heard to say: -- "Mr.Lee, I am a man of my word and will take care of you;" (7) that Howard and Judge Tilford had another talk on the 19th with Lee at the Penitentiary;(8) that on the 25th Howard and Nelson again visited the Penitentiary, when Howard took Lee's confession away; (9) that on the 26th James Jack, Brigham Young's clerk, had a friendly business meeting with Howard at his office; (10) that some days after Howard asked Gilman to see James Jack and tell him: -- 'I want my receipt for that $1,700, or I want my money;' and that he, Gilman, delivered this message and received from Jack the answer that 'he couldn't raise all the money but would raise a part of it to-morrow and take it down to Howard.'["]


Gilman cited the following as a part of Lee's confession which Lee read to him, and which does not appear in the published report of the confession. "Mr. Dame had his orders from Brigham Young to put all the emigrants to death except the small children who would not be able to testify or do anything about it. Dame told me that whenever he was pushed he would produce that letter. I have also heard Mrs. Haight say that if her husband was ever arrested and brought to trial she would produce a letter in her possession showing who ordered the massacre." Gilman also quoted this passage: -- "Dame said that Brigham Young had said to him that these men were mobocrats and helped to kill the Prophet at Nauvoo."


In respect to the numerous visits which District Attorney Howard, Marshal Nelson, Judge Emerson and Judge Tilford are thus represented to have made to the Penitentiary, they are explained, and I believe are now admitted to have concerned, not so much John D. Lee as other prisoners, whom it was the duty of Mr. Howard, especially, to see and consult with. Mr. Howard, however, denies none of the alleged visits to Lee, toward whom he demeaned himself as became an officer of the government in charge of a convicted prisoner. He simply denies that he ever sent such a message through Gilman as "When you have got through fooling with your lawyers, &c.," and says that if he ever made any such remark to Lee as that he "was a man of his word and would take care of him," that remark referred to a request made by Lee to be removed from the cell he occupied to more comfortable quarters."I never," says Mr. Howard, "received a message from him in regard to Mr. Crowe, who was the warden at the time, and I believe that was verbal and not written." Of the business transaction between himself and James Jack, Mr. Howard gives this simple explanation: --

"James Jack is the Treasurer of the Territory of Utah. All United States officers here, the deferal judges, clerks of courts, District Attorney and Marshal draw their compensation for Territorial services through James Jack, Treasurer. My fees against the Territory amount annually to $2,560, every cent of which I must get through James Jack. The Territorial treasury owed me at the time mentioned $1,750, for which I had applied, leaving my receipt, before I asked Gilman to go to Mr. Jack and procure from the receipt or the money. You can see, " added Mr. Howard, "what a mean and utterly baseless construction Gilman chose to put on my application to the Territorial Treasurer for my regular official dues." In this connection Mr. Howard explains how Gilman came to be so intimate at his office that he could call upon him to go on an errend to Mr. Jack such as the one described. Gilman was serviceable to Howard in another legal transaction then pending, and therefore had the privilige of the District Attorney's office.


The crucial allegation made by Gilman, that Lee made a confession in regard to Brigham Young, which Howard knew of and suppressed, is without doubt untrue. I have read every line of the confession placed in the hands of Mr. Howard by Lee and havecompared it, so far as it concerns the Mountain Meadows affair, with the published copy sent forth by Howard. No affirmations such as Gilman cites appear in Lee's manuscript, nor do they appear on any page of the volumnious unpublished manuscripts left by Lee, some hubdreds of pages of which are in my possession. To my question whether he believed that Mr. Howard ever saw or knew of the passages cited above as parts of Lee's confession, Gilman said to me, "Well, I can't say that I believe he did." Mr Howard himself avers -- First, that he never saw such a writing by Lee; second, that Lee would have been sure to have shown it to him if he had written it; and, third, that it is incredible that Lee could have exhibited or read to Gilman any part of his confession, since Gilman was so placed as a guard that he could have held no extended intercourse with Lee.


This justification of an officer who occupies, at the present time, one of the most delicate and responsible posts in the country is not needed here, where most of his earlier critics have joined with his friends in sustaining and encouraging him.The task before him is arduous and difficult. He has one advantage in this, that the traditions of courts in Utah are for the second time violated by the existence of a grand jury, the majority of whom are not Mormons. Another advantage consists in evidence unusually direct which ought to condemn to death several atrocious believers in blood atonement. There is a disavantage in lack of money to secure the attendance of witnesses who have removed from the Territory and to carry on necessary proceedings in court. This disadvantage, which ought, if possible, to be done away with at the extra session of Congress may prevent a consummation of justice which would be approved by the whole country, inasmuch as it would probably consign to a doom identical with of John D. Lee, the greatest fraud and the supremest felon of the century.

The Crisis In Utah -- Where is the Attorney General?

If the federal officers of justice in Utah are properly and energetically sustained from Washington, our Salt Lake correspondent writes in a letter we print elsewhere, the conviction of the real authors and directors of the Mountain Meadows massacre, and of other equally atrocious murders, is not only possible but probable. But he adds that a failure of such necessary. support "may prevent a consummation of justice which would probably consign to a doom identical with that of John D. Lee the greatest fraud and the supremest felon of the ccntury."

Our correspondent is a careful investigator, not in the habit of jumping to conclusions, and he has access to the best sources of information. We have no hesibtion in calling the attention of the administration at Washington and of the country to his words. He recalls what is perfectly true, that "nearly every able, independent and fearless federal officer in Utah has been broken down in his contest with the Mormon power." Brigham Young himself boasts of his succeSS. He has caused in past years the removal of federal judges, secretaries, district attorneys and marshals whom he could not gain over to his side by bribes or coerce by terror. But whoever of these officers has chosen to play into his hands has found himself pleasantly placed. One complaisant Governor had his board bills paid by the Mormon authorities during his whole stay in the Territory. Money and men to carry on intrigues, not only in Utah, but in Washington, have never been lacking. "Look at the fates of those who have fought against us!" exclaimed the Prophet but a few days ago.

It is not probable that the efforts to defeat the attempts of federal officers to do justice will cease just now. On the contrary, they are sure to be more desperately pushed than ever before, for never hitherto did the Mormon leaders find themselves threatened with a real danger; never before since they began their rule in Utah have they seen justice vigilant, undeterred by fears or by bribes, and actually on their tracks. "A nearer approach than ever before is making toward the apprehension of the men really responsible for the Mountain Meadows and other massacres of the Mormon Church," writes our correspondent, and, excellent as are his sources of information, we may depend on it, Young and the other Mormon leaders are quite as well informed as he. He speaks, too, of "evidence unusually direct which ought to condemn to death several atrocious believers in blood atonement," and in District Attorney Howard's despatch to the Attorney General, which we printed on Wednesday last, he writes to his official chief: -- "There are facts within my knowledge, not derived from Lee, that rebut the inference that there was written communication between Lee and Brigham Young, but which will show that communication to have been between Young and another party, which I will, if desired by you, recite in a private communication." In short, if the federal officers in Utah are encouraged and sustained from Washington as they ought to be the authors of the Mountain Meadows massacre and of other no less atrocious murders will be brought to justice.

The letter of our correspondent, which we print elsewhere, is simply an appeal for such support. He shows that District Attorny Howard has been a remarkably able, faithful and courageous officer; that he has pursued without faltering the trail on which he found himself in the prosecution of Lee; that the condemnation of that wretch was mainly due to the skill with which Mr. Howard isolated his case from that of Young and the other Mormon leaders; that before the Grand Jury, which meets at Salt Lake City on the 21st -- one week hence -- and of which, fortunately for the cause of justice, a majority are not Mormons, Mr. Howard will lay a mass of "Very important evidence, which should lead to the indictment of prominent Mormon leaders; that attempts to misrepresent and calumniate, and thus to defeat Mr. Howard, have already begun, and it would seem that so far as Mr. Howard and the other federal officers are concerned they have done their duty, and success is within their reach if only they have support from Washington.

But, with all that has been done, we are told "there is a disadvantage in the lack of money to secure the attendance of witnesses who have removed from the Territory and to carry on necessary proceedings in the court." We have read frequently of late, in Washington despatches, that the appropriations for the Department of Justice were exhausted, but we did not suppose that matters had been so managed there that one of the most important criminal investigations this country has ever known was to be crippled by lack of a few thousand dollars. Can this be true? If it is the Attorney General ought certainly to let the public know it.

It is necessary to speak plainly in this matter. We call on the Attorney General to show that he is doing his duty in this matter; that he is awake to its importance; that he is familiar with all its details; that he is supporting with proper energy the District Attorney, Marhal and other federal officers of justice in Utah, and not leaving upon their shoulders the whole burden of a contest which, he ought by this time to comprehend, will be waged on the Mormon side without scruples as to the means they use and with all the money and influence of the Mormon Church at their absolute command. So far as the public here or in Utah knows, the Attorney General is paying no attention to these investigations. Now, not only is there no reason for secrecy on his part in the matter, but it is of great importance that the public, particularly in Utah, should understand that the federal administration does take the most thorough interest in the work of District Attorney Howard; that it means to give the most vigorous support to this officer; that it is determined to have justice done, no matter who is struck down. There is an impression that Attorney General Devens, though an able lawyer, is a mild and easy-going old gentleman, with little energy and a good deal of deportment. So far as the Mormons know in Utah this is a correct description of Mr. Devens. But we trust the President has his eye upon the Attorney General's office, and that he will know how to infuse the necessary energy into the Department of Justice. If Mr. Devens is not equal to the Utah emergency the President should not hesitate to replace him with a better man. He ought to act promptly; he will not be blamed for making a mistake in the selection of a Cabinet officer; but he will be justly blamable if for any reason he retains one who neglects an important duty or who is unequal to a great and vitally important work. If the efforts of District Attorney Howard and the other federal officers of justice in Utah to bring to justice some of the most atrocious criminals of the century fail because these faithful and courngeous men are left without sufficient support and encouragement, that will be a blot on the new administration which we hope not to see. Brigham Young evidently counts on their failure. He has broken down a good many federal officers; he is not yet much afraid of District Attorney Howard; he blusters about blood in his sermons and brags at the Lion House about the disagreeable fate of those federal officers who have "fought" against him. He sees so far, evidently, no sign in Washington that the times have changed, and he knows, perhaps, that the Attorney General's office has been too busy for some years with Southern political campaigns to pay much attention to justice.



San Francisco, April 13, 1877.    
A telegram from Eureka, Nev., published here this morning to the damage of Ed Gilman in the Howard case is a batch of falsehoods. A gentleman who has known him thoroughly for ten years tells me that he has always been regarded as a practical mining foreman, industrious and sober. It is a well known fact that he had the fullest liberty of the Salt Lake Penitentiary and was a keeper while Lee was confined there.


A special to the Chronicle from Salt Lake says: -- "Ed. Gilman, who recently figured in connection with the Lee confession, left this city for Washington, in the interest of the Mormons, who advanced him the money necessary to defray the expenses of the trip. He is operating in conjunction with one Parsons, an old employee in the Salt Lake Post Office. District Attorney Howard admits to friends that he was picked up by him and employed as a detective to work up small criminal business in this judicial district."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,877.                       New York City, Wednesday,  May 16, 1877.                      Three Cents.

The  Mormons  Arming.

The more persistently the Mountain Meadows massacre is investigated the more actively the Mormons arm and drill, and Governor Emory has now asked the Secretary of War to strengthen the federal forces in Utah. We suppose he will do so, though we confess ourselves unwilling to believe that Brigham Young can be so foolhardy as to attempt open violence. But it is not jmprobable that very important arrests may have to be made soon after the meeting of the Grand Jury, on the 21st, and additional troops on the spot would at least prevent the rescue of persons apprehended.

The prophet Young thought it wise to denounce the New York Herald in his tabernacle sermon on Sunday. But the Herald only demands justice. Does Mr. Young pretend to defend, does he mean to protect the persons concerned in the Mountain Meadows and other massacres? He has never denied that these murders were committed. The officers of justice are trying to discover the murderers. They have brought one of them, Lee, to execution. We want them to go on fearlessly. and we should like to see Brigham Young and the Mormon leaders generally helping District Attorney Howard. Instead of that they are prancing about like mad bulls and crying out blood. What is the matter?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,878                       New York City, Thursday,  May 17, 1877.                      Five Cents.


Agitation in the Church of the Latter Day Saints.


Mormon Denials of the Mobilization of the Legion.


"Idaho Bill," one of the Captive Children, Tells His Tale.


What Lee's Wife Taught the Boy She Protected.


(under construction)

SALT LAKE, U.T., May 16, 1877.
Resenting the publicity given in the Herald to their rebellious plans and purposes, the Mormon priesthood assembled here in conference are playing a tremendous game of bluff. Their newspapers and speakers have been instructed to deny the fact now so notorious that the militia are arming and drilling, under orders from their commanders, all over Utah. In a public meeting in the Tabernacle Erastus Snow, one of the twelve apostles, was delighted to express the wrath and disgust of the Church at the utterances of the Herald...


Brigham Young, who is a little bit frightened just now, and did not wish to make such dreadful threats himself, smiled blandly on Apostle Snow as he resumed his seat.


Last evening I addressed to Daniel H. Wells, lieutenant-general of the old Nauvoo Legion, and second counsellor to Brigham Young, the following note: --
DEAR SIR -- Is the report true that members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, especially those belonging to the old Nauvoo Legion, have resumed their arms and military drill in various parts of Utah within the last few weeks? The order issued by Colonel Dame shows that some of the companies at least have been commanded to put themselves in martial order. I am told that similar directions have been disseminated throughout the Territory. Are you aware of the purpose for which Colonel Dame's order was issued? Do you know what is intended by militia drills in Utah at the present time? Is there, in your judgment, any ground for the report that President Young or any other member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints would attempt resistance in an extremity to the operations of United States laws? Very respectfully yours,   _____ ________
                            Correspondent of the New York Herald.


General Wells responds: --

Dear Sir -- No order has been given for a muster of the legion. There is no intention on the part of Brigham Young to resist the laws, nor does anybody intend resistence to them on his behalf. We should be only too glad to see the laws enforced. Colonel Dame some time ago expressed his desire to be relieved, and may be getting his command ready for his successor.   Respectfully,
                            Daniel H. Wells

A passage in General Wells' note, which is somewhat scarred by erasures, deprecates the attachment of any belligerent meaning to the present military manoeuvres.


Governor Emory is not of General Wells' opinion, since he asks the Secretary of War to replenish the United States garrisons in Utah with additional troops. The Mormons continue to arm and srill, although they are uncertain when they may be called on to secure the safety of their chief. Their ignorance in this respect must needs be shared by everybody.


Brigham Young's dilemma is understood by few except himself and the United States District Attorney. It is generally supposed that if he is indicted and tried at all it will be solely as an accessory to the Mountain Meadows massacre. If this were true he would be in no immediate danger. The Grand Jury in the judicial district where the massacre was committed, which alone could indict him will not meet until next September in Beaver City, where Lee was convicted.


But it is true a Grand Jury will meet on the 21st of this month in Salt Lake City, whose business it will be to inquire into the facts concerning many dreadful murders and assassinations, whose prepetrators, although known to be Mormons, could never be convicted by Mormon juries.

Brigham Young and other head men of the Church are accused as instigators of these crimes, and Young himself may yet have to answer for the bloody deeds of his agents done long years ago in States where there are no fanatics of his faith to hang a jury, and where murderers are punished according to their deserts.


A cloud of witnesses will assemble here, and the Grand Jury of fifteen, of whom twelve can present an indictment, has for the second time in the judicial history of Utah only three Mormons on the list. It will resolutely endeavor to indict Brigham Young and others for the crimes of which they are accused, and for that purpose it will sit if necessary until September.


The evidence against the Prophet accumulates, and if means are provided to secure the attendance of important witnesses he will be sorely beset....



(see article transcript on "Idaho Bill" web-page)


The following is a copy of Idaho Bill's written statement to which he refers above and which he sent to District Attorney Howard last February. I need not add that Mr. Howard, to whom I have exhibited copies of the letters alleged by Bill to be in his possession, will lose no time in testing his veracity: --

(see Sloan letter transcript on "Idaho Bill" web-page)


Just as I am closing this letter a paper comes into my hands which lends additional interest to it. The paper contains a statement made in regard to Idaho Bill by John D. Lee just before his execution. It curiously corroborates, in some respects, what Idaho Bill has said, and while it should be borne in mind by the reader that Lee and Idaho Bill may have "cooked up," while they were in prison together, a story for their mutual benefit, the two stories as here published do not on their faces entirely justify such a conclusion.

(see Lee letter transcript on "Idaho Bill" web-page)

The Excitement in Utah.

Last Sunday morning, after the prophet Brigham Young had denounced woe and destrnction upon the enemies of the "Latter Day Saints" in general from his pulpit in the Salt Lake Tabernacle, the prophet Erastus Snow was deputed to do a little particular denunciation of the press, and especially of the New York Herald, which seems to have created an unusual commotion among the Mormon leaders of late. "You lying scribblers," he shouted, "are falsifying for the purpose of destroying the Saints; but you will not succced!"

We advise the apostle Snow to keep his temper. So far as we know he has no occasion for alarm. If he has been party to the Mountain Meadows massacre or to any other murders we have not yet heard of it, and the Herald's object just now is to stir up the officers of justice and the administration at Washington to make thorough work of the innstigation of numerous murders which District Attorney Howard has on hand. Why do Brigham Young and his apostles fall into a fury over a judicial investigation whose only object is to bring assaSsins to justice? We should have thought these prophets and head saints would be but too rendy to help Mr. Howard and the other federal officers search out the authors of one of the most atrocious and wanton assassinations on record, which occurred within their Territory, in which Lee, one of their leading men, is known to have been a leading actor, and for which, certainly, all who had a share either in ordering, planning or executing it ought to be hanged.

The federal District Attorney and Marshal in Utah are making a judicial inquiry into the history of an atrocious murder of men, women and children. The Grand Jury, which assembles on the 21st, and is composed for the greater part of citizens not Mormons, will hear the evidence of a large number of witnesses who have been subpoenaed because they are believed to know something about these murders. An ingenious attempt to blacken the character and destroy the efficiency of tho District Attorney has broken down. Mr. Howard, it is found, can neither be bought nor scared, and so, suddenly, Young and the other prophets begin to bellow about persecution and to prophesy bloody times. All this is very silly, unless, indeed, these prophets have something to conceal -- unless they have reason to fear for themselves at the hands of justice. If they are guiltless they can have nothing to conceal, and instead of denouncing the Heraldthey ought to be helping the District Attorney.

We copy from the Salt Lake Herald, the Mormon organ, a general denial of the reports that the Mormons are privately arming and drilling. "There is no occasion for alarm," says the Mormon journal; "yet two or three scoundrelly newspaper reporters have put in circulatIon a base lie which, if unchecked, might bring ruin aud desolation upon a whole Territory." Here we do not agree with our contemporary. No newspaper report, even if it were entirely false, could ruin Utah or desolate it. That is all nonsense. If the Mormons are not arming and drilling misstatements in newspnpers will do no harm; their falsehood will be quickly discovered, and there an end. Even if the Mormons are arming and drilling "ruin and desolation" will not follow unless they should, at the bidding of their prophets, commit the incredible folly of making war against the United States. We have several times said that we do not believe they will venture on this. It has never been their policy. Brigham Young has caused grass and forage to be burned, cattle to be driven off and farms to be destroyed, to impede the advance of federal troops; but he was careful even then to warn his people to keep their hands off federal soldiers. It was the Arkansas emigrant train which was murdered, and not Harney's or Sidney Johnston's army.

But the Mormon organ's denial comes too late. Our correspondent's reports of the arming and drilling in Utah are confirmed by a request for reinforcements made to the Secretary of War by Governor Emery. We do not suppose the Governor fears a violent and general uprising, but he knows very well the great power the Mormon leaders still have over the more ignorant part of their followers; he knows privately, in all probability from the District Attorney, that it may be necessary presently to arrest some of the higher Mormon chiefs; he "knows that a rescue may be attempted, and he means to be prepared against such an attempt." In all this he is wise. A letter which we print elsewhere to-day from our Salt Lake correspondent contains matter which may turn out to bring home to Brigham Young himself a guilty knowledge of the Mountain Meadows massacre. It is a very curious and extraordinary story which our correspondent relates; he is a careful and trained investigator, and it will be noticed that he does not give entire faith to the revelations of Thatcher or "Idaho Bill." But the identity of this man with one of the children saved from the massacre seems to be at least probable.

Now, we warn Brigham Young and his fellow prophets not to attempt any nonsense. If, as seems probable from the despatch of the federal District Attorney and from the reports of our own correspondent, there shall appear before the Grand Jury evidence warranting the arrest of Brigham and other prominent Mormons they must submit quietly. We have heard enough about blood and destruction. The country is not in a humor to stand much bluster from Young. If his arrest should be ordered he had better go at once and quietly give himself up. If the arrest of half a dozen other prophets should be ordered we advise them also to surrender at once and without the least bluster. Whoever is arrested will be tried; under the circumstances he is likely to have rather better than a fair trial, for almost any jury empanelled in Salt Lake is more likely to acquit than condemn an influental Mormon. But if Brigham Young himself should be found guilty of murder he will have to hang, and the Mormon leaders may as well mnke up their minds that they are no better than anybody else. The times when they could bar the advance of a federal army, when they could compel silence on pain of death in their capital, when they had an army of Indians at their command, when a "Gentile" was only tolerated in Utah, and they ruled as despots in the Territory -- these times have gone by. Their influence over a great part of the Mormon population has been slowly on the wane ever since the Pacific Railroad was completed, and justice, which first made itself felt against Lee, will no longer be balked there. We hope the Attorney General is awake to what is going on in Utah, and that he will not fail to give the utmost support to the District Attorney and Marshal in their labors there.

Note: See also: "I Survived the Massacre," Salt Lake Tribune, Oct. 31, 1875, "The Mormons," the Rochester Daily Union and Advertiser, May 18, 1877, and "'Idaho Bill' His Story of the Massacre at Mountain Meadows," San Francisco Daily Morning Call, May 29, 1877.


Whole No. 14,879                       New York City, Friday,  May 18, 1877.                      Five Cents.


A Mormon Wife and Mother Pictures Her Degradation.

How She Revolted from Polygamy and was Cursed
by Her Husband.


The Reign of Terror Vividly Described.


The Mysterious Disappearance of Judge Wandell.

SALT LAKE CITY, May 10, 1877.    
I shall in these letters cite the testimony of more than one woman who is or who has ceased to be a Mormon. It is time to give you the pathetic narrative of Mrs. Orson Pratt, the first and lawful wife of the ablest, most eloquent, most fanatical and unfortunate of the twelve apostles of the Mormon Church, who is best known in the East as the champion who overthrew Brother Newman, of Washington, in an argument on polygamy at the Tabernacle here several years ago.

Mrs. Pratt was married to Orson Pratt at the age of nineteen, as other confiding girls are married every day to husbands who promise to love them only until death. Hardly a year had passed when she was rudely awakened from a prolonged and illusive honeymoon. Her husband heard the teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith and was infatuated by them. His eloquence and her affection induced her to abandon her family and her early friends and join him in the long and miserable pilgrimage of the Mormon outcasts which ended in the valley of Salt Lake.


Mrs. Pratt's experience in Nauvoo and afterward in Utah not only taught her to study the characters and motives of the leading Mormons with whom she was continually associated -- it gave her knowledge of their acts. It so happened that she had known Brigham Young when he was a vulgar illiterate boy, and this fact, involving a bad original impression of him, led her afterward to distrust his right to the mantle of the Prophet Joseph, and to address him when at the height of his power with familiarity and irony, which were extremely distasteful to him. "Mr. Pratt," she says, "often used to say to me, 'I wish I could talk to Brigham Young as freely as you do, but somehow I never dare to do it.'"

The lady's recollection of the state of Mormon society in Utah in the years just preceding the Mountain Meadows Massacre, and of the men whose names have figured in the traditions of that atrocity from Brigham Young, Governor, down to Indian Farmer John D. Lee, is vivid. She knew immediately, as her husband did, all the apostles, spiritual heads, bishops, counsellors and officers of the Nauvoo Legion at that time. Dame, Haight, Higbee, Stewart and others in Southern Utah were among her acquaintances, also the cunning missionary George A. Smith. At her home the other evening, where I obtained from her lips a thorough and fearless statement of events within her knowledge since her pilgrimage here, she gave me these facts and impressions: --


"Whether the Mountain Meadows massacre was ordered by Brigham Young or not -- and I haven't a doubt that it was -- it was the natural result of Brigham Young's teachings. The ceremonials and oaths of the Endowment House, the commands given by Brigham Young and the twelve apostles from the pulpit, and the counsel transmitted to the people through bishops, counsellors and teachers, all urged the doctrine of blood atonement. Murder had become common; the smell of blood was in the very air. Scores of dead men and not a few dead women lay unburied on the 'benches' at the feet of the mountains around Salt Lake City -- lay there, I say, as food for crows and objects of interest to the hawks that circled over their gradually denuded and whitening bones. There were few inquiries and satisfactory explanations in regard to these corpses. It is horrible, but it is true, that men in that time missed their wives and wives their husbands forever without daring to seek their remains or even make an inquiry about them. There was a time when the disappearance of prominent citizens here was only mentioned by their friends in whispers, and when a woman being discovered by her teacher in tears over the news that her husband had been murdered, was found in bed next morning with her throat cut. Such was, then, the fear of Brigham Young and his chief counsellors, such, indeed, was the fanatical surrender of Mormons to the doctrine that whatever he ordered was directed from on high, that few even among those who suffered most dreadfully from the carrying out of the dogma of blood atonement had the temerity to question or denounce it. It is impossible to exaggerate. I cannot give you in my poor language an idea of the sense of oppression, the dread, the shrinking from an unfriendly look in the face of an acquaintance by day, and the anxiety at every unusual sound at night, of those among us who were not earnest in the faith or who were suspected of not being so."


"At that time, remember, I had ceased to be a Mormon. I was endeavoring to rear my children so that they should never espouse the Mormon faith, and, at the same time, to conceal from my neighbors and from the Church authorities the fact that I was thus rearing them. Fortunately my husband was almost constantly absent on foreign missions; but imagine if you can the difficulty, the strain upon my nervous system, of the task I resolved to accomplish. I had not only to prevent my children from becoming Mormons, I had to see to it that they should not become imbued with such an early prejudice as would cause them to betray to the neighbors my teachings and intentions. Many a night, when my children were young and also when they had grown up so as to be companions to me, I have closed this very room where we are sitting, locked the door, pulled down the window curtains, put out all but one candle on the table, gathered my boys close around my chair and talked to them in whispers for fearthat what I said would be overheard. This was no idle apprehension. Spies, then, were on the track of every suspected household. There were nights when from two to four men used to gather around this dwelling, leaning with their ears against the panes to hear some word which might warrant them in entering and erasing all our lives."


"The state of things in Southern Utah," continued Mrs. Pratt, "was even worse. Brigham Young and the other leaders were from the first opposed to Utah being a place of transit for travellers and emigrants between the Eastern States and California. They wanted to isolate the Mormon people, and especially they did not wish the ignorant English, Danish and other foreign Mormons in the South to become acquainted with strangers and thus learn too much of the outside world. They, therefore, inculcated in the southern settlements a malignant disgust of Gentiles, most of whom came to be regarded there as the very people upon whom all Mormons who had taken the 'endowment oaths' had bound themselves to 'revenge the death of the prophets.' Consequently assassinations of outsiders who took the southern route to the Pacific became even more frequent than the putting away of Mormon apostates. There is not an old Mormon resident of Beaver or Parowan or Cedar City who doesn't recollect, and could not tell if he would, of murders in and about those places which educated the perpetrators of the Mountain Meadows butchery in throat cutting and inured every one of them to the sight of blood. The pretended horror of Mormons over that affair, and particularly Brigham Young's statement when Lee came to Salt Lake City he told him 'he didn't want his feelings harrowed up by the details,' are the veriest fictions. They must seem ridiculous to all who, like myself, have not forgotten the willingness and practised skill in bloodshed of at least one-third of the white Mormons who participated in the killing of the Arkansas emigrants, and the indifference of Brigham Young to the murders which at that time befouled nearly every canyon leading out of Utah."


"I infer that you have not seen any letter or paper from Brigham Young encouraging those Southern Mormons to wipe out that emigrant train. Are you sure, then, that he gave such an order?"

"As sure as I can be of anything that I did not actually see or hear. I am sure that neither Lee nor Haight nor Higbee nor any of the men who put themselves lower than the savages that day would have done what they did, if they hadn't been satisfied they would have been found at fault with if they hadn't done it. I tell you, sir, they didn't dare to let those emigrants pass and not do it. They could not have been sure at the period I have described to you that their own blood would not have been spilt if they neglected to commit that butchery. I mean to explain to you, and I want you to understand, that those men were so dependent upon Brigham Young, so pledged and anxious to do his will and so afraid of his vengeance if they should not please him, that they must have been certain of his approval of that barbarous job, else not a man of them would have undertaken it. Brigham Young was, as I have partially explained and you will presently see, absolute dictator over life, property and domestic concerns throughout Utah. No one but a hothead or a fool ventured to buy or sell a house or move from one settlement to another or marry or get an extra cow without consulting him through a bishop. Much less would a Mormon have ventured to engage without the Prophet's counsel in so bloody an enterprise as that at Mountain Meadows. The general instructions to murder extended only to those lesser tragedies which for twenty years did not attract national attention; the Mormons' fondness for killing and their fanaticism combined never could have stimulated them to the responsibility of putting to death 130 men and women at once without their leader's sanction."


"Besides all this," said Mrs. Pratt, "there are other things. I understand that Brigham Young denies that he knew of the participation of whites in the massacre until long afterward. You say that he denies that John D. Lee mentioned anybody but Indians when he began to make his report to him at the Lion House. That must be a monstrous falsehood. Mrs. Benson, at whose house Lee stayed here, showed to me and others a list in his handwriting of the names of all the white men who were engaged in the massacre. I remember how shocked we were, because so many of us knew the persons who bore those names, and we did not dream that they would do such a deed. The idea that Lee did not show that list to Brigham Young is incredible. He certainly showed it to him. Neither he nor any other Mormon would have had the hardihood to appear before Brigham and tell a part of such a dreadful story without telling the whole of it, and that he was assured by Brigham Young that it was all right, is doubtless true, and I am of the opinion that Lee had much more truth to tell, which for some reason he refrained from telling, before his death."


"Brigham Young, too, alleges that George A. Smith knew nothing about the Mountain Meadows. Strange if he didn't; it was common talk at George A. Smith's house soon and long after the massacre. The main truth is, sir, that although Brigham Young may never have written out an order for the destruction of the Arkansas train, he could have signalled that order by the turning of his thumb or the crooking of his finger. If you go on inquiring here you will find that even so slight a gesture often decided men's fates. He could intimate his wish without a word, and his silent signals to George A. Smith and lesser men must be recorded in hell by hundreds."


As Mrs. Pratt paused in the silence near midnight, I regarded her with keen interest. She had been for forty years a professed Mormon along with her husband, during which time she gave birth to several sons, the eldest of whom is now thirty-nine years old. Her own age is sixty, and besides the burden of these years she bears a load of affliction and terrible memories compared with which the worst sorrows of women, not in her singular condition, seem unendurable. Many years before her arrival here her faith was shattered and her heart almost broken by the behavior of her husband, who, having devoted to the service of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young talents which might in some useful vocation have enabled him to rear and educate a happy and united family, at last entered into polygamous intercourse with other women.

"I don't wish to wrongfully accuse my husband," said Mrs. Pratt, "although we have been hopelessly separated for ten years. I believed, when he decided to enter upon the practice of polygamy, that he did so not from any violence of individual passion, but from sheer fanaticism. He told me that he believed it was his duty to take other women besides myself to wife, and at first he said that this would make no difference in his affection for me, which would continue pure and single as it has ever been. But think of the horror of such an announcement. He took wife after wife until they numbered five, and for a long time they were kept away from me and I was spared from intercourse with them. By and by he told me that he intended to put these five women on an exact equality with me; that he should spend a week with one, a week with another, and so on, and that I should have the sixth week! Then patience forsook me. I told him plainly that I wouldn't endure it. I said, 'If you take five weeks with your other women, you can take the sixth with them also.'"


"It was a crisis. It brought out all that was bad in my husband's nature. He said to me fiercely, 'If you don't choose to live with me I don't know that I'm obliged to support you. You have my permission to go to hell. Stick to it or to starvation.'"

"I doubt," Mrs. Pratt went on to say, "whether any tongue could describe the sufferings I endured for fifteen years. I was a witness to the change in my husband's manner and disposition which always accompanies polygamy as it is practiced in Utah. Of course no man who consented for any reason to break his vow to his first wife could either be or seem to her to be the husband that he was before. Here was my husband, for example, gray headed, taking to his bed young girls in mockery of marriage. Of course there could be no joy for him in such an intercourse except the indulgence of his fanaticism and of something else, perhaps, which I hesitate to mention. The inevitable result came about at last. Like all, or at least most polygamists, he lost his former feeling for his legal wife, forgot whatever affection he may have had for other so-called wives, and came to look upon and treat his women as if they were cattle. I clung to him as long as God and duty to my children would let me. It was with a pang that I separated from him at last. But the pang is over; I am grateful to have retained my senses and the affectionate respect of my six living children. They are four boys and two girls, and not one of them is a Mormon. Their father gradually became estranged from them. He spoke harshly to them. He had and has no interest in their careers. But as for me, these children are my only pride; if they were not living, and if they did not love me, as I know they do, I should not wish to live another hour."


In addition to Mrs. Pratt's statement I receive the following from one of her sons: --

"Orson Pratt, who is without doubt a religious enthusiast, and one of the most talented men among the Mormon priests, has been held by Brigham Young in a state of almost disgraceful bondage. He has been repeatedly banished as a missionary to various countries of Europe and the East, and was nearly always, as he is now, in a condition next door to penury. While in England he married a young woman named Eliza, who returned here with him and died of starvation. When he was in New York City, occupied in translating into the Deseret Alphabet the Book of Mormon, he engaged as his assistant a young girl of sixteen or seventeen years, named Annie Smith, whom he brought to Salt Lake in 1865 or 1866. A young Dane courted and finally married her. Orson Pratt married about the same time a girl named Maggie, who was almost as young as his protege Annie Smith. She had one child by him, and afterward declined to live with him because he could no more support her than he could his other wives. Within the following year, she gave birth to a child of which it appeared that the Dane who had married Annie Smith was the father, and the Dane forthwith left Salt Lake City and escaped into Nevada. His wife took poison and tried to die, but a stomach pump prevented her, and she still lives. In the mean time Orson Pratt is employed as church historian on no specified salary, but gets a little money once in a while from the Tithing office. He has frequently been without a decent suit of clothes. The Salt Lake City police force once presented him with a suit of respectable habiliments, and Brigham Young has deigned once or twice to remind him of his seedy appearance and to give him garments suitable to appear in at the Tabernacle. Brigham appears to have been prejudiced against Orson Pratt ever since the trouble at Nauvoo. He avails himself of Pratt's talents, but keeps him a dependent at his feet. The latter uncomplainingly occupies the position, sustained in it as he is alike by religious zeal and an almost unexampled indifference to the opinion of men."


Greenpoint, May 16, 1877.    
To the Editor of the Herald: --

The Eastern friends and relatives of Judge C. W. Wandell, of Utah, are apprehensive that he has been "taken off" by Brigham Young's satellites, the Danites, in revenge for a scathing lecture on the Mountain Meadows massacre, delivered by him at Salt Lake City, in the Liberal Institute, on the evening of January 30, 1873, a full account of which appeared in the columns of the Herald on the 10th of the following month. During the delivery of the lecture, Brigham Young and the leaders of the Mormon Church were directly charged by Judge Wandell with being the real instigators of the massacre. This was indeed bearding the lion in his den. An old lady who had spent a score of years among the Mormons and knew Brigham well, after reading the Herald's account of the lecture, turned to the writer of this article and remarked that that of itself was enough to seal the fate of a dozen such men as Judge Wandell was.


Since that time but few letters have been received from him, the last being dated San Francisco, November 6 of the same year, just as he was about to leave that city for some point not designated, being addressed to a sister in Brooklyn, E. D. Whether his family were with him or not is not known. It was afterward reported through Mormon sources that he went to Sidney, Australia, where it is said, he died in May, 1875. The Sidney Register, however has been thoroughly searched by Mr. J. H. Williams, the United States Consul, at the solictations of his (the Judge's) relatives, without finding his name. Neither was it entered on the Consul's books of the arrivals of American citizens, who always report at his office. Indeed, not the slightest clew has been found that he ever went there at all.


Since the publication of John D. Lee's confession, Judge Wandell's friends and kindred have come to the conclusion that he and his family have fallen victims to the wrath of the Mormon despot, being followed (if they ever left San Francisco alive) by Brigham's human bloodhounds and hunted to the death!

Judge Wandell was an old resident of both Nevada and Utah, and had for a number of years held numerous positions of trust both under the territorial and general governments. He had been engaged for several years in ferreting out the real authors of the massacre, with a view to bring them to justice, notwithstanding the warning of friends and the scowling of Brigham himself. He was also the author of the famous "Open Letters," signed "Argus," addressed to Brigham Young, in which he solemnly charged him with the whole responsibility of the slaughter of the emigrants. These letters were inserted in Stenhouse's "Rocky Mountain Saints," published a year or two ago. No wonder, then, that Brigham wanted him out of the way.   WILLIAM H. WANDELL.


(From the Salt Lake Herald, May 10)

We have denied so often the infernal lies manufactured in the Tribune office in this city and telegraphed to the New York Herald, concerning the arming and mustering of the Nauvoo legion, that it is becoming, like Brick Pomeroy's diet of onions, fearfully monotonous. Although we have made diligent inquiry we have failed to learn that a single company of the militia has met for drill, or that any drill is anticipated.

There is no denying the fact that some weak-minded people have become frightened by the sensational stories, and in California the excitement is said to be intense, a general slaughter of Gentiles in Utah being confidently expected. This seems like the veriest nonsense, and doubtless the villanous liars who started the stories snicker in their sleeves at the breeze they have created. We undertake to assert that not half a dozen sane men can be found in the Territory who have the slightest fear of violence from Mormons. There is no occasion for the least apprehension, and all know it; yet two or three scoundrelly newspaper reporters have put into circulation a base lie which, if unchecked, might bring ruin and desolation upon a whole Territory. We publish below an article from the Corinne Record, in which the editor of that journal gives the lie direct to his Kansas border brother scribe of this city. The editor of the Record, as can be seen by the extract, is no Mormon sympathizer, yet he has the manhood to deny the Tribune's falsehoods. Does any one suppose that if there were any real danger of the Mormons rising to do violence to Gentiles -- the proposition is almost laughably absurd -- that the handful of anti-Mormon citizens in Corrine would sleep peacefully, and [with] Cache Valley, the alleged head and front of the military movement, within a few miles of the burg on the Bear. Further, the wretches of the Tribune give the lie to their own words by moving about the streets of this city without fear of molestation. If there were truth in what they said how long would they dare to remain in Utah? Again, we assert that the business men of Salt Lake and of Utah, Mormon and Gentile, owe it to themselves to deny the truth of these stories and send it out to the world that supremest peace and monotonous quiet exist in all sections of the Territory. Here is what the Record has to say of the Cache Valley story: --
For some weeks past rumors have been rife that the Mormons throughout the Territory -- especially in the northern portion -- were arming and drilling with a view to resist the execution of the law.One sensation monger in particular -- the Salt Lake Tribune -- has spared no effort to set this community before the people East and West as in a state or insurrection, giving the impression that a general uprising of the Mormons was imminent, that destruction to the roadbeds of the railroads was being planned, and that a feeling of insecurity of life and limb was prevalent among the Gentiles and apostate Mormons. These reports have not only been published here, but have been telegraphed East and West, causing great excitement and injuring the business interests of the Territory. Some few days ago the Record took up these stories, and, on information and belief, characterized them as sensational, much to the disgust of our rabid Salt Lake contemporary, whose only object it appears is to misrepresent Utah matters for the purpose of getting notoriety as the great (?) Gentile organ of the Territory.In order to get at the bottom of the matter the Record sent a representative to Logan and other towns in Cache Valley -- the very stronghold of Mormonism -- to ascertain what grounds, if any, there were for the stories, and to make the most diligent inquiries and report just what the facts in the case warranted. The reporter performed his mission and the result only confirms our previous conviction, that a great deal of undue excitement has been worked up in relation to the matter.

Logan was the first place visited. In this town there is but one Gentile resident, the balance of the non-Mormon population being apostates. It was ascertained -- and this fact probably furnished ground for the Tribune's statement that the Nauvoo Lehion ad Mormons generally were arming and drilling by night -- that a small squad of boys had been in the habit of meeting and, without arms of any description, going through ordinary military drill, sometimes using private buildings. And as to the despatch reported to have been sent by Brigham Young to the Bishop at Logan calling on Mormons to prepare themselves with arms and ammunition and be ready for their enemies -- meaning the officers of the law -- there could not be found in allLogan a non-Mormon who saw the despatch or heard the discourse preached by the Bishop. In answer to the inquiry of whether such movements were on foot by the Nauvoo Legion as to cause alarm and jeopardize the peace of the Territory it was averred by all with whom the Record reporter came in contact that no danger of any kind was anticipated, no outbreak feared, and no necessity for any steps being taken in the matter by Governor Emery. All along the line, at settlements above and below Logan, non-Mormons were met with who declare that, to their knowledge, no such drilling had taken place, and no cause existed for any alarm. Written statements to this effect have also been received at the Record office, sent by men -- Gentiles -- who are trustworthy in every respect, and who, if any real cause existed for alarm, are in a position to know it, and would not be slow to claim the protection of the proper authorities. One and all, they declare that the publication of such reports was uncalled for, sensational and calculated to injure their business interests.

In this immediate vicinity nothing of a military nature is observable in the doings of the Mormons, and now, so far as Northern Utah is concerned, our readers can judge for themselves whether any good ground exists for the alarm occasioned by the published and telegraphed stories of an insurrection. The Mormons are well aware that no such demonstrations will be brooked by Governor Emery, and although we cannot doubt that their will to defy his authority is good enough, still a fear of the consequences deters them from doing aught that would bring the officers of the law down upon them.

Note 1: See also the Chicago Inter-Ocean for June 17, 1875 and "Charles W. Wandell's 'Argus letters'"

Note 2: See also articles in the Salt Lake Herald of May 6 and 9, 1877; the St.Louis Journal of May 13, 1877; and the Deseret News of May 16, 1877, wherein the alarming reporting of Jerome B. Stillson, the Salt Lake City correspondent of the New York Herald is strongly criticized. Subsequently E. N. Fuller served as the Herald's correspondent in Utah.


Whole No. 14,880                     New York City, Saturday  May 19, 1877.                    Three Cents.


What the Herald's Despatches Have Produced.


Arming and Drilling Actually Going On.


Indications of the Leaders to be Arrested.


Salt Lake City, May 18, 1877.      
It seems your despatches from Salt Lake City are challenged. The following statements from the Governor of Utah and the United States District Attorney will show whether they have been misrepresented. At Governor Emory's house I held with him the following conversation last evening: --


Correspondent -- What was it that induced you to ask the Secretary of War to reinforce the United States garrisons in Utah?

Governor Emory -- I thought it well to increase the federal forces in the Territory for the purpose of allaying the feverish excitement that exists among the Gentiles.

Correspondent -- What excitement?

Governor Emory --The excitement caused by the recent report that the Mormons are arming and drilling. I have asked for what I think would be a sufficient number of troops to keep the peace here in any contingency.

Correspondent -- Have you as Governor of the Territory an opinion to express of the probable disposition of the Mormon leaders in case Brigham Young or others should be indicted for crime?

Governor Emory --I think it very doubtful if Brigham Young could be convicted by a Mormon jury. I think it very doubtful if there would be a formidable resistance to federal authority. There might be resistance from a few of the most dependent and fanatical of his followers, but I am not yet prepared to anticipate wholesale organized resistance.


Correspondent -- Do you base this opinion on rour knowledge of the disposition of the Mormon leaders and people or on the anticipated presence of the troops you have asked for?

Governor Emory -- The presence of additional federal soldiers will have a salutary effect. There is here an anomalous condition of affairs. The populatlon of the Territory is composed of two distinct elements. There are Mormons and Gentiles, the number of the former greatly preponderating. At a critical juncture there might be more or less conflict between them. Still, I don't think the most influentual Mormon leaders would follow Brigham Young in resistence to federal authority.


Correspondent -- Who, then, are the most influential leaders among the Mormons?

Governor Emory -- Certainly not; D. H. Wells, George Q. Cannon and the prophet's sons, Brigham and John W., who are dependent on him as they are, would probably follow him in any scheme or resistance which they could not divert him from until failure obliged them to abandon it.

Correspondent -- But who are the real leaders?

Governor Emory --A class of men who handle not merely the religious, but the business interests of the Mormnon Church. Such men as Bishop John Sharp, Superintendent of the Utah Southern Railway; William H. Hooper, President of the Deseret National Bank; Horace S. Eldredge, Superintendent of Zion Co-operative Mercantile Institution, and Feremarz Little, Mayor of Salt Lake City.


Correspondent -- Is there a set antagonism between Mormons and Gentiles in the Territory in respect to mercantile and other business affairs?

Governor Emory -- The time was when such an antagonism prevailed here, very much against the real interests of the Territory. It has been gradually wearing away in Salt Lake City, although it still exists in other parts of Utah.

Correspondent -- Does Mormonism, with its institution of polgyamy and its theocratic system, promIse to promote the prosperity of Utah?

Governor Emory -- The Mormon people of this Territory are largely foreigners, and it is impossible to recognize them as Amencan citizens in the highest sense of the term. They have simply been taught what is their duty as good Mormons; they have had no advice respecting their obligations as citizens of the United States. Whenever an election is to take place and speeches concerning it are made in the Territory they are always made for or against the Church ticket, and the choice of the voter is between Mormon and Non-Mormon. There is nothing republican, nothing democratic about it.


Correspondent -- Must I understand you as saying that the Mormons In Utah are so ignorant of or so divorced from the United States government: that the principles of the federal constitution are never discussed among them, and that national political parties and party platforms are entirely left out of their councils?

Governor Emory -- Entirely. I don't suppose the Mormon people of this Territory, who comprise four-fifths of its population, have the slightest idea of what constitutes a republican form of government.

Correspondent -- Concerrning the hundreds of murders committed in Utah within the last thirty years, were these in your opinion products of Mormon teachings; or were they committed by direction of the Mormon priesthood?

Governor Emory -- I ought to begin my answer to that question by saying that many crimes in this Territory might have been committed if no Mormons had been here. Other murders have been committed through religious fanaticism.

Correspondent -- Is your conviction fixed in regard to the author of those crimes?

Governor Emory arose, lit his cigar, and said, smillng -- I am confident that Haight, Higbee and Stewart, who participated with Lee in the Mountain Meadows massacre, will be arrested and convicted.

Correspondent -- Pardon me, Governor, But that is a barren response."

Governor Emory -- Why?

Correspondent -- Because it omits to mention the chief criminals accused.

Governor Emory -- Then I think they will also be arrested, convicted and punished.


United States District Attorney Howard, who has before him the most difficult task in Utah, except that of your correspondent, responds as follows to these questions: --
Correspondent -- How many murders have been committed In this Territory since the migration of the Mormons in 1847?

District Attorney Howard -- As nearly as has been ascertained about six hundred.

Correspondent -- How many murderers have been indicted and brought to trial?

Mr. Howard -- No indictments for murder were found previous to 1871 excepting those before the Probate courts in 1871. About twenty persons were indicted by the Third District Court, but those indictments were quashed. In several of them Brigham Young was accused of murder. The quashing of the indictments, which contained terrible accusations, was necessitatd by the so-called Englebrecht decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.


Correspondent -- How many of these murderers have been executed?

Mr. Howard. -- Only one.

Correspondent -- And who was he?

Mr. Howard -- John D. Lee, whom Brigham Young accuses of being the one Mormon responsible for the Mountain Meadows massacre. Besides the victims of the massacre there have been reported some thirty or forty homocides in the Second Judicial District, where it took place.

Correspondent -- Is Brigham Young, and are other members of the Mormon Priesthood, likely to be indicted by the Grand Jury which assembles in Salt Lake City on the 21st Inst., or by the Grand Jury which meets next September in the Judicial District where the massacre occurred?

MR. Howard -- He is afraid of it. He has a keen sense of the [fitness] of things. I cannot with propriety say more.


Correspondent -- Should Brigham Young and other Mormon leaders be thus indicted, had you or have you any reason to suppose that their arrest and possible punishment would be resisted?

Mr. Howard -- Yes. When he was previously arrested for the same crime he succesfully defied the United States officers who attempted to serve a process on him. Within the last two years he resisted the United States Marshal with violence, for which his body guards were indicted. One of the guards died belore his tnal. The other was convicted, fined and imprisoned by the Third District Court during the present year.

Correspondent -- Are preparations now going forward which indicate or threaten resistence by Brigham Young or other Mormon leaders?

Mr. Howard -- My opinion is that Brigham Young would avail himmself of the earliest information of proceedings by the Grand Jury against him, and that his organized Nauvoo Legion would be called into action to escort him and other Church officials who might be in danger of arrest beyond the reach of the officers of the law.
Correspondent -- Would the strengthening of the United States garrisons here have a salutary influence?

Mr. Howard -- It would give the officals and law-abiding people contfidence, and, in my judgment, avoid outbreak and secure peace and submission to the lawful authorities. It might also prevent the escape of Brigham Young and other accused members of the Mormon Church, should they again attempt to run away. I am satisfied that the Mormon militia has been reorganizing and secretly drilling at several places at the instigation of the church leaders. This is probably done not for the purpose of [making] an aggressive movement, but to protect the Mormon leaders in case of an attempted arrest. I have no doubt the organizations and drills are yet kept up under instructions still more secret than before. This secrecy results partly from the general condemnation of them by the press. It is my opinion that the reports of their movements in the newspapers have caused them to act with greater secrecy, but I have no idea they have abandoned the work of organization. The Mormon papers here invariably denied the existence of an organized military force in the Territory, yet they have failed to account for the military order which has been issued or for the assembly of men for drill. We have positive evidence of various meetings for drill and of the issuance of military orders against the unsupported denial of the Mormon press, which evidence is confirmed by the repeated public utterances of Brigham Young before the expressions of the press made lum cautious. He is cunning.

Correspondent -- Has the publiclty given to the fact that Mormons are arming and drilling been beneficial or otherwise to the cause of public justice?

Mr. Howard -- I believe the exposures made by the New York Herald and Salt Lake Tribune have been extremely beneficial. They have called the attention of the people of Utah to the military operation. and the approaching crisis here, and have caused the Mormons themeselves to vigilantly watch the movements of the church authorties, otherwise the Mormen masses might within the next six months be urged by their leaders to extremities.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,881.                     New York City, Sunday  May 20, 1877.                    Three Cents.


The Herald's Work in Uprooting Crime.


Brigham's  Deceit --  Pretending  to  Talk  with  God.

Boston, May 16, 1877.    
The enterprise and interest which the New York herals has always manifested in exposing the fearful attrocities which have ever characterized that infamous institution of Mormonism must soon meet with serious recognition and be followed by vigorous action on the part of the United States government. This is the enthusiastic declaration of a former resident of Salt Lake City, whom your correspondent interviewed in this city to-day in the person of Major J. B. Pond, formerly of the United States army. Latterly he has been residing in Boston, bus since his removal from Utah. ten years ago, he has made frequent visits to the Territory, and his experiences and observations confirm the very worst reports and suspicions of the complicity of Brigham Young in the numerous outrages which have been permitted to disgrace a civilized community.


Major Pond said: -- "I like the stand which the New York Herald has taken in regard to the Mormons -- that is, the fair manner in which it gives intelligence of the condition of affairs in Utah, and if the representatives of that paper will only pursue a straightforward course and not allow themselves to be influenced indirectly by people who are bought by Mormon money, they are going to show up the worst fraud and the worst hypocrisy that has existed on the face of the earth for the last three centuries. I know it. I have been in Utah when a Gentile would no more dare to walk the streets after dark than Wendell Phillips would have undertaken to have gone over the rebel lines during the hottest part of the rebellion, unless he was in company with some Mormons that were friendly to him, and to speak to a Mormon woman or anything of that kind was certain to result in a man being "put out of the way," as they term it there. Nothing has been done to show this up, because of intimidation, except what was printed by the Salt Lake Tribune and utterances of such men as General Conor, now in Utah and one of the first gentlemen there; also their conduct was denounced by Judge Cradelbaugh, who found it too hot for him, and could not stay there. Well, for the first few years they were compelled to stay within the limits of Camp Douglas, if they held office; but after civilization got there and railroads began to be constructed and reached them, the Mormons were more careful.


Chief Justice McKeon is one of the purest men that ever lived, and he was removed because of his persistence in showing up frauds and because he was a gentleman who could not be bought. In his case they had to resort to their usual custom, which is, if they cannot buy a man, to break him down with the government. Mr. Beadle has written some facts about Bill Hickman which were true. It has always been supposed by many people here that they were sensational, but they were unquestionably facts carefully compiled, and Mr. Beadle's testimony and that of others, can prove them. All of the Mormons know that they are facts.


The statements of Ann Eliza Young herself in her book are facts. Her mother, Mrs. Webb, who was interviewed by a Herald correspondent at Lockport, N.Y., the other day, is a very truthful woman. Her husband is a Mormon, who is still among the Mormons, and has three other wives, but he is afraid to tell the whole truth of the matter. I think that Mrs. Webb, and especially her husband, know a great deal more about that Mountain Meadows massacre than they would tell, because they lived at that time in the southern portion of the Mormon country, and could not have helped, from their position, knowing a good deal about it; but still I think they have interests there, and cannot make an open fight without being turned over to what is known in Mormondom as the "Buffeting of Satan."


The Gentiles who have been murdered in Utah are without number. I remember I was travelling to California three years ago, and I found people there who had been outraged by the Mormons, and was told of others who had been burned at the stake, and whose friends had been murdered when they were on their way to California. I remember one instance when the publisher of the Sacramento Record told me that when a party was on its way across the country they were met by three women. I think they came to them and told them they wanted to escape; that they had been imposed upon, been dragged into a life of infamy and shame -- in fact, a life of slavery and degradation and they wanted to escape. The party put them into one of their wagons. They moved on for a day or two, when they were overtaken by a body of Mormons, who charged them with having these women, and demanded that they return them over to their custody. Their first impulse was to fight the Mormons and defend the women. The Mormons told them they could resist them, perhaps, for a little while, but that in less than six hours they would have reinforcements enough to capture the whole train. They concluded, as they had not gone out there to fight the Mormons they would give the women up, and they did so. This publisher said he heard afterward that those poor women were taken back and killed. It was not only among men that these murders were committed but among women. It is known as the "blood atonement." You know that when a Mormon has broken the faith or offended the law they think that he must be killed in order to save his soul. And the women suffered alike with the men. The point I want to make most clear, and the idea I wish to convey is, I repeat, that if the New York Herald will persist in this investigation and send good, reliable men to Utah, that are not to be bought by Mormon money, and men who will pursue their investigations, they are going to show up the greatest fraud in the world.I know it.


I met a most respectable lady in Sacramento city whose husband had been killed by Mormons in 1849, and there are any quantity of such instances. I met a man in San Francisco who had been out with a party with a drove of sheep one winter in Salt Lake Valley, and he said something derogatory about the Mormons to a friend, and he told him that he had made a mistake. A Mormon spy heard what he said, and in less than a week all his sheep were drivin off by the Mormons. And when you wrote letters to other parts of the country no one dared to write a word unless he [included] something favorable of the Mormons. It was a time when no Gentile dared to write a letter without saying something favorable of Mormons, because they tampered with the mails. I would no more dare, when I was out there in 1865, twelve years ago, send a letter East through the Mormon Post Office, without speaking favorably of the Mormons, than I would go and commit murder here. Say a word against them and you will never go out of the Territory alive.

I asked an influential Mormon "How is it a man can marry three of Brigham Young's daughters and it cause no special remark, and everything can go on satisfactory?"

"Oh," says he, "those things occurred in Utah when a man might wake up in the morning and find his own brother dead on his door steps, and all he has go to do is to go on about his business; no matter what takes place, 'mind your own business' is the Mormon creed, you know, not to ask any questions, and nobody dares to. It was a reign of terror. It was a very peaceable, quiet city in those days, and it was when Mormonism reigned supreme without opposition, except from a few Gentiles. There were a few stout hearted Gentiles who were kept at bay. Their only safety, however, lay in being to all appearances Mormons, paying tithing and saying nothing. Brigham Young never paid a cent in those days. He made the Mormons pay.


Mrs. S. A. Cook was the first Mormon apostate who ever brought a suit against Brigham Young and ever got a judgment against him. It was for $2,000, but she did not get the money for a long time. When it was paid Mayor Wells, who was a Mormon, got her to sign a receipt for the money, and he took the money and in some way applied it to a payment for the land that she owned, which he claimed she did not own. She kept fighting until she made him pay. She was the first person that ever made Brigham Young pay in a United States Court. She was the woman also who had charge of the children who were saved at the Mountain Meadows massacre. I saw her three years ago and she had two photographs of the two boys. She showed them to some people at the Peoria House in Peoria, Ill. Those pictures, if they could be found, might be very valuable now. If the parties who were there at the house at that time could be found and interviewed very likely they could give some valuable information. It is the custom there among the Mormon officials to put every intelligent man who might be useful into some official position, and they utilize the best men in every branch of art and the industries.


In answer to a question as to what he thought of the future of Mormonism, whether or not it is going to continue to be a permanent "ism" in the United States and continue also to defy the federal government, Mr. Pond said: "I think that the persistent efforts of Brigham Young and all that kind of thing looks as though he was on his "last legs," as the saying is. He knows he has a very short time to live, and he might just as well , in his opinion, make a good fight, for the Mormons are ready to go any lengths (so he says). No matter what he says and directs, they will do it. The Mormons have got five or six hundred missionaries in Europe, and they keep them there, and their acquisition of Mormon recruits from the lower classes in Europe is from three to six thousand, who are added to the Territory every year, while we are gaining but very slightly on the Gentile settlement, because Gentiles, you know, are obliged to go there as adventurers and miners. There is no inducement for them to settle. They cannot get hold of the land....

(under construction)

(From the Pittsburg Commercial, May 15.)

What the government may choose to do with polygamy is one thing. That is a crime which has been tolerated so long that it has acquired a certain standing, which makes it a question how to dispose of it with the least injury to innocent parties. But the Mountain Meadows massacre is an event by itself. It was a crime against the law of God and man. Whatever palliation or excuse there may be have been is a matter for evidence. Young declares that the immigrants were a rabid set, and that they insulted the women and poisoned animals, and were insulting and vicious. It thus seems that he claims to have known about them. Whatever may be said or proven in palliation of the guilt of the parties, they are clearly guilty of crime, and the point now is to fix this crime, by legal evidence, on the guilty parties. The confession of Lee makes Young an accessory before and after the fact, and as such guilty of the crime itself. He should be arrested, tried, and, if found guilty, punished.

But the time is at hand when this entire question of polygamy, under the pretence of religious faith, should be taken in hand and disposed of. Considering its duration and the numbers attached to it, it is as completely covered with horrible crime as was slavery in its worst days. It may possibly die a natural death, but it is a grave question whether a blood-stained institution like this should be allowed to perpetuate itself for generations. It is offensive to our people and a blot on our institutions. It is offensive to the civilization of the country and age. Should it be allowed to remain? There can be no question that the sentiment of the country will fully indorse the enactment of a law by Congress specifically abolishing this feature of Mormon practice as being repugnant to our civilization and the genius of our institutions. But for the present let Brigham Young be arrested and tried for his part in the Mountain Meadows massacre....

Gold Hill (Nevada) News: -- "Brigham Young, the prophet, seer and revelator of the Mormon Church, does not imitate the example of Jesus Christ. He is not modest by any means. He is exceedingly impertinent, and he deliberately insults the nation which has tolerated him and his infamous religion for so many years. In the Tabernacle in Salt Lake City last Sunday he made use of these memorable words -- we say memorable, because we want all our readers to remember them in the future, when the doom of this hoary-headed old scoundrel overtakes him: -- 'If they want blood they can have it, and, indeed, they are likely to have more of it let out of their veins than they can spare, at an early period.' This, of course, refers to the Gentiles of Utah, to the citizens of the United States, who do not believe in Brigham Young and his Church. It is evident from this speech of the arch assassin of the nation that the story about the Mormons arming is no fiction. They have evidently made up their minds to save Brigham Young from the executioner by engaging in a rebellion against the government. Very well, let them try it. Gentile blood will flow, as the prophet, seer and revelator says; but the Mormon Church will be wiped out of existence. Rutherford B. Hayes, and not James Buchanan, is President of the United States to-day."

The Mormons and the Herald.

The vehement and insulting denials with which the Mormon press in Utah has met the statements of our Salt Lake correspondent have led him to ask Governor Emory and District Attorney Howard whether he had made incorrect reports. These two federal officers are the most responsible and the best informed in the Territory, and they confirm completely the reports of our correspondent. Governor Emory said to him on Friday that "the presence of additional federal soldiers would have a salutary effect." The Governor agrees with the Herald that it is not probable that the Mormons will venture to resist the federal authority, but "at a critical juncture" he thinks there might be a conflict between them and the "Gentiles." District Attorney Howard said to our correspondent, "I am satisfied that the Mormon militia has been reorganizing and drilling at severnl places, at the instigation of the Church leaders;" and again, "We have positive evidence of various meetings for drill and of the issuance of military orders."

We do not intend any offence to Brigbam Young and the other Mormon leaders when we say that these words of Governor Emory and the federal District Attorney will receive more credit here in the East than all the denials of the Mormon press. The reports sent us by our correspondent are entirely confirmed. But when we read further we find in the utterances of both these federal officers evidence that very exciting events are near at hand in Salt Lake City. The Grand Jury meets to-morrow, and, as a result of its investigations, Governor Emory significantly says: -- "I am confident that Haight, Higbee and Stewart, who participated with Lee in the Mountain Meadows massacre, will be arrested and convicted;" and in response to a more direct question, the Governor added, "I think the chief criminals accused will also be arrested, convicted and punished." District Attorney Howard, who had searched the whole history of murder in Utah carefully, says that since the Mormons entered the Territory he has ascertained that about six hundred murders have been committed. It will be noticed that he significantly speaks only of those which have been "ascertained." Being asked whether Brigham Young or other members of the priesthood were likely to be indicted by the Grand Jury, Mr. Howard very properly declined to answer, but he said, "Young is afraid of it; he has a keen sense of the fitness of things;" and he added, "My opinion is that Brigham Young would avail himself of the earliest information of proceedings by the Grand Jury against him, and that his organized Nauvoo Legion would be called into action to escort him and other Church officials who might be in dnnger of arrest beyond the reach of the officers of the law." Nor can the Mormons claim that this opinion of Mr. Howard arises from prejudice, for it is notorious that when Young was previously arrested for murder he defied the United States authorities; and only two years ago he violently resisted the United States Marshal, and two of his bodyguards were indicted in consequence, one of whom is now serving a term in prison for the offence.

All the signs show that we may be on the eve of exciting events in Utah. We trust the federal authorities in Washington are awake and alive to what is going on out there, and that the Attorney General will not allow his subordinate to bear the whole burden and responsibility of the work in Salt Lake on his shoulders.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,883.                     New York City, Tuesday  May 22, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Names of All the White Murderers.


An Official List of the Orphans.


How the Children were Separated and Cared For.


Salt Lake City, May 12, 1877.    
I am able to send you in this letter a list of the names of all the white men who are alleged to have committed the Mountain Meadows massacre, and a list also of the children who survived it. Neither of these lists has hitherto been published. The first, in the handwriting of John D. Lee, reads as follows: -- "To the best of my recollection there were fifty-four white men at the Mountain Meadows massacre. The men who composed the preliminary council of war were these: --

    John N. Higbee, Major and First Counsellor to President Haight.
    P. K. Smith, Bishop.
    Samuel McMurdy, Bishop.
    Ira Allen, High Counsellor.
    Richard Harrison, High Counsellor.
    Charles Hopkins (dead), High Counsellor.
    Robert Wiley (dead), High Counsellor.
    Thomas Cartright (dead), City Counsellor.
    Samuel White, City Counsellor.
    J. McConnel.
    Captain Tate.
    John D. Lee, Indian farmer.
   Samuel Jerks,
   Samuel Jerks,
   Joel White,
   W. C. Stewart,
   Elliott Wilden,
   Dan Mc Farlane,
   [John S.] Humphrey,
   Oscar Hamblin (dead),
   Sam Knight,
   Ben Arthur,
   John W. Clark (dead),
   Harrison Pearce,
   James Pearce,
   William Young (dead),
   John Mang[um],
   William Bateman (dead),
   Columbus Freeman (a mere lad),
   Two men named Curtis,
   Joseph Clews (in Cal.),
   J. Pugmire (dead),
   James Williamson (dead),
   Carl Shirts (interpreter),
   Nephi Johnson (interpreter),
   Dudley Leavitt,
   [Anthiny J.?] Stratton,
   William Slade, Sr. (dead),
   William Slade, Jr.
   William Randly [Hawley?],
   Sam Adair,
   Nate Adair,
   George Adair,
   George Hanley [Hawley?] (dead),
   ____ Hairgraves,
   William Hamblin (dead).
"Besides the above there were some five men who have gone to Texas and two others whose names and whereabouts I cannot recall."

Of the men whose names are above cited John D. Lee alone has been brought to punishment. In fact, he is the only Mormon among the murderers who have stained the soil of Utah with the blood of hundreds of apostates and gentiles who has been executed for his crimes. Some of his companions whom he mentions long ago removed beyond the borders of Utah; others including Haight, Higbee and Stewart, have for years been fugitives in mountain canyons and the distant wilds of Arizona. Warrents for their arrest have been issued and experts are on their track. It is hoped that several of these criminals will be arraigned for trial this summer. The evidence against them will convince the country of their guilt, whether or not it fails to convince a Mormon jury.


The history of the child survivors of the massacre is contained in some official documents recently transmitted from the War Department. The survivors, it seems, numbered seventeen. Their ages varied from three to nine years. Sixteen only are here accounted for -- six boys and ten girls. The first boy was named Calvin, between seven and eight years old. He did not remember his surname [Miller?], but said he was near his mother when she was shot, and pulled the arrows out of her back until she died. He said he had two brothers older than himself, named Henry and James, and three sisters -- Nancy, Mary and Martha -- all slain.

The second was a girl, who did not remember her name; her companions said it was Denmed [sic - Demurr? Dunlap?].

Next was a boy named Ambrose Miriam Tagit, who had two brothers older than himself and one younger brother. His father, mother and the eldest brothers were killed; his younger brother was brought to Cedar City. He said he lived in Johnson county, but did not know in what State, and said it took one week to go from where he lived to his grandfather's and grandmother's, who were still living in the States.

Fourth, was a girl obtained by Dr. Forney from John Morris, a Mormon at Cedar City. She was too young to recollect anything about herself.

The fifth was a boy who could not tell his own name, but said the girl obtained from Morris was named Mary, and was his sister. This little boy had been living since the massacre with one E. H. Grove.

A girl, who said her name was Prudence Angeline, was the sixth. She had two brothers, Jesse and John, who were killed. She said her father's name was William and that she had an uncle named Jesse.

The seventh was a very little girl, who gave her name as Frances Harris or Horne; she remembered nothing of her family.

The eighth was a boy too young to remember anything about himself.

The ninth was a boy who said his name was William H. Huff. *

The tenth was a boy who gave his name as Charles Thatcher [sic]. *

The eleventh was a girl; her name she gave as Sophronia Huff.*

The twelfth was a little girl who called herself Betsey.

The thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth were three sisters, named Rebecca, Louisa and Sarah Dunlap. These had been staying with Jacob Hamblin.

There is no description and no name given of the sixteenth.

The seventeenth was a baby boy, who was only six weeks old at the time of the massacre. Hamblin's wife took this little fellow to the camp of the First United States dragoons, commanded by Brevet Major James Henry Carleton, at Mountain Meadows, May 19, 1859. He was the last child recovered, and was then about a year and a half old. Major Carleton describes him as a pretty little boy, who slept that night on the ground where his parents had been murdered and was next day sent on to Salt Lake City, where Dr. Forney had by that time collected most of the other children.


Although at least four of the oldest children are said to have known, without doubt, enough of the material facts of the Mountain Meadows massacre to be good witnesses against the whites who participated in it,


The children who were brought to Salt Lake City were put in charge of Mrs. [Ann Eliza] Worley, with whom I conversed, at her house last evening. She describes their appearance, when the wagon containing them stopped at her gate, as most piteous. Not more than one or two of them had received decent care since the massacre, Many of them had sore eyes. Most of them were unwashed, unkempt and afflicted with vermin, and their clothing was scanty, filthy and ill-fitting. Mrs. Worley was at once compassionate and energetic. She took these little ones, who arrived early in the afternoon, and by evening had thoroughly washed and decently dressed them, and so fed them with food and tenderness that when Dr. Forney called to see them in the evening he was struck with astonishment.

While she had charge of the children Mrs. Worley was too much engaged in making them comfortable and in modifying the wild and almost savage manners which some of them had acquired to question them about the circumstances of the massaxre. She is now a feeble old lady, but she has a vivid recollection of one intelligent child, named Mary Dunlap, whose little brother was killed. One day, when Mary Dunlap was in the room, says Mrs. Worley, one of the latter's little boys entered, whereupon Mary cried out: --

"O dear! you look just like my brother!"

"Where is your brother?" asked the little boy?

"The Indians killed him," answered the child with singular solemnity.

Mrs. Worley described an old gentleman from one of the Western States who came to Salt Lake and called on her and inquired after his grandchild, an orphan, who was journeying with a family belonging to the demolished train. The boy was not among the orphans of the massacre whom she had in charge, and the old man's grief was great.

"My God!" said he, "Mrs. Worley, I pray you seek for him. I am rich, and if you find him I will never stop rewarding you."

It was ascertained that the child had been butchered, and his grandfather started eastward, utterly broken hearted.


Arrangements having been made by Dr. Forney, who was then Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Utah Territory, the seventeen fatherless, motherless and penniless children started across the Plains in company with himself, his wife and three other females, including Mrs. Worley, in 1859. Dr. Forney had previously written on to friends of the children, but all that Mrs. Worley recollects about the disposition of them after their arrival at Fort Leavenworth is this: -- Two young men and two young ladies whose names she had no record of came to Fort Leavenworth and took all but one of the children away immediately. She believes they were bound for Arkansas and Missouri. The other child, a boy, was received at Fort Leavenworth by his uncle from Arkansas. Mrs. Worley made no note of the names of any of these persons, and I have not been able by diligent inquiry to ascertain to whom the children were at that time committed. It is difficult to learn about the fates of the children. Only one person in Utah ("Idaho Bill") claims to be a survivor of the massaxre. He calls himself Charles Thatcher. You have received his history as recited by himself. It is rumored that a lady, a wife of a conductor on the Union Pacific Railroad, who resides at Chyenne, is one of the seventeen saved.

Perhaps the information in this letter, comprising, as it does, the names of the children and the ages of some of them, may, if it be copied and commented on by Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas newspapers, help to uncover the mystery which has enveloped their lives since 1859 and bring to light from one or more of the eldest among the survivors of the Mountain Meadows massacre testimony in aid of the prosecution to be commenced against the murderers who have had such long immunity.

* These names were mentioned by Idaho Bill in a previous letter recounting an interview with him.


(From the Salt Lake Tribune, May 15.)

Brigham Young tells the Herald correspondent that if he had known the intention of his followers in Southern Utah to assassinate the Arkansas company of emigrants his disposition is such that he would have gone to that camp and fought to the death the Indians and the white men who committed the massacre rather than such a deed should be committed. Unfortunately his "disposition," as shown in his thirty-three years'prophetic rule of the church, does not give color to his assertion. He has been relentless in his exercise of absolute power, and the tone and manner in which he has gloated over the fall of "his enemies" are really demonic. The emigrants were refused needed supplies in Salt Lake by his order, and in their toilsome journey through the Territory they were hounded as enemies and the necessaries of life denied them....


(From the Salt Lake Tribune, May 15.)

If Brigham Young had been in the Second District Court, with Mr. Baskin to cross-examine him he would have been made as deathly sick as Elisha Hoops became, through retailing that stale and exploded lie that the Arkansas company of emigrants angered the Indians by poisoning springs and infecting dead carcasses of cattle, by which a number of red men died. Telling as fair a story as he could to the New York Herald correspondent his easiest resort was to a fertile faculty of invention. The emigrants were dead and John D.Lee, his facile instrument in the treacherous assassination, has ben put out of the way; so he thought it a perfectly safe proceeding to lay the blame on the former and the infamy of their taking off upon the latter, and himself to play the role of the virtuous patriarch. But an ordinary lie needs fifty others to sustain it, while this lie cannot be made to pass current if he should devote his inventive faculties to smoothing and polishing it from now till Doomsday. He should have remembered that he was dealing with a subtle querist, and that his shallow attempt to hoodwink the journalist would be fully exposed by subsequent investigation. His false statement has gone to the world, and this will shortly be followed by historical evidence which will prove to millions of Americans, who have devoted no previous thought to the matter, that the leader of the Latter Day Church lied to the Herald correspondent to hide his own guilty complicity in the damning crimes.

(under construction)

Note: The list of Mountain Meadows Massacre participants and child survivors was reprinted in the Salt lake Tribune of June 2, 1877.See also Appendices A and C in Walker, Turley and Leonard's 2008 Massacre at Mountain Meadows.


Whole No. 14,884.                     New York City, Wednesday  May 23, 1877.                    Three Cents.



(From the St. Louis Republican.)

The rumors in regard to disaffection among the Mormons -- to which we have heretofore attached no importance -- seem to be partially confirmed by the letter of Governor Emory to the Secretary of War, asking large reinforcements of troops for the military stations in Utah. Such a request would hardly have been made if the Governor had not good reason to believe serious trouble is brewing in his jurisdiction. We presume the troops will be sent, and while their presence may be useful to prevent the anticipated outbreak, it will at the same time be construed as a threat, and thereby increase the ill-feeling already existing. That ill-feeling is the natural outgrowth of the trial, conviction and execution of John D. Lee. Though the Mormon authorities abandoned Lee to his fate and furnished the testimony which doomed him to death, yet neither they nor their followers really believed capital punishment would be inflicted upon him, and therefore were entirely unprepared for the terrible revelations of his confession. This confession, made on the very brink of the grave, declared emphatically that Lee was only the tool of the high priests of the Mormon Church, and that in superintending the work of blood at Mountain Meadows he was simply obeying orders he dare not disobey. The blow at Brigham Young and his associates hit the mark. The press throughout the country took up the subject, charged Young with being their chief criminal and demanded prompt and vigorous action against him. Whether the federal government contemplates such action we do not know -- probably not, as it would be impossible to get the necessary proof -- but undoubtedly the Mormon rank and file fear further investigation of the matter, and Young himself is not altogether easy about it. Meanwhile the revival of the memories of Mountain Meadows has stimulated the antagonism between the Mormon and "Gentile" population in Utah, and the organ of the latter in Salt Lake City is doing its best to fan this antagonism into a flame of hostility. We do not think the Mormons can be induced to commence an attack which must end in their destruction, but they dread an attack from the "Gentiles," and are determined to be ready for it. Now that the Southern difficulty has been happily disposed of, the Mormon question is altogether more important than any other before the country. It has been dragging along for twenty-five years, and each year has added to the number of complications and diminished the chances of amicable settlement. Yet settled it must be somehow, sooner or later. Polygamy cannot be legalized in the United States, and polygamy is so thoroughly interwoven with the Mormon faith that the process of separation must be exceedingly embarrassing and may be dangerous. But, however embarrassing and however dangerous, the separation is inevitable unless the Mormons choose to carry themselves and their peculiar institution beyond our frontiers....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,885.                     New York City, Thursday  May 24, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Evidences of Brigham Young's Complicity in the Crime.


A Mysterious Communication to Headquarters
and the Response.


Could the Slaughter Have Been Committed Without His Knowledge?

Salt Lake City, May 16, 1877.    
It was proved on the Lee trial that after Lee and his Indians first assaulted and "corralled" the Arkansas emigrant train at Mountain Meadows a Mormon council was held in Cedar City. The bishops and other Church dignitaries who had rendezvoused at that place assembled Sunday, September 6, and held a stormy discussion. Laban Morill, who was present, testifies that some were in favor of holding off from the destruction of the train until a message could be sent to Brigham Young at Salt Lake. At that time, it should be remembered, Brigham Young was not only President of the Mormon Church, but Governor and Indian Agent of the Territory.

Prudent men at the council, who do not seem to have been fully trusted by the real leaders, asked for authority from "headquarters." One version has it that Bishop P. Klingen Smith joined with others in opposing delay. Another version describes him as a most ardent advocate of delay until word could be had direct from Brigham Young, and says William H. Dame and Isaac C. Haight responded that they had orders direct from "headquarters." Alluding to Klingen Smith's Holland origin they added that they were going to see these orders carried out "in spite of any leather-headed Dutch Bishop out of hell!"


The counsels of the timid prevailed, however, and it was decided to send a messenger to Salt Lake immediately. Joseph Haslam testifies that on the day after the council was held, about half-past five in the afternoon, he started from Cedar City with a letter from Haught, addressed to Brigham Young. He changed horses whenever he could get a fresh one and rode to Salt Lake City as rapid speed. He delivered the letter to President Young, who, after Haslam had rested a few hours, handed him a letter a letter, with which he returned to Cedar City, where he delivered it to Haight.


In the meantime the massacre of the emigrants was precipitated. A few days after Haslam left Cedar City Haight, Stewart and Joel M. White, who were among the most bloodthirsty men at the council and chafed at their defeat, met near a spring, at what is now called Little Pinto, two messengers from the emigrant camp, named Aden and Huff. These two men were on their way to Cedar City for help. While telling their story at the spring they were treacherously fired on by the three Mormons whom they were addressing. Stewart's shot killed Aden. White's ball wounded Huff, who escaped back to the emigrant camp. Haight, Stewart and White returned to Cedar City, told a story which threw all the blame on their victims and urged an immediately attack on the train. Lee, being informed of the matter, sent word to the whites in all directions. Dame, colonel of the Mormon militia, and Higbee, major, who was in command on the field on the day of the massacre, issued orders for a muster. Various reasons were given, and some Mormons who went to Mountain Meadows aver that they did so believing they were to rescue instead of to butcher the emigrants. Once there all were put into military harness and did not dare disobey orders. Then ensued the unexampled wholesale murder, the circumstances of which are gradually being disclosed to the world.

Neither the letter sent by Haight to Brigham Young nor the reply sent by Brigham Young to Haight have ever been brought to light. That they might appear I recently applied to Brigham Young in person for permission to look over the correspondence between himself and the Church authorities in Southern Utah in 1857. He smoothly declined. Said he: --

"I don't think it is necessary. The correspondence would be of no public interest. As I have already told you the messages sent from here consistently chiefly of counsel to the brethren about their houses, farms, stock and grain. There is nothing that could add to your information about the Mountain Meadows Massacre, and I am at the defiance of the world to prove I had anything to do with it."

"Then you find an objection to my looking over the correspondence?"

"The same objection precisely as you might find to exhibit your private correspondence to me."


Shortly afterward, on looking into this subject again. I sent President Young the following note: --
May 4, 1877.    
To Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: --

Dear Sir -- I had the honor on the day before yesterday to ask your leave to examine the correspondence between yourself and the Church dignitaries of Southern Utah during the year 1857. You deemed it unnecessary to grant my request. I now make a more particular request in regard to a matter of great public interest. It was testified to on the Lee trial that at the time when the Arkansas emigrant train passed Cedar City on its way to Mountain Meadows a Church council was held Sunday at Cedar City, at which it was decided not to molest or detain the emigrants until your counsel could be obtained in regard to them. The testimony shows that a messenger named Haslam was despatched from Cedar City to Salt Lake with a note from leading members of the council addressed to you: that he rode night and day and delivered to you that written note, and that he returned with a written letter from you to one or more members of the council and a verbal message to the effect that the emigrants must be allowed to pass unharmed. He did not reach Cedar City in time to prevent the massacre.

Will you kindly inform me, by a note sent by the bearer -- first, whether you ever received the alleged note or message from the Cedar City Council; second, whether you sent a reply to it; and, third, if you did receive such a note and sent a response, will you furnish me with copies of both for publication in the New York Herald?
                  I am sir, respectfully yours, [J. B. Stillson].


To this came a guarded reply from Brigham Young, by his secretary, thus: --
                                  President Young's Office, May 4, 1877.
Dear Sir -- President Young only dropped into his office this morning in time to leave to attend a meeting for which he had an appointment. I, however, read your letter to him. He, remarking the fact that he was then about to keep an appointment, said that with regard to the note referred to by you -- said to have been despatched to him from Cedar City -- was a matter he knew nothing about; and of the letter from President Young, also referred to by you as having been sent by the hand of Haslam, Mr. Howard, prosecuting attorney, could give you in full the facts relating to it, and to whom he would have to refer you. Yours, &c.
                George F. Gibbs.
United States District Attorney Howard, to whom I applied, could give me no information in regard to either of the two letters, although it is not unlikely that he will have information to communicate to a court when Brigham Young will least expect it. Mrs. Haight professes to have a paper in her possession wherewith to shield her husband from being made by the Mormon Church a scapegoat like John D.Lee.

Mrs. Haight's daughter, in conversation with one of her admirers, also alluded to this paper in terms not complimentary to Brigham Young; Colonel Dame, whom Young with singular calumy attempted when he lately passed through Parowan to depose from his bishopric, expressed perfect confidence in his ability to show by whose authority he acted.


Few Mormons in Utah disbelieve, and some assert, that Brigham Toung authorized the massacre. But it will be impossible for your readers to understand how his authority was probably expressed unless they follow in these letters the explanation I shall try to give them of a system of government mingled of Church and State which is shrewder and more binding upon the governed than any other which had been even conceived of, much less put into practice, since the Dark Ages. In a sermon delivered in the Tabernacle about those times Brigham Young himself boasted in this wise over United States Judge Brocchus, whom he had despotically driven out of Utah: --

It is true, as it is said, if I had crooked my little finger he would have been used up, but I did not bend it. If I had the sisters alone felt indignent enough to have chopped him to pieces.


The Mormon people were all sworn in the Endowment House to revenge the death of the prophets, especially upon their enemies in Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas. They needed but a hint from the Prophet (who constantly inculcated in his sermons the doctrine of blood atonement) to "use up" anybody from either of those States. It would have been a violation of their oaths had the Southern Mormons -- so wont to slaughter one another in "obedience to counsel" -- [to] let the Arkansas train pass without molestation. Whatever the text of Brigham Young's letter to Haight, it did not prevent, and the almost universal conviction here is that it was not intended to prevent, the most hideous crime committed by white men in North America. The verbal message which is said to have been delivered by Young to Haslam, that the emigrants must be suffered to pass unharmed, is criticised more than ever as a cloak to the concealed and hitherto unrevealed written initmation.


One thing which has never been understood is that Utah, in the month of the massacre, was under martial law. Johnston's United States army was approaching. Therefore, said Brigham Young, in a proclamation dated September 15, 1857: --
Martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Territory, from and after the publication of this proclamation, and no perosn shall be allowed to pass or repass, into, or through, or from this Territory, without a permit from the proper officer.
Some time before the formal proclamation was issued the gist of it was made public throughout UTah, so that prior to the arrival of the Arkansas train at Cedar City it was well understood by the Mormons that "no person should be allowed to pass through the Territory without a permit." Every avenue of egress from, and entry into Utah was guarded. Some families from Salt Lake and elsewhere who attempted to excape through the eastern canyons were stopped and murdered. Those who came in through those canyons, and wanted to go south to settle there or to proceed by the southern route to California, had to get a pass from Governor Brigham Young or Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells. Manuscript copies of numerous passes issued by these officers in September, 1857, are on my table. Here are a few of them which certify to the care that was taken of travellers into Southern Utah at that time: --
Adjutant General's Office, Utah Territory,}    
Great Salt Lake City, Sept., 1857.   }    
To All Whom it may Concern:--

This is to certify that the bearer, Mr. John Aiken, who is peaceably travelling through the Territory, is permitted to pass on his way to California.
                  Daniel H. Wells,
          Lieutenant General Commanding.
    By order of the Lieutenant General Commanding.
James Ferguson, Adjutant General.

Governor's Office,   }    
Great Salt Lake City, U. T.}    
To All Whom it may Concern:--

The bearer, John Andrew Fullmer, emigrant, and lately from Lancaster, Fairfield county, Ohio, is hereby permitted to pass peaceably through the Southern settlements on his way to California.
                  Brigham Young,
Governor and Superintendent Indian Affairs, Utah Territory.


Without such safeguards the fated train from Arkansas ventured on its way down from Salt Lake City into the remote and melancholy country where it was destroyed. John D. Lee, a few weeks before his death, ironically said to Marshal Nelson that he "didn't believe those emigrants went down there with the right sort of a pass!" That they did not have this pass might be asserted as a military reason for "sing them up." When all the facts are disclosed it will be found that when the Arkansas train arrived in Southern Utah the Mormon inhabitants of that country were alarmed and ready for war. One vivid figure used by General Wells is that "the fate of the emigrants was in the air." Those who have studied Brigham Young's teachings, and are familiar with the cold and cruel policy of the Mormon Church, will dispute with General Wells and affirm that it was in the hearts of the Mormon priesthood.


Informed as he was by Haslam of the danger of 130 emigrants, and afterward told by Lee and others of their slaughter, Brigham Young, Governor, Indian Agent, and more than all President and Dictator to the Mormon people, took not a step to bring the murderers to justice. According to the testimony of numerous witnesses he enjoined silence and mystery to be spread over the affair. Now that he is arraigned at the bar of public opinion he defends himself by saying that if United States officials who controlled the courts had co-operated with him he would have acted as avenger. Disavowing his responsibility as the Territorial Executive he omits to say that the Probate Courts, which like every other institution in Utah that was Mormon, were under his thumb, exercised jurisdiction in all criminal cases within the Territory. Did he or did any person in Cedar City or its neighborhood, who got a sniff from the Mountain Meadows shambles, instruct or complain to the Probate Court of that county? Or was the Judge of the court himself an assassin or an instigator of assassins? And was justice then balked, as often before and since, by a power in Utah superior to courts and consciences?

Brigham Young's temper at this period I am describing was bad. He regarded the Arkansans just as he regarded Johnston's troops, as "hell-hounds," altogether.


John D. Lee, who came to Salt Lake as soon as he could and told Brigham Young all about the massacre, fell into no immediate disgrace on account of it. On the contrary, you have been told of his spiritual and temporal promotions. In June next year, after President Buchanan's proclamation of pardon to the Mormons was issued, Young sent to Lee a pirated copy of it, which is now in my possession, on the blank margin of which is the following note in the Prophet's handwriting, countersigned by George A. Smith: --
Major Lee -- We avoid a fight, it seems, this spring. You will, no doubt, be exceedingly thankful to the President of the United States for forgiving you of all your seditions and treason, and be happy to learn it was entirely because he was kind hearted and fatherly in his feelings toward his wayward children. He pardons you because he can't kill you without it costing him too much; but he calculates to spit on his hands and begin again by and by. We must save our provisions and get ready.   Yours, in haste.
    June 17, 1858.               Brigham Young.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Monday  May 28, 1877.                    Three Cents.



(From the San Francisco Call.)

Salt Lake City, May 19, 1877.    
Considerable excitement in some of the outside settlements has been caused by the service of subpoenas as witnesses in old residents known to possess information in regard to the early murders and assassinations. There is a feeling of uneasiness manifested by prominent Danites who construe the summoning of witnesses to the Grand Jury as an indication of a forward movement by the officials. While it is true that the Nauvoo Legion has been reorganized, orders issued to all up the ranks, and that body has been drilling in various settlements, there is but little excitement. There is no doubt but the universal condemnation of this military preparation by the press of the country has made the leaders of the Legion more cautious, and will prevent many of the Mormons from joining the military organization who, without the exposure of the purposes of the leaders, would have been led into it. It is useless to deny the military preparations; neither has organization and drill stopped with the denial. It does not indicate an offensive movement on the part of the masses of the Mormons, but a preparation of the leaders guilty of innumerable crimes to protect themselves from arrest or to provide a safe escort to Arizona or Mexican colonies, beyond the reach of the "hounds of the law."

(From the San Francisco Mail.)

Before his execution Mr. John D.Lee, the "destroying angel" of Mountain Meadows, made a confession, implicating Brigham and sundry chief apostles and elders in the fiendish massacre which he was instrumental in accomplishing, and something has been said about giving Mr. Young an opportunity to defend himself against Lee's charge before a United States Court. Mr. Young doesn't want any such opportunity afforded him.He is preparing the Nauvoo Legion to fight the battles of the Lord, his prophet, and polygamy against the mighty. So far have matters progressed that Brigham has thought it safe to sound a note of defiance in the Tabernacle. It is to be hoped that the officers of justice will proceed to do their duty and give the belligerent Mormons a chance to appeal to arms, if they think best. Any number of volunteers could be had at the tap of the drum to go and wipe out the polygamous and murderous Saints or so many of them as will not consent to behave themselves and submit to the laws. Let Brigham Young pitch in, and the sooner the better.

(From the Kansas City Times.)

(view original article in Missouri paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Wednesday  May 30, 1877.                    Three Cents.




SALT LAKE CITY. Utah, May 29, 1877.    
The Grand Jury, which assembled on the 21st inst., was adjourned until July 10, after the examination of witnesses who were subpoenaed before the exhaustion of the appropriation for the Department of Justice. The testimony rendered seems fatal, not only to the principal actors in massacres in Utah, but to those who instigated tbem. This testimony will be supplemented by that of other witnesses when means are provided for their attendance at court. In this important issue to be made between the United States officials and the Mormon priests in Utah, the real and only difficulty which lies before the conclusion is simply this: -- The law provides fees for the service of papers in the Territories, and this provision is general. Here there are special circumstances which make it necessary to do more than serve papers.


For Instance, it usually happens that the witnesses in old murder cases here are distant, and either through fear or some other influences, are unwilling to come and testify. It is also true that inadequate provision is made for their payment. In Territorial cases, which are all the cases, except those under United States statutes at large, the United States government does not pay them, of course, and the Territorial Legislature has made but a small appropriation, which is only to be had upon the Auditor's warrant, but as there is no money in the Territorial treasury these warrants are unsalable, and can only be realized on at sharp discount, if at all.


The consequence is that the witnesses subpoenaed on these old cases, infleunced by all the considerations I refer to, may refuse to come here if living, as many of them are in anotber State or Territory, unless their expenses are borne and they are guaranteed protection while here. In the case of these witnesses who are in the Territory, influenced by the same reasons as above specified, the federal officials fear they may promptly get out of the way on being served with subpoenas in dangerous cases. It is understood that if they dodge the officers their conduct will be approved by the Mormon community, and that the skulkers will be given all aid and encouragement in evading their duty to the courts. Consequently federal officers need money to pay for the transportation and subsistence of important witnesses. But there is no law for the allowance of such expenses.


United States District Attorney Howard has before him evidence sufficient to convict the principal members of the Mormon hierarchy of fraud and crimes, and United States Marshal Nelson is prepared to summon the requisite witnesses. Ten thousand dollars would probably be enough for witnesses' expenses. It is understood that in advance of the extra session of Congress a certain discretion lies in regard to such an expenditure, if not with Attorney General Devens, then with the President. Mr. Howard, by consent of his official chief, has left here for a personal consultation at Washington. It would be a misfortune to the cause of public justice should the representations there of this courageous gentleman not prevail, in spite of the weak counsels and tergiversations by which the Governor of the Territory has made himself ridiculous.


What Brigham Young and his followers would like, and what they are now working for with an intensity which can hardly be conceived of at the East, is that no preliminary liberty may be taken before October with the public funds. When Congress meets they hope to use, with committeemen of both houses, the tactics that have never failed to defeat legisalation against them. They are not only raising men here, they are raising money to expend there. The idea that these and other careful statements you are now receiving are sensational, in any other respect than that they are truthful, may be dismissed from your readers' minds. This is the first time that any but spasmodic attempts have been made to overturn the licentious ring who reign in Utah.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,893.                     New York City, Friday  June 1, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Two Attempts to Assassinate the Herald Correspondent.


The Intended Victim Saved by the Speed of his Horse.


A Proffered Paper Supplemented by a Blow with a Knife



Salt lake City, Utah, May 31, 1877.    
To the Editor of The Herald: --

Last Saturday evening, between ten and eleven o'clock, I, who am acting here as your correspondent, was returning to my hotel alone in a buggy from a drive. When four blocks east from the Lion House I was fired upon by a miscreant who had posted himself behind a tree about fifty feet away, on a cross street. The speed of my horses doubtless saved my life. Before I could turn my assallant fled.


This attempt at assassination was supplemented by another bolder one to-day, While sitting alone in my room writing a knock came at the door. It was opened by a man strongly resembling the one who fired the pistol on the previous night. He held his hat and a paper in his left hand, and while bowing rested his rlgnt hand on the bosom of his coat, which was closely buttoned. He asked my name. Being answered, he then extended the paper saying, "Here Is an affidavit Which interests you."


He stood at a distance of some fonr feet. Reaching out with my right hand to receive the paper which he offered with his left, he suddenly withdrew it, at the same time he advanced, and pulling a short knife from his bosom struck me a heavy blow on the left breast, saying, "Take that, you son of a bitch."


Unprepared for such an assault I was knocked behind a table. The man instantly made his exit, supposing, no doubt, that he had blood-atoned his victim.

The Point of the knife passed through a post and two photographs on pasteboard and glanced off from a suspended buckle against which it struck and which is badly bent by the blow. Happily the only injury is a sore rib.

The man guilty of these two assaults has not been identified or apprehended. The cause of them can only be conjectured. It wll certainly not be ascribed by Mormon Journals here to a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.   J. B. STILLSON.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. 14,894.                     New York City, Saturday  June 2, 1877.                    Three Cents.


The Inner Workings of the Great Modern Theocracy.


Combination of Civil and Ecclesiastical Rule.


Robbery of Emigrants and Swindling of the Government.



Blood Atonement -- The Saints' New Name for Murder.

Justice Thwarted Through the Ballot Boxes and Venial Legislators.



Salt Lake City, May 25, 1877.    
Travellers on the Union Pacific Railroad, who go to Salt Lake as boys go to a circus, to see Brigham Young, almost invariably form erroneous ideas of that person and of Mormonism. The appearance and the manners of the Prophet are adapted to deceive all who are not practiced judges of character. His stature is commanding, his head large, his features not unpleasing, his address courteous, and his tones and gestures are uncommonly suave. Though tottering, at the age of seventy-five, upon a cane, he extends to his visitors a hand as white, small and soft as a young dandy might be proud of. When he engages them in conversation everything he says is nice, and he looks at them with such an air of benignity and candor that even shrewd men do not always mistrust him. As for women, refined and cultivated ladies have an instinct to get away from him as they would from a sleek serpent. Ignorant women, however, are often charmed by this serpent, and there are some instances of Gentile girls who have distracted their parents by wanting to marry him!

He is the master hypocrite of the century, even as the "religion" over which he presides is its supremest fraud.


Mormonism may be defined as a patchwork of all the isms since Babel, put together for the degradation of credulous people in the interest of a few designing knaves. Never was a more cunning, tyrannical theocracy established. Springing from the most vulgar little impostors of modern times, it has grown into an imposture so great as to threaten the material interests of a whole nation, while subverting both the material and moral interests of its devotees. The latter -- who are they? For it is important that the errors in regard to them should be dispersed. They are: --

1. A set of shrewd Americans, like their chief, who are devoted to him as the source of their wordly prosperity. This class includes one or two sons of the Prophet, who have grown to manhood since the pilgrimage from Nauvoo. Some from the first believed in Joseph Smith, his peculiar religion and his successor; others pretended to believe in them, and all are sufficiently zealous to suit the Prophet.

Men from foreign countries, wholly committed to the Mormon faith, and who have been elevated to high positions in the Church by reason of their devotion, their intelligence and their willingness to serve their superiors.

3.A population of some fifty thousand males, formed from the murderers, jail birds, horse thieves and counterfietors who made Nauvoo their refuge prior to its destruction, and from the most ignorant but industrious classes in England, Scotland, Wales, Denmark and other countries of Northern Europe.

4. Some fifty thousand women and children, consisting of aged first wives, polygamous women and their descendants, of whom few, so fas as I have seen, do not deserve intense pity. Impelled into their present positions by religious zeal, or led there by false promises, they all suffer -- some confessedly, others with pride that refuses to admit their shame.


Here, then, is seen a people, collected by a system at once masterly and impudent, and composed altogether of classes who from interest or necessity or fanaticism became members of the Mormon Church. The cunning of the leaders of the Church was evinced in the first place by their selection of the most ingenious rogues in America to guide its councils and to do its "dirty work," and by the gathering of its masses from countries where they had been accustimed to servility or to serfdom. Arriving here as converts of foreign Mormon missionaries, they became and have ever since been as clay in the hands of the potter.

"You have got to learn," said President Heber C. Kimball, "to be subject to the priesthood. You have got to learn to be thrashed by Brother Brigham. Your children must learn the same lesson, and then you will not be moulded into vessels of honor unless you be subject. You potters know it, if you have worked at the potter's business as I have."


In his three capacities -- (1.) as prophet, seer and revelator; (2.) as president of the Church, and (3.) as trustee of the Church -- Brigham Young is absolute master of "this people." He rules them in all their affairs, both spiritual and temporal, by his single will. His recognized function as the representative of God places him beyond personal responsibility, and gives his command a strength which is enforced through an artful system of subordinates. As the President of the United States has his Cabinet, so has the President of the Mormon Church his counsellors. But there is no check upon the latter's executive power. Twelve apostles preside over churches, administer the ordinances, &c. High priests and elders preside over the several "stakes," that is to say, dioceses. Below these grades of church officials an Aaronic priesthood is established, which includes the offices of bishop, priest, teacher and deacon. This priesthood reaches into every settlement, every household, in Utah. The bishops, assisted by the sub priests (or counsellors), conduct the temporal business of the Church and sit in judgment on transgressors. To ascertain who are transgressors the teachers and deacons are invested with power to enter dwellings and question, cross-question and dictate to their inmates. The Latter are expected to "obet counsel." The bishops who preside in the several cities and settlements are all selected by Brigham Young and they are compelled to choose subordinates who are suitable to Brigham Young. All the bishops and their subordinates do the will of the Prophet, or if they flinch from doing it they are promptly punished and removed. Generally they are an unscrupulous lot, and they are in any case prevented from manifesting sympathy with an oppressed people by the certainty of disgrace in case they should do so. The people in their turn are so taught and bound to obey bishops and teachers that they dare not violate their covenants.


From this resume of the Church organization it will be seen that it is sufficient for the purpose. All these Church officers are but mediums for the transmission of the will of the President. The civic Legislature of the Territory, moreover, is an ecclesiastical concern. It consists of a conclave of bishops -- the most powerful members, as we have seen, of the Mormon structure. Thus Mormonism becomes not a mere union of Church and State -- it is the Church above and in the State.

Standing in his pretended capacity between the people and the Supreme Being, Brigham Young is able at all times to declare that what he says to his people is the word of God. An acknowledgement of his relationship to the Creator is made a test of Church fellowship.


Acting as revelator he not only prescribes a general course of conduct for his followers, but promulgates from time to time special "revelations from on high." These contain doctrines to be invariably believed and advocated. They have been varied to suit the changing opinions, whims and caprices, passions and lusts of the Mormon chiefs. Polygamy, for example, which was expressly forbidden in the original Book of Mormon, was "revealed" in consequence of the animal yearnings of Joseph Smith. The escapades of that licentiate among his neighbors' wives became so notorious in Nauvoo that he felt compelled to obtain an excuse for them direct from God.


As trustee in trust for the Church, Brigham Young has carried out with transcendent success the intention with which he came to Utah, and has gained the reputation of being the "greatest living financier." At least this is what he called himself while rating an offending apostle in the "temple," at the recent conference in St. George. His trust is ludicrously indefinite; it has no prescribed duties or conditions, no guards nor limits, no acknowledged mode of accountability. Mark here the scheme of robbery and profits, of gradual increase of profits, conceived years ago by Brigham Young and his advisors. Drawn to the Territory by false representations, promises of houses and sections of land, and plentiful aids to their comfort and prosperity, the pilgrims from across the Atlantic encountered conditions which obliged them to surrender one tenth (in some instances all) of their possessions to the Church treasury. In numerous cases Englishmen, who left home with hundreds, even thousands of pounds in their wallets, were cajoled or commanded to deliver up the money before leaving the Atlantic coast for the Missouri River, or before leaving the Missouri for Salt Lake. These moneys, they were assured, were intended for the benefit of the Church -- the building up of the kingdom. They were told of the perpetual emigration fund and other enginery intended to save distant souls and bring accessions to the fold in Utah, and were taught that every dollar they parted with was so much given to the Lord....


The Church of Latter Day Saints, blasphemously so-called, has been isolated from the world by its leaders because they knew it could not stand friction against Christianity and civilization. It has been ostracised by the world, which could not tolerate its follies and its crimes. For both these reasons it has become a selfish Church, founded on a "religion" originally selfish and on "revelations" which have tended to make it more and more selfish. The endowment of its neophytes is accompanied with oaths which bind them to fearful obligations. These, while compelling them to respect and obey their priests and counsellors, also compell them to abhor ministers and people who profess other faiths. A Gentile is always to be suspected and never to be frankly associated with. A malign "counsel" which extends from Brigham Young to his apostles, from the apostles to the elders, from the elders to the bishops, from the bishops to the teachers and from the teachers to the people, adminishes them to beware of strangers, who, they allege, can never inherit the kingdom of heaven. Thus Mormons regard their neighbors, even of the United States, as a kind of Ishmaelites, and thus, as Governor Emory said in his recent conversation reported to you, they have no idea of a republican form of government, and regard themselves as Mormons rather than as American citizens.


The embittered and selfish doctrines of Mormonism teach to its adherents not humility and self-denial, but pride and self-aggrandizement; not a lofty spiritual reward of obedience to Christ's teachings, but temporal good and great power in the world to come from obedience to God's teachings as revealed through Brigham Young. The Saints shall inherit the earth; unv=believers shall be trodden beneath their feet; the farms and property of other peoples will ere long be theirs, and their enemies, consisting of the populations of the whole world besides, shall be confounded, punished and finally perish from the earth, In no sermon by a Mormon priest is there expressed charity or pity for those who differ from them and whose dismal fate is thus portrayed. Other churches pray for the backslider; the Mormons curse him with hideous blasphemy. Said Heber Kimball: --

"I do pray for my enemies; I pray God Almighty to damn them."

Said Brigham Young, too, to twelve thousand people gathered here in Salt Lake City: --

"If there are enemies here let them keep their tongues still or sudden destruction will come upon them. Rather than apostates shall flourish here I will unsheathe my bowie knife and conquer or die. I would take that bosom pin I used to waer at Nauvoo and cut their damned throats from ear to ear and say, Go to hell across lots!"


Mormonism reduced to its essence amounts finally to this: -- "We are the Lord's people. His chosen people. His peculiar people, to whom He has spoken by the mouth of His prophet in these latter days. We know of a surety that our religion is right, and that all other religions are wrong. we have the right to hate those who believe in other religions. the world has degenerated; we are selected to regenerate it; there is no true virtue, no real religion, outside of us; the world is ripe for a harvest of blood and death, of which we shall be called on to be the avenging reapers."

Again: -- "The Lord has conferred on us, His peculiar people, the blessing, along with other blessings, of many wives. This that we, as Saints, may, through our progeny, build up His kingdom."

"From the wicked shall be taken away even the wife that he has, and she shall be given to the righteous man."

"To us, as Latter Day Saints, are due the possessions of our unbelieving neighbors, including their wives, their fortunes and their fancied honors."

The blasphemy, the absurdity of such a doctrine inculcated by insolent mountebanks to a few thousand uninformed and fatuous peasants walled between the mountains in a remote desert in the heart of the United States are apparent enough. But its effect on their morals and conduct is not yet generally understood.


Animates, or, rather, degraded, by such teachings, the Mormon masses were ready to receive that doctrine of blood atonement with which Joseph Smith began and Brigham Young has continued to cement his power. First sowing in the hearts of his devotees hatred, malice, all uncharitableness, strife and animosity against "apostates," Brigham Young was prepared to announce and enforce this doctrine in spite of a few dissenting voices, which were thereafter quickly stilled by the knives of his assassins. He denies to the world the existence of such a band of assassins, but so true it is that a class of men nicknamed Danites and Destroying Angels did and does exist, that several of them have come forward and avowed their crimes without having previously received promises of immunity from prosecution. Nearly six hundred murders of Gentiles and apostates from the Church have been committed in Utah since the Mormons took possession. This number excludes the 130 emigrants butchered at Mountain Meadows. Only one of the guilty parties have been brought to justice, and it is notorious that every killing was done at the instance of subordinate authorities, who followed the teachings or instructions of the Church leaders. Every execution of a murderer here, except one, has been that of a Gentile or apostate murdered, or of a Mormon Danite, who, by reason of his imprudence, was made a politic sacrifice. John D. Lee was one of these same imprudent men.


From the first Brigham Young's sermons were calculated to encourage murders of the enemies of the Church. There is also deadly evidence which will be produced in court this summer and next fall that, in some instances, he directed men to be "cut off," and that in others he approved of their taking off. Blood atonement for a sin against the Church is still among the articles of faith of every true Mormon. In the Endowment House all saints pledge themselves to revenge the deaths of the prophets against their enemies -- their enemies comprising the unregenerate inhabitants of the rest of the world. They also take oaths to submit to the cutting of their own throats and disembowelment if they everbetray their leaders or commit an offence against the Prophet. To remind them of and hold them to these covenants the latter has thus, from time to time, addressed them in the Tabernacle: --


"When the time comes that we have need to shed blood, then it will be necessary we should do it, and it will be just as innocent as to go and kill a deer when we are hungry or in the time of famine."

"I have known a great many men who have left this Church for whom there is no chance whatever of exaltation, but if their blood had been spilled it would have been better for them."

"Will you love your brothers and sisters likewise when they have committed a sin that cannot be atoned for without shedding their blood? Will you love that man or woman well enough to shed their blood?"

"But now I say, in the name of the Lord, that if this people will sin no more, but faithfully live their religion, their sins will be forgiven them without taking life."

"Now, when you hear, my brethren, telling about cutting people off from the earth, that you consider it strong doctrine; but it is to save them, not to destroy them."

"This is loving our neighbor as ourselves. If he needs help, help him. If he wishes salvation and it is necessary to spill his blood upon the ground in order that he be saved, spill it.

"It is true the blood of the Son of God was shed for sins through the fall and those committed by men; yet, ye men can commit sins which it can never remit. As it was in the ancient days so it is in our day; and though the principles are taught publicly from this stand, still the people do not understand them; yet the law is precisely the same."

"I have known scores and hundreds of people for whom there would have been a chance in the last resurrection if their lives had been taken and their blood spilled upon the ground as a smoking incense to the Almighty, but who are now angels to the devil, until our elder brother, Jesus Christ, raises them up, conquers death, hell and the grave."

"There are sins that can be atoned for by an offering upon the altar as in ancient days, and there are sins that the blood of the lamb, or of a calf or of turtle doves cannot remit, but they must be atoned for by the blood of the man. That is the reason why men talk to you as they do from this stand. They understand the doctrine and throw out a few words about it. You have been taught that doctrine, but you do not understand it."


"Lawyers are getting pretty thick here. They are getting to be very troublesome with their lawsuits. It was just so at Nauvoo. They worried the life out of the Prophet Joseph, and finally secured his murder. They tried it on me there; but I told them if they didn't quit I'd send them to hell across lots, and they quit. And no they are at the same thing here. I have no wish to be troubled in this kind of way. I have no wish to go through the same thing here again. If they will try that thing on me here, I give them fair warning now. If any of these so-called officers of the law try to arrest me and bring me before the damned, cussed hounds of the law the government has sent out here to lord it over us, I'll send them to hell cross lots, so help me God."


The mass of the Mormon people, consisting, as we have seen, of an humble, dull, plodding, unaspiring peasantry, are to Brigham Young and other heads of the Church far more subservient in all respects than were the peasantry of mediaeval Europe to their masters. While the favored members of the priesthood get rich, those in disfavor and the hundred thousand hewers of wood and drawers of water in Utah stay quite poor. And no wonder; for, besides the tithing system, which extracts from every Mormon a tenth of his capital or labor, Brigham Young has several old-fashioned royal ways of obtaining money from his subjects....


The head of this theocracy, Brigham Young, is thought to be the man, or rather the thing, to be done away with. When he falls all will fall. Invested, as he is, with the powers of a very god over 100,000 people, powers which reach not merely to their hearts but likewise to their hearths and marriage beds, he is an embodied wrong to his people and a menace to the Republic. Invest a good man with his untrammelled might, and abuses would still flourish in the midst of a society thus governed. Invest it with a bad man, who during his life has been controlled successively, first by lust of women, next by lust of power, and last by lust of gold, and we see the result. His sensuality has been burnt out, his power is somewhat weakened, but his avarice remains.


Blusterer, coward and densely ignorant though Brigham Young is described by Gentiles and apostates here to be, he is gifted with malice and cunning, which have enabled him to overthrow or to deceive his most most distant adversaries.Through his delegates to Congress and his agents in the Territorial Legislature he has obtained the passage of bills which have hitherto protected him and his associates....


The Utah jury system is a matter of great present importance. It is mixed, like everything else here. List of jurors are selected in the counties where the courts are held, conjointly by the probate judges of the counties and the clerks of the district courts. The judges are Mormons, the Clerks are Gentiles. The judge and clerk in each county mutually make out a list of 200 jurors every year. These jurors are chosen alternately; the Probate Judge writes a Mormon name and the clerk of the court writes a Gentile name, until the list is filled. From these lists of 200 jurors, one-half Mormon and one-half Gentile, are drawn by lot the names of the grand and petit jurors for each term. To laymen these equal numbers preparatory to a drawing might seem fair. Lawyers will smile at the whole proceeding. A grand jury of fifteen cannot indict a man without the agreement of twelve of its members, and it is a fact in the history of Utah that only two grand juries with twelve Gentiles have been drawn, Obe Mormon on a petit jury -- that is to say, the jury tries the prisoner -- can prevent a conviction even if all his associates determine the prisoner's guilt. In fact, there has always been more than one Mormon on a petit jury, whose endowment oaths obliged him never to agree to the conviction of a culprit whom the Church leaders wished to save from the penalty of the law. When John D. Lee was first tried it was before a jury of nine Mormons and three Gentiles. The Mormon Church rallied in his defence. In spite of its efforts he was proven guilty, but the nine Mormon jurors saved him. The press all over the country blazed with such indignation that the Mormon leaders recoiled. When the new trial came they took a new tack. They concluded to let Lee be whistled down the wind to his destruction. Daniel H. Wells, second counsellor to Brigham Young, was deputed to attend the trial and attend to Mormon witnesses. Then, and then only, when a Mormon jury understood that it was the policy of the Mormon Church to convict a Mormon prisoner at the bar, they convicted him.


What the law abiding citizens of Utah demand from Congress, in correction of these evils, is not, it seems to me, unreasonable. They do not ask for new legislative experiments; what they want is such legislation as applies to every other territory and every State in the Union. They call for the establishment here of laws long recognized in England and the older New England and Middle States, after the enaction of which, they think, they will have an equal chance to maintain their interests alongside those of the arrogant leaders of the Mormon Church....


I now approach that part of the Mormon Question which concerns Congress, and which ought to occupy a part of the thoughts of Senators and members of Congress who are resting between sessions. Under all administrations of all parties, whether whig, democrat, or republican, there have been a few Cabinet officers, a few Senators, and a few members of the House of Representatives in Washington who have served Brigham Young and the Mormon Church. Whenever Brigham Young, who has repeatedly boasted that he could buy the whole Congress of the United States, called on his people for money for that purpose, the money has come and disappeared. Brigham Young himself calls this money "axel grease." In each house of Congress there are two committees -- Territorial and Judiciary -- in the judgments of whose members Mormons feel a deep interest. If any members of these committees can be reached by corrupting influences, Mormon agents will certainly reach them. It was repeatedly found that in Congressional committees where no public record is made of the proceedings a plenty of men coerced by bribes or hospitality into becoming Mormon sympathizers, would fight against or stave off reports unfavorable to the Mormon Church until they got so low down on the calendars that they could not be brought into either house. If one of them got into one house it would fail in the other house, and thus be beaten by indirection.

I forebear, at present, to discuss the true inwardness of this important matter.

(From the Gold Hill, Nev., News.)

This man "Idaho Bill" is a convict, it is true, and under ordinary circumstances his testimony would have no weight. He has nothing to gain by lying, and he has everything to gain by telling the truth. If he cannot really produce this letter in Brigham Young's handwriting, he is simply a fool for pretending that he can; and men of his class and of his criminal genius are seldom found in the ranks of fools. He is placing his liberty in the scale with Brigham Young's life. He [stipulates] for a pardon only when he has turned over the original letter to District Attorney Howard, and that gentleman is satisfied that it is genuine. We are disposed to believe that the story of "Idaho Bill" is true, and that at last the clew has been found which leads directly to the Lion House in Salt Lake. District Attorney Howard has now something definite upon which to build up a prosecution of Brigham Young. That he will at once proceed to prospect the mine thus opened to him there can be no doubt. He has proved himself faithful to his trust in the past and can be relied upon to remain faithful to the end. If "Idaho Bill" really possesses the letter which he claims to have, the government can well afford to pardon him in order to convict a greater scoundrel. We shall not be at all surprised to see Brigham Young at the bar of justice in a very few weeks.

The  Mormons  and  the  Herald.

Two attempts within the last six days to assassinate our correspondent at Salt Lake City will be thought by the public to justify some plainness of speech from the Herald to the Mormon hierarchy. On Saturday evening last, as Mr. Stillson was returning to the Lion House from a drive, he was shot at by a stealthy miscreant who had concealed himself behind a tree at a distance of fifty feet from the point where the buggy was passing. The intending assassin missed his aim and fled. On Thursday last the same individual or another gained access to Mr. Stillson's room at the hotel, and, under pretence of delivering a paper, stabbed at him with a knife, failing of his purpose by the interposition of a portemonnaie, two photographs and a suspender buckle between the knife and the breast of the correspondent. There is only one conceivable motive for, these, dastardly and repeated attempt at assassination. Our correspondent is a gentleman in his bearing, who never in his life provoked personal hostility. His letters and telegrams from Utah have been extremely offensive to the Mormon chiefs, and a Sunday or two since were made the topic of an indecently vulgar and infuriated harangue in the Mormon Temple [sic - Tabernacle?]. The attempts on his life are, of course, a consequence of his exposures and the indignant commotion they have stirred up among the "Saints." Now, we submit to the "Saints" that they are going too far. The assassination in their capital of a truth-telling correspondent would bring upon them swift destruction, which they have no reason to court. To do them justice, we are slow to believe that they are seriously plotting a new addition to their hundreds of murders under present circumstances. The Mormons are not deficient in shrewdness, and they know too well that the assassination of a newspaper correspondent, who is exciting the attention of the country bv exposing them, would invevitably be ascribed to their instigation and raise a universal cry for justice and vengeance. It is more probable that they wish to alarm the correspondent and frighten him away. Having tried to win his favorable opinion by courtesies and blandishments on his first arrival and failed, they now resort to terror. We believe they have mistaken their man as egregiously in the last appliance as they did in the first.

The Herald has had experience in this sort of strategy before. Five years ago it undertook to ascertain and publish the truth in relation to the insurrection in Cuba. The world had been deceived and bamboozled by the Spanish accounts, and we undertook to send correspondents within the rebel lines to explore the situation and state the exact truth. The first man we sent did not quite come up to the mark of enterprise and daring which is the usual characteristic of our plucky employees, whether among the savages of Africa, on the Indian frontier, in the interior of Cuba or in the great wars on both continents within the last sixteen years. The first correspondent we sent to Cuba was a partial exception to an otherwise pretty uniform experience. He allowed his fears to be practised upon by the Spanish officials at Havana, and made a sudden retreat from the island which equally mortified and surprised us. This disappointment was but a transient interruption of our plans. We at once despatched on the next Havana steamer correspondents incapable of flinching. One of them, Mr. O'Kelly, was treated with great courtesy by Ceballos, the Governor General of Cuba, who signed a passport giving him permission to visit every part of the island. But when Mr. O'Kelly applied for a safe conduct Ceballos put him off with courteous excuses, telling him that he could easily get in Havana from deserters and prisoners all the information possible to be had within the rebel lines. Being under imperative instructions from this office Mr. O'Kelly proceeded at his own risk without a safe conduct, but when he reached the camp of General Morales he was told that if he persisted in prosecuting his inquiries he would expose himself "to be shot as a spy." The Herald correspondent told General Moraies in return that he would do such an act at his peril. He was warned that the shooting of an American citizen who had violated no law of Cuba would cause an outburst of public indignation in this country which would force the government into measures of redress.

It requires no special courage for a journal which successfully defied the Spanish government to persist in its efforts to expose the pestilent nest of Mormons. Even if they should assassinate Mr. Stillson he would be followed by successors as energetic, intelligent, determined and plucky as himself. For the Mormons to evade exposure is quite impossible now that the public mind has been so awakened, with scores of sharp, fearless men at the command of the Herald. The Mormons may be quite sure that whatever may be the fate of any particular correspondent we shall uncover and reveal their iniquities. If they murder any of our agents the whole country "will know the reason why." The life of Mormonism would not be worth a year's purchase after such an atrocity, in the present excited state of public feeling. We think they are too shrewd to provoke the swift and terrible vengeance that would follow such a crime. We incline to think that instead of meditating a murder in the recent assaults on our correspondent they expected to shake his nerves and frighten him out of the Territory. They will not succeed in this, and if they should assassinate him we have other, unquailing men in our service who would promptly take his place.

After the execution of John D. Lee we thought the time had come for probing this Mormon ulcer to the bottom. The public had been kept in as deep ignorance as it was five or six years ago respecting the interior of Cuba. We think it a part of our mission to tear away the veil, and our success thus far is attested by the fears and the murderous rage of the Mormons. As the Spanish authorities in Cuba tried first to flatter and seduce and failing in that, to frighten away our correspondents, so the Mormons have been impelled, by the same dread of truth, to practice the same tactics. When our present correspondent arrived in Utah he was treated with extraordinary courtesy. Brigham Young, surrounded by the assemblcd magnates of the Church, accorded him a reception at which they gave ready answers to all the questions he thought fit to ask. They probably expected that so much deference and consideration would satisfy and disarm his employers and send him away with a favorable impression. By similar treatment they had beguiled most travellers who have visited them in quest of information, and the fears excited by Lee's eltecution made them unusually suave and insinuating in their bearing to the Herald's correspondent. He is not the kind of bird to be caught with such chaff, even if his instructions had permitted it. He was commissioned to remain in the Territory and ferret out the whole truth, so far as it is ascertainable; and the Mormons, having found by his letters that he is not a fly to get his legs caught in honey, have changed their method and attempted to drive him away by alarm for his life. This method will have no better success than the first. They dare not murder him, or if they should there will be a great deal to follow whlch they will not relish. The Herald may reasonably feel a great deal more secure of its ability to protect its correspondents in our own country than it was to avenge ill trentment in Cuba. Even Spain dared not harm them, and a more signal vengeance would overtake the Mormons than was possible in the case of the Spaniards if they had executed their insolent threat to shoot our commissioner as a spy.

The long and interesting letter from our Salt Lake correspondent which we publish this morning will give the Latter Day Saints more occasion to squirm and flutter than they have had yet, and we ask them to accept it as a proof of the utter futility of either flattery or threats to shield them from exposure.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Monday  June 4, 1877.                    Three Cents.



(From the Providence Journal.)

The statement that an attempt has been made to assassinate its [the Herald's] correspondent in Utah is in all probability true. The correspondent has been severe in his strictures upon Brigham Young and other Mormon leaders, and more than hinted his belief in their complicity in the Mountain Meadows massacre. This would be enough to excite the bitterest indignation among the fanatical Mormons, and there are plenty there who would feel it a righteous deed to slay him, even if the Prophet had not given a hint or command. He would not be the first newspaper man whose life had been put in jeopardy by his too severe utterances concerning the evils of Mormonism, and, if we are not mistaken, an editor of the first Gentile paper in Salt Lake City was actually assassinated by the Danites. Assassination has been common enough as a weapon of the Church for it to revive again in the present state of exasperation existing among the Mormons, and some fanatic might have thought to anticipate the wishes of the Prophet or to avenge the insults to his church on his own account by executing "the blood atonement." Brigham Young himself is probably to astute to authorize or even to wish any such thing done, knowing the sensation and indignation that would be created. It was only when Utah was completely isolated from the world and those who disappeared could leave no token of their fate to people outside that the assassination of apostates and dangerous Gentiles could be made available. Now the Mormon kingdom is linked to the rest of the world by telegraph and railroad, and is dependent upon good behavior for existence. The removal of no one individual by murder would pay for the indignation that would be excited in the United States and the ill repute that would be brought on the colony. Brigham Young is probably in no way personally responsible for this attack upon the Herald correspondent, but it is none the less the direct result of his teachings and the legitimate continuation of his original policy.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Saturday  June 9, 1877.                    Three Cents.



(From the Gold Hill News.)

Yesterday an attempt was made by a Mormon emissary to assassinate this man, who is telling the truth about Brigham Young and his infamous abortion of a Church. The Mormons, it seems, cannot appreciate the service which modern journalism is doing for humanity. They are inspired with the same sentiments of hostility to the men who fail to realize the beauties of polygamy which prompted the Mountain Meadows massacre and the hundreds of murders that have been committed in Utah under the name of religion. Mr. Stillson is engaged in the grand work of opening the eyes of this nation to the infamous rottenness of a "religion" which claims to be the offspring of a prophet and emissary of God; and for doing this the supreme head of that religion coolly orders his assassination. Is it not manifest that in Utah at least there is no freedom of speech and no freedom of the press?How long do the American people propose to tolerate this disgraceful institution of Mormonism? How long shall it be said that an American citizen who dares to tell the truth in one of the Territories of this great Republic puts his life in jeopardy by exercising his rights as a freeman? The Mormon Church is a disgrace to this nation. It is a hotbed of crime and treason. It respects no President but Brigham Young. It obeys no government but that of the bishops. Until it is utterly wiped out of existence there will be no protection for the life or property of a Gentile in Utah. It must be wiped out, and when once the Territory in which it now holds supreme power is redeemed from its blighting influence newspaper correspondents will probably be able to write their views and opinions without subjecting themselves to the danger of the assassin's dagger....

(From the Louisville Commercial.)

That excellent and pious man, Brigham Young, has on several occasions ably set forth the grand principle of expiation or atonement for original sin by shedding the blood of the sinner, not as a punishment, but to effect a cleansing of the soul by a blood bath. Revenge is odious in the sight of heaven and mankind, but the salvation of a sinful soul by blood letting elevates manslaughter to the dignity of a grand religious act and a kind of practical worship which, although temporarily painful and inconvenient to the murdered person, is eminently healthful to his soul and serviceable to heaven. On this broad and elevated religious table-land, whose living green is illuminated with a blaze of eternal sunshine, far above the thick vapors of humanity and common sense, the Mormon Prophet justifies the violent (as it were) removal from this life of some six hundred Mormon apostates and Gentiles in Utah since the Mormons took possession of that Palestine of the New World.

The vulgar American mind, imbued with an old prejudice in favor of universal toleration, cannot comprehend this fine philosophy, and how can it when the Prophet tells his followers that even they, with all the advantages of his previous teachings and example, cannot understand it? But even the Gentile mind, if discerning, must see what religious unification this blood theology tends to produce....

(From the Kalamazoo, Mich. Telegraph.)

Notwithstanding the attempts of Mormon correspondents to quiet the apprehensions of the public there is unmistakeably a well-based sentiment that mischief is breeding among the Latter Day Saints. The state of affairs in the Territory is decidedly unhealthy, and it is not improbable that the strong arm of the general government may presently be necessary to pacify it. The execution of Bishop Lee and the publication of his confession, which implicated Brigham Young and many of the old Mormon leaders, together with the knowledge that more remained behind, stirred them up pretty thoroughly; and the persistent calls of the Gentile press throughout the country and certain quiet movements of the United States authorities have justly led them to suspect that a sword of Damocles is hanging over their heads and may descebd at any moment. It appears certain that shortly after the satisfaction of justice upon the chief Mountain Meadows murderer his Mormon accomplices set on foot measures for the reorganization of the "Nauvoo Legion," which bears so ill-starred a name in Western Illinois, and that the Mormon militia thus designated have been secretly arming and drilling, with a view to resistance of any marshal's posse or moderate detachment of the federal army that might undertake the arrest of their Prophet and those of the elders who are still amenable to trial on the same charge as that which condemned Lee.

The  Mormon  Prosecutions  to  Go  On.

District Attorney Sumner Howard, who has been engaged in investigating the Mountain Meadows massacre, is in Washington and has been for some days in consultation with the Attorney General, who is so impressed with the facts Mr. Howard has laid before him that he has authorized the expenditure of a sufficient sum of money to secure the attendance of witnesses before the Salt Lake Grand Jury, some of whom are to be summoned from California and others from points as far East as Illinois. Mr. Howard also saw the President, who promised him the fullest support. He assured the President, it seems, that additional troops were needed in Utah to maintain the peace and enforce the laws, if the prosecutions are to continue; and in this he is confirmed by a report we have seen of a leading Mormon's interview with General Crook. This Mormon assured the General that there was not the least danger of trouble, unless an attempt was made to arrest Brigham Young; in that case the Mormons, it seems, would resist. It may be well to be prepared for this emergency. Of course, if there should be no more investigations everything would be lovely. But Mr. Howard returns to Salt Lake assured of the administration's thorough support.

If the evidence he will now bring forward should lead the Grand Jury to indict Brigham Young he would have to be arrested. Why not? If it should be proved that he had ordered the murder of the emigrants, or had permitted it, he would have to be hanged. Why not? We cannot see that Brigham Young, if he should turn out to be a murderer, would be any better than any other murderer. Mr. Howard, by the way, speaks highly of the value of the Herald's Utah reports, and says our effort to expose the iniquities of the Mormon leaders has the sympathy of the respectable people in the Territory. We should hope so.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Tuesday  June 26, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Another List of men Who Were at Mountain Meadows.



Young, Wells, Dame, Smith and Haight as Accessories.

Salt Lake City, June 12, 1877.    
The following list, communicated by his lawyer, Bishop, by John D. Lee, is fuller than the one previously sent you of the men concerned in the Mountain Meadows massacre: --

1. Benjamin Arthur. 2. Ira Allen, Cedar City, member High Council. 3. William Bateman (dead) carried flag of truce by direction of Lee. 4. John W. Clark (dead), Washington. 5. Thomas Cartwright (dead), Cedar City, member High Council. 6. E. Curtis, Cedar City, Captain of Ten. 7. Joseph Clewes, Cedar City; now Los Angeles, Cal. 8. Jabez Durfey, Cedar City. 9. _____ Edwards, Cedar City (did not know first name). 10. Columbus Freeman, Cedar City; now at Corn Creek, Utah. 11. Charles Hopkins (dead), Cedar City, member High Council. 12. William Hawley, Cedar City; now lives in Fillmore. 13. John Hawley, Cedar City (died in Indian Nation). 14. Richard Harrison, Pinto, member of High Council. 15. George Hunter, Cedar City. 16. John Humphrey; lived with old man Wods at Cedar. 17. Samuel Jukes. 18. Nephi Johnson, Cedar City, Indian interpreter. 19. Swen Jacobs 20. Samuel Knight, Cedar City. 21. ______ Knight. 22. Dudley Leavitt. 23. A. Loveridge. 24. Daniel McFarland, son-in-law to Isaac C. Haight, adjutant of militia, and leader of emigrants into ambush; now on mission for the Church. 25. Samuel McMurdy, Cedar City, counsellor to P. K. Smith; driver of a wagon. 26. James Matthews, Cedar City (dead). 27. John Mangum, Cedar City. 28. John McFarland, attorney-at-law at St. George, and for years after the massacre County Attorney of Washington county. 29. James Pearce, Washington. 30. Harrison Pearce, Washington. 31. Samuel Pollock, Washington. 32. Don C. Shirts, now at Potato Valley, Utah, interpreter. 33. William Slade, Sr. (dead). 34. William Slade, Jr. 35. Joseph Smith, Cedar City. 36. Arthur Stratton, Virgin City, September, 1876. 37. ______ Tate, Cedar City (since been a captain of militia). 38. John Ure, Cedar City (since been a captain of militia). 39. Joel M. White, Cedar City (used as witness on both trials). 40. Elliott Wilden, Cedar City. 41. Robert Wiley, Cedar City. 42. Samuel White, Cedar City. 43. Alexander Wilden, Cedar City. 44. John Weston, Cedar City (dead). 45. William Young, Wsahington (dead).

To this list Lee add the following names, with remarks in his own handwriting: --


William H. Dame, Bishop of the Church at Parowan, colonel of the Iron Military District and first man in authority in Southern Utah. He gave orders to Isaac C. Haight to have the emigrants exterminated, and did not deny the same when accused of it by Haight on the field after the massacre, while examining the dead bodies.

Isaac C. Haight, President of the Stake of Zion at Cedar City, Utah; lieutenant colonel of the Iron Military District. The man who directed Lee to see that the emigrants were exterminated.

George A. Smith, one of the Twelve Aspostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, who preached a crusade against all who were opposed to the Mormon Church through all the settlements in Southern Utah immediately before the Mountain Meadows massacre. (Now dead, or so reported.)


Brigham Young, to whom John D. Lee made a full report of the massacre, giving names of persons engaged in the crime and every fact within his knowledge in less than a month after the same was committed; the man who said "God had shown him that the massacre was right;" the man who ordered John D. Lee to keep the whole thing a secret; the man who pretended to aid Judge Cradlebaugh to discover the guilty parties, and while pretending to do so was preaching at Cedar City and elsewhere that samnation would be the fate of all who presumed to give evidence against the brethren who had committed the crime; the man who gave offices and concubines to John D. Lee and Isaac C. Haight as a reward for their acts at the massacre; the man who controls the every act of of the Mormon people and makes slaves of his followers; the man who teaches the doctrine of blood atonement as a religious duty, to be preformed by the faithful Latter Day Saints; the man who assumes that he does nothing except by the direct authority of Heaven; the greatest criminal of the nineteenth century.

Daniel H. Wells, the man who has done everything that he possibly could to carry out the will of Brigham Young and defeat the United States officials in their attempts to enforce the laws of the United States; the man who directed the witnesses that it was the will of God, as made known through Brigham Young, the prophet, priest and revelator under the new dispensation, that John D. Lee must be convicted but no evidence given that would implicate any others of the brethren who aided in the butchery at Mountain Meadows.

Next, every Mormon who has tried to screen the guilty perpetrators from punishment, among whom may be named George Q. Cannon, who disgraces the government of the United States by holding a seat as Delegate to Congress from the Territory of Utah, and who wrote many articles for publication in the vain effort to prove that the massacre was an Indian affair without help or advice from the Church.

Lastly, all who pretend that John D.Lee and those who assisted him in the massacre acted contrary to the orders of the Mormon priesthood.

MORMONISM. -- With a little courage and firmness on the part of the administration it is exceedingly probable that the Mormon murderers, whose names were furnished by John D. Lee before his execution and which are printed elsewhere, will soon die, as he died, where the Mountain Meadows massacre was perpetratrd. Brigham Young is among the number. The escape of these men thus far is a disgrace to the administration of justice. Mormonism, so far from decreasing, is increasing. Nearly two hundred recruits from Europe left this city last night, and four hundred more are expected to arrive in a few days.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Monday  July 2, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Conclusive Evidence of Murder Against Brigham Young.



In a Mormon Camp -- The Prophet Seizes the Plunder...

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Friday  July 6, 1877.                    Three Cents.


How He Manages the Murderers and Robbers.



Supported Tilden and Ordered Lee's Conviction.


(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Sunday  July 8, 1877.                    Three Cents.


Another Link in the Chain of Mormon Atrocities.



The Danites Sent on a Mission of
Murder by Young.


(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Thursday  August 30, 1877.                    Three Cents.



(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                     New York City, Monday  September 10, 1877.                    Five Cents.



HIRAM, Portage County, Ohio, Sept. 7, 1877.     
In the midst of the revival of interest in the Mormon Church at the present time, caused by the death of its great leader, it may be of value to a considerable class of readers to know that at one time there was a selection made through a pretended vision from God of a site for the Zion of the Church of the Latter Day Saints in this township. Having heard that such was the case your correspondent came to this place yesterday and, calling upon some of the oldest settlers, gathered all the facts in regard to the matter.

About thirty miles southeast from Cleveland and a little more than a mile back from the Atlantic and Great Western Railway rises one of those picturesque hills which go to form the water shed dividing the waters flowing north into Lake Erie from those flowing south into the Ohio River and the Gulf. From the summit of this hill there is a natural slope in every direction. Even in the early days the pioneers describe it as a spot of peculiar beauty and striking sublimity. From its tree-capped summit a magnificent panorama is offered to view. For many miles away in the neighboring State of Pennsylvania busy villages and thriving farms may be minutely located, with here and there a strip of woodland and country road stretching between. The summit of the hill is now occupied by a wealthy farming community, frugal, pious, happy, and, by the casual eye, no indications are to be traced of the delusion of a half century ago.


For some time previous to 1830, the year in which Mormonism was first announced to the world, Thomas and Alexander Campbell, father and son, Scotch Baptists preachers, of Western Virginia, had been preaching what they termed a reformation in the orthodoxy of the time. They professed to have discovered new light in the Scriptures of divine truth, and the power with which they emphasized their doctrines made a decided impression everywhere they went upon the pioneer mind. They claimed that the people had long since forsaken the teachings of the Scriptures in their simplicity; that they had obscured the plain doctrines by means of strained interpretations and man-made creeds; that the Scriptures are their own best interpreters, and that if they are studied in their simplicity and with all sectarianism laid aside there can almost never be any difficulty in following out their meaning and forming the true creed for faith and practice.

The theories of the Campbells took deep root in this section. The people of Hiram Hill almost to an individual embraced their novel views upon baptism, the Lord's Supper, the necessity of implicit obedience and the theory that everything commanded in the Bible, under any circumstances, is thoroughly and entirely essential to the salvation of the soul. They became notable as debaters, and called themselves learners, or "Disciples;" saying that they were ready to accept anywhere everything which God or Christ said, and learn of Him. Among the most ardent of the converts to the new religion was a young man by the name of Sidney Rigdon, who immediately became a preacher. A contemporary thus describes him: -- "He had obtained a fair education from the common schools of the East before coming to the new country. He was somewhat stoutly built, though graceful; with marked features, acquiline nose, large eyes and mouth, heavy brown beard and long, wavy black hair. When he was warmed up to his subject he displayed truly great powers of oratory, and for the large, outdoor, pioneer congregations no one was more popular than he among all the native preachers of the time. It was not necessary that language should be the most grammatical, gestures the most appropriate or illustrations the most apt in order to satisfy the demands of the time. If the subject matter of discourse corresponded to the words of divine record which lay open upon the knees of every believer in the audience, and the speaker were impassioned in his denunciation of sin and in his warning to flee the wrath to come, it was sufficient. All these qualities young Rigdon embodied in a marked degree. He had taken up his abode on Hiram Hill, and from his cabin home made long preaching tours in every direction. At length he became so much a leader of the new movement that the Disciples were called in certain quarters 'Rigdonites.'"


But Rigdon, like Caesar, was ambitious, and ambition makes men reckless. He knew that he was not the prime mover in the reformation of the Campbells, and he felt nettled that the true authors received more credit than he. There is a period when the young evangelist is supposed to have sulked in his tent, but in another article I make take occasion to show that he was engaged in the conspiracy from the first, and even then in earnest consultation with Joe Smith. At length the Mormons arrived in Mentor and Kirtland, Lake county, and began operations in their bank, store and community. Sidney pretended to hear the preaching for the first time, and was converted. He returned and told his congregation in Hiram that new light had been discovered by a Latter Day prophet; that revelations were constantly being made, and that it was their duty as the true followers of the Lord, in all His appointed ways, to unite with the new movement. The discourse which he had preached at a large pioneer grove meeting just before this had been from the text: -- "If any man, or an angel from heaven preach any other doctrine than that which I have preached unto you, let him be accursed," and the words of the apostle were emphasized to the fullest extent. The next the people heard was the doctrine of Mormonism, or "Sidney Rigdon preaching his own damnation," as a pioneer expressed it to me.


At Rigdon's suggestion one of the leading men of the disciples in Hiram, by the name of John Johnson, was sent to Kirtland to investigate the movement and report. Some time during the month of September, 1831, Johnson accordingly started out on horseback across the country to Kirtland, a distance of about thirty miles. Upon hearing the preaching of Smith, Johnson immediately became a convert to Mormonism and came back with a glowing report of the new religion. From this others went on the same pilgrimage, and returning, Rigdon himself with a considerable band went to Kirtland for the purpose of getting the settlement removed to Hiram. The prophet was only too glad to visit Hiram and survey the prospects, for already Kirtland did not satisfy in every way his heart's desires. While on the way he had a vision which told him that Hiram Hill was the "Hill of Zion" for which he had been searching; that Kirtland was only intended as a branch establishment, and that the principal office of the church should be here. Upon arriving he was much pleased with the prospect. He said that the Lord had told him that there was "a better show for living" here than in Kirtland, and on this account desired to give it to the church. The Whitmores and several other leading Mormons, including eight witnesses of the Book of Mormon, arrived in Hiram during the winter of 1831-2, and brought their families with them. Smith took up his abode with Johnson, and many cabins were erected, with this one as a centre.


Meetings were held in the school houses of the vicinity, and such was the apparent piety and earnestness of the speakers that the people were greatly impressed. At length large congregations began to gather, and as a result of the interest a large number of converts were taken into the church. Every convert who had any gift in that direction was set aside for the work of the ministry. In less than six months after Joseph Smith first came here more than sixty persons had united with his church and accepted him as the Prophet of the Lord. There was hardly a family in the township which was not wholly or in part converted. Taking all the members who entered here they numbered over two hundred. The Prophet now began to have revelations almost every night. The site of the contemplated temple was pointed out -- a spot on the "Hinckley farm," as it is called -- and the work was begun by ordering the transplanting of rows of maples in various places. The rows of these beautiful trees, large and beautiful along the roadside, are all that now remind one of the work of the false prophet. About this time some wonderful lights appeared in various quarters, and Smith immediately announced that they were spirit lights sent to prove the truth of Mormonism. As the congregation went to the river to immerse the converts, lights appeared upon the opposite side of the stream. Some curious fellows went up the stream and swimming across found the lights to be nothing more than wicking saturated with oil and set on fire. Smith attempted to work some miracles of healing, &c., but signally failed. Some of the oldest people here contend that the plan of Smith at this time was to build three Zions -- one in Kirtland, in in Hiram and one in the Far West.


After the work was thought to be well started here Smith accordingly started for Missouri. But he left some of his charts and papers behind in Johnson's house, and that individual proceeded to peruse them, when he ascertained that a plot was laid to take the property of all the converts out of their hands and form a great stock company, with Smith as the head or president. This was indeed a revelation to the Hiramites, as they were called, and was far more than they could endure. One after another they declared that they would be dupes no longer. In this way by fall the Church was very greatly reduced and the Gentiles of the whole section were thoroughly aroused in their hostility. Smith returned from the West to find that his power had hopelessly deserted him.The fraud was exposed. At length the people determined not to let the indignity which they had suffered go unpunished. Boring holes into Rigdon's cabin they attempted to blow it up by placing in powder to be exploded by the application of a slow match. Failing in this a large mob of people from the adjoining towns came in one night and joining with the Hiramites proceeded to the houses of Smith and Rigdon, and dragging them out from their beds into an open field proceeded to tar and feather feather them. On the next day there was to be a meeting at the house of Smith, at which both the prophet and Rigdon were to speak, but neither of them appeared. The power of the Church had been entirely broken, and within a week Smith and Rigdon departed for Kirtland. When the emigration for Missouri took place some time afterward, however, there were about fifteen faithful families from Hiram Hill which accompanied the train.   C. H. R.

Note 1: The writer was almost certainly Charles H. Ryder (1853-1883), who (probably with the help of his father, Hartwell Ryder) compiled a manuscript account of the early history of Hiram township, (see page 9 of Mary Bosworth Treudley's 1950 Prelude to the Future; the First Hundred Years of Hiram College). That manuscript was partially published in June of 1874. Charles is listed in the 1880 census as living in his father's household at Hiram; he had earlier been a student at what is now Hiram College. Hartwell Ryder seems to also have been an amateur historian, (see his 1902 manuscript in the Hiram College Archives: "Short History of the Foundation of the Mormon church based on personal memories and facts collected by Hartwell Ryder, Hiram, Ohio, at the Age of 80 years," -- copy by Minnie M. Ryder, 1903-04). Hartwell's recollections parallel portions of L. V. Bierce's historical article in the Feb. 15, 1860 Ravenna Portage County Democrat, which reported: "someone [in 1832] bored an auger hole into a log of the house in which Rigdon lived, and filling it with powder, tried to blow it up." This corresponds closely with the 1877 New York Herald article, which says: "Boring holes into Rigdon's cabin they attempted to blow it up by placing in powder to be exploded by the application of a slow match. Failing in this a large mob of people from the adjoining towns came in one night..." Evidently Mr. John Tilden of Hiram was the source for this information.

Note 2: Charles H. Ryder's father, Hartwell, grew up in the household of his father, Symonds Ryder, (located on Pioneer Trail Road, located a little southwest of Hiram Center). The 1850 federal census list for Hiram township shows Mr. "Simonds Rider" [sic] as the next door neighbor (to the east according to land ownership maps) of Jude "Stephens," who in 1834 exchanged his property in Kirtland, Ohio with John Johnson, Sr., the previous owner on County Road 254, in Hiram. All of this means that the Ryders were next-door neighbors of the John Johnson family well before 1832. In fact, Symonds' younger brother Jason married Fanny Johnson, the daughter of John Johnson. The 1850 census list also shows Jude Stephens' son, William W. Stevens, then living with his father in what had been the John Johnson house. William W. Stevens' daughter, Mary Ellen Stevens Dilley, grew up in the old Johnson house. See her 1930 Pioneer Life in Hiram Township, as well as "The Mormons are Only a Memory but ‘Hiram Hill’ is Still Unchanged," Cleveland Plain Dealer Magazine, Feb. 21, 1909, both published under her professional name, "Ellen S. Dilley."

Note 3: B. H. Roberts' "Figures in Early Church History," in the Deseret Evening News of Sept. 27, 1902 privides an LDS perspective on the early days in Hiram, as does Luke S. Johnson's "History," in the Deseret News of May 19, 1858. See also various items transcribed in association with Rev. B. A. Hinsdale's 1876 booklet, A History of Disciples at Hiram, and the on-line series "Elder Sidney Rigdon's 'Hiram Period'."


Whole No. 15,007.                     New York City, Sunday  September 23, 1877.                    Five Cents.


The Mormon Apostles, Pratt and Smith, Arrive from Europe.


Pratt's Struggle with Brigham and Smith's Grudge Against the Youngs.

The two Mormon apostles, Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith, who were in Europe when Brigham Young was suddenly taken off, arrived by the steamer Wyoming yesterday, on their way back to Utah....


Pratt has long looked forward to this day, and he feels like a giant refreshed with new wine as he views the battle before him. He has his work cut and dried, resolves to conquer and with the consciousness that the people in Utah and in Europe were with him heart and soul, more than with any other man save the dead Joseph, he feels that on his return to Zion he is like one who has been exiled from his heritage for a score of years and now returned, at the call of the Lord, to his birthright, of which the late ruling tyrant had denied him. Smith, his companion en voyage, has his grudge to avenge. He was the nephew of his uncle, the founder of the faith. At the death of Joseph, the "Prophet, Seer and Revelator," Brigham seized the reins of government, put his hands hastily over the Church property, and treated every member of the "martyred Joseph's" family and his kindred with the utmost severity, unless they bowed to his ukase and worshipped at his shrine. Young Joseph F. saw the scions of the defunct Brigham travelling all over the world like princes, living off the fat of the land and dwelling in palaces, while he had to scramble hard for a living for a small family, and all the rest of the Smiths were like him, grovelling in poverty, and yet it was his own illustrious namesake and uncle, Joseph, who was the author of the movement, that ever made the name of Brigham Young more than representative of a country village painter and glazier.


He feels in his soul that he has an argument, and before he returns to Europe, he means to go through the records of the past thirty years and make the Youngs turn over to the Church every piece of property that stands to the name of the deceased Prophet, or to the name of any of his sons or daughters, which was purchased or obtained by Church money or donations or deeds of the Saints to "the Trustee in Trust," Brigham Young. He means to do this work effectually. Smith has struck the right trail and he is nobody's fool to be either cajoled, bought up or frightened away from the task he has set for himself. It was difficult for the living Brigham to keep this "fighting Apostle" in the traces, and it is folly for Taylor to try and hold the lines over him, now that he rises with the inspiration of an avenger. There are tens of thousands in Utah who need only a standard bearer of the name of Smith, of the blood royal, within the Church, to enable them to apostatize from Brigham's order of things...


The Apostle Pratt had attained popularity everywhere, and Brigham was jealous of his influence. From the closing of "the Utah war" till Brigham's death the Prophet never let pass an opportunity of grinding him into the dust. He has tried to live by teaching branches of education for which he was eminently fitted, but he was always pecuniarily embarrassed. He had only been successful in polygamy. The death of Brigham is a relief to him, and never will he submit again to mortal man. He goes back to Utah to be again the Orson Pratt of whom all who have heard of Mormonism knew more than of any other man in that community....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Whole No. ?                         New York City, Friday, February 1, 1889.                         Five Cents.



James R. Lambdin, the celebrated portrait and landscape painter, died; very suddenly about six o'clock yesterday afternoon while on a train of the Reading Railroad, bound from Philadelphia for his home, in Germantown. His death is supposed to have been due to apoplexy.

Mr. Lambdin was the father of George C. Lambdin, the celebrated painter of flowers, and of Dr. Alfred C. Lambdin, of the Philadelphia Times. He was born May 10, 1807, at Pittsburg, Pa., where his father had removed from Maryland, and where his elder brother, Harrison Lambdin, was the first book publisher west of Alleghanies. While still a youth he came to Philadelphia to study art, becoming the pupil of Mr. Miles and afterward of Thomas Scully, with whom he maintained a close intimacy up to the time of that painter's death. Returning to Pittsburg, Mr. Lambdin married a daughter of George Cochran, a noted merchant of the day, and practised portrait painting in that city and at Louisville for a number of years. At Louisville he established a museum of art and antiquities, after the manner of Peale's museum, that was quite famous at the time, but was not pecuniarily successful. About fifty years ago Mr. Lambdin removed to Philadelphia, where he had resided ever since, though before the war his winters were frequently spent in the South, at Washington, Charleston, Mobile and New Orleans, where his portraits were much sought after. During all this time Mr. Lambdin held a place among the leading portrait painters of America. He painted from life all the presidents from John Quicey Adams to Garfield, in nearly every case at the Executive Mansion, and his full length of President W. H. Harrison, painted for the State of Louisiana, is among his notable works.

Note: While it would not be historically accurate to call James' brother, J. Harrison Lambdin, the "first book publisher west of Alleghanies," he was indeed one of the early practitioners of that trade. He was reportedly a friend of Sidney Rigdon, who later became famous as a high level leader among the Mormons.


Whole No. ?                           New York City, Sunday, June 25, 1893.                           Five Cents.



Western New York the Scene of a Powerful and
Interesting Revival of Mormonism.


Beginning by Selling Cakes and Ale,
and Then taking a Hand at
Receiving Revelations.


Dramatic Events in the Development
of the Church of Latter Day Saints.

PALMYRA, N. Y., June 24, 1893. -- Mormonism is coming to the front again in this state. Influential saints from Utah have recently made prolonged visits to this town, which they call the Mormon Mecca. Among them were the Rev. Brigham Young, Jr., his brother, Seymour R. Young; Bishop Keasler, Judge Richards, of Utah; Bishop Cannon's family and wives, among them Carroll Cannon and Caroline B. Cannon. The object of their pilgrimage was to inspect the holy site where the Mormon Bible was alleged to have been given to Joe Smith by an archangel. Overtures have been made through an adroit, long headed Western real estate hustler for the purchase of Joe Smith's old homestead of Mormon Hill and the cave where the golden plates of the Bible were supposed to have been found.

The new interest is thus awakened in Mormon revelations. Throughout Western New York old stories are revived. Wormeaten Mormon Bibles are dug out of garrets and read again by a new generation. In the stores and public places of Palmyra the gray haired men of the village renew their youth by retelling their famous anecdotes of Joe Smith and his queer family, who were known far and wide as "lazy, shiftless and peculiar."


Another object of the Mormon visits is to collect facts from first hand concerning the life of Joe Smith. Much has been written derogatory to the inventor of the Mormon religion. The early charges made against him as a man and citizen have been lost sight of in the fearful episodes that have blackened Mormon history in the West. The atrocities of Nauvoo, the persecutions at Independence, in Missouri; the sufferings of the Mormon families on the plains and at Salt Lake, when they lived for months on roots and grasshoppers, have made one forget the small vices of Joe Smith, Jr. The subsequent massacre in Utah of Gentile travelers, the horrors of the Mountain Meadow massacre, the revelations of the infamies of the Endowment House at Salt Lake, where innocent girls and wives are taken from their families and sealed to saints old enough to be their fathers, have overshadowed the early history of Joe Smith and made him appear a respectable and honest man compared with the Church dignitaries at Salt Lake, whose favorite recreation was threats and assassination.

In reply to the charges of theft, and immorality against Smith Brigham Young said: --
The doctrine that Smith teaches is all I know about the matter. Bring anything against him if you can. As to anything else, I don't care if he acts like a devil. He has brought forth a religion that will save us if we abide by it. He may get drunk every day of his life, gamble and run horses and he guilty of all you allege against him. I don't care anything about these questions, for I don't embrace the man in my faith.
The stories of the vagabond excesses of Smiths early life and the general worthlessness of his family have touched the pride of modern Mormons now trying to abandon polygamy as an every day recreation. They would surround the memory of the dead prophet with glory, and to this end they have made persistent inquiries of the old inhabitants in Palmyra concerning the reputation of Smith and his family. Alas! They have found little consolation.

At every house they have visited they have repeated the inquiries: -- "Was he a bad man? Was he lazy? Was his family as bad as represented? From what you have heard your father say do you think the Mormon Bible a hoax? Did not Smith discover the golden plates from which the Bible was translated?"

In view of these researches by the Mormon visitors and to present the facts as they now appearm I have interviewed men whose families were acquainted with the Smiths and who have passed their lives within a stone's throw of the Smith homestead. The general testimony is the same. It is bad for Smith.


The brief story of Joe Smith's career, as told in this town, is as follows. -- He was of a family of nine children, who came to Palmyra from Royalton. Vt., in 1816.

At first the Smiths opened a cake and ale stand in the village of Palmyra. The boys "worked round," dug wells and chopped wood now and then, but Joseph, Jr. was opposed to manual labor except in great emergencies. According to people who knew him best he was a silent, lazy boy -- often called stupid. But he was a well built fellow, with blue eyes and light hair, sometimes spoken of as a full faced, chuckle headed lad who took life easy and dreamed and schemed while others toiled.

At that time there was a craze for treasure hunting, and many things of value had been discovered in Indian mounds. Smith took advantage of the mania, and when digging for gold he superintended the job and showed an unusual amount of energy in making people believe in his strange fancies. It was his custom to go out with a party and dig for money or relics on the hills at midnight. Usually he was half asleep and idle, but on special days, at general musters, elections and political meetings, he turned out with the whole Smith family. They put their cheap merchandise on sale, with cakes, beer, hard cider and boiled eggs. Joseph is described as a silent boy who never smiled, and he kept himself in the background while developing his schemes for creating a sensation; then he came to the front and appeared as a leader. Incessant and tireless, he pursued his game. As young Smith grew older he became the master of the family -- father and brothers followed him to the end. Joe was the chief vagabond of this New England gypsy family. Horses, whiskey, craft and story telling characterized his worldly career.

Three years after the family had opened their little shop of gingerbread and ale in Palmyra the Smiths "squatted" on a piece of timber land of one hundred and fifty or two hundred acres, about two miles south of the village centre. First they had a log house, which was never completely finished; then they built a frame house, which was not finished until long afterward. All survivors agree that the Smiths were a shiftless lot, particularly Joseph, Jr.


Their fields were half cleared, half ploughed, half cultivated and half harvested. At times they made brooms and baskets, peddled vegetables and were hucksters rather than farmers. When other boys were hoeing corn Joe was hunting or fishing or getting up a party to dig for money. He claimed to have a clairvoyant insight into things that other people could not see. He always had two or three pots of money or chests of valuables on tap in his mind's eye, and this explains why the hills of Palmyra to-day are covered with holes which Apostle Joe Smith, Jr. had inveigled his fellow citizens into digging. The money digging mania was the talk of the country for miles around. When Joe and his followers visited Pennsylvania and began turning up the clay of that State many people thought Joe Smith a great man if not an honest one.

In the autumn of 1819 an incident occurred which put young Joe Smith into a wider field of operations. It was the beginning of a series of fake discoveries, which culminated in his claim that with the assistance of a beautiful angel he had discovered the golden plates of a new Gospel.

The elder Smith was digging a well for Clark Chase, two miles south of Palmyra. The Chase children were playing about the well, when one of the Smith boys shoveled out a clear white stone shaped like a human foot. It was quite transparent, something like a "peep stone" which the Chase children had used as a plaything. One of the girls said that when she peeped into the stone she saw things that had been lost. She was quite joyous over the treasure until young Joe, who was idling about the well, seized the agate and carried it away. Joe was quiet for several days. Presently it was whispered that he had discovered a charm in which he could see wonders. With an air of mystery he would look at the stone shaded in his hat and see visions and any amount of lost property. Each day he had new revelations for his open mouthed followers.

In a few weeks people were paying money for his oracles. Many a man was sent over the hills in search of lost cattle, on a fool's errand, of course, but Joe made money and the public apparently fancied humbugging, and that made him a great success.


It was not long before he had heavenly visions. Men paid to join his search for treasures. His conditions were that no person should speak during the digging. A whisper would cause the box of gold to vanish forever. A confederate generally broke the charm at the proper moment and thus prevented exposure.

Next, young Joe must have a sacrifice and soak the ground with blood, to enable him to discover the hidden treasure. A fat sheep was given, its throat cut, but somebody extinguished the torches, and amid Smith's protests and cries of indignation the sheep disappeared. On the following day there was a grand feast under the prophet's roof. The mutton was tender and Joe a power in the family. He kept the pots filled with mutton, and the Smith family waxed notorious.

These gypsy feats and impostures continued until Joe Smith and his gold diggers were visited by people from other States. Nearly all of young Smith's followers were without money or character. The exception was Martin Harris, an honest farmer, who lived near the village. He was a business man by nature, had a good farm, but his weakness was in his belief in Joe Smith's spiritual powers. He affirmed that he had every proof of Joe Smith's divine nature.


At this point in the Smith narrative the Mormon Bible hoax enters. Volumes have been written about it and strenuously denied by the Mormons. The best informed people of Palmyra, however, believe the story of the stealing of what was known as the Spalding manuscript, which Joe Smith had copied and interpolated with passages from the Bible and palmed off as a revelation from God.

Briefly, the story is this: -- A quaint and gifted writer named Solomon Spalding, a graduate of Dartmouth College, moved West early in the century and became an enthusiastic student of American antiquity. He dug into the mounds, which were common in the State of Ohio, and explored for relics until his health failed. He believed that the American continent had been peopled by the lost races of Israel. In support of his theory he wrote a fabulous; narrative -- sort of Robinson Crusoe romance -- of several hundred pages, wherein he ingeniously set forth in convincing style that it was a translation from manuscripts which he had found in the tombs of the mound builders.

The manuscript was read at different times to friends and men of letters, who afterward recognized whole chapters of the story in the Mormon Bible. Certain phrases and sentences were identical with what they had seen in the Spalding manuscript. Then they knew that somebody sold the work to Smith. And it seemed probable, as he had the name of being the most gifted humbug in spiritual and secular matters known in that day. Spalding had arranged to have his narrative published in book form. It was sent to a Pittsburg printer named Patterson, but because of Spalding's declining health the volume never appeared. When Spalding died his widow had the manuscripts in her possession. A man named Rigdon, a sort of crank printer in Patterson's printing establishment and who had had a theological cast of mind and shown great interest in Spalding's book of fables, disappeared and the book of fables vanished at the same time.

Not long after this a mysterious stranger appeared closeted with Joe Smith. It was Rigdon. He had frequent interviews with the young apostle, and there was evidently something important brewing. Smith's revelations grew more frequent. He had a new dispensation to relate every time he visited the village. Farmer Harris, the only follower of Smith who had more money than he knew what to do with, mentioned Smith's name with new reverence. Smith told him that he had met an angel and would have a new gospel for the public very soon. Later he came into town pale and exhausted, but his eyes were radiant. He said he had been on a mountain by direction of the angel; had had a fight with the devil, and after a long conflict had secured the golden pages of the new gospel. He would translate it by means of spiritual spectacles which accompanied the metal pages.

In a few days Martin Harris, the honest farmer, was ready to sacrifice his life for the only true revelation. He went to Mr. Grandin, the village editor, who listened to his proposition to put the Bible in print: Mr. Grandin refused to do the work. Harris visited Thurlow Weed's printing office in Rochester and received a similar answer.

Then Mr. Harris returned, went to Mr. Grandin and put his offer in business form; said he would give bonds to pay for the work if necessary. Mr. Grandin finally consented to print an edition of 5,000 copies, as stated at the beginning of this article, for $3000 cash. It was a large sum in those days and ultimately Martin Harris, the honest man, had to mortgage his farm to pay the bill.


Major John H. Gilbert, who had formerly owned the printing office and subsequently sold it to Mr. Grandin, was an expert printer. He was asked if he would undertake the job of setting up the Mormon Bible, as they wished him to do the work, he to receive twenty-five cents a thousand ems.
I asked the Major yesterday if he would give the Herald an interview on the subject. He would do it cheerfully. "That was a long time ago, he said -- "sixty-three years -- yet I remember the incidents connected with the printing of that Bible as plainly as if they had happened yesterday. The Mormons first submitted the title page. I kept a copy of it, also the proof sheets of the book, which are now on exhibition at the World's Fair in Chicago. A peculiarity of this Mormon Bible of to-day is that it is nearly the same as it was when I printed it. In the first copy it was said, 'By Joseph Smith, Jr.; Author and Proprietor. In later editions the announcement was made that Joseph Smith, Jr., was the translator of the book.

Continuing. Major Gilbert said; -- "It required seven months of hard work to set up that Bible. The manuscript was clearly written, but there were no capital letters and no punctuation marks of any kind in the entire book. At first Hyrum Smith and Harris, who brought the copy to the office, were very exacting. They gave only twenty-five pages at a time and would allow none of it to remain in the office over night. I told them it must be punctuated. Each chapter made a solid paragraph, without a break or anything to show the beginning or ending of a sentence.


"Joe Smith was not at the office at all. I never saw him except once or twice during the preparation, seven months. All the business was done by proxy. Joe Smith was in his cave or room where the translating had been done, getting new revelations, I suppose, from the angel. When I explained to Harris that the matter should be punctuated and put in proper form he retired for consultation. The answer came back that the Old Testament was full of bad grammar and what was good enough for the Bible was good enough for them. One of Smith's literary assistants -- in fact, the only one he had except Rigdon -- was Cowdery. A large portion of the manuscript was in his handwriting. At times, however, it came in the handwriting of one of the Smith women. No corrections were made beyond typographical errors. They soon allowed me to punctuate, so I went over the manuscript with pencil as it was brought in, punctuating and paragraphing as I read. My pencil marks are on the original manuscript now in the keeping of a Mormon at Richmond, Mo. I understand the Mormons cannot get possession of that manuscript at any price.

"I tried to learn something about the humbug, but they declared that everything they gave me was a direct translation from the golden plates. As I understood it, these golden plates were taken from the mountain to Smith's house and put in a bag. He was so frightened at first after he had recovered them from the guardianship of the angel, that he hid them for a day and then took them to his house. Later the alleged plates were carried to a cave for translation.

"Nobody believes that there were any plates, unless Smith secured a few of the archaeological plates at a museum to show on extraordinary occasions to doubting friends. In that cave it is supposed they really went over the manuscript which had been stolen by Rigdon from Spalding's house, and, by incorporating it with Bible language, disguised it and made it the basis of their new gospel.

"I knew that Harris was an honest man, and one day I asked him to tell me truly if he had ever seen those golden plates. Yes, he'd seen them, he said.

"'Do you mean that you actually saw the plates with your naked eye?'

"Harris' face fell and he was downcast for a moment. Then he said. 'I saw them with a spiritual eye.'

"Some time ago Brigham Young's son called on me and said, 'I suppose. Major Gilbert, that you think our Mormon Bible a humbug.'

"Yes," I replied, "a very big humbug.

"Brigham replied with a smile, 'If it is a humbug, it is the most successful humbug ever known.'"

"In printing the Bible did you do the presswork as well as the typesetting?" I asked of the Major.

"Yes, I did most of the presswork also. I had learned my trade at Canandaigua and understood the business thoroughly. After Harris had promised to insure the payment for the printing Grandin went to New York and bought the type -- 500 pounds of new small pica. He brought it home and I laid the cases and went to work on the book. I don't think there was any delay during the seven months that I was at it. When the Bible was finished and neatly bound the Mormons were elated. It was the thing they needed to bring them followers, and Harris went about as a missionary, believing every word he uttered, that Smith was a man in daily communication with the Almighty."


While the majority of the people of Palmyra denounce Smith as an unscrupulous charlatan, they unite in condemning the horrible way in which he was assassinated at Carthage, where he was shot down in cold blood after the authorities had given him a solemn promise that he should be protected.

It is a somewhat singular fact that the early Mormons made converts from the sect known as "Campbellites" or "Disciples." Their Church was founded in Ohio by Professor Campbell, a worthy man who had a large following. The creed of the "Disciples" is liberal, with few restrictions, and in many points like the Methodist Articles of Faith. Among the most noted members of the Ohio Church was President Garfield. Young Garfield was a student at Hiram, Ohio, just after the Western Reserve Institute was founded. There he made his first notable speeches to the young men of the school. They admired his enthusiasm. Afterward he became successively teacher, professor, principal and president of that institution of learning. It was in that town that Joe Smith had been tarred and feathered and expelled by the infuriated inhabitants. Afterward, it is said, some of the Campbellites who were then so bitter against the Mormons joined the Mormon Church. The Mormon elders and bishops sent their missionaries to the town where Smith had been tarred and feathered and many proselytes were made to the new faith. Two of the men who were Joe Smith's intimate friends and followers were of the same denomination. Rigdon, who is said to have given Smith his first ides of launching a "fake" Bible on the world, was a Campbellite exhorter. It is said that he assisted Smith in weaving Campbellite views of religion and of the Bible into the new gospel. There was no thought of polygamy in those days. The Mormon Bible denounced polygamy. The idea was to have a religion that would commend itself to Western men, vigorous, enterprising athletes of the soil, men of the Brigham Young type, who could fight their way to heaven with shotguns and clubs and allow no interference with their plans for saving the world. The Campbellites who remained within the bounds of that Church were never friendly to the Mormons East or West. Still this Church furnished many recruits to Mormonism.


Mormonism was a vigorous, red haired faith and it wanted men of muscle and action. Hence at Independence, Nauvoo and elsewhere the Mormons organized bands of fighting warriors, who used gunpowder for the benefit of the Gospel. They had a militia of their own. All this is more or less traceable back to the vagabond gypsy training of Joe Smith, to the days when chickens and sheep disappeared in the quiet suburbs of Palmyra and men were led astray and their families broken up through the machinations of the Mormons, led by Smith.


In regard to the origin of Smith's Bible the following letter from Professor Anthon in New York may be interesting. It is as follows: --
NEW YORK, Feb. 17, 1834.    
Some years ago a plain, apparently simple hearted farmer called on me with a note from Dr. Mitchell, of our city, now dead, requesting me to decipher, if possible the paper which the farmer would hand me. Upon examining the paper in question I soon came to the conclusion that it was all a trick -- perhaps a hoax. When I asked the person who brought it how he obtained the writing he gave me the following account: -- A "golden book," consisting of a number of plates fastened together by wires of the same material, had been dug up in the northern part of the State of New York and along with it an enormous pair of spectacles. These spectacles were so large that if any person attempted to look through them his two eyes would look through one glass only, the spectacles in question being altogether too large for the human face. "Whoever," he said, "examined the plates through the glasses was enabled not only to read them, but fully to understand their meaning."

All this knowledge, however, was confined to a young man who had the trunk containing the book and spectacles in his sole possession. This young man was placed behind a curtain in a garret in a farmhouse, and, being thus concealed from view, he put on the spectacles occasionally, or, rather, looked through one of the glasses, deciphered the characters in the book, and, having committed some of them to paper, handed copies from behind the curtain to those who stood outside. Not a word was said about their being deciphered by the "gift of God." Everything in this way was effected by the large pair of spectacles. The farmer added that he had been requested to contribute a sum of money toward the publication of the "golden book," the contents of which would, as he was told, produce an entire change in the world and save It from ruin. So urgent has been these solicitations that he intended selling his farm and giving the amount to those who wished to publish the plates. As a last precautionary step he had resolved to come to New York and obtain the opinion of the learned about the meaning of the paper which he had brought with him, and which had been given him as a part of the contents of the book.

The paper in question was in fact a singular scroll. It consisted of all kinds of singular characters disposed in columns, and had evidently been prepared by some person who had before him at the time a book containing various alphabets, Greek and Hebrew letters, crosses and flourishes. Roman letters inverted or placed sideways were arranged and placed in perpendicular columns, and the whole ended in a rude delineation of a various strange marks, and evidently copied after the Mexican calendar given by Humboldt, but copied in such a way as not to betray the source whence it was derived. I am thus particular as to the contents of the paper, inasmuch as I have frequently conversed with my friends on the subject since the Mormon excitement began, and well remember that the paper contained anything else but "Egyptian hieroglyphics."
      Yours respectfully.                                                     CHARLES ANTHON.


Professor Anthon's report was considered a stab at true religion. It was the work of the devil, Harris said, and he went home firm in his belief in the infallibility of Smith. But Mrs. Harris called her husband crazy, and to save him she got hold of the manuscript and burned it. The result was a family feud, and in the end Mrs. Harris separated from her husband and lived on an allowance which he gave her for life, while he went his way with the Mormons, became a bankrupt, and when the Mormons found him of no pecuniary benefit to the cause they cast him adrift, treated him like a beggar, and when he was in the dust they received him back into the Church and he became a mere pliant tool of the leaders. This peculiar treatment of men who complain when they are robbed by the church has characterized the Mormon hierarchy all the way through to this day.

The adventures of the Mormons at Kirtland, Ohio; Hiram, Independence, Mo., and particularly at Nauvoo, in Illinois, and their flight across the plains to Utah, where they built up an empire of polygamy, agriculture and architecture, with an occasional massacre of non-believers, is a matter of history. It does not concern this narrative.


My visit to Mormon Hill and the various caves where the prophet claimed to have held communion with the angels was of interest. Major Gilbert, who accompanied me, is a man of unfailing interest. He is a striking example of how well preserved a man can be at the age of ninety-one. Fire is in his eye, his countenance is animated, his mind fresh and active. He is a remarkable man for any country. He is passionately fond of anything relating to Napoleon, whom he considers the greatest general of history. He has rare books. His criticisms are keen. He is passionately fond of music; has heard the great violinists who have appeared in this country since Ole Bull's first visit. He has a violin that was made two hundred years ago. It is light as a feather; has crossed the Atlantic three times; has been broken in pieces, mended again, and is wonderfully preserved. It has a singing quality, and is sweet toned as a harp. For fifty years the Major taught dancing in this village. Although a printer by profession, and a good one too, he has found time to read the books and newspapers of the day. But this is not all. He is an expert mathematician, and he was one of the first to be employed on the Erie Canal to arrange toll tables and make difficult computations in regard to tariffs and toll rebates during those years of enormous business on the canal, sometimes reaching millions in a single year. During these ninety-one years of the Major's life the greatest events of modern history have transpired. The telegraph, the application of steam to motive power, the Atlantic cable, electricity, all the great steamships, were undreamed of when the Major was a boy. Grant, Sheridan. Lincolnm Gettysburg and the greatest wars of the world, the creation of now governments, the unification of Germany, the emancipation of the serfs and the freeing of the slaves in this country -- all happened in the afternoon of this man's life.


When I called upon Major Gilbert at his modest home, just off the main street in Palmyra, he received me with unaffected cordiality, and said that having acted as historian for the Mormon visitors he would gladly give the Herald what facts he knew In regard to the rise of Mormonism in Palmyra. He exhibited piles of letters and pamphlets, extracts and newspaper clippings on the various phases of Mormonism which had been sent him for half a century. He is an authority on the subject.

At his suggestion a family of elderly bachelors was called on to accompany us on our visit to the places where Smith held his interviews with the various Mormon angels. The bachelor brothers are aged only in years. Both Orson Saunders and his brother Timothy are as frisky as young colts in a Kentucky meadow.

Their memory is remarkably accurate. They have never been married, but "keep house" together and live well on the old farm, but a short distance from the cave where the Mormon Bible was translated and but "across the way" from the well in which Joe Smith s brothers found the agate peep stone shaped like a girl's foot, and in which he saw the first of his wonderful visions. The Saunders brothers are familiar with many of the stories told about the Smiths, as their families were intimate and their farms adjoined.

When we reached the Saunders farmhouse the boys, as the Major called them, were busy cooking supper. Orson was frying eggs and his venerable, frisky bachelor brother Timothy was baking light biscuit and "setting" the table. In manner and intelligence they did not seem more than twenty years old. Orson brought a pitcher of genuine Wayne county cider from the cellar which must, have been connected with an ice cave. It is safe to say that no such cider is ever found in New York city. The Major said it was only surpassed in quality and effect by fifty-year-old New Jersey applejack.


The first of the Mormon places visited was Mormon Hill, called in the sacred Scriptures as written by Joe Smith, "Camorah Hill." It is a notable mound of earth rising perhaps a hundred feet above the highway, against which it juts with almost overhanging abruptness. At a distance of half a mile it appears a thousand feet high. It looks like an Arizona butte, and in the West it would require an hour for a man to climb a mountain of its appearance.

It stands like a sentinel amid the most inviting scenery in the State. The region, by the way, is remarkably beautiful. It is like the finest parts of England, and one can easily imagine himself in Devonshire, or up in the Dukeries made famous by Robin Hood and his men. Joe Smith must have had a love for the picturesque. His operations, when not in a cave, were always on a hill.

On reaching the scene of his greatest exploits we found that the mountain had been fenced in and a part of the ground nearly to the brow of the sacred mount planted in corn. A cozy, sweet little farmhouse, half hidden by venerable trees nestled at the base of the hill, making a pleasing picture to the eye on that hot day. We had heard that the owner of the farm, Mr. George Sampson, had been overrun by curiosity seekers and had taken precautions to protect himself and his crops from intruders. He was not at home, but a very pretty girl was in charge of the place. She came to the door and with a modest smile said her father charged twenty-five cents a head for each visitor who wished to climb the mountain. The money was paid most cheerfully, and the Major with his ninety-one years was one of the first to reach the summit of the hill. The mercury on that day was 99 in the shade in New York city. It must have been at 140 up here in the glare of the open country.

The view from the summit was a picture. The landscape rolled away in glorious billows as green as a lawn, broken here and there by ploughed fields and promontories, interspersed with cooling groves and silvery streams.

What was there to see on the holy mount to prove that Joe Smith had discovered the Mormon gospel there? Nothing but a filled up hole just under the western apex, perhaps four or five feet below the summit. It had been mischievously stated in the village by someone who did not like the tradition of their fathers, disturbed by the payment of a twenty-five cent fee that Mr. Sampson had filled in and ploughed up the genuine cave on the east side of the mountain and had dug a "fake" cave in a place that could not be cultivated. The mountain had long been used as a sheep pasture. This planting corn on the sanctified spot where Joe Smith had fought devils, conversed with angels and rescued the golden pages of God's own Word was a modern innovation and the people did not like it.


While on the hill Orson Saunders, the frisky bachelor farmer of Palmyra, gave the story that Smith had told his uncle of how he found the golden tablets. It is no doubt authentic, because the Saunders boys are trustworthy and their uncle was well acquainted with the Smith family. Their farms adjoined. The uncle's name is Benjamin Saunders. He is eighty years old and lives at Banker's Station, near Hillsdale, Mich. He repeated the narrative only a year or two ago to Orson. This is the story: --

Smith had received several communications from the archangel, and was told on a certain day to repair that night to the holy mountain and dig in a certain place, which he would recognize. It was shown him in the vision. Accordingly he went there at midnight with a shovel and crowbar. He recognized the spot and dug until he came to a large, flat stone. To use Smith's own words: --

"I forced the crowbar under the stone and raised it without difficulty. There I beheld a casket of golden plates, on which were inscribed the new gospels. The glory of heaven shone around them and upon them. The place seemed on fire. I was about to remove the plates when an enormous toad appeared, squatting upon the pages.

"Instantly it was revealed to me that I had forgotten to carry out some request made by the angel in digging for the plates. I had forgotten to give thanks to God, and I knew what was passing in the toad's mind. Instantly the beast arose and expanded as large as a dog, then as a bullock, then it rose far above me, a flaming monster with glittering eyes, until it seemed to fill the heavens, and with a blow like lightning it swept me from the mountain into the valley beneath.


"The sun was shining high in the heavens when I came to my senses. Again the angel of the Lord appeared and instructed me how I should further proceed. I acknowledged the mistake I had made and on that night I again repaired to the holy mountain. But the stone was not there, nor was there any sign that it had ever been there or that I had dug for it. But a revelation came to me on the spot. A new place to dig was pointed out and In a few moments I reached a big flat stone, and offering up thanks I removed it with the crowbar. The golden plates were flaming again in celestial splendor. The toad was not there. Then I knew it was all right.

"Again thanking the Almighty I removed the plates, but was so agitated I could hardly move. The moment I touched them a thousand devils sprang into light. They were all around the hill: the mountain seemed alive with them; they were in the air; they perched on my shoulders. They could do nothing, however. I was protected by the angel of God. But I had to fight for it. It was a struggle to get down from the mountain. Many a time I thought the holy plates would be taken from me, but I never let go of them until I found a place to hide, that I might rest and recover my strength. The country was heavily timbered in those days, but I was not afraid to go through the woods. On the following day I had the plates safely clasped to my breast and I carried them home and afterward hid them in a cave, where I began the first translation of the inspired pages.''


This, in brief, is Joe Smith's own narrative of how he came to receive the sacred Bible from heaven on which he founded the Mormon Church. Many stories are related by friends of his family as to how the golden plates appeared when seen in Smith's house. At one time he kept them in a bag. Then he hired a carpenter to make a chest bound with iron and fastened with a hasp and strong lock. This was after the plates had been removed from the cave. The facts as believed by Palmyra people are that the Spalding manuscript was what Smith was translating in the cave with his newly found friend Rigdon, the apostate Campbellite exhorter, who had stolen the Spalding manuscript and brought it to Joe Smith to palm off on the world as a new gospel. The best people in Palmyra who were well acquainted with the Smith family made many attempts to see those golden plates. One woman, a particular friend of Mrs. Smith, was invited to take a peep at the metallic pages. She said they were beautiful to look at and shone with glory.

A man once attempted to use force and open the chest, in fact he threw the lid up but saw nothing. In explanation of this Smith said that the Lord would protect his own, that no unbeliever ever could see the holy plates even if they were in the chest. The sacred pages of the Mormon Bible had a way of vanishing at the opportune moment just as the sacrificial sheep had once vanished when the lights were put out at the gold digging seance, and re-appeared as mutton the next day on the dinner table at the Smith farm house.

The young lady in charge of the holy mountain said that a great many Mormons had visited the place of late and that an offer had been made to buy it. Her father, Mr. George Sampson, came in later and explained that he did not wish to cancel any privileges enjoyed by the inhabitants for half a century, but he was forced to protect his property. Unscrupulous visitors from neighboring counties had trampled his crops, thrown down the fences and rolled stones from the mountain against fences, and he thought that the small admission fee of twenty-five cents would afford protection, keep away rowdies and enable earnest students to inspect the mountain undisturbed.

It may be of interest to state that Mr. Sampson's brother. Captain Sampson, is a well known naval officer, formerly in charge of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. He went with the young cadets on their cruises, and later was commander of the war vessel San Francisco. He was the first to the family to have an interest in the Mormon mountain. He bought it of the Robinsons, but subsequently sold it to his brother, who now carries on extensive farming operations around the mountain, while, his pretty daughter manages household affairs, and her half dozen manly young brothers superintend the farm.


Next we visited the cave where the Mormon plates were translated. It is situated on the eastern brow of Cave Hill, a prominence about two-thirds as large as Mormon Hill and exactly half way between Mormon Hill and Palmyra. It is four miles from Palmyra to Mormon Hill. The door jambs leading into the cave are still sound and partly visible, but the earth has been washed down by storms and the opening to the cave nearly filled, so that it cannot be entered at present. A few years ago it was dug out, the earth removed from the door and Orson Saunders, who went in, said that he found quite a large chamber many feet in extent, with the marks of the pick plainly visible in the light of his candles. The passageway within the chamber was eight feet wide and seven feet high. The Miner boys intended to keep the cave open for public inspection, but the mouth was choked by a small land slide during a heavy rain and since then Nature has been allowed its way. The door jamb is heavy plank of beech or maple, and the inscriptions, which had evidently been cut deeply by a sharp knife, were partially worn away.

This hill was one of the favorite places which Smith selected for his money digging exploits. In the old days half a dozen of these holes could be found on any of the hills of the neighborhood. It is quite a severe climb to reach the mouth of the cave, but Major Gilbert made the ascent without difficulty and rather gloried in the vigor of his ninety-one years.

A short drive brought us to the famous well on the Chase farm, where the agate peep stone was found and carried away by Joe Smith. It will be remembered that he claimed to see visions in this stone and by its frequent use he gained his fame for spiritual visions and they were really the beginning of the Mormon Church.


The well was dug about sixty-five years ago near the Chase farm house. The Homestead has disappeared. The garden and the yard in front of the house have been plowed up. All the family are dead. The dear child grew up, married and died. But the well remains and it was found nearly full of water in a field of corn with a lusty youth keeping down the weeds with a cultivator which a horse was drawing under the burning sun. In the furnace like atmosphere an old time black walnut tree as large and as widespreading as any of the trees in Bushy Park at Hampton Court cast its graceful shade for seventy feet around its trunk, nearly reaching the well.

A cover of ancient, weatherbeaten boards fastened with cleats and rusty nails covered the well and was held in place by a fence rail which the Major and his friend Orson Saunders estimated was at least sixty years old. We uncovered the well and found it heavily walled with large boulders which had remained undisturbed since the days they were laid in place by Joe Smith’s father and brothers. There seems to be more moisture in the soil now than in Smith's day, for it is only five or six feet down to the water. It looked dark and brackish and no doubt many a reptile has taken a bath in its depths. Then we proceeded to the homestead of Joe Smiths boyhood.


This historic place is situated a little to the west of Miner Hill, on another road running parallel with the Canandaigua road. It is a lower spot with the same beautiful landscape, rolling away like a panorama. Enormous apple trees with trunks as large as saw logs, cover the hills on every farm. The apple trees alone are worth a visit to Wayne county. It is a famous fruit country, as before stated, and many well known men have lived here besides Mormons. Singer, the father of sewing machines, after Elias Howe, had a little farm near here, though he was a carpenter, and helped build the very office in which Major Gilbert printed the Mormon Bible.

Within a few minutes' walk of the Smith estate lives Mr. Purdy, the propagator and proprietor of the famous small fruits which were a household word twenty years ago throughout the West. Another well to do farmer in the neighborhood was Wells, the founder of the great firm of Wells Fargo & Co., who ran the first stage coaches across the plains in Mormon days; who transported the bullion of the bonanza kings and many a time the bonanza kings themselves, and who spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in protecting their drivers and passengers from Indians and highwaymen. Most of these men are dead, but not forgotten.

The Major took pride in pointing out the place where they had lived, and after half an hour's drive through clover scented lanes and across farms we reached the Smith homestead on what is known (although it is in the country, two miles from the village) as Strafford street. Why it is called a "street" nobody explains. It seems an English affectation, like "Broadway," a country lane in England, in the district where Abbey and Millet, the artists, spend their summers.

Well, we drove under the cooling shade of the big trees which hang over the road leading to the old Smith farm. We found the present proprietor at the house, and he greeted us warmly. He is a typical Massachusetts man, and be will tell you a volume about Worcester, where he used to live, and the great men who control the destiny of that part of New England. He was exceedingly hospitable and welcomed us in. He is known as plain "Will Chapman." The Smith house stands on a slight eminence sloping up from the road, perhaps ten or fifteen feet above the highway. It is what is known as a story and a half frame house, with very low upper windows, not more than a foot high -- four of them under the eaves.


On your left hand as you enter the house is a large square corner room looking our upon the street. It is known as the parlor where Joe Smith completed the translation of the Bible plates after he brought them home from the cave. In this room he suspended a blanket across the corner and behind it he sat and delivered his oracles to his friends. They took down his dictations from the golden tablets Bible and sent them to the printer. In the smaller room directly back of it is Joe Smith s private room. Here he slept and held his holy conferences only with his most intimate friends.

The flooring is in good repair, and in the cellar, which is deep, spacious and cool, one may see that the boards which were put into floors in Smith's day were solid plank, supported by round timbers cut in the wood, hewed on one side, on which the floor was laid.

At each corner of each room the visitor may see the heavy square timbers (novv cased) which were used in framing a house seventy years ago. To raise the frame of a house in those days required the combined strength of all the men in the neighborhood, with a barrel or two of hard cider and the approving smiles of the women folks and the young daughters who came to peel apples, help cook the dinner, while the men folks raised the building. Joe Smith's house is of great interest to those who care for Yankee antiquity and Mormonism. Up a flight of stairs as solid as the hills are four large rooms, with the sloping roof back and front cutting off an angle from the ceiling. Every New England man remembers how such houses were built his dear boyhood days. It is true that the Smith house has been painted, renovated and and a small extension built, to the kitchen, but it is exactly the same house which the shiftless Smith family were many years in completing. It has been said that little of the old house remains. This is untrue.


Across the road from the house is a big red barn which has been built since the Smiths departed from the country. Back of the barn, not more than sixty feet from the highway, is the first Mormon Jordan, a little creek which the Smith boys dammed at Joe's request and made a pool in which the first converts to Mormonism were baptized. It is a singing, meandering little brooklet about ten or fifteen feet wide, with two or three feet of water standing in the pools in the bends of the stream, but ordinarily the water is but a few inches deep. Swiftly darting fish of various kinds were seen flashing through the clear depths. If this little Jordan, the parent of the big Jordan out in Utah, could be transported thither it would be a source of much revenue to the Mormon business men, who should bottle it for the healing of sorrow and disease.

Mr. Chapman, who owns the estate produced a little book in which he showed the autograph and names of the Mormons who had most recently visited the place. He regrets now that there was so much talk about sinking Palmyra the Mormon Mecca, that he had not kept a register and asked every visiting Mormon to inscribe his name as a souvenir of his distinguished visitors. Chase spoke most respectfully of his visitors, and referred to the reverence and deep affection they had shown while examining the old homestead. They begged to see every room and closet. Mr. Chapman said that once in making repairs in roof he had found two old cannon balls, battered and rusted lying upon the heavy hewn [plate] timber on which the rafters rest. For the life of him he could not explain why the cannon balls were there. The only reason he could give was that the Smiths had placed them there to bring them good luck or to keep away evil spirits.

Note 1: The Joeph Smith account indirectly supplied by Benjamin Saunders should not be taken as a literal recital of Smith's own words. The inclusion of the toad in the story may have come as "cross-contamination" from similar reporting published in E. D. Howe's 1834 book.

Note 2: The reported discovery of the cannon balls in the roof of the Smiths' frame house can be compared to something similar, said in regard to the family's log house, as published in the Daily Times of April 5, 1903: "Another meeting place was the log cabin in the woods where dwelt the Smith family. Sometimes these meetings were interrupted by thunderings overhead, as if the Lord were answering their prayers from heaven. In later years when the building was torn down several cannon balls were found concealed under a false roof over the rafters. They could be moved by a string so as to give forth rolling sound as of thunder. This is the method employed in modern theaters for the same purpose."

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last updated: March 22, 2013