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1827
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RDA Nov 01 '27  |  WSn Nov 02 '27  |  LynA Nov 07 '27  |  LLt Nov 12 '27
1828
GPl Jan 16 '28  |  LLt Jan 21 '28  |  GGz Feb 06 '28  |  GGz Feb 13 '28
Alb Feb 12 '28  |  CAJ Feb 15 '28  |  OCh Apr 14 '28  |  GPl Apr 16 '28
GGz May 07 '28  |  LGz May 08 '28  |  AFP Jun 18 '28  |  GGz Jun 25 '28
GAdv Oct 11 '28



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By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, January 27, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 729.



RE-ASSEMBLAGE  OF  THE  JEWS.

The following letter has been addressed to the Editor of the Paris Journal des Debats, by the Grand Rabbi, De Cologna, relative to the proclamation of the new self-constituted Judge and Regenerator of Israel, Mr. Noah, of New-York, calling upon his Jewish brethren, throughout the world, to assemble under his standard at the intended city of refuge, Ararat, in Grand Island, and imposing upon such as do not choose or are not able to obey his call, a certain annual tribute per head for leave of absence:

TO  THE  EDITOR.

Sir -- The wisdom and love of truth which distinguish your journal, and the well merited reputation it enjoys in France and in foreign countries, induce me to hope that your politeness will grant me a place in your next number, for some observations which I address to the public on interests of reason and truth.

The French and English papers have lately abbounced the singular project of aMr, Noah, who calls himself the founder of the city Ararat, in the United States of North America. Certainly, if Mr. Noah was, as he is supposed to be, the proprietor or occupier of a great extent of uncultivated land, and confined himself to the engagement of men without fortunes to run the risk of colonizing with him, promising them, at the same time, mountains of gold, nobody would think of disputing his right to follow the fashion of sending forth projects: but Mr. Noah aspires to play a much more elevated character. He dreams of a heavenly mission; he talks prophetically; he styles himself a judge over Israel; he gives orders to all the Israelites in the world; he levies a tax upon all Hebrew heads. In his exultation he even goes so far as to make the central Jewish consistory of France his charge d;affaires, and he honors the president of this body with the noble rank of "commissioner of emigration." The whole is excellent; but two trifles are wanting: 1st, the well authenticated proof of the mission and authority of Mr. Noah; 2dly, the prophetic text which points out a marsh in North America as the spot for re-assembling the scattered remains of Israel.

To speak seriously, it is right at once to inform Mr. Noah, that the venerable Messrs. Hiershell and Meldonna, chief rabbis at London, and myself, thank him, but positively refuse the appointments he has been pleased to confer upon us. We declare that, according to our degrees, God alone knows the epoch of the Israelitish restoration; and he alone will make it known to the whole universe, by signs entirely unequivocal; and that every attempt on our part, to re-assemble with any political-national design, is forbidden, as an act of high treason against the Divine Majesty. Mr. Noah has doubtless forgotten that the Israelites, faithful to the principles of their belief, are too much attached to the countries where they dwell, and devoted to the governments under which they enjoy liberty and protection, not to treat as a mere jest the chimerical consulate of a pseudo restorer.

As, however, justice requires some consideration to the absent, we should be sorry to refuse him the title of a visionary of good intentions.

Accept, Mr. Editor, the assurance of the distinguished and respected sentiments with which I remain your most humble servant.
                                                    The Grand Rabbi DE COLOGNE.



THE  DAVIDITES.

Extract of a letter from Canada, descriptive of a new and singular sect of people located near York:

"Their founder and present leader, is David Wilson... (see the Ontario Repository of Oct. 19, 1825 for this letter)


Note: The Republican Advocate edited and shortened this original Sept. 1825 letter from the New York Spectator.


 



By D. C. Miller.                       Batavia, Friday, March 3, 1826.                        Vol. 15 No. 734.



From the Commercial Advertiser.

THE  LAST  OF  THE  MOHICANS.

"It is American books," says a late English Review, "that are wanted of America; not English books made in America by Englishmen. We want in a word from the people of North America, books which, whatever may be their faults are decidedly, if not altogether, American." Well, here they have one -- a description of the aboriginal character -- in all its native, wild and lofty grandeur -- powerful, warm, rich, glowing and animated from the hand of a master tho' they may be unwilling to acknowledge him as such...

The "Last of the Mohicans" is a narrative work. The scene as has before been stated by us, is laid in the neighborhood of Lake George and its vicinity -- a region unrivalled for romantic beauty wilderness and sublimity. It commences at that critical conjuncture of the old French war after Braddock's defeat...

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


The Escritoir; or,
Masonic and Miscellaneous Album.


Vol. I.                            Albany, New-York, Mar 25, 1826.                             No. 9.


 

A new novel, to be entitled "The New-York Yankee; or Tales of the First 'Settlers' on the Tioughnioga," is preparing for the press in Cortland Village in this state. Mr. William W. Phelps, the author, is represented as being among the accursed of fortune; and as having resolved in this manner, if possible, to gain reparation for the many evils with which he is afflicted. We wish him success; nevertheless, we must take the liberty to guess that if his "daily bread" is to be purchased by his wits in this book-making age, it will be rather stale before he eats it.


Note: William W. Phelps' youthful career as a popular novelist seems to have quickly floated down the bosom of the Tioughnioga and out of sight. It appears doubtful that he ever finished his "New-York Yankee" story. Later in life he experienced somewhat better luck, editing the Lake Light, writing hymn lyrics for the Mormons, etc.


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. III No. 35.]                 Palmyra, (N. Y.) Friday, May 26, 1826.                 [Whole No. 139.


__________________________________

printed and published every Friday
AT PALMYRA, WAYNE CO., N. Y. BY
TUCKER & GILBERT.
__________________________________


From the Western Balance.

WONDERFUL  INFATUATION.

Modern Pilgrims. -- In the Summer of 1818, a company of people, calling themselves Pilgrims, appeared descending the Mississippi, in flat boats. By their own account, they started from Lower Canada, in a company consisting of eight or ten. In Vermont they recruited twenty or thirty; in the state of New-York several more -- and when they reached Cincinnati, their numbers amounted to about sixty.

Their leader, a Canadian, by the name of Bullard, (called also by his followers, the Prophet Elijah,) was of a diminutive stature, with a club foot. Before he began his mission, he had a severe spell of sickness, when he fasted 40 days, (as he said, and his disciples believed;) after which he recovered very suddenly, by the special interposition of the Divine Spirit, and being filled with enthusiasm, he declared that he was commanded to plant the church of the Redeemer in the wilderness, and among the heathen. -- From these notions, thus imbibed, and which he instilled into his followers, they believed themselves capable of fasting 40 days; accordingly when they committed themselves to the current, the Prophet enjoined a 40 days' fast. The people becoming sick and in great distress from hunger, this severe commander found it necessary to remit, in some degree, the rigor of his injunction, and he permitted the taking of flour broth through a quill, because he received his food in this way after his long sickness and fast, when he could not open his jaws; and which had the vivifying effect taken by him for supernatural power or inspiration. But as the gruel allowed was very meagre, being simply flour and cold water, debility, misery, and death attended the experiment. Yet with faith and hope they persisted.

In this wretched situation, they arrived at Pilgrim's island; which derives its name from this fact; at which place they were fallen in with by a barge belonging to Nashville, whose crew, detesting the conduct of the prophet and his seconds, who watched and governed the timorous multitude, gave two or three of the leaders a sound drubbing with the pliant cotton wood switch.

They next landed at the Little Prairie. The prophet's staff, which by the direction of its fall had hitherto pointed out the way, now stood still; and he declared that here he was commanded to settle and build a church; but Mr. Walker, who owned the soil, and resided in this solitary spot, forbid the undertaking. This was accounted persecution -- yet they continued seven days, during which, several died, among whom were children, which were placed on the beach by their parents, at the command of Elijah, when, exposed to the scorching sun, they wallowed holes in the sand while they struggled away the agonies of death. While here laboring under sickness and persecution, it seems they began to suspect that they were forsaken by the divine spirit, and that no more miracles could be wrought for them. Hence they commenced the cry of "Oh, my God, why hast thou forsaken me!" when, by assisting each other, the vociferating cry was not intermitted for three days and nights.

They stopped further down at a desert place, when six or eight more died, whose bones still lie on the shore uncovered; and all who remained, when they arrived at Helana, were objects of terror and compassion. The hospitable inhabitants furnished them a plentiful supply of milk and more nourishing gruel, for taking which every one was provided with a piece of reed cane.

Their boat next struck upon a sand-bar near the mouth of the Arkansas. The prophet, his brother, and other leaders being dead, the remnant dispersed into the settlements, and down the river in the passing boards.

From the time the party entered the Mississippi, their numbers decreased daily by death or desertion. And when they made their final landing, only about 15 remained. One disciple eloped at the Little Prairie, with all the cash belonging to the company. One child was rescued and here raised. Several individuals who were dispersed in various directions, are now comfortably settled, but it is supposed that more than half their number died on the pilgrimage.

This fete of folly and delusion, is perhaps worthy of notice, as furnishing a striking instance of the blindness of credulity -- the wilderness of fanaticism, and the miserable propensity of the mind, to believe itself possessed of powers which do not belong to humanity.


Note 1: The above article must have originally appeared in the Western Balance (of Franklin, TN?), in about late April of 1826. See the New York City Telescope of May, 6, 1826 for another reprint. For more on Isaac Bullard and his "Pilgrims" in retrospective accounts, see the articles, "The Pilgrims" in the Oct. 5, 1822 issue of the Saturday Evening Post, "The Mormon Delusion" in the June 24, 1831 issue of the Vermont Chronicle, and Zadock Thompson's "Fanatical Sects," in his 1842 History of Vermont, (summarized in the notes attached to an 1817 article.)

Note 2: For contemporary accounts about Isaac Bullard's "Pilgrims," see the Salem Register of Sept. 15, 1817, the Boston American Baptist Magazine of May 17, 1818, and the Chillicothe Weekly Recorder of Nov. 5, Nov. 12, and Nov 26, 1817. None of these reports came late enough to relate Bullard's purported 1818 murder of the Pilgrims' children on the shore at Little Prairie (now Caruthersville, Pemiscot Co.), Missouri -- however, in an 1817 report, Bullard was said to have fled from Quebec province, after having poisoned the child of one of his followers, "by command of the Lord," rather like his other followers' children were put in a dire situation, "at the command of Elijah."


Note 3: The story of Bullard and his followers' 1817 stop-over at Woodstock, Vermont is summarized in David M. Ludlum's 1939 book, Social Ferment in Vermont, pp. 242-244. Although the Joseph Smith, Sr. family had departed Vermont by the time the Bullard Pilgrims arrived on the scene, Oliver Cowdery's Grandfather, (William Cowdery, Sr.) then lived in Woodstock and Oliver himself lived in an adjoining county (see area map). It is not unlikely that members of the Cowdery family had some first-hand knowledge of Bullard's cult.

Note 4: In a 1997 article entitled "Joseph Smith's Testimony: The First Vision and Book of Mormon Evidence," Mark Stepherson has this to say about the cult and its possible influence on early Mormonism: "Isaac Bullard was noticed and had the public mind excited against him. He wore nothing but a bearskin girdle and a beard. He gathered his "pilgrims" into a community near the Smith's old home in Vermont. When the community moved west, they likely followed the same road the Smith family used when moving to New York. Isaac Bullard taught free love, but I wonder how many members were women willing to practice free love with their leader, a man who regarded washing as a sin and bragged that he had not changed clothes in seven years?"


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 21 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., August 23, 1826.                         Whole No. 1217.


 

The masonic fraternity and others, are cautioned in the Ontario Messenger, against a man calling himself "Capt. William Morgan, as he is a swindler and a dangerous man,"


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                       Batavia, Friday, Aug. 25, 1826.                        Vol. 15 No. 759.



(reply to the "People's Press)

[David C. Miller says violence is threatened against him] and while we are thus compelled to an act of justice to ourselves and to the public, we shall be sorry if we wound the feelings of any honorable men who may have been unfortunate in any of their associations... The strongest evidence of rottenness in any association is the desire of its worthy men that its secrets may be unfolded, thereby curtailing the practice of frauds and oppressions. 'I would rather give a thousand dollars,' said a worthy man a day or two since, 'than that it should not be done.' This is the sentiment of hundreds within our knowledge, who are of good report... Some are so excessively foolish as not to hesitate to express this unprincipled and abusive sentiment, that were the lives of any of those who are engaged in a certain work taken by violence the Governor would pardon the murderers! Rest assured, kind sirs, if there were no other hangman found in the state for such a criminal, the Governor himself would perform the duty! ...


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



Vol. V.                       Lyons, N. Y., Wednesday, August 30, 1826.                       No. ?



A Pickle for the Book Venders. -- There was considerable stir last week, about our neighborhood among the justices, constables, and lawyers, in consequence of a great number of suits brought by a bookseller at the eastward, on subscriptions which had been obtained in this county, for a certain book entitled "Wonders of Nature and Providence." It seems that something more than a year since, agents were sent into this country to obtain subscriptions for the above named work, and the title being a taking one, and the representations of the agent highly favorable, a great number of citizens were induced to subscribe. The book has recently been presented to subscribers, but many of them have refused to receive it, on the ground that it is a failure of performance of the contract on the part of the bookseller, being nothing else, as they allege, but a compilation of unauthenticated narrations of incredible events, and extravagant absurdities. The questions presented by these refractory refusals, being, as they say at the bar, matter in puis, the vender of these commodities, has of course, resorted for their decision to juries of the vivinage, and he is doubtless sorry that we are obliged to say, that every on of these appeals to his country, and we believe there have been in this county, not less than two or three score, has resulted in his total defeat. There was no pretence that the book so far as related to the mere mechanical execution, did not come up to the terms of the prospectus; the printing, binding, &c. being unexceptionable; but the question was as to the contents, which, though it was admitted to be made up of such accounts as it was stipulated in the printed conditions, that it should contain, was nevertheless alleged to be of such a nature as to render the book valueless, and an imposition. And, indeed, those who have read the book, will readily admit, that all wonders heretofore said or sung, from the legends of the Arabian Nights, down to the marvels of Cotton Mather, are flat & tame in comparison with many of the tales in this authentic account of the "wonders of nature and providence." It's fame has spread far and wide among us, and a general indignation is felt, at so gross an attempt to take money out of the pockets of the people, by abusing their thirst for interesting and useful reading. Whatever technical grounds there might have been, in that they conformed to the printed conditions, there can be no doubt, that upon the whole, our juries have found the law and the fact correctly, and that in their decided discountenance of this speculating hoax, they have rendered an essential service to the community.


Note 1: The modern reader can only wonder whether the local attorney and sometimes justice of the peace, Lyman Cowdery, was in any way involved in bringing, arguing, or deciding these petty lawsuits, growing out of the overblown promises of pedestrian peddlers of printed matter. No doubt the good people of the Lyons-Palmyra area felt imposed upon by a book that was advertised to elucidate the mysteries of Divine Providence, but which could barely present a convincing argument that the American Indians were the descendants of lost tribes of Israel -- and that, too, appropriated from the admittedly speculative writings of the Rev. Ethan Smith. If it was the matter of "authentication" that troubled the western New Yorkers, dissatisfied with Josiah Priest's 1825 book, they had only to wait until 1830 to be approached again by different (?) set of pedestrian book-peddlers -- offering a divine revelation that, as Alexander Campbell said, addressed "every error and almost every truth discussed in New York for the last ten years."

Note 2: For the first known published mention of Oliver Cowdery in the "neighborhood" of Lyons, see the letter lists printed in the Lyons Advertiser for Oct. 17th, Oct 24th, Oct 31st, and Nov. 7th, 1827.


 



By D. C. Miller.                       Batavia, Friday, Sept. 1, 1826.                        Vol. 15 No. 760.


 

To give a vivid delineation of the character and tendency of secret associations, we have made the following extract from the writings of Baron Knigge, who bore a conspicuous part in those societies existing during his day. That he speaks from experience, the reader may judge both from the Baron's reasoning, and his own observation.

Take care not to become a tool of disguised rogues.

ON  SECRET  SOCIETIES.

Among the great variety of dangerous and harmless amusements with which our philosophical age abounds, none is more prevailing than the rage for Secret Societies. -- There are few people possessing an eminent degree of ability and activity, particularly on the continent, who being actuated by a desire for knowledge, or by sociability, curiosity, or restlessness of temper, have not been for some time at least members of secret associations. It is high time these secret societies, which are so extremely dangerous to social happiness, as well as being useless and foolish, should at length be seen in their proper light. I have been held long enough in their mysterious bondage to be capable of speaking from experience, and of exhorting every young man who values his time properly, never to enter into any secret association, by what name soever it be called. They are not indeed all equally dangerous, but there is not one of them that can be said to be entirely harmless, or useful in any respect. They are useless, because at the present no important instruction needs to be enveloped in mysteries. The christian religion is so clear and so satisfactory as not to require, like the popular religions of the ancient heathens, a secret interpretation and a twofold method of instruction; and as for the arts and sciences, the newest discoveries which are made are publicly promulgated for the benefit of mankind, and ought to be made as public as possible, to enable every competent judge to examine and confirm them as really useful. -- In some individual countries, however, where darkness and superstition still prevail, the light of the dawning day must be quietly expected....

... these secret societies are also dangerous to the State and the world in general. They are dangerous inasmuch as they question the authority of the rulers of civil society having an undoubted right to demand information relative to every object of activity, for which a less or greater number of citizens have united themselves; and because the veil of mystery as completely conceals dangerous plans and principles as noble views and valuable knowledge; besides it often occurs, that all the members are not apprized of the nefarious views which frequently are disguised by the most imposing appearance; while moderate geniuses only will suffer themselves to be confined in those trammels by which the superiours of such societies are used to entangle the subordinate members; and the better part either throws off the yoke in a short time, or becomes tainted and degenerate from receiving a false turn, or rule arbitrarily at the expense of others. They are dangerous because unknown superiors are generally concealed behind the scene; and it is unbecoming a rational man to act upon a plan which he cannot overlook...

I thereby advise my readers to take no share in these fashionable follies; to concern themselves as little as possible about the system and the steps of such societies; not to throw away their time upon reading their polemic writings; to be circumspect in their conversations upon this subject, in order to avoid all useless vexations and to risk neither a favorable nor an unfavorable judgment upon such systems... should your former associates, however, disturb your tranquillity, then behave like a man of spirit, and hesitate not a moment to expose their fraud, follies and malice publicly, as a warning for others.

If we consider that Baron Knigge, whose confession this is, was a superior of a Lodge of Freemasons, and one of the principal chiefs of the illuminati; this declaration must have additional weight, as he certainly could speak from experience.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Sep. 15, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 762.



(Abduction of William Morgan)

(under construction)




Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Sep. 22, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 763.



Never during our humble labors, were we called to make such a statement as at the present time to our friends and Patrons. Glorying in the privileges we enjoyed as American citizens, we basked under the sunshine of liberty, proud in our independence, and thankful for its blessings; acting under the protection of the laws of our country, we felt we stood as a strong wall, invulnerable to the attack of any enemy that dare attempt our repose. Whilst, as citizens of a free country, we give due honor to the Press, the mighty engine, in the moral machinery, and would cling to it as one of the last stays on which our hopes, as freemen, could be placed, we must raise our voice with every honorable mind against those through whose instrumentality these privileges are sacrificed.

To destroy our usefulness, and undermine our reputation, we have been assailed with every missile, in the shape of calumny and abuse, by a paper in this village, conducted by a crew of as lying and dastardly cowards as ever ministered to the corruption of the public. There was no slander too base, no tale too villainous, to find admission into the columns of the common vehicle of defamation. For some past time it has been a reservoir into which the accumulated filth and pollution of the whole neighborhood rolled in various offensive streams -- Limping verse, and uncouth prose -- profane parodies and descriptions of drunken orgies, in turgid bombast were held out as diversified specimens of this motley tribe! Cast-off Judges, turncoat politicians, dishonored pettifoggers, and menial quill drivers found this paper the recipient of all the billious matter which they could eject. So long as these men merely threw out their squibs and puffs, and vain boasting, conscious of the superiority of our intellect, and the rectitude of our intentions, clad, as it were, with a panoply of steel, we let their venom go out in froth, to fall harmless at our feet -- We have whipped them before, and so can we yet.

The essence of the journal to which we allude is prejudice; and dreading the poison and stings it carried, so long as we kept our front to its conductors, we cared not for its slang and abuse. In open day-light and before the gaze of the world, we are prepared for the murderer and assassin, but in the clouds of night or forgetfulness of sleep, as may be pushed out of existence. When the nauseating calumnies of the People's Press, springing from the most odious origin, and disfigured by the vilest accompaniments, founded on a malice at which hell rejoices, and deformed by falsehoods at which perjury would shudder, had failed, and were flung back with indignation to its polluted source, other means, however, more villainous and more effectual, have been used to accomplish our destruction. Before the sirocco of their breath, we withered not nor died, -- nor even shuddered, till the incendiary's torch was applied to the combustible materials placed under our buildings, and which, but for the overruling of an inscrutible Providence, would have accomplished the intended ruin. Although Johns has been overheard to say, "we did not intend eventually to burn, and were prepared, at the proper time, to get the fire under;" yet, had it not been that two men were living in Barre, were in the street, at the fatal hour, no alarm could or would have been given in season to save these buildings; and probably a considerable portion of the village must also have fallen a sacrifice. They saw the incendiary who applied the torch; he made a hasty retreat, and dropped his dark lanthorn containing the fatal torch. Yet, under all these damning circumstances, does the polluted Press attempt to quibble and prevaricate.



From the scandalous publications in a neighboring print, the public must have formed a tolerably correct idea that I was engaged in the publication of a work, that many felt an interest in having suppressed, or of crushing before it should be prepared to be presented to the world: -- This, when known, constituted a signal, around which hovered the malignant and mischievous spirits far and near. I had to compete with the engines of the law, with perjury and with scandal. Waxing warm, the storm raged finally in fire communicated to my establishment by the hand of an incendiary, and lastly in personal violence, committed by a lawless band collected by a Canadian, aided by individuals who had forgotten themselves, their country, and its laws.



The People's Press was the grand pioneer to these outrages, for which I shall hold Messrs. Chandler, Scott and Coates responsible, agreeable to a statement made in that paper sometime since in which they assumed this responsibility. -- That the two latter gentlemen were not sensible at the time of the extent of their amenability, I am fully satisfied; but when they consent to furnish the [abhorrent?] material they must be answerable for the mischieviousness of the torch-bearer. It was through this medium that the life or liberty of another citizen was assailed. Its is to this torch that Capt. Morgan owes the loss of one or the other, or both; and in whom if living, or to his country if dead, they must owe a sad accountability.



The People are aroused, and well they may be. -- An enquiry has gone forth, which will not cease, until Capt. William Morgan or his remains have been discovered. The question is not who or what is [he]? Where from, what his business or standing? or is he a useful member of society -- a Patriot to his country, or a useless drone? But the alarm is circulated! a citizen of these United States, free born, under the protection of laws, emanating from free and liberal institutions, has been stolen, kidnapped, and plundered from his family, and smuggled, by ruffian hands, to some place unknown, or murdered by members belonging to a band, who assume to be above the laws. A notice will be seen in this paper calling a meeting on this subject on Monday next: -- It will be full, and attended by many members belonging to an absurd order, who are desirous of making manifest to the world that they discountenance violence and are anxious of wiping off the stain fastened upon their society by some of its unworthy members.



Some, who are deeply implicated in late criminal transactions, attempt a flimsey cover to their misdeeds: 1st by asserting, that we had threatened Mrs. Morgan's life if she did not deliver, to us certain papers; 2d. That Capt. Morgan had been taken away at his own request -- that he had written letters to that effect to his friends in Canandaigua, who came on accordingly, and took him off. -- What shameful subterfuge will not villainy resort to!



No enquiry that has yet been made, has resulted in a knowledge of the final disposition of Capt. Morgan. Chandler, who evidently went to Canandaigua on Wednesday last on this business, has returned; and to enquiries made, merely answered what he learned while there, that he (Morgan) had been disposed of as follows: -- that a rope was fastened to the top of a tree, and turned up by the roots by the force of oxen -- his body placed under it, and then let back, where he will be found buried! Is this the way that Daniel H. Chandler calculates to appease an alarmed community? Is this the manner he contemplates to satisfy an enquiring world of the manner a kidnapped citizen has been disposed of? or does he and others think, that the hints and whisperings that Morgan's person is safe in some Canadian gaol will allay public feeling? If he is thus incarcerated, by whom and what violence was he taken there? Who caused him to be a prisoner in a foreign, if not an enemy's country? -- These are questions that must be answered by a few worthless members of a useless institution, made to bend to the purposes of the abandoned and unprincipled.



The following is an extract of a letter from a gentleman at Canandaigua, to his correspondent in this place:

"I do not know how far you may be concerned with Mr. Morgan. I observe the Freemasons are alive to something. I do not belong to that society; but as a friend I advise you to be on your guard, as well as a man by the name of Babcock. Last night they took Morgan by force and carried him the Lord knows where."



The following was printed in a hand bill form, and published on Monday and Tuesday last.

There is reason to fear that Captain Morgan has been Assassinated.

Captain Morgan was taken by violence from Batavia on Monday morning (11th.) and carried to Canandaigua, delivered to the Gaol of that village; on Tuesday evening he was released, and at the dead and silent hour of night carried off by a powerful party; since which time he has not been heard of.

I feel that it has almost amounted to a criminal delinquency in not apprising the Public before this that a free born citizen of the United States, and a peaceable resident of the town of Batavia in Genesee co. was arrested Monday morning last, by virtue, as was said, of a criminal process, issued by some Magistrate in Canandaigua, and thrust with unusual violence into a carriage, and driven off with full speed, guarded by an uncommon and imposing force. The manner of this, in connection with the persons who were engaged in so singular a transaction, created at the time considerable sensation among our citizens; but pains were taken to allay the feeling, which was growing rather too intense to suit the views of some. Assurances were given that the prisoner would not only be well treated, but would fare sumptuously; & to carry conviction at once to the doubting, the character and standing of the gentlemen who arrested him were appealed to. These assurances, if they did not fully convince, at least soothed for the time: But to Tuesday was reserved the grand finale of breaking asunder and scattering all doubts upon this head! This was effected through the agency of Messrs. Sheriff Thompson, Nathan Follett, and a person from Rochester by the name of George Ketchum. They pledged themselves to Mrs. Morgan that on condition she would deliver up certain papers, her husband should be restored to her; she did so; and was immediately conveyed, by the man from Rochester, on her way to Canandaigua.

On her arrival in that village Mr. Morgan was not to be found; but in his place she received the following appalling relation: -- That he had been thrust into Canandaigua jail on a debt for about two dollars; where having remained a few hours, a friend, or a pretended friend came and paid the sum and liberated him, and advised him to repair to the inn situated in the upper end of the village (formerly kept by a person by the name of Bates) at which he remained but a short time, when a carriage was brought to the door and her husband thrust into it, and driven off at full speed under an escort of 15 or 20 armed men. This reaction she obtained from the wife of the Innkeeper, who is a Royal Arch Mason -- and who also further informed her that however unpleasant the task, yet she considered it her duty to inform her of what she had too much reason to fear was the case, that she would never see Mr. Morgan again, and the only consolation she could give her on so heart-rending a subject was to assure her that the Masons would see that she and her family would be provided for. -- Since he return to Batavia, which was on the afternoon of Thursday, Mr. Thompson has named the same thing to her, and proposed that she & her family should change her present boarding house for that of Mr. Danold's; the expenses of which would be defrayed as before stated.

During her stay at Canandaigua her chief if not her only intercourse was with Masons: from them she received a silent reserve with respect to Mr. Morgan's fate, with the exception of Mr. Ketchum who told her with some feeling, on parting with her, "that he considered it his duty to inform her that she must never, he feared, expect to see her husband again." Mrs. M. was also informed on her way to Canandaigua that the writer of this article, who was then held in durance by the violence of a mob, that his family need not expect soon to see him. And it was repeatedly mentioned in her presence by Masons at that place, that not only the writer of this but others that least expected it, would share the fate of Morgan; they had the names of all who had any agency in exposing Masonry, and had the power as well as the will to punish. A striking evidence of this POWER and this WILL was exhibited in this village on Tuesday afternoon, in the shape of a numerous and powerful mob, armed with bludgeons collected from various parts of the country, by a Canadian Spy of the name of Daniel Johns and headed by a citizen of Le Roy, who must ever bid adieu to the character of a Legislator after having headed such a lawless assemblage, who openly avowed their intention of destroying my printing establishment; and which would have been done, is admitted by Masons in this village, but for Mrs. Morgan's having delivered up certain papers on that day.

Every legal effort is making by the citizens of this place to arrest these lawless and alarming transactions, and to punish the daring delinquents. The public spirit on this occasion has risen to blood-heat -- an alarm has gone abroad among the people; and wo, wo is pronounced. Has it come to this that a Canadian, a stranger to our land and our institutions, can carry fire and sword into the heart of our country, and that too by the aid and consent of its citizens? -- That the liberty, life and property of its peaceable inhabitants are to be assailed when he pronounces the fiat? Shame, shame on that association, by whatever name it may be called, however ancient and honorable may have been its order when its members so far forget themselves, individual and public rights, as to be induced, by whatever motive, or headed by whatever chief, to engage in scenes that scandalize our well balanced institutions -- but shame puts on a double suffusion when these outrages are committed at the beck of a foreign renegade.

Fellow-Citizens -- When I conjure you to protect me and others who are not only threatened but assailed with lawless violence, I appeal to a principle intimately connected with your own preservation. Suffer one; even one citizen to be thus dealt with impunity and you thereby invite, and assuredly will be rewarded by similar outrages -- Suffer even the members of a society, however imposing in members, and however powerful by combination, to arrest from the laws what belongs to the laws and you inevitably seal the destruction of your liberty -- your social compact becomes barbarised, and you re led to toil and slaughter at the will of merciless task-masters and tyrants.

What can be more alarming to the well-being of social order, than to have the bonds which are destined to restrain the thoughtless and the ignorant rended asunder by the more knowing ones, stating "that whatever may be your violence in a particular case, you will be protected -- that the constituted authorities will protect you -- that the Governor of the state has written on, in any and every event, cost what it may, even to bloodshed, to suppress a certain thing -- by no means to suffer it to come to the world!" -- How little do those, who give the least color to such impositions, consider over what a volcano they are treading -- how many honest fathers and mothers may have to weep over the crimes committed by their misguided sons! and how soon the lawless mine they have devoted for the destruction of others may hurl themselves to that sad doom. -- It is rapidly approaching to this, unless the lawless fire, enkindled by those whose duty it is to suppress its first dawning, exert all their powers to put down what has been suffered to become too deeply enfixed. And I here call upon Benjamin Blodgett, as the publisher of a public journal, and upon Daniel E. Chandler, as a magistrate of the land, instead of quibbling about the character or qualities of a certain book, or of those engaged in it, or who are or who are not incendiaries, to lend a vigorous hand to the suppression of insubordination and bloodshed. I also call upon William R. Thompson, Sheriff of Genesee, possessing, as he does, the civil and military power of the county, to keep the public peace -- to suppress all riots or attempts at riots. He is one of the conservators of the laws, and he will have to answer for a fearful responsibility in any neglect of duty; which it is hoped and trusted no occasion may bring to his charge. I call upon the constituted authorities generally for aid and protection -- to suppress all efforts at violence, in their incipient state, and to punish outrages already committed, or those which may hereafter be attempted. -- I call upon the Governor, clothed with the power of the State, to suppress a rebel band, who have put at defiance the laws of the land, and assumed a right, not recognized by constitutional or statute law, to punish agreeably to the caprice or whim of their own will -- And I call upon the best efforts of all good citizens, whether in or out of authority, to be aiding in the premises. -- The rest I leave to the will of Heaven; invoking a steady nerve and a steady purpose in defending my rights,

To soon have the prophetic remarks of Capt. Morgan been verified. His fate he anticipated. "My best exertions," he often said, "have ever been devoted to my country and its free institutions. Man I have loved and do love, and I wish him unenthralled. My life is the property of my country, and my countrymen have a claim upon my utmost faculties for the preservation of all that is dear to intelligent freemen. The bane of our evil institutions is to be found in an order powerful and numerous, and becoming daily more so. It cankers and corrodes to the core the foundation on which Justice is based; and is destined, unless timely checked, to become the leveler, not of proud distinctions, but of social order. That, which, in its origin, it promoted, bringing form from uncomliness, is sadly reversed; -- and thieves and motley changers have entered the sacred Temple. -- Well, continued he, may the Virgin be presented weeping over the fallen column. This is no ideal picture, or the suggestion of a disordered fancy -- look about you -- within the precincts of your daily walks and daily avocations you will see injustice sanctioned, and crime sainted by the myrmidons of an absurd institution. With its power and corruptions, individuals not only may be sacrificed, but, in time, the State. If my life must be forfeit, I owe to my country an exposure of its dangers; not that there are not good men in the society, but that there are many evil ones." This is a mere point in comparison to the compass of his remarks. If ever man had honest views, I venture to aver that such were his; yet it is to be feared that he has fallen a martyr to truth and to the good of his fellow men. At the elbow of the immortal Jackson, braving death on the plains of Orleans, and successfully defending "Beauty and Booty" from the ravishment of unrestrained lust and love of plunder, he may have been destined to die by the hands of the worthless and the useless.

The late outrageous acts committed by some of the fraternity, conclusively prove that the institution is dangerous; because there is not a sufficient influencing or restraining power exerted to preserve subordination; because it is not in the power of those who would do justly and act uprightly to all men, so enforce this salutary principal; because many of its real moral orniments have ceased, and are daily ceasing to hold a communion with its more active and interested members; because they can associate at divers places, at the secret hour of midnight, concert their plans, meet and execute them at any given point or time; and because the society is claiming and attempting to enforce exclusive privileges, and are becoming as dangerous to individual rights and social liberty as the Spanish Inquisition ever was in the zenith of its baleful power.
                              D. C. MILLER.
Batavia, Sept. 18, 1826.

P. S. Since writing the above I have been credibly informed that Johns, despairing of a desperate force in this quarter to "storm the castle," has repaired to Canada, to enlist a myrmidos corps; which may be expected on every hour. This may prove not to be the fact, but every information we have as yet received. from the source that we obtained this, has proved too true. -- Let the conservators of the public peace beware!



TO THE PUBLIC.

The inhabitants of the County of Genesee, who do not approve of the [vile?] transactions in the village of Batavia, to wit: the attempt to set fire to the buildings in said village, the forcibly taking away and secreting from his wife and children, a man not known to be guilty of any crime; and the abuse of legal process towards several of our citizens, together with other unwarrantable acts, are requested to meet at the Court House, on Monday next, the 25th inst., at 12 o'clock at noon, for the purpose of concerting and adopting such measures as may be deemed proper for investigating them, and, if possible, preventing the recurrence of similar attacks upon their persons and property, with which they have been openly threatened.
                            MANY CITIZENS.
Batavia, September 21, 1826.



A CARD.

To my personal friends, and to the friends of civil and social liberty, and to the Rights of man, I owe an acknowledgment of grateful thanks, which I tender warm from the heart; assuring them, at the same time, that every avenue is guarded -- that every nook and corner from which a lawless corps might issue by day or night, is watched by vigilant sentinels. In return for this kindness, my life and my best exertions are at the command of civil, religious and political philanthropists.
                            D. C. MILLER.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Sep. 29, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 764.


Pursuant to notice given, the inhabitants of the County held a general Meeting at the Court House on Monday the 25th inst. The object of the meeting was briefly explained after which Aaron Van Cleve was appointed Chairman, and Jonathan Lay Secretary.

Nine depositions were then read to the meeting, giving an account of the conduct of certain persons, in relation to the carrying away of WILLIAM MORGAN; the manner in which Mrs. Morgan was treated; and a full statement made by persons who were present, of the arrest and detention of David C. Miller...



The following are the depositions in the order in which they were read at the meeting.

Genesee County, ss.

              Lucinda Morgan, aged twenty-three, the wife of William Morgan, of Batavia, in said County, being duly sworn, deposeth and saith: that on Monday last, about, or a short time before sunrise, her said husband left his house, and went into the street of the village, that finding he did not come home to his breakfast as usual, she made enquiries for him and was told that he had been forcibly taken away by six men and put in a carriage and taken to Canandaigua. That during the whole of Monday she remained in ignorance of which way he had been taken, or who had taken him, excepting by loose information, that an officer from Canandaigua had taken him. That on Tuesday morning, soon after breakfast, she sent for William R. Thompson, the Sheriff, and requested to know of him if he knew on what pretext her husband had been taken away. -- Said Thompson told her he understood he had been taken under a charge of having stolen a shirt and cravat, and that he presumed it was merely a pretext to get him away, or carry him away; that thereupon this deponent asked him if he thought Mr. Morgan could be got back, or brought back, if she gave up to the Masons the papers she had in possession. Said Thompson answered that he thought it was very likely that Mr. Morgan would be brought back if she would give them up, but he would not obligate himself or undertake to say that he should be brought back. That thereupon said Thompson proposed that this deponent should go to Canandaigua, and take the papers, and give them to Morgan, or to them, or give them up; and deponent agreed to go and take the papers accordingly. Thompson then asked this deponent if there was any person or friend whom she would like to have go with her. She mentioned Mr. Gibbs (meaning Horace Gibbs,) and asked if it would do for him to go. Said Thompson said it would not do for him to go, as he was not a mason, and added it would not do for any person to carry her there but a mason. She asked him twice if Mr. Gibbs was not a mason, and he said he was not, and then asked deponent if she was acquainted with Mr. Follett: deponent said she was not. Thompson said he was a nice man, and a gentleman with whom she could safely trust herself. Said Thompson departed and soon returned, and told deponent that Mr. Follett was not willing to go unless she would let him (Follett,) and Mr. Ketchum see the papers: he did not want to go on a tom fool's errand. This deponent then objected to these papers being seen by them; Thompson then said it was useless, he should do no more and he could not send her out there unless they could see the papers. Deponent then with great reluctance, finally consented to let them see the papers, if they would take her to see her husband. -- This second visit lasted about twenty minutes, during which time Thompson urged deponent to let the papers be seen. Deponent told him she was afraid they would take the papers away from her, if she let them see them. Thompson said they would not. -- She offered to let Mr. Thompson see the papers; he said that would not answer; they would not take his word. Thompson then told her he would go to Humphrey's and stay until she had got the papers, and she must then make a sign to him when she was ready. Accordingly a short time afterwards she made a sign to Mr. Thompson, then standing on Humphrey's stoop, and immediately after, he, with Mr. Follett and Mr. Ketchum came to her apartment, when Thompson introduced Follett and Ketchum, and said they had come to see the papers, which this deponent then handed to them. -- They all looked at them a short time and Thompson then asked her if she was ready to go, saying Mr. Follett was ready to take her. Follett then said he would go home with the papers and look them over, and told Ketchum to stop for him at his gate. Accordingly, about four o'clock in the afternoon of Tuesday, deponent started with said Follett and Ketchum, in a small wagon, and proceeded to Stafford. where they stopped at a house, where she was conducted into a back room, into which Follett and Ketchum came, and were joined by one Daniel Johns, and by James Ganson; all of whom immediately proceeded to examine the papers with much earnestness, and held much low conversation with themselves in under voices. Ganson appeared to speak the most. One of them asked Johns if those were the papers that were in the office when he was there. Johns answered there was one degree back, and then took a piece of paper, and folding it up, said the papers that were back were folded so. They then held considerable more conversation in voices too low to be heard. Follett then turned to deponent and said; he did not see that he could go with her; that Mr. Ketchum was going to Rochester, and would be willing to take her to Canandaigua to see Mr. Morgan; said he was not much acquainted with him (Ketchum) but took him to be a Gentleman; and Ketchum then said he called himself a gentleman, and she need not be afraid to trust herself with him. Ketchum then took the papers and tied them up in his pocket handkerchief, and took them with him into the wagon in which they rode. Johns then got into the wagon and rode to Le Roy, when he got out, and bid Ketchum good bye, saying, I hope I shall see you day after to-morrow. They then proceeded to Avon, and staid all night. The next day they again started for Canandaigua, when Ketchum put the papers into this deponent's trunk. They arrived at Canandaigua about twelve at Noon, and stopped at a tavern at the corner of the main street. After being there some time, this deponent asked Ketchum if he had heard of Mr. Morgan. -- Ketchum said he had not; that the masons would not talk to him; he could not see them -- they seemed jealous of him -- thought him a friend of Mr. Morgan, and was afraid he had come to get him away from that place. Then he asked her where the papers were. He took them and said he would go and make further inquiries for Mr. Morgan; and if he could find him, or where he was, or where they had taken him, he would let her know all he could find out. This was about dinner time. He returned again a short time before night, and told her he had heard Mr. Morgan had been there; had been tried for stealing a shirt, and cleared, had been then put in jail for a debt of two dollars -- and that Tuesday night a man had come from Pennsylvania, who said he had a warrant against him for a debt he owed there; that he, the man, had paid the two dollars and had taken him away in a private carriage on Tuesday night, and that he had no doubt he was gone; and asked this deponent when she would go home again. The deponent then expressed her anxiety to return speedily on account of having left her child of two years old, and having with her a baby of two months old. -- Ketchum then went out, as he said to take a passage in the stage, and returned after candle light. This deponent was then walking the room in great distress, and in tears. -- She asked him if he could hear nothing of Mr. Morgan. He then seemed to pity deponent, and told her not to be uneasy, and after looking at her a short time, told her to come and sit down by him, and asked her if she would feel any better if he told her all he knew. Being answered yes, he then said that Mr. Morgan would not be killed -- that he would be kept concealed until they could get the rest of the papers. She asked him what papers were back. He said there was some sheets of the Mark Masters Degree back, and they wanted also to get the printed sheets that Miller had printed on the three Degrees. He then said he wanted to take the papers which he had received from this deponent, to Rochester, and he thought through the means of them he could find out where Mr. Morgan was: Iit was a secret where he was. Said he had paid her passage and gave her two dollars to bear her expenses home. He then wrote his name with a pencil on a scrap of paper hereto annexed, as follows: ("George Ketchum, Rochester") and promised to write to her if he could hear of Mr. Morgan. He then told her if she would, by any means get hold of the papers that Miller had, or find out where they were deposited, so that he could get hold of them, he would give her twenty-five dollars out of his own pocket, & he had no doubt the lodge would give her one hundred if she could get what Miller had now. Deponent told him she would not try to get the papers, that Miller had, and would take no money and would not let him have the papers she had delivered to him, but on condition he would try and find out where Mr. Morgan was, and let her see him. He then repeated his promise to try and find out, and said he would write to her as soon as he got to Rochester; and urged her to write to him immediately on her return, and let him know about the papers, and what the people were doing generally in Batavia, and whether they were making a great rumpus about Mr. Morgan. Deponent then expressed her fears that if she did give him any information about the papers, he would not keep his promise about letting her see him, but would keep him concealed until they had got all the papers, and finally kill him. Ketchum then said, "I promise before my God that I will not deceive you, but will do all I can to find out where he is, and let you see him. I have no doubt when I get back to Rochester I can find out more, and I think I can find out where he is." He then again urged her to find out where the papers were, and let him know. In the course of his conversation he said, that if Mr. Morgan had managed rightly he could have made a million of dollars, if the work had been published. Ketchum then departed for Rochester, leaving this deponent at the tavern -- she, the same day, started for Batavia. -- The papers taken away by the said Ketchum were numerous, and formed a very large bundle; they were written in the handwriting of her husband, excepting a few which were written by a person who some times assisted her husband by copying or taking down as he dictated to him. The deponent further says, she has no knowledge of the place where her husband now is, or what is his situation, and feels the most anxious fears for his life; that she was born in virginia, and is a stranger, without intimate friends or relations in this county, and is left with two infant children, without any money, except what is left of that given to her by said Ketchum, and has no property, nor any means of supporting herself and her children, her constitution being very feeble, and her health very bad most of the time.
                    L. MORGAN.
   Sworn the 22d, day of September, 1826,
before me.
DANIEL H. CHANDLER, J. P.



Genesee County, ss.

      Oren Dana aged twenty-one being sworn, deposeth and saith: that on Monday morning, the 11th day of September instant, he was attending as a Clerk in the store in Batavia kept by Jonas S. Billings. Between the hours of six and seven of the clock in the morning, William Morgan of Batavia village came into the store, and a few minutes afterwards a stranger came into the store and told Morgan he wished to speak to him, and walked out with him. -- They proceeded up the street towards Danold's Tavern, and he saw them no more. -- The stranger appeared to be acquainted with Morgan. He was a stout well made man, aged he thinks, between twenty-eight and thirty-five, wore a light colored hat considerably worn or used. He is well acquainted with the inhabitants of the village and its vicinity, but does not recollect that he ever saw the said stranger before.
                    ORREN DANA.
   Sworn the 18th day of September, 1826,
before me.
RALPH COFFIN, Commissioner for Genesee county.



(under construction)



Note: There appears to be some grounds for believing that Oliver Cowdery knew the William Morgan family at Batavia prior to Morgan's abduction. See notes attached to the Oct. 25, 1826 issue of the Geneva Gazette for more on this interesting possibility.


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Oct. 6, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 765.



(Appeal to the Governor)

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


LIVINGSTON  REGISTER.
Vol. III.                              Geneseo, N. Y., October 10, 1826.                               No. 145?



INSOLVENTS'  NOTICES.

By order of Charles H. Carroll, Esq/ first Judge of Livingston Common Pleas: Notice is hereby given to all the creditors of Stephen F. Cowdery of Avon, in said county, an insolvent debtor, to shew cause, if any they have, before the said judge at his office in the town of Groveland, in the county of Livingston, on the 1st day of November next, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, why an assignment of the said insovent's estate should not be made, and his person be exempt from imprisonment pursuant to the act entitled "An act to abolish imprisonment for debt in certain cases," passed April 7, 1819.   Dated this 12th day of September, 1826.

6w. S. F. COWDERY, Insolvent.


Note 1: The authors of the 2000 CD-book, The Spalding Enigma, say on page 301: "...the first evidence we have of Oliver's brother, Stephen Fuller Cowdery, after he appears to have left Vermont, c. 1816-17, finds him filing an insolvency petition in Avon, Livingston Co., NY, in 1826." On page 305, they continue with this observation: "... it is reasonable to conclude that the four Cowdery brothers, Warren, Stephen, Dyar and Erastus, along with their sister Sally, all emigrated from Vermont to New York in the spring of 1816, ending up in the town of Groveland [between Geneseo & Dansville] in what was then southwestern Ontario County." If that was the case, the Cowdery clan did not remain in Groveland for very long. Warren set up a medical practice in the town of Le Roy, and then moved to Freedom, where he served as the postmaster -- Dyer lived in the same area as Warren -- Erastus moved to Ohio.

Note 2: On page 327 of The Spalding Enigma, the authors mistakenly credit the published insolvency notice to the "Livingston Recorder," rather than the Register. Stephen Cowdery and his second wife later moved to Buffalo (and from there evidently to northern Ohio, where he reportedly died in 1848).


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 28 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., October 11, 1826.                         Whole No. 1224.



Strange Proceedings. -- There has been much excitement in and about Batavia, fir several weeks, and it has been somewhat felt in this community, produced by the violent measures adopted by some of the fraternity of Masons, to arrest two individuals, who were engaged, it would appear, in publishing a book, in which the secrets of Free Masonry were to be disclosed. The Batavia newspapers had for some time teemed with articles, personal and acrimonious; and soon after the violence alluded to, was committed, the editor of the Republican Advocate, one of the obnoxious individuals, in handbills and in his paper, gave such an account of the transactions as might be expected under such circumstances, but which the public should be slow to believe. The affair, however, was considered by a respectable portion of the people, as a violation of good order and the laws of the land, which protect every person "of what state or condition soever," and who only "can be brought to answer by due course of law." -- A county meeting was consequently notified, and on the 25th ult, it was held, at the court house in that place. From the proceedings of this meeting, which are in the form of resolutions and an address, with nine despositions, and which fill ten columns of the Advocate, we are able to gather the facts relating to the affair, and proceed to a brief statement of them, leaving the reader to make his own comments. It is, that

On the morning of Monday the 11th Sept. a number of persons, whose names are given (and who are respectable citizens of this town,) having an officer with a precept, arrested at Batavia one William Morgan, and brought him to this place -- that on being acquitted of the alleged felony, he was imprisoned for a small debt. On the following evening, several persons called at the jail, one of whom desired to see Morgan, and on being admitted pretended that he had come to pay the debt and take Morgan home with him, to which M. assented -- the keeper of the prison being absent at the time, his wife was induced to receive the amount for which M. was confined, and discharge him, being assured it would all be right -- that on being liberated, Morgan was forcibly put into a carriage, the driver of which was ordered, by some of the five or six men within, to go to Rochester, which he did -- that they reached Rochester about day light, and proceeded to Hanford's Landing, where he left his passengers and returned home.

While these things were enacting, it is stated, that Mrs. Morgan, at Batavia, not seeing her husband come home to breakfast, (on Monday morning,) as usual, enquired after him, and was told that an officer from Canandaigua had taken him -- that after remaining until Tuesday, without learning where he had been carried, she sent for the sheriff of the county, and on enquiring of him was told that it was understood he was taken under a charge of having stolen a shirt and cravat, and that he (the sheriff) presumed it was merely a pretext to get him away -- that Mrs. M. then asked if he thought her husband "could be got back, if she gave up to the masons the papers which she had in possession," (we quote from Mrs. M.'s deposition) -- that the sheriff said he thought it probable, but he could not assure it -- that afterwards, it was agreed that Mrs. Morgan should go to Canandaigua, to see her husband, accompanied by two persons, provided she would let them see the papers; and, with one of these persons, she arrived in Canandaigua the next day, bringing a young child -- that here she gained no certain information of her husband -- that said person having got possession of the papers, departed for Rochester, and Mrs. M. the same day took the stage for Batavia.

While these measures were in execution against the projected book and its author, it appears that another was directed against the printer, David C. Miller, at Batavia. It stated, that on Tuesday (the 12th) a man who asserted himself to be a constable, "accompanied by more than 50 men, most of whom were furnished with large clubs," appeared in that village; that two of them forcibly seized upon Mr. Miller, and took him by violence to Stafford, "guarded as a criminal," showing no process for the arrest -- at Stafford he was kept in a room some time, and was then taken in a wagon "between two men armed with clubs," as far as LeRoy, where he was detained on several pretexts, but no one appearing to prosecute, he was discharged. It is further stated, that on the night before Morgan was taken, an attempt was made to burn two houses at Batavia, (in which about 25 persons were sleeping,) "for the apparent purpose of destroying some printed sheets," of which Morgan was the reputed author or compiler.

Such are the prominent facts which we have gathered from the detailed statement made by the county meeting. Committees were appointed to adopt measures to discover the present situation of Morgan -- to solicit sunscriptions for defraying expenses, and for relieving the present necessities of Mrs. Morgan and her infant children. The proceedings are signed by Aaron Van Cleve, chairman; Jonathan Lay, secretary; Theo. F. Talbot, David E. Evans, T. Cary, Wm. Keyes, W. Davis, J. Lay, T. Fitch, L. D. Prindle, E. Southworth, J. P. Smith, general committee.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Oct. 13, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 766.



(Sandoval the Freemason)

(Governor Clinton's Proclamation)

(under construction)




FOR SALE.

The subscriber offers for sale, Slip No. 3 in St. James' Church, on accommodating terms.

                    DAVID C. MILLER.
Batavia, October 5, 1826.

Note: Evidently anti-masonic newspaper editor Miller found himself unwelcome in the local church and thus advertised his separation from the St. James Episcopal congregation. Episcopalians in western New York during the 1820s seem to have been especially prone to be Freemasons and it is doubtful that very many of them in Batavia managed to both renounce the craft and remain in the church.


 



Vol. XVII.                             Geneva, N. Y., October 18, 1826.                              No. 20.


 

In this paper will be found Gov. Clinton's Proclamation relative to the outrages which have recently been committed at Batavia, the particulars of which are given in the following article from the Ontario Repository. We have hitherto said but little about this disgraceful affair, because we did not think it a matter of much importance to the public. The reprehensible conduct of some of the Masonic fraternity, however, has created in the public mind a degree of excitement which could never have been produced by the threatened exposition, had it been left to stand upon its own basis, and renders the explanation we now give necessary. We know not how vulnerable the institution may be, but, judging from what has already come to light, we should not be surprised if the book proves to be a mere catch-penny concern, got up by a "man wanting principle and wanting bread," and if the commotion which its publisher has labored hard to excite be attended with no better result than he probably designed -- a ready market for a puerile publication.

Strange Proceedings. -- There has been much excitement in and about Batavia...
(for text see Oct. 11th Repository)



DE WITT CLINTON, Governor of the State of New-York -- to State Officers and Ministers of Justice in the said State, and particularly in the County of Genesee and the neighboring Counties -- Greeting:

Whereas information, under oath, has been transmitted to me by Theodore F. Talbot, Esquire, -- and other citizens of the county of Genesee, acting as a Committee in behalf of the people of that country, representing that divers outrages and oppressions have been committed on the rights of persons residing in the village of Batavia, and that disturbances have ensued which are injurious and may prove destructive to peace and good order in that quarter -- Now therefore, I enjoin it upon you and each of you, to pursue all proper and efficient measures for the apprehension of the offenders, and the prevention of future outrages. And I do also request the good citizens of this state, to co-operate with the civil authorities in maintaining the ascendency of law and good order.

In witness whereof, I have hereto set my hand and the privy seal of the city of Albany this 7th day of Oct. A. D. 1826.
                                   DE WITT CLINTON.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                       Batavia, Friday, Oct. 20, 1826.                        Vol. 15 No. 767.



(More on Morgan)

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



Vol. XVIII.                             Geneva, N. Y., October 25, 1826.                              No. 20?



OUTRAGES  AT  BATAVIA

The following among other affidavits were read at a public meeting of the inhabitants of Genesee county, held at the court-house in Batavia, on the 25th of Sept. 1826.

Genesee County, ss.
Sept. 1826.

LUCINDA MORGAN, aged 23, the wife of William Morgan, of Batavia, in said County, being duly sworn, deposeth and saith: that on Monday last, about or a short time before sunrise, her said husband left his house, and went into the street of the village; that, finding he did not come home to breakfast as usual, she made inquiries for him, and was told that he had been forcibly taken away by six men and put in a carriage and taken to Canandaigua. That during the whole of Monday she remained in ignorance of which way he had been taken, or who had taken him, excepting by loose information that an officer from Canandaigua had taken him. -- That on Tuesday morning, soon after breakfast, she sent for William R. Thompson, the Sheriff, and requested to know of him if he knew on what pretext her husband had been taken away. Said Thompson told her he understood he had been taken under a charge of having stolen a shirt and cravat, and that he presumed it was merely a pretext to get him away, or carry him away. That thereupon this deponent asked him if he thought Mr. Morgan could be got back, or brought back, if she gave up to the Masons the papers she had in possession. Said Thompson answered that he thought it was very likely that Mr. Morgan would be brought back if she would give them up, but he would not obligate himself or undertake to say that he should be brought back. That thereupon said Thompson proposed that this deponent should go to Canandaigua, and take the papers, and give them to Mr. Morgan, or to them, or give them up; and deponent agreed to go and take the papers accordingly. Thompson then asked this deponent if there was any person or friend whom she would like to have go with her. She mentioned Mr. Gibbs, (meaning Horace Gibbs), and asked if it would do for him to go. Said Thomson said it would not do for him to go, as he was not a mason, and added, it would not do for any person to carry her there but a mason. She asked him twice if Mr. Gibbs was not a mason, and he said he was not, and then asked deponent if she was acquainted with Mr. Follett: deponent said she was not. Thompson said he was a nice man, and a gentleman with whom she could safely trust herself. Said Thompson departed and soon returned and told deponent that Mr. Follett was not willing to go, unless she would let him (Follett) and Mr. Ketchum see the papers; he did not want to go on a tom fool's errand. -- This deponent then objected to these papers being seen by them. -- Thompson then said it was useless; he should do no more, and he could not send her out there unless they could see the papers. -- Deponent then, with great reluctance, finally consented to let them see the papers, if they would take her to see her husband. -- This second visit lasted about twenty minutes, during which time Thompson urged deponent to let the papers be seen. Deponent told him she was afraid they would take the papers away from her if she let them see them. Thompson said they would not. She offered to let Mr. Thompson see the papers; he said that would not answer; they would not take his word. Thompson then told her he would go to Humphrey's and stay until she had got the papers, and she must then make a sign to him when she was ready. Accordingly, a short time afterwards, she made a sign to Mr. Thompson, then standing on Humphrey's stoop, and immediately after, he, with Mr. Follett and Mr. Ketchum, came to her apartment, when Thompson introduced Follett and Ketchum, and said they had come to see the papers, which this deponent then handed to them. They all looked at them a short time and Thompson then asked her if she was ready go, saying Mr. Follett was ready to take her. Follett then said he would go home with the papers and look them over, and told Ketchum to stop for him at his gate. A ccordingly, about four o'clock in the afternoon of Tuesday, deponent started with said Follett and Ketchum, in a small wagon, and proceeded to Stafford. where they stopped at a house, where she was conducted into a back room, into which Follett and Ketchum came and were joined by one Daniel Johns, and by James Ganson, all of whom immediately proceded to examine the papers with much earnestness, and held much low conversation with themselves in under voices. Ganson appeared to speak the most. One of them asked Johns if those were the papers that were in the office when he was there. Johns answered that there was one degree back, and then took a piece of paper, and folding it up, said the papers that were back were folded so. They then held considerable more conversation in voices too low to be heard. Follett then turned to deponent and told her he did not see that he could go with her; that Mr. Ketchum was going to Rochester, and would be willing to take her to Canandaigua to see Mr. Morgan, said he was not much acquainted with him (Ketchum) but took him to be a gentleman; and Ketchum then said he called himself a gentleman, and she need not be afraid to trust herself with him. Ketchum then took the papers and tied them up in his pocket handkerchief, and took them with him into the wagon in which they rode. Johns then got into the wagon & rode to Le Roy, where he got out and bade Ketchum good bye, saying, I hope I shall see you day after to-morrow. They then proceeded to Avon and staid all night. The next day they again started for Canandaigua, where Ketchum put the papers into this deponent's trunk. They arrived at Canandaigua about 12 at Noon, and stopped at a tavern at the corner of the main street. After being there some time, this deponent asked Ketchum if he had heard of Mr. Morgan. Ketchum said he had not; that the masons would not talk to him, he could not see them -- they seemed jealous of him -- thought him a friend of Mr. Morgan, and was afraid he had come to get him away from that place. Then he asked her where the papers were. He took them and said he would go and make further inquiries for Mr. Morgan and if he could find him, or where he was, or where they had taken him, he would let her know all he could find out. This was about dinner time. He returned again a short time before night, and told her he had heard Mr. Morgan had been there, had been tried for stealing a shirt, and cleared, had been then put in jail for a debt of two dollars -- and that Tuesday night a man had come from Pennsylvania who said he had a warrant against him for a debt he owed there, that he, the man, had paid the two dollars, and taken him away in a private carriage on Tuesday night, and that he had no doubt he was gone; and asked this deponent when she would go home again. The deponent then expressed her anxiety to return speedily, on account of having left her child of two years old, and having with her a baby of two months old. Ketchum then went out, as he said, to take a passage in the stage, and returned after candle-light. This deponent was then walking the room in great distress and in tears. She asked him if he could hear nothing of Mr. Morgan. He then seemed to pity deponent and told her not to be uneasy, and after looking at her a short time, told her to come and sit down by him, and asked her if she would feel any better if he told her what he knew. Being answered yes, he then said that Mr. Morgan would not be killed -- that he would be kept concealed until they could get the rest of the papers. She asked him what papers were back. He said there were some sheets of the Mark Master's Degree back; and they wanted also to see the printed sheets that Miller had printed on the three Degrees. He then said he wanted to take the papers he had received from this deponent to Rochester, and he thought through the means of them he could find where Mr. Morgan was: It was a secret where he was. Said he had paid her passage, and gave her two dollars to bear her expenses home. He then wrote his name with a pencil on a scrap of paper, hereto annexed, as follows, ("George Ketchum, Rochester") and promised to write to her if he could hear of Mr. Morgan. He then told her if she would by any means get hold of the papers that Miller had, or find out where they were deposited, so that he could get hold of them, he would give her twenty-five dollars out of his own pocket, and he had no doubt the lodge would give her one hundred if she could get what Miller had now. Deponent told him she would not try to get the papers that Miller had, and would take no money and would not let him have the papers she had delivered to him, but on condition he would try and find out where Mr. Morgan was, and let her see him. He then repeated his promise to try and find out, and said he would write to her as soon as he got to Rochester: and urged her to write to him immediately on her return, and let him know about the papers, and what the people was doing generally in Batavia, and whether they were making a great rumpus about Mr. Morgan. Deponent then expressed her fears that if she did give him any information about the papers, he would not keep his promise about letting her see him, but would keep him concealed until they got all the papers and finally kill him. Ketchum then said "I promise before my God that I will not deceive you, but will do all I can to find out where he is, and let you see him. I have no doubt when I get back to Rochester I can find out more, and I think I can find out where he is." He then again urged her to find out where the papers were and let him know. In the course of his conversation he said, that if Mr. Morgan had managed rightly he could have made a million of dollars, if the work had been published. Ketchum then departed for Rochester, leaving this deponent at the tavern -- she, the same day started for Batavia. The papers taken away by the said Ketchum were numerous, and formed a very large bundle; they were written in the hand writing of her husband, excepting a few which were written by a person who sometimes assisted her husband by copying or taking down as he dictated to him. The deponent further says, she has no knowledge of the place where her husband now is, or what is his situation, and feels the most anxious fears for his life; that she was born in Virginia, and is a stranger, without intimate friends or relations in this county, and is left with two infant children, without any money except what is left of that given to her by said Ketchum, and has no property nor any means of supporting herself and her children, her constitution being very feeble and her health being bad most of the time.
                               L. MORGAN.
Sworn the 22d day of September, 1826, before me, DANIEL H. CHANDLER, J. P.


Note 1: It is unfortunate that Lucinda Morgan did not provide more details in her Sept. 22, 1826 statement, in regard to the identity of the person "who sometimes assisted her husband by copying or taking down as he dictated to him." This scribe is nowhere else mentioned in the voluminous Morgan affair testimony or in later recollections of those who might have been in a position to have known that person's name and situation. In 1881 William Bryant, a former neighbor of Oliver Cowdery, told two high-ranking RLDS officials that Cowdery had once served as William Morgan's scribe -- or, that Cowdery had at least "helped to write Morgan's book."

Note 2: Support for Mr. Bryant's vague assertion -- that Cowdery worked with Morgan -- is to be had only in a few insubstantial bits and pieces of evidence. Oliver Cowdery's brother Warren had lived near Batavia during the early 1820s and Oliver himself may have frequented the Le Roy-Batavia area, c.1825-26. Lucinda Morgan later became one of Joseph Smith, Jr.'s secret concubines or "spiritual wives" and her second husband, George W. Harris, seems to have personally known Oliver Cowdery (who was a visitor in Mr. and Mrs. Harris' house at Far West in 1838). Harris was the high level Mormon official who shepherded Cowdery's Oct. 1848 application for re-admission to the LDS Church at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Louisa Beaman, the daughter of "Father Beaman," the "rodsman," reportedly was acquainted with her fellow "plural," Lucinda Morgan, well before either of the two girls was bethrothed to Joseph Smith, Jr. However, firm evidence is lacking in the documentation of how far back in time (and in western New York georgraphy) the two first became friends. Finally, Rob Morris, a Masonic historian, in 1883, quoted John Whitney, as having confessed that William Morgan "had been a half way convert of Joe Smith, the Mormon, and had learned from him to see visions and dream dreams." If William Morgan, Lucinda Morgan, or George W. Harris knew either Oliver Cowdery or Joseph Smith, Jr. during the 1820s, then they probably knew both of these future Mormon leaders at that early date.


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 30 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., October 25, 1826.                         Whole No. 1226.


 

The Freemasons. -- The Canandaigua papers contain the proceedings of a large meeting at Victor, relative to the carrying off of Capt. Morgan. The resolutions and address are of a very strong character, calculated to produce effect. This affair is becomming very serious. Those who belong to the craft, are well aware that the fundamental principles of masonry, are in strict accordance with morality and virtue; and there is no thing in masonry but what patriotism and religion sanction. It is therefore, the duty of masons to aid in discovering where Capt. Morgan has been carried, and if he is killed, (which we much doubt) to join in bringing the agents to condign punishment. A violent act of this kind in a country so free as ours, is calculated to do irreparable injury to an ancient and benevolent institution, which will be brought into disrepute from the hasty and ill-advised zeal of some of its members. --  Noah.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 33 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., November 15, 1826.                         Whole No. 1229.



"Illustrations of Masonry." -- A pamphlet of this title, containing about 90 pages, has been published at Batavia, by William Morgan, (David C. Miller, printer) and hawked about the country by pedlars at one dollar each. It is said to be only the first part of "Masonry unvailed." The second part is advertised as being in the press. and shortly to appear. -- The editor of the Rochester Telegraph, after noticing the outrage committed upon Morgan, remarks:

We must at the same time caution the public against believing any assertions that may be made by David C. Miller, which are unsupported by the most unequivocal testimony. Our reason for so doing is this -- Miller is a mason, and in the book published by him, and in which he says discloses all the secrets of masonry, we find the following Oath, which he also says must be taken by every person before they are entrusted with any of the secrets of the society:

"I A. B. of my own free will and accord, in presence of Almighty God and this worshipful lodge of free and accepted masons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order of St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear that I will always hail, ever conceal and never reveal any part or parts, art or arts, point or points of the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freemasonry which I have received, am about to receive, or may hereafter be instructed in, to any person or persons in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother Mason, or within the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of such; and not unto him, nor unto them whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and them only whom I shall find so to be after strict trial and due examination, or lawful information. Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not write, PRINT, stamp, stain, hew, cut, carve, indent, paint, or engrave it on any thing movable or immovable, under the whole canopy of Heaven, whereby or whereon the least letter, figure, character, mark, stain, shadow, or resemblance of the same may become legible or intelligible to myself or any other person in the known world, whereby the secrets of masonry may be unlawfully obtained through my unworthiness. To all of which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivocation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots, and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea at low water-mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-hours; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same."

If there be such an obligation as the above, Miller has voluntarily taken it, and comes before the public either as a perjured man or an impostor, either of which characters are sufficient to destroy his credibility.




The following remarks relative to Morgan's book, are copied from the National Observer, edited by Solomon Southwick, Esq.

We shall only add, to what is said by the editor of the Repository, that as to the book, which Morgan has written, we do not believe it is worth a cent. We think that all who purchase it, will "pay too dear for the whistle." -- Such attempts have been made before now, and have always terminated in the disgrace of their authors, without injuring the cause of masonry. But, as we have said before, and now repeat it, Morgan's folly, depravity or wickedness, form no justification for the violation of the civil law, which has taken place in his person, as well as in that of Miller, the printer. If we have a government of laws, let us adhere to it; for anarchy is the ruin of all.

We repeat it again that we do not believe Morgan's book to be worth a cent; but if there be any who wish to know something of the history of masonry that is worth knowing, let them purchase a book, which was translated from the German about a year since, and published by Messrs. Hosford, of this city. That work is worth reading; for whilst it shews what abuses masonry has been subject to in England, France, Italy, and elsewhere, it likewise discloses, as far as they can be disclosed, the good sources of the Institution, and sublime principles of virtue which have ever governed it in its pristine purity... [remainder illegible.]


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. IV No. 9.                 Palmyra, N. Y., Tuesday, November 24, 1826.                 Whole No. 165.


__________________________________

printed and published every Tuesday
AT PALMYRA, WAYNE CO., N. Y. BY
TUCKER & GILBERT.
__________________________________


Married. -- In Manchester, Mr. Wort to Miss Elizabeth Rouse; Mr. Cornelius Holoday, to Miss Charlotte Bigelow; Mr. Hiram Smith, to Miss Jerusha Barden. -- Another wedding close at hand. -- Communicated.


Note 1: Some writers have questioned the ability of editor and amateur historian, Pomeroy Tucker, to have learned much of anything about the Joseph Smith, sr. family, since they lived in Manchester township and Tucker lived a couple of miles to the north of them in Palmyra. Other writers have questioned Tucker's interest in and knowledge of local events surrounding the birth of Mormonism, since he did not publish a book on the subject until 1867. In fact, Tucker was writing about the first Mormons at least as early as 1858 and perhaps even before that time. It is more than likely that Tucker was speaking for personal observation -- and not from mere speculation of repetition of rumors -- when, in 1858, he recalled: "As early as 1820, Joe Smith, at the age of about 19 years, began to assume the gift of supernatural endowments, and became the leader of a small party of shiftless men and boys like himself who engaged in nocturnal money-digging operations upon the hills in and about Palmyra." Joseph Smith, jr. would have been younger than "19" in the year 1820, but he was of robust physical constitution and reportedly took on at least a few interesting responsibilities rather advanced for one of his tender years. Perhaps he appeared to be "about 19" when his actual age was closer to 15 or 16.

Note 2: On April 6, 1827 Pomeroy Tucker said farewell to his readers and left John H. Gilbert as the editor and publisher of the Sentinel. Gilbert returned to his work as the paper's master printer shortly thereafter, when Egbert B. Grandin took over the paper.


 


ROCHESTER  TELEGRAPH.
Vol. ?                            Rochester, N. Y., Nvember 28, 1826.                             No. ?



(article on William Morgan's disappearance --
(under construction)

 


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 35 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., November 29, 1826.                         Whole No. 1231.



Masonry. -- It is said that tin-pedlers, nutmeg-merchants, &c. have all abandoned their carts, and are now travelling the country driving a brisk trade with "Capt. William Morgan's" book. The modus operandi is this: -- Notice is given that a such a place and hour, the "Secrets of Masonry will be revealed -- Admittance one shilling." The room fills, the Book is read, and the magician proceeds onward with "money in both pockets." -- Roch. Tel.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Dec. 1, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 773.



(Illustrations of Masonry)

(under construction)




Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Dec. 15, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 775.



JUST  PUBLISHED.

And for Sale at the Advocate Office.
The First Part of Masonry Unvailed, containing a full
Exposition of the Secrets and Ceremonies of that
"ancient and honorable" Institution,

FREEMASONRY.

"God said, Let there be Light and there was Light!"


The remaining part is now in press, and will shortly be published.



Notes: (forthcoming)


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 38 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., December 20, 1826.                         Whole No. 1234.



The Morgan affair. -- At a late term of the Court of General Sessions of the Peace, for Monroe county, Judge Chapin in his charge to the Grand Jury, adverted to the case of Morgan, and charged the Jury that if they individually knew any thing of the persons concerned in the outrage, to present them to the Court to answer the violated laws of the country. In obedience to this charge, the Jury made a presentment, of which the following is an extract.

"The Grand Jury of the county of Monroe, in discharging that part of the duty imposed upon them by the court, in inquire whether William Morgan, who was unlawfully taken from the village of Batavia, had been brought within the limits of this county, have given their time and attention to a very diligent investigation of the subject; the result of which is a unanimous conviction that the said Morgan was carried through this village on the morning of the 18th of September last, before daylight, in a coach which returned to this village after going a short distance beyond Hanford's tavern, on the Ridge Road. Circumstances, unsupported however by direct testimony, authorise an opinion that Morgan was there taken into another coach, and carried beyond the limits of this county. From the great caution which seems to have been observed in keeping both Morgan and the place of his destination from the view and knowledge of all but such persons as may have been confidently entrusted with the design, and who would decline giving evidence upon the ground that it might tend to criminate themselves, the grand jury have found it impossinle to establish, by competent testimony, the unlawful agency of any citizen of this county, in that transaction."



Capt. Morgan. -- In an article, about Captain Morgan, the editor of the Boston Galaxy, says:

"At the recent session (in Sept, last,) of the U. S. General Grand Chapter, in the city of New York, a package of papers was presented for the consideration of that body, purporting to be an exposition of the mysteries of Free Masonry. A part of these papers were manuscripts, and a part printed sheets, probably the identical papers taken from Morgan's wife. They were referred to a committee, who examined them and reported their contents to the Chapter. It was considered inexpedient to take any order upon the subject and the papers were returned to the person who presented them."



At a large and respectable meeting of the citizens of the town of Bloomfield, held on the 11th say of December, 1826, at the east Church, for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of adoping measures to ascertain the fate of Capt. William Morgan; Doctor Ralph Wilcox was chosen Chairman, and Orson Benjamin, Secretary. The object of the meeting having been stated, on motion, voted, that a committee of three persons be appointed to prepare resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. -- Whereupon, Flavius J. Bronson, Jonathan Buel and Orson Benjamin, were appointed said committee. The committee having retired for a short time, reported the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, viz:

Resolved, That under any form of government an infraction of the laws ought to excite public attention; but more especially under a government like ours, in the hands of the people, where the good sense and virtue of the community are the only safeguards of the constitution, and the best supporters of the laws.

Resolved, That while we deprecate any unnecessary excitement of the public mind against individuals accused of crime, and before their country for trial; we conceive that the late unparalleled outrages upon private property and personal liberty, by an organized mob in a neighboring county, and the continuation of the same outrages by the sequestration and concealment of an individual, without authority and against the law, in our own county, and the consumation of these flagrant proceedures in another, demands public animadversion.

Resolved, That we have observed with surprise the studied silence or perverting ridicule of public journalists, in relation to these extraordinary transactions; and from these facts,, connected with others presented to this meeting, we cannot resist the conclusion that those bold violations of persons and oroperty, perpetrated in cold blood, originated in an extensive system, sanctioned and supported by a numerous body of men, actuated by an impulse incomprehensible to the community at large, and subversive of private right and constitutional liberty and law.

Resolved, That we view with distrust, as dangerous to the well being of the commonwealth, any combination of men however respectable otherwise, whose doings are secret, and who are bound together by invisible and unknown facts.

Resolved, That we respect and revere the constitution and laws of the state of New York, and particularly that part of the form which guarantees to the accused, the right of trial by jury; and that this meeting will use their exertions, together with others of their fellow-citizens, that all participators in the foregoing offences shall have full, fair and impartial trials.

Resolved, That this meeting pledge themselves, individually and collectively, to each other, and the community at large, that we will use our best endeavors to uphold the majesty of the laws, by affording our protection to private property and private right, wherever and however they may be assailed and by presenting to justice great as well as small offenders.

Resolved, That we condole with Mrs. Lucinda Morgan, in her afflictions, whose husband has been torn from his family and home for no crime known to our laws; and that we will exert ourselves to discover his fate, that if living, he may be restored to his friends, and if dead his murderers may be brought to justice; and for that purpose: --

Resolved, That a committee of vigilance and correspondence, of seven persons, be appointed, who are hereby empowered to appoint such agents to act in the premises in such manner as the said committee shall advise.

Resolved, That a subscription for the above purpose be obened by the said committee, and that the funds raised thereby, be applied as the said committee shall deem expedient.

And whereas, it appears to this meeting, that one or more subjects of the King of Great Britain were present for the very purpose of instigating, aiding and abetting our own citizens in the aforesaid infraction of the laws; Therefore,

Resolved, That it be recommended to the committee of vigilance, to open a correspondence with the executive of this state, requesting him to take such measures as may be by him deemed expedient, requiring the authorities of Canada to deliver up all aforesaid offenders, to the end that they may be brought to trial, and if found guilty, punished agreeably to our laws.

Voted, That the following persons compose the said committee of correspondence and vigilance, viz: Flavius J. Bronson, Orson Benjamin, Josiah Porter, Ba[nt] Bradley, Jonathan Buel, Ralph Wilcox and Heman Chapin.

Voted, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and published in the papers of this county.

                          RALPH WILCOX, Ch'n.
O. BENJAMIN, Sec'y.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Dec. 29, 1826.                          Vol. 15 No. 777.



(Jonathan Foster's Renunciation)

(under construction)



Notes: (forthcoming)


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 40 Vol. XXIV.                        Wed., January 3, 1827.                         Whole No. 1236.



The case of Morgan. -- The Circuit Court and Court of Oyer and Terminer, for Ontario county, is now holding here, Judge Throop presiding: (We were mistaken last week in naming Judge Walworth.) -- It is expected that the trials will commence this morning, of such of the persons as have been apprehended, who were indicted for the outrages commited against William Morgan. This affair, which has excited such lively sensibility throughout this and other counties, is now to have a judicial investigation. and we hope it will result in a manner to show the efficiency of law in all purposes of justice. We would not condemn all popular proceedings, relative to the violated rights of a citizen, but we restrain them so far as not to violate the rights of the accused, viz: the right to an impartial trial by jury. The ex parte evidence which has placed them on a jury of their country for trial, has to undergo an ordeal which will test its correctness; and we may hope that transactions so much enveloped in mystery, will be brought to light. -- To gratify the interest felt on this subject, we shall give in the next Repository a report of these trials, with as much particularity as practicable.



Monroe Meeting. -- A large and respectable meeting of the citizens of Monrie county, was held at Christopher's Hotel i Rochester, Dec. 14, to take into consideration the late outrage committed upon Capt. Morgan. The meeting was attended by free masons as well as others, and resolutions were passed, condemning in strong terms the outrage, as an open and flagrant violation of the laws; and pledging each his individual co-operation, in suitable measures to discover the fate of Morgan, and in ferreting out the prepetrators of the act, that they may be brought to punishment. A resolution was also passed, "disclaiming any sentiments of hostility to the fraternity of Masons as a body, and that we regard any insinuations that we are actuated by hostility to this institution, as orginating either in ignorance or malevolence." A numerous and respectable committee was appointed, to solicit subscriptions, and to take such measures for the discovery of Morgan, as shall be deemed necessary,

The Rochester Telegraph, of Dec. 18, says -- "Several persons have been for some days engaged with spears and rakes, in fishing for the body of Morgan, along the Genesee River, below Hanford's landing! We have this from unquestionable authority. We are told also that a large proportion of our citizens firmly believe that Morgan was murdered within two miles of this village. Now we can assure the public that this opinion is entirely erroneous. Morgan has been distinctly traced west beyond the limits of this county."

The Rochester Daily Advertiser states, on the authority of a letter from Lewiston, that Morgan has been traced as far as Fort Niagara, where he was confined one night.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Jan. 5, 1827.                          Vol. 15, No. 778.



From Southwick's Albany Observer.

THE  MORGAN  AFFAIR.

As this affair is assuming a very serious aspect in our Western Counties -- as it is, in itself, an important and interesting subject, in the eyes of all who wish to preserve "life, liberty, and property" -- and as we profess to be the publishers of a journal which stands, & shall stand, on the sacred grounds of Truth & Liberty Alone, so long as we have any thing to do with it -- we have heretofore noticed this dark and mysterious transaction, in a manner which we thought due to the violation of that fundamental law, which constitutes the house of every citizen, his castle of defence and protection against all illegal force, and all outrage and oppression; and which guarantees to him the undisturbed possession of life, liberty and property.

In making remarks, as well as in those which we have hithertofore made upon this subject, we utterly disclaim any hostility to the masonic fraternity. We have declared before, and now repeat it, that the general principles of masonry ever have had, and ever will have, our unqualified respect and admiration,

But we have likewise declared before, and now repeat it, that no local or purtial attachments shall ever induce us to connive at, by our silence, much less to approve by our exertions, of any violation of any of those fundamental laws of society, without which society itself cannot exist. Sometimes our legislature[s] pass frivolous laws; sometimes they pass bad laws; and these, all will agree, are "more honored in the breach than the observance." But the laws, which protect life, liberty and property, are essential to social and civilized existence, and must not be violated with impunity under any pretext whatever.

But in the case before us, there has been a wanton, gross and direct violation of personal liberty, if not of life; and strange as it may seem, until THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES took up the matter seriously, most of our editorial corps remained either silent on the subject, or treated it as a light and frivolous matter. They not only saw a free citizen deprived of his liberty unlawfully, without a comment upon it; but they saw the wife of that citizen, of whom we have it now in our power to speak in terms of commendation for the excellence of her character, abused by ungentlemantly ruffian treatment, dragged from one place to another in a savage and relentless manner by wretches in the shape of men... Even the geese of the Roman capitol might cry shame upon them! ... But amidst all this mysterious silence; this worse than mysterious servility of the press; we rejoice to find that the PEOPLE OF THE WEST have not lost sight of their dear-bought liberties; and we rejoice to find, too that the Masonic Fraternity are beginning to act as becomes the purity and dignity of their character, and the character of the Institution, which has so long engaged the respect and admiration of mankind.



List of Letters
Remaining in the Post-office at Batavia, Jan. 1, 1827.

Ebenezer ARMSTRONG
John or Ebenezer ARMSTRONG
Andrew ARMSTRONG
William ARMSTRONG
Samuel D. ANTHONY
William H. ABEL
David ANDERSON
Rev. John ADAMS
Charles BESWICK
Isaac L. BOOTHE
John BARNARD
Lorenzo BROWN
James BROWN
Frederick BALCH
James B. BARBEE
John BRUMLEY Jr.
John BROWN ALEXANDER
Joseph BRADLEY
Levi BRISTOL
Nancy BINGHAM
Sarah BARKER
Joseph BAKER
Timothy BACKUS
Nathaniel BAYN
Daniel CARLISLE
Nathan COBB
James COCHRAN
Gordon CASWELL
John CARPENTER
Philander COSSET
Samuel CHURCH
Jonathan CHAMBERLAIN
Electa COTTAR
Saphronia CHADWICK
Sydney CRANDAL
Mary Ann COWLES
Mr. MARTIN
Darius CONE
Beach DeFOREST
Griswold DRIGGS
John DELAND
John G. DORMAN
Leander DAVIS
Luther DARROW
William T. DAVENPORT
Ephraim and Samuel ELDRIGE
Amanda EWINS
E. EGGLESTON
Seymour ENSIGN
William FULLER
Calvin FINNEL
Joseph FURSMAN
Josephn FO_SHA
Charles GILKEY
John GOSS - 2
Stephen GORHAM
Stephen GIBSON Jr.
Minrad GRINER
Marietta GARDNER
David GARTER
Hiram GODFREY
Ruth HAYSE
James HERRINGTON
Fanny HURLBURT
Robert HUGGINS
Sam'l. HARRIS
Simeon HOSMER
R.A. HICKOX
William HOLMES
Rev. Jonathan H_STIS
James HAMIILTON
Olive HARPER
Sally HARPER
David HYDE (Bethany)
Simon HYDE
Ezekiel HACKLEY - 2
I.B. JONES
Sally JEWEL
Samuel R. KENNEDY -2
Luke B. KEITH
Isaac B. KIMBALL
R.&S. KEELER
Timothy KNAPP
Mr. Luke _
James LAWRENCE
Mrs. Richard LARD
Samuel LAKE
Henry LATHROP
Reuben LORD
Orra MENTAGUE
James Mc.DAVIDS
Wheeler MILLER
Selah MILLS
Urania MILLS
Peter MAINS
James C. MAINS
Wesley MA_STON
Giles MAUDLERVILLE
Ichabod MANCHESTER
Samuel MOFFATT
Ira NEEDHAM
Mary OSBORN
Joseph OLDS
Eliphalet PECK (Alexander)
John B. PIKE
Samuel PUTMAN
John POST Jr.
Joshua PARISH
Josiah PATTERSON
Elias PRATT
Miss Margaret F. PALMER
Malina PARDEE - 2
Enoch RITTER
Calvin RICH
Roderick RANNY - 3
Peter ROBINSON
David RILEY
Daniel M. REPSHIRE
Charles RUSSELL
Peter SPRINGER
Alfred F. STREETER
J.B. SKINNER
Gideon SMITH
Israel SMITH
Polly SHOWERMAN
Sally SIKES
Sylvanus SILSBURY
Elisha SATTERLEE
Philo STOCKINGS
Mary SILL
Hiram SICKLES - 2
Joseph TOWRUS
Lucina TRUMBULL
Ann THOMAS
Hiram TINNEY
John UNDERHILL
Peter Van ALSTINE
William Van TANSSEL
Gerret Van SICKLE
David C. VAUGHAN
Oswell WILLIAMS
Samuel WILLETT
Jacob WILLIAMS
Mary WILLIAMS
Samuel WHITE
Josiah W. WILLIS
Clement W__
Nathan WALDO
Oliver WAKEMAN
Harriet E. WIGHTMAN
Robert WATSON

Trumball CARY, P.M.


Note: Presumably, the above listed "James Cochran" was a local resident and not the "James Cochran" spoken of fifty years later by Batavia inn-keeper Samuel D. Greene. Mr. Greene, in his "Joseph Smith, the Mormon," identifies a young Joseph Smith, Jr. as the companion of the Prophet Jacob Cochran of Maine. Greene however substitutes the name "James" for "Jacob" in his recollections.


 


THE  ORLEANS  ADVOCATE.
Vol. II. - No. 16.                          BY T. C. STRONG                           January 10, 1827.


 

Morgan's case. At the Circuit Court held in Canandaigua last week, came on the trial of five of the nine individuals indicted for kidnapping and maltreating Wm. Morgan. Three of them plead guilty to the indictment and the other was put upon his trial and convicted of misdemeanor.

Lawson was sentenced to two years imprisobment, Cheesbro to one year, Sawyer to three months, and Sheldon to one month in the County Gaol. David C. Miller, who was subpoened as a witness in this case, was fined by the Court $150 for non-attendance.

We shall be able to give some further particulars on this subject, when we receive the Canandaigua papers. We did hope that this trail would have thrown some faint rays of light upon the dark mysteries in which the fate of Morgan has been so long and so impenetrably involved. But we are disappointed.


Note: According to B. Franklin Cowdery, "In the autumn of '25" he sold the Newport Patriot to Timothy C. Strong, who carried on the publication "for a month or two, and then changed the title to 'Orleans Advocate.'" Evidently the first number of the Patriot issued by Strong was the one for Sept. 29, 1825 and in November of that year he changed its name to The Orleans Advocate. Unfortunately one issue of the paper with a very interesting local news story has not survived -- see the Dec. 27, 1825 issue of the Wayne Sentinel for this item regarding a money-digging scheme in Newport.


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, Jan. 12, 1827.                          Vol. 15, No. 779.


 

We are compelled to select from the columns of the Ontario Respository the following account of the proceedings at the late Circuit Court held at Canandaigua: --

In order to [get] a clear understanding of what follows, it is proper to state, that at the Court of Sessions held in this county in November last, a bill of indictment was returned against Nicholas G. Chesebro, Loton Lawson, Edward Sawyer, and John Sheldon, for a conspiracy to seize and carry away William Morgan from the jail in this town, to foreign parts, and there continually to secrete and imprison him. Another Bill was returned against the same persons, charging that on the evening of the 12th September last, they forcibly seized and carried off said Morgan to foreign parts, and have hitherto secreted and imprisoned him, in pursuance of their said conspiracy. These indictments, by consent of parties, were sent by the Sessions to the Court of Oyer and Terminer....

The District Attorney, after opening the case on the part of the prosecution, by a lucid and methodical statement of the facts, and commenting with great justness and feeling upon the character of the transaction, proceeded to introduce his proof. It will be perceived, that the admissions of the defendants, as before stated, only made it necessary for the prosecution to identify Sheldon with the conspiracy and greatly narrowed the scope and interest of the inquiry. We shall therefore be able to give all the testimony relating to the case, in a small compass....

Samuel D. Green -- Resides in Batavia, keeps the Park tavern in that village -- defendant came to his house late in the evening on the 10th Sept. -- got him some victuals and he went to bed -- took breakfast at witness' table next morning; after breakfast told witnesses he had understood that an attempt had been made during the night to set Miller's office on fire, that he (the defendant) was suspected of doing it; called on witness to remember that he had slept in his house; defendant gave witness to understand he was a royal arch mason; said the understanding that Miller was about publishing a book; and if he succeeded Masonry would not be wanted in this country. -- The defendant wrote a letter in hieroglyphical (which witness did not understand) to Stephen Van Rensselaer, signed the name of John Sheldon to it, & went to the post office with the avowed purpose of putting it in. Speaking of getting the papers from Miller, defendant said he had been about Batavia engaged in that business ever since the Friday before, and that if something was not done then he should give it up; defendant by inuendo gave witness to understand that perhaps Morgan and Miller would not be at Batavia to carry on the publication of the book...

Chesebro, Sawyer, Lawson and Sheldon appeared in court to hear judgment. The public prosecutor proceede to call witnesses in aggravation of the punishment: --

Mrs. Lucinda Morgan, (a lady of prepossessing appearance, about 25 years of age;) being sworn, says that she is the wife of Wm. Morgan, whom she married about 7 years since, near Richmond, in Virginia, where her mother now lives, that she resided with her husband about a year in Canada, then in Rochester, and since in Batavia -- that her husband left home on the 11th Sept. before breakfast, and she has not seen him since, or heard from him since he was taken from the jail in this place -- that she has two children, and no other relatives in this part of the country -- Morgan was about 52 years old, a mason by trade, and in indigent circumstances...

James D. Bemis -- is a neighbor to Chesebro and Sawyer -- they are respectable citizens, industrious mechanics, have large and worthy families, and are in moderate circumstances -- witness saw Sawyer at Blossom's hotel, in this village, about 10 o'clock on the evening of the 12th September, and left him there about half past 10 o'clock...
[remainder of article missing]


Note 1: See Samuel D. Greene's 1880 book, The Broken Seal.


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, April 20, 1827.                          Vol. 16, No. 793.



GENESEE   OYER  AND  TERMINER.

The People vs. Jesse French, Roswell Wilcox, James Hurlburt & James Ganson...

David C Miller, sworn -- Between the hours of twelve and one o'clock of the 12th of September last witness heard a voice at his door demanding admittance; the door was opened, when Jesse French seized him... was taken into a back room of Danold's, put under a guard...

Mrs. Lucinda Morgan said that she got into the stage at LeRoy with Ganson, on her return from Canandaigua; Ganson said Morgan would be kept away awhile. If she did not see him for a year she need not be surprised -- if she never saw him again she should be surprised. He was very much obliged to her for giving up the papers. If they had not been given up, Miller's office would have been torn down; it had saved him a great deal of trouble and expense; that Miller deserved worse than Morgan; that he would be punished worse; that he had about 280 men at command, and ready to have torn down the office. The way the subject came up, was that she asked Gaston if he knew that the mob was coming in. He said that he did. She delivered the papers to Sheriff Thompson. She sent for Thompson; asked him if he knew what Morgan was carried away for; he said on a warrant for stealing; but he presumed it was a mere pretence for getting him away; asked Thompson if she should give up the papers to the Masons, he thought Morgan would be brought back; he thought he would, but he could not say. Mr. Gibbs brought the papers to her to keep, on the day Morgan was carried away...


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, May 25, 1827.                          Vol. 16, No. 798.



(From Southwick's National Observer.)

A Humbug. -- Mr. Noah styles the Morgan affair "a humbug." It was indeed a humbug -- for poor Morgan was humbugged into jail, and then humbugged out again -- and finally humbugged into the other world, by as wicked a banditti of fools and fanatics as ever disgraces the human character. But if the ingenious Mr. Noah can humbug his readers in the belief that Morgan has "absconded," their weakness & credulity are at least equal to his brass and hardihood.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. IV.                       Palmyra, N. Y., Friday, June 1, 1827.                       No. 36.


 

Decyphering of Hieroglyphics. -- Professor Seyffarth of Leipzig, who has been employed in decyphering the Egyptian Antiquities at Rome, states that he has discovered all the dynasties of Egypt, from Menos to the time of the Romans; that he can show Osiris was a real person; that he has found the picture of a Jew in bonds, and other allusions to the state of slavery to which the Jews were reduced. He adds, that he has found the new and old testaments in the Sefitic, and the Penteteuch in the Memphitic dialect; the acts of the councils of [Nicocea] in the Coptic language; Coptic glossaries in the Arabic language and a Mexican manuscript in hieroglyphics, from which he infers the Mexicans and the Egyptians had intercourse with each other from the remotest antiquity and that they had the same system of mythology. -- Christian Observer.


Note 1: See also Prof. C. S. Rafinesque's letter of Jan. 1, 1827, in which the writer favorably compares "Mexican" (or Mayan) "glyphs" with the ancient writing system of Egypt's semi-barbaric neighbor, Lybia. Rafinesque later addressed a series of open letters to Champollion, the father of ancient Egyptian decipherment.

Note 2: The positive comparison of ancient Egyptian and Meso-American civilizations was nothing new in the popular press. See, for example, the article "Analogies of Mexican and Egyptian Antiquities," in the Aug. 1825 issue of The Museum of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art.


 


The  Geneva  Palladium.
Vol. XII.                              Geneva, N. Y.,  June 27, 1827.                               No. 596.



From the Boston Patriot.

Mrs. Morgan. -- As stories have been put in circulation prejudicial to the character of this woman, we deem it but an act of justice to insert the following extract from an address to the public, and the accompanying documents:

"They represented that she had lived with Morgan in the most disgraceful intimacy, without ever having been regularly married to him. They never dared to whisper so infamous a falsehood in this place or any other where she was known. But men residing in this village who make some pretensions to the character of gentlemen, and among strangers, have repeated this story, and added the sanction of their word for its truth. The obvious tendency of this was to suspend all charitable donations, upon which alone, Mrs. Morgan, however repugnant her feelings, is at present compelled to subsist.

Mrs. Morgan informed me that she was regularly married by the Rev.-Thomas Colley, of Virginia, and requested me to write to him, and procure from him if possible his affidavit of the fact. I accordingly wrote him and have just received an answer which must be satisfactory to all except the cold blooded assassins of her unsullied character. Below is an affidavit of Mr. Colley, duly taken and attested, with a copy of the license to perform the marriage ceremony, &c. together with his letter addressed to me.  T. FITCH.
    Batavia, May 30, 1327."

STATE  OF  VIRGINIA,
Washington county, to wit:

This day personally appeared Thomas Colly, before us, Joseph C. Trigg and Peter J. Branch, two of the Commonwealth's Justices of the Peace for said county, Thomas Colly, who is a Minister of the Gospel of the Baptist denomination, and legally authorised to celebrate the rites of matrimony, and upon his oath deposeth and saith -- That on the 7th day of October, 1819, he solemnised the rites of matrimony between William Morgan and Lucinda Pendleton, in pursuance of a license granted by the Clerk of the county court of said county, which license is in the words following:

                        Washington county, to wit:

These are to license and permit you to join together in the holy state of matrimony, Wm. Morgan and Lucinda Pendleton, according to the form and customs of your church. And for so doing this shall be your sufficient warrant.

Given under my band this 7th day of October, 1819.     JACOB LYNCH, D. C.

Sworn before us this 15th day of April, 1827. Given under our hands and seals this day and date above written.

      JOS. C. TRIGG, (l. s.)
      PETER J. BRANCH, (l. s.)

Mr. Timothy Fitch:

Yours of the 14th of March is now before me -- and in obedience thereunto I forward you the subjoined affidavit. I have been acquainted with Lucinda Morgan, the subject of this correspondence, from her birth to her marriage. And as far as I have known or heard, her character has been unexceptionable. Her father is now living in the county of Russel in this state, who will be glad to hear from her.
                  THOMAS COLLY.
April 14, 1827.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


CANANDAIGUA,  PUBLISHED  BY  BEMIS,  MORSE  & WARD.

No. 15 Vol. XXV.                        Wed., July 11, 1827.                         Whole No. 1263.



Indian Literature. -- We have perused a pamphlet, recently published at Lewiston, in this county, entitled "David Cusick's Sketches of the Ancient History of the Six Nations: comprising, first, a tale of the foundations of the Great Island, now North-America. The Two Infants born, and the Creation of the Universe. 2d -- A real account of the settlement of North America, and their dissentions. -- 3d. Origin of the Kingdom of the Five Nations, which was called a Long House; the Wars, Fierce Animals, &c." This pamphlet is written by David Cusick, an Indian of the [T]uscaroa tribe. Our readers will be enabled to gather from the title page, a tolerable idea of the character of the work. It is composed almost wholly, of the traditions of the Indians -- their origin, progress, divisions, dissentions &c., and considering it the production of one placed beyond the walks of savage life only by a limited education, it is meritorious. An amazing phraseology peculiar to the Indian, which those acquainted with them have observed, displays itself throughout the pamphlet. In the preface, the author, in giving the motives that have led him to the undertaking, says: "after some hesitation I determined to commence the work; but found the history mixed with fables; and besides, examining myself, finding so small educated, that it was impossible to compose the work without much difficulty." -- Lockport Observatory.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



Vol. VII.                            Fredonia, N. Y., July 25, 1827.                           No. 17.


 

Mysterious Curiosity. -- We have seen a stone found on the shore of lake Erie, near this place, on which are clearly to be distinguished a number of masonick emblems: The beehive, pot of incense, hour glass, ladder, candlestick, book, sun and moon, sword, plumb, twenty-four inch guage, and many other characters, which have appearance of regularity, but which we have not yet heard explained. Some persons have thought they discovered a very near resemblance of several Hebrew or Greek characters -- as to that, we cannot judge. The stone has some resemblance of a petrefaction -- but what is most mysterious, the face is perfectly smooth, the characters of a different colour and consistence from the rest of the stone, and apparently extended to some death. On a white plot in the centre is the appearance of an inscription. We pretend not to conjecture the origin of such a singular production; but the above description is correct as far as it goes, as we have not mentioned one tenth part of the characters it contains. It is about the size of a two ounce weight, something after the form of a key stone. It would be difficult, however, to suppose this to be a work of nature, where there is so much appearance of design; and yet, we know of no art which could produce it. -- Western Star.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


The  [     ]  Album.

Vol. II.                     Rochester, N. Y., Tuesday, August 14, 1827.                     No. 45.



From the Montpelier, (Vt.) Watchman.

MONEY DIGGERS.  Digging for money hid in the earth is a very common thing, and in this state it is even considered an honourable and profitable employment. -- We could name, if we pleased, at least five hundred respectable men, who do, in the simplicity and sincerity of their hearts, verily believe that immense treasures lie concealed upon our Green Mountains; many of whom have been industriously and perserveringly engaged in digging it up. Some of them have succeeded even beyond their most sanguine expectations. One gentleman in Parkerstown, on the summit of the mountain, after digging with unyielding confidence and unabated diligence, for ten or twelve years, found a sufficient quantity of money to build him a comodious house for his own convenience, and to fill it with comforts for weary the traveller. On stopping lately to refresh, we were delighted with the view of an anchor on the sign, emblematical of his hope of success, while we left him industriously digging for more. Another gentleman on Lake Champlain, we are credibly informed, has actually dug up the enormous sum of $50,000! The incredulous and unbelieving may stare at this assertion, but it is nevertheless true; and we do not hesitate to declare that digging for money is a most certain way of obtaining it. Much, however, depends on the skillful use of the genuine mineral rod. Don't dig too deep, is an appropriate maxim with all who are versed in the art. Wood's Iron Plough, skillfully guided, is sure to break the enchantment, and turn up the glittering dust in every furrow. Countless treasures yet remain hid in the earth. Speed the plough -- ply the hoe -- 'twill all come to light.



MASONRY.

JUST PUBLISHED, 3000 copies of Illustrations of Masonry -- and for sale by the hundred or single, at

E. F. MARSHALL'S Bookstore.



Note: See also the Palmyra Herald of July 24, 1822.


 



No. 15 - Vol. VI.                     Lyons, N. Y., Wed., August 29, 1827.                     Whole No. 275.



MONEY  DIGGING

"I call spirits from the vasty deep.
But will they come, when you call them?"

Many of the idle, the curious, the inquisitive, and quizzical of our town have, says the New London Gazette, recently had their attention excited by the strange circumstances of two Vermonters arriving here, with the view of digging for a box of dollars, which they say lies buried in mud in six feet of water, near a wharf in this city, supposed to have been stolen from a Spanish galleon, which arrived here in distress about sixty years since. It appears they are the dupes of a woman, (a singular fact!) who governs them by a talisman in the shape of a diaphanous pebble, to which she attributes the power of opening to her view the recess of the earth and the ocean. -- Under this apparently silly delusion, these men have actually been several days employed in sinking a water curb over the spot to which the sorceress directed them -- having obtained some local knowledge, when on a short visit here some time since.

Although they have now been digging several days we have not heard that the money is yet found. As these men show no want of intelligence, and exhibit nothing peculiar in their appearance, save a fixed solemnity of countenance and deportment, some think they have some thing in view very likely to prove more productive than exploring the deep under the auspices of a cunning old woman. We hear that there is a small vessel under their command, at the wharf, where they are at work.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


ROCHESTER  TELEGRAPH.
Vol. ?                            Rochester, N. Y., Tuesday, September 4, 1827.                             No. ?


 

Capt. Morgan. -- We have for some months abstained from remarking upon this painful subject, waiting the issue of the trials that we were well assured must vindicate the material fact which we asserted last January, that WILLIAM MORGAN WAS TAKEN TO FORT NIAGARA, MURDERED AND THROWN INTO THE RIVER! The evidence of this appalling catastrophe are full, convincing and undeniable. We speak advisedly. The trials which were pending at Canandaigua have prevented the disclosures of facts which have been known some time to those who are concerned in the investigation of this most unhappy transaction. So much, however, calculated to increase the impatience of the publick, has developed, and so much anxiety is manifested to learn the fate of Morgan, that we are induced to give a brief [recitation] of what passed, from the time of his departure from Canandaigua, until the termination of his life, at Fort Niagara.

Morgan was decoyed, in the manner already related, from the Jail and forcibly put into a carriage which was driven with all expedition to Hanford's tavern, where a relay of horses was in readiness to receive him. A person went ahead of the carriage furnishing facilities for passing the captive along to his immediate destination, Fort Niagara. Fresh horses, owned and driven by men who could not have been ignorant of the enterprise, were in readiness at reasonable stages upon the Ridge Road. From Lewiston, he was conveyed to the Fort in the manner related by Corydon Fox, the young man who srove, and upon whose testimony every reliance may be placed. To render Morgan quiet and passive during this jaunt, he was plied with liquor and laudanum. He was taken to the Fort and lodged in the Magazine, which had been prepared for his reception. In the course of that night he was taken across the river, and remained in charge, by the shore, for an hour and a half or two hours until some gentlemen in Canada were consulted, and then was remanded to Fort Niagara. On the night of the 14th, a number of gentlemen assembled at the tavern near the Fort to concert some measures for his safe keeping or disposal. One of this number proposed to put him to death, and one or two others concurred, but after a [consultation, several plans were considered and] rejected; on of which was that he should be taken over to Canada and set at liberty. The ultimate decision of the council was, that a message should be despatched to Rochester informing the persons who sent him to Niagara that they must take the responsibility of disposing of him. and advising that he should be set at liberty. Upon the receipt of this message, a person was despatched to Niagara, but we are ignorant of that person's intention or instructions. If pacific, they were overruled by an individual who seems, from the beginning, to have resolved to imbrue his hands in Morgan's blood. At any rate, on the 17th September, the miserable man was murdered and thrown into the river.

Facts and circumstances have been combined, which indicate, unerringly, the number and names of those who assisted in perpetuating this deed of darkness. We are not now, however, called upon to disclose either. Time will son develope all.

Morgan's murder, as we have always believed, was the result of accident rather than design -- or rather, we mean to say that those who took him from Canandaigua and carried him to the Fort, contemplated nothing beyond his confinement, or perhaps, transportation. The arrangements for hurrying tho' the country, were briefly made, and few, if any, concerned as agents, knew what was intended. When the Canadians refused to receive him, those who found him thrown back upon their hands were seriously embarrassed. They could not advance and dare not recede; and at an evil hour, under the influence of a strong delusion, that they were left to shed the blood of a brother. It is some consolation, to know that this foul deed was not authorized, deliberately, as was at first represented, by eight or nine respectable men. -- The Macbeth of this tragedy, had his two assistants only, and they were weak, deluded men. But for the folly and madness of one individual, not a hair of Morgan's head would have been injured.

The first conspiracy to remove Morgan from Batavia, only had, for its object, the disgrace which attaches to a conviction for larceny. When acquitted on that charge, knowing that it would not do to let the man return to his purpose, with the ability to excite sympathy, by a tale of wrongs and oppressions, Chesebro got him imprisoned on the civil process, merely to give time for them to mature the conspiracy which progressed and concluded in the manner we have related.


Note 1: The outcome of Thurlow Weed's publication of the above article (along with an accompanying account of the "Morgan Conspiracy Trials" then being conducted in Ontario Co.), helped convince Weed's partner in the Telegraph, Robert Martin, that the time had come for the two men to end their business association. Martin was a Freemason himself. Although he probably reluctantly agreed to the Telegraph's initial coverage of the William Morgan story, he grew increasingly uneasy with Weed's preoccupation with the case, and he was upset by the subsequent boycott of the paper urged by its masonic subscribers. Martin and Weed dissolved their business relationship in the fall of 1827. The Telegraph then minimized its coverage of the William Morgan affair and avoided publicizing the growing anti-masonic sentiment in western New York. Weed, after breaking with Martin, almost immediately secured anti-masonic assistance and went to work to establish a new paper in Rochester, the Anti-Masonic Enquirer, the first issue of which went on sale in February of 1828.

Note 2: Some less than thoroughly reliable histories of early Mormonism state that Joseph Smith approached the editor of the Rochester Telegraph with the project of publishing the Book of Mormon. However, by the time Smith actually did present his plan to Thurlow Weed in Rochester, he was the editor of the Anti-Masonic Enquirer.


 


The  Geneva  Palladium.
Vol. XII.                       Geneva, N. Y.,   Wednesday, September 12, 1827.                       No. 609.



MORGAN TRIALS. -- (Concluded.)

(under construction)

Nicholas G. Chesbebro, sworn. Says that he received of Esq. Chipman a warrant in Sept. last, (the one produced in court.) There had been no conversation with any of the defendants on trial, relative to the taking out of the warrant, before it was taken out. Witness went with the officer to Batavia, and all the defendants but Ganson. Witness spoke to Henry Howard, and asked him to take a ride. -- Howard objected, on account of his business -- said if he could get home that night, or in the morning, he might go. Don't know as he said any thing about Morgan. Thinks he got a warrant before he spoke to any one. Saw Seymour on the side-walk, and asked him to go to Batavia. Seymour hesitated, but said he had some business at the bank in Rochester, for the next day, and if he could return that way he would go. Witness did not mention to Seymour at that time, any thing about the warrant. Witness asked Roberts to go, and he asked them all to go, for the ride only. On the way to Batavia, no conversation was had of any thing to be done with Morgan, other than the bringing him to Canandaigua and trying him; had no thought of any thing further himself. At Batavia, witness and Hayward walked out in the morning, and the others were left in the house; Morgan was arrested and taken to Danold's. Witness took breakfast at the other house; was not at Morgan's examination before Chipman; but came after it was over, and learning that he was discharged, he presented an account of $2.00. This charge witness put on the list of accounts, because Ingraham told him there was such an account at the bar. After Morgan was committed, should think he had no conversation with either of the defendants, relative to the removal of Morgan; neither of the defendants had, to the knowledge of witness, any part in taking away Morgan. Witness had no intention of it himself. The idea of Morgan's going west originated here after the discharge from the warrant. Did not anticipate any force bring used to take away Morgan. Witness did not understand that Morgan was to leave the jail until near night on the 12th. At Batavia, Miller was at the carriage, and threatened to pursue, and witness supposed he would, which was the cause of his directing the driver to drive fast. In September last, Mr. James Sibley called on witness and introduced to him a man by the name of Church, and one or the other of informed him of Morgan's intended publication of the book. -- Witness said but little; probably expressed his wish to have the publication suppressed. But nothing was agreed upon, and nothing was said of disposing of Morgan's person.

Cross-examined. Thinks there was conversation at Chipman's, that Morgan was or had been at Lima. Never had any conversation with Kingsley on the subject of Morgan, before he took out the warrant. Witness' motive for prosecuting the theft was principally to suppress the publication. Thinks he might have told Henry Howard before they started, what passed at Chipman's office. Witness took the carriage himself, and paid for it $10. The leading subject of conversation on the way was that they were going to take Morgan, and that he would be convicted; and witness supposed this would derange the publication of the Book. They had no further object. They stopped at Maj. Ganson's, where he joined them. Witness had no conversation with Ganson on the subject of their business. When the stage stopped, witness got out immediately, and went in, and did not know the reason of its stopping. The party followed on foot and got to Danold's about half an hour after dark. When the carriage stopped, witness heard no one say they had not better go on, or that they had started and would go on. One object he had in getting a Judgment against Morgan was to punish him for publishing the book, and to secure the debt. The evening of the 12th of September was the first witness heard of the plan of taking Morgan from jail. Several persons then communicated to him the purpose of removing Morgan. Those persons had been informed by communications from Canandaigua, sent to Rochester, that Morgan was in jail for debt. Witness supposed that Miller would come and pay the debt and take Morgan away, and to prevent this he sent the information to Rochester. Understood that Lawson paid the debt; don't know who; at the time Morgan was taken from the jail witness saw no other persons there that he knew, except Sawyer and Lawson. Witness hired the carriage and paid for it, to carray Morgan away. Witness has not seen Morgan since he saw him in Chipman's office, nor heard from him in any way that he can rely on. Did not think that in any event that they would return by Rochester from Batavia, nor did they calculate to have Morgan go there. Neither of the defendants on trial was to the knowledge of witness, informed or given to understand by significant words, by writing, by hints or by signs, that Morgan was to be taken from jail at Canandaigua.

Charles C. Church, sworn. Lives in Batavia, and is a silversmith. Knew Wm. Morgan in Batavia, about a year and a half; about July or August the publication of Morgan's book and the connection between him and Miller were frequent subjects of conversation. Was in Canandaigua in August or September; Mr. Sibley asked witness about the book, and he told him it was going on. Sibley asked him to go and see a place he had bought of Mr. Chapin. On the way Sibley took him into Chesebro's shop and introduced him to Chesebro. -- Morgan's Book was mentioned and Chesebro expressed his regret that the book was coming out. Witness does not recollect that one word was said about suppressing the book. Did not ask Sibley to introduce him to Chesebro. Knew nothing of Chesebro more than any other person. Witness rarae out on business at the Ontario Bank; came to take up a note, and not on the subject of the book. -- Cross-examined. Sibley began the conversation about the book. Witness' business at the Bank was to take up his own note of $300.

Here the testimony closed... The jury then retired, and after an absence of about half an hour returned a verdict of "NOT GUILTY."



From the National Observer of August 17.

Mr. Bissell's Letter. -- We are much obliged to the author of the following communication; and respectfully invite similar communications from all quarters. It is the sacred duty of [an] honest man to come forward with all he knows upon the subject of Morgan's mysterious fate. Mr. Bissell deserves well of his country for this communication.
Rochester, Monroe Co. July 14, 1827.        
To Solomon Southwick, Esq.
        Dear Sir -- I have perused with much satisfaction the pledge you gave your country, that you will pursue the murderers of Morgan to the last.

I notice you ask particularly for information as to the declarations of members of the order of Freemasons, respecting the Batavia outrage. I then declare to you that from a Royal Arch Mason of unimpeachable veracity, I have the following facts: That in the month of August last, and one month previous to the abduction of Morgan, the secret purposes of the fraternity were communicated to him under the usual injunctions of secrecy "until the thing should be accomplished;" which purposes were, To be rid of Morgan at all events. This Royal Arch Mason has communicated to me the further fact, that he was in a lodge a little before the Morgan affair came up -- which lodge is more than one hundred miles east of the theatre of action; and the subject was there agitated, and there was apparent a great degree of frenzy and indignation against Morgan, and that the majority of lodges which he attended were determined on Morgan's destruction. And so strong did they insist on it, that the better part of the members stood still and held no part in the decision. -- I asked my informant why he did not advise Morgan of his danger -- his answer was, he was "labored with" -- he knew he was in danger, and he did sleep under guard of arms for a long time before hand. -- I have no doubt, says he, most or all of the Royal Arch chapters in the state at least, knew all about the affair, and acted and believed respecting it, not exactly in form, but as a kind of interlocutory business. I could give you much more, and will, by and bye, Mr. Editor; but for the present, I have given the fraternity as much as they can bare at one dose.

I am not betraying confidential communication, nor will I do it. But have read this over to my informant, and he says it is right. And I challenge the fraternity to deny that the members, some or all of every Royal Arch Chapter of this part of the state, knew of the affair fully, and concerted about it, and many of them in their meetings, long before Morgan was murdered; and that they all are, virtually, as a body -- yes, as a most Ancient, and most Honorable and most Holy Order, guilty of the fate of Wm. Morgan. Many of my friends are freemasons, and I know that they detest the order; and wish it to come to a perpetual end. To such I give no offence; and to such as wish to cover this horrid deed of darkness, I make no apology, save this only, that my life is devoted to what I conceive to be the good of my fellow men; and pursuing that good, I shall not fail to do all I van to bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and maintain the civil and religious rights of my country.

I have the honor to be a member of the committee of investigation, and the public's humble servant.   JOSIAH BISSELL



MARRIED. -- ...On Tuesday last by the REv. Mr. Clark, Mr. John H. Gilbert, formerly one of the Editors of the Wayne Sentinel, to Miss Chloe P. Thayer, daughter of Mr. Joel Thayer, all of Palmyra.


Note: In its issue for Jan. 27, 1895 the Rochester Democrat and Telegraph printed this notice: "Major John Hulburt Gilbert, the oldest printer in Western New York and the only connecting link with "Joe" Smith and the origin of Mormonism, died this afternoon at 5:45 o'clock.... He was born April 13, 1802, in the town of Richmond... He learned the printing trade in that village and was employed in Albany and Lewiston. --- In 1824 he came to Palmyra and secured employment on the Wayne Sentinel, published by Egbert Grandin. In 1827 he was married to Miss Chloe P. Thayer.... It was during this time that Mr. Gilbert did his work on the Mormon Bible, the printing contract for which was given to his employer. He toiled faithfully at his trade until failing health compelled him to relinquish it...."


 


CHRISTIAN  ADVOCATE  AND  JOURNAL.
Vol. II.                                N. Y. C.,   September 14, 1827.                                 No. 2.



AUXILIARY  TRACT  SOCIETIES.

A society auxiliary to the Tract Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church has recently been organized in Kirtland, Geauga co., Ohio -- Isaac Lee president; William C. [Stannard] vice president, A. S. Gilbert corresponding secretary; N. K. Whitney, treasurer; and ten managers... A friend from Kirtland, Ohio, informs us that a good revival of religion of religion has been experienced in that place. It commenced at a camp meeting which was held in the vicinity. Between thirty and forty new-born souls have joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a few have united with the Baptists.


Note: There were at least two recognized "Kirtlands" in Ohio at this time -- both in Geauga County. The inclusion of the names Gilbert and Whitney make it clear that the Kirtland here mentioned was Kirtland Flats, in the northern part of the county, and not Kirtland Tract, in Auburn township.

Note 2: Soon after this, Kirtland merchants Gilbert and Whitney left the Methodists to join the local Baptists -- who were, of course, Alexander Campbell's "reformed Baptists." Gilbert and Whitney's new pastor (and prominent promoter of the 1827 "revival") was none other than the Rev. Sidney Rigdon. Such religious revivals were a frequent occurance in those days, and especially so among the displaced Yankees living in western New York and in the "Western Reserve" of northern Ohio. Rev. Badger's Christian Advocate & Journal of Feb. 8, 1828 notices similar revivals "scattered over nearly the whole extent of Wayne county, north and west of the town of Palmyra" in western New York. Ministers who participated in these interdenominational religious revivals often traveled from one camp meeting to the next, preaching and baptizing as they went along their way. History has not recorded whether the Rev. Sidney Rigdon left Geauga Co., Ohio to participate in the 1828 revivals in Wayne Co., New York.


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, October 5, 1827.                          Vol. 16, No. 817.


 

Proclamation by De Witt Clinton, Governor of the state of New-York

Whereas Eli Bruce, sheriff of the county of Niagara, has been charged before me with a violation of his duties as a good citizen and a faithful officer, in being concerned in the abduction of William Morgan, and has been heard in his defence: -- And whereas, in the investigation of the said accusation, it appeared that it was completely in the power of the said Eli Bruce, if innocent, to establish his innocence: And whereas in order to afford him that opportunity, a decision on the complaint has been suspended for an ample time, and he has given no explanation of his conduct; and whereas it appears that at a recent trial at Canandaigua of certain persons charged with the said abduction, the said Eliu Bruce, when called on as a witness, refused to testify on material points, on the ground of self-crimination; from all of which, I am persuaded that he was a participant in the said abduction, and thereby has rendered himself unworthy of the official station which he at present occupies, I do therefore, pursuant to the powers vested in me by the constitution of this state, remove the said Eli Bruce from the office of sheriff of the county of Niagara.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and the privy seal (L. S.) of the state, at the city of Albany, this 26th day of September, Anno Domini, 1827.
                           DE WITT CLINTON.



Proclamation of De Witt Clinton, Governor of the state of New York.

Whereas I have removed Eli Bruce from the office of sheriff of the county of Niagara, for a violation of his official duties, whereby a vacsncy has occurred in the said office, I do therefore appoint Monday, the fifth day of November next, and the two subsequent days, for holding an election to supply such vacancy.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and the privy seal (L. S.) of the state, at the city of Albany, this first day of October, Anno Domini, 1827.
                           DE WITT CLINTON.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. V.                           Palmyra, N. Y., Friday, October 5, 1827.                           No. ?


Red Jacket Disowned. -- On Saturday, the 15th inst., 25 chiefs of the Seneca tribe of the Six Nations, deposed the celebrated chief Red Jacket, from his situation as chief of the Seneca tribe; and stated the causes of their rash procedure at large. They took the aged chief on 15 lugs," in which they accuse him of as many offences against the Great Spirit -- against morality -- and against the marriage covenant, &c. &c. &c.

Red Jacket has scrupulously maintained the Indian character -- has always been opposed to the Six Nations selling their lands -- opposed to the religion and achools of the whitemen.

Doubtless, this aged and eloquent chief has been somewhat influenced in his determined opposition to the inovations on the Indian habits, manners and customs, by noticing the decline of the Indian strength, and deprecation of the Indian character, consequent, in many instances, upon the natives living in the vicinity of, or adjoining to, the white settlements. He looks forward, and thinks he can see the day, when the "last of the Senecas," shall only exist. It is true, Red Jacket is somewhat dissipated. So are a great many of those who have attempted to disown him. We understand that Red Jacket will appeal from the anathema of the 25 chiefs, to the chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations in full council. -- B. R. Gaz.



We publish the following proceedings because we consider it our futy so to do. But we wish it to be understood, that many of the opinions expressed in the resolutions, are diametrically opposite to our views, and that we should be sorry to believe they were entertained by a majority of the people in this country: --

In a meeting of Delegates of Wayne, opposed to all secret societies, held pursuant to adjournment, in the village of Lyons, on the 1st day of October, 1827.

The following persons produced their credentials and took their seats...

Resolved, that the following persons [commit?] committees of vigilance in the several [towns?]. Viz.... Martin Harris, Denson Rogers of Palmyra...


Note 1: For a report on the aftermath of Red Jacket's fall from power, see the Cherokee Phienix of Apr. 17, 1828.

Note 2: For more on Martin Harris and Freemasonry, see Dan Vogel's "Mormonism's 'Anti-Masonick Bible,'" JWHA Journal 9 (1989): 1730.


 


Vol. I.                            Trumansburg, N. Y., Wednesday, October 10, 1827.                           No. 1.



TO  THE  PUBLIC.

The proprietor of this paper has taken some pains to obtain the services of W. W. Phelps, a gentleman of distinguished talents, as an assistant in managing the concerns of the establishment, which with every attention his own ability can bestow, he hopes to be able to present the paper to his patrons in a style and with a portion of talent, that will merit a liberal sipport.
                            R. M. BLOOMER.
October 10, 1827.


Note 1: William Wine Phelps (1792-1872) was the founding editor of the Cortland, NY Western Courier. After assisting R. M. Bloomer on the Lake Light through the winter of 1827-28, Phelps was inspired to move to nearby Canandaigua in April and begin publishing there (again, with Bloomer's help) the Ontario Phoenix. Phelps used this new journalistic platform in a bid to be chosen the anti-Masonic candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, but failed in that effort. In 1831 he joined the Mormons and soon became the editor of their new paper in Missouri, the Evening and the Morning Star.

Note 2: The Lake Light was, geographically speaking, the first anti-Masonic paper on the west side of Seneca Lake, north of Ithaca. The next town north of Trumansburgh with an anti-Masonic press was Geneva, where B. Franklin Cowdery opened up shop a couple in February, 1828. Even though Cowfery did not make his own anti-Masonic views public until mid-April, there can be little doubt that he knew the Lake Light's William Wines Phelps before Phelps moved to Canandaigua to establish the Ontario Pheonix. Whether or not W. W. Phelps knew Franklin's cousin, the "occasional journeyman printer," Oliver H. P. Cowdery as early as 1827-28 remains to be discovered. However, once Phelps arrived in Canandaigua, in April of 1828, he almost certainly encountered journeyman printer Phinehas Young (brother to Brigham Young) in that place. The possibility that Phelps worked with either Oliver, Phinehas (or both) prior to 1830 remains a substantial one.

Note 3: The journalistic "distinguished talents" of William W. Phelps extended past those of a simple editor. He was a man of political ambition and a certain degree of political savvy. He was also a writer of fiction -- or so said a report published in an Albany paper, The Escritoir of March 25, 1826. What is odd about the news item, is that it was printed in a Masonic newspaper, at the time when Phelps was supposedly already an anti-Mason. Perhaps the would-be writer did not reveal his ambitions in the realm of political anti-Masonry until he realized that he was not another James F. Cooper and could not make a living as a popular novelist. What happened to Phelps' unpublished story remains a mystery.


 


The  Orleans  Whig.

Vol. I.                    Gaines, Orleans Co., N. Y., Wednesday, October 10, 1827.                   No. 15.



CORONER'S  REPORT.

A Coroner's inquest was held on the 7th inst. over the body of a man unknown, on the lake shore near the mouth of the Oak Orchard creek, in Carlton, Orleans county. Verdict of the Jury: suffocation by drowning. The body was discovered at the margin of the water, probably thrown on shore by the surf. The body being in so putrid a state it would be difficult to give a very minute description of it; it appeared, however, to be the body of a man about forty-five or fifty years of age; about 5 feet 8 inches in height; hair about the ears considerably gray.

There was apparently an old scar on the forehead over the right eye -- teeth sound excepting two missing on the lower jaw -- a set of what is generally termed double teeth in front. His clothing was frock coat, of black broadcloth of a good quality, pantaloons and vest apparently the same. A white homespun flannel shirt, flag handkerchief around [his] neck, an almost new pair of cow-hide shoes, and coarse socks. No papers were found about him to give any light: all that was found in his pockets was simply four religious tracts printed in London -- a scrap of paper, on which was written September 24th, 1828, Mr. James Websa, and two plugs of tobacco.
R. M. BROWN, Coroner.
Carlton, Oct. 8, 1827.

Note: At the time, the body discovered "near the mouth of the Oak Orchard Creek" was generally thought to be that of William Morgan the anti-Masonic martyr. See the pro-Masonic Rochester Daily Advertiser of Oct. 18, 1827.


 


ROCHESTER  DAILY  ADVERTISER.

Vol. II.                    Rochester, N. Y., Thursday, October 18, 1827.                   No. 304 (?)



Morgan's Body. -- The arrival since our last, of gentlemen who were familiar with Morgan, in life, and witnessed the second the second inquest over the body found on the Lake shore in Orleans county, together with the minutes of the investigation politely furnished by the gentlemen who took them down, leaves no room to doubt what the verdict of the jury proclaims. The objections we had, give way to the light of evidence; and let the preservation be accounted for, as it may or may not be accounted for at all, it cannot alter the belief we freely avow, that the corpse in question is no other than that of the wretched Morgan! It is, to be sure, as we intimated yesterday, scarcely reconcilable with experience, that a body thrown into a river, and floating such a distance through a lake, should have held together for the space Morgan is alleged to have been dead; but the investigations of the jury prove either that such is the fact in this instance, or that the deceased did not meet his doom at so early a day as generally believed.

The body was discovered near the mouth of Oak, Orchard Creek on the shore of Lake Ontario, on the 7th instant, by two or three persons who were hunting, and who gave information to the coroner before moving the body. The inquest then held, ended in a verdict of suffication by drowning; without any discovery of the name or charcter of the deceased; there being no papers, save a few religious tracts, &c. in the pockets. The publication of the height and appearance, and other particulars concerning the corpse, soon raised suspicions which resulted in the taking up and holding of a new inquest over it. At this, Mrs. Morgan, and many others formerly acquainted with her husband, attended, and were examined separately, and before seeing the body, as to any particular marks by which its identity might be established. -- The evidence so elicited was sustained by reference to the body; and 2 teeth, drawn by a surgeon of this village from M's head, and produced by Mrs. Morgan, were applied to and corresponded exuctly with the vacancies and the other teeth in the mouth of the deceased. The head partly bald, and hair somewhat grey. -- The height, apparent age, and a mark on one of the feet, corresponding with a scar left by a surgical operation on a similar part of Morgan's body -- with other circumstances which we have not now room to detail, led to a unanimous verdict from three and twenty jurymen, that this body was no other than Morgan's. It may be observed that no mark of vioIence is visible on it.

We have neither time nor desire to add fuel to passions already more than sufficiently excited for all useful purposes, by enlarging on the attrocity of the case. The thing has swollen into a calamity which no just or honest man, no real well-wisher of the peace and good order of society, will aggravate by idle and inflammatory comments. The deed stands now in all its naked deformity; and the spirit abroad needs no further stimulent to have the laws vindicaeted as retribution on the inhuman perpetrators.


Note: One reprint added these words (possibly from elsewhere in the Advertiser of that date): "...this circumstance, falsifying as it does what was at first so confidently stated respecting Morgan's death, should not only teach caution in believing, but charity for those who do not believe at first sight (however specious) it may suit other's interests to frame."


 



By D. C. Miller.                         Batavia, Friday, October 19, 1827.                          Vol. 16, No. 819.


 

We extract from the Orleans Whig the fair and faithful account of the inquest and proceedings that took place at Carlton, near the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, which proves the identity of Morgan's corpse, in a manner which scepticism itself cannot doubt. The unquestioned veracity of men of judgment and reason, should have its proper effect. In the appearance and recognition of this body there is an evidence that quashes the tales of the guilty; and gives farther confirmation to the belief of the sincere. -- An indulgence in poetic fancy, or wild romance, suits not the gravity of the subject; but the farce of Masons proves now in its close to be a tragedy in all its gloom and horrors.

The deed of death has been done, and the evidence is appalling characters stands before us. The hand trembles & the blood chills at the recital, that whilst we pen this article, the putrefied remains of an unfortunate victim, are moving to this village to commingle with native dust -- a widows eyes will again be suffused with tears, and orphan children weep over their loss. The agency of heaven commands the activity of man. Masonic influence could not retain their secrets in the Lake, and a power and influence of more than human wisdom and earthly force, have raised higher our hopes and confidence, and brought us with deeper humility to "stoop and adore." Our limits prevent us from moralizing.



Masons know not under what rock to shelter themselves, before the overwhelming evidence that proves their guilty participation in death. A man of the name of Hill has been confined in Buffalo jail, on his own confession, for the murder of Morgan. He says he killed him and threw him overboard, but at this time and with facts before us, the story will not do. We may say with Juvenal Credat Judaeus Appella non ego -- The uncircumcised Jew may believe it, I do not.



The body of Morgan was conducted under a respectable escort to this village, about one o'clock this day. We met the procession, and witnessed the honest expression of feelings of sympathy, as well as of indignation. The tocsin's sound of war seemed to be blown; for the people left their busy occupations, and in wagons, on horseback, and on foot, crowded to the village. The body, of course will have a resting place, and sleep as peacefully as those who have had a dying scene on the softened pillow, with all the affection and attention humanity can bestow. The scene was sad, sorrowful, and solemn. -- The black disfigured body has been accompanied to the grave yard, with every mark of respect, without eulogium of funeral address. We witnessed the tear of grief, on many a cheek, and the sigh of sorrow bursting from many a heart; some cold heartless Masons void of feelingly worse than an Adamant. The dry laugh and sarcastic smile, are poor tokens of mourning over any being, whether it be Morgan or not.

The crowd of matter pressing us, has prevented the continuance of our essays on Masonry in the present number.



INFORMATION of Witnesses, severally taken and acknowledged, on the behalf of the people of the state of New-York, and touching the death of an unknown person found at the town of Carlton in the country of Orleans, on the shore of Lake Ontario, on the 15 day of October, in the year of our Lord 1827, before Robert M. Brown, Esq. one of the Coroners of said county; on an Inquisition then and there taken on view of the body of the said unknown person then and there being dead -- as follows--
Stillman Hoxsie, being sworn -- found the body, lying on the face, head towards the shore, a week ago yesterday, between 11 and 12 o'clock -- gave information to the Coroner before moving the body. Had on a frock coat, black vest and pantaloons, woolen socks and shirt, handkerchief cotton or might be silk -- did not know how long he had lain there -- body is more swollen now and blacker than when found, particularly about the face and head.
STILLMAN HOXIE.          

Lester Beardslee, being sworn -- has viewed the head of the body, which has the appearance of William Morgan -- the shape of the head is the same and the hair is the same: knew Morgan, and saw him in August before he was missing, the ears and the appearance about the ears is the same. Morgan shewed him his teeth, had what is called double teeth all round his jaws, and the body has the same. No teeth were gone four years since when he shewed them to me. Morgan's ears were filled with hair more than people in general, which was long and white -- beard was grey -- wore no whiskers. His hair was long and combed up to cover his baldness; had a small nose, more hair on his chest than people in general, full chest, light blue eyes, lightish complexion, his heighth was similar to that of the body -- should think him over 50 years of age. Thinks that this body is the body of William Morgan.
LESTER BEARDSLEY.          

Thurlow Weed, being sworn, saith that on the 15th inst. he came in company with other gentlemen from Rochester to view this body -- that in consequence of its being stated by one of the persons who was well acquainted with Morgan, that his ears were full of long white hairs, witness examined the ears of said body carefully, when he found several hairs white and long, which came out upon touching them, and that he found a large number of said hairs deposited in a mess in the bottom of the ear. These hairs corresponded with those represented by Mr. Fitch, before the body was disinterred. Witness does not recollect any thing of Mr. Morgan, although he must have seen him often.
T. WEED.          

Lucinda Morgan, being sworn, says -- I am the wife of William Morgan, of Batavia. I saw him the last time, the 11th Sept. 1826. He had on blue coat, vest and pantaloons -- pantaloons of different kind of cloth from the coat and vest. -- Should know the clothes if I saw them. -- He had no flannel shirt, but was in the habit of wearing a flannel wrapper. He had on boots and woollen socks. Boots old and worn, thinks they were calf skin. Had on a white neck handkerchief, and linen shirt. Had with a silk pocket handkerchief, something worn -- used tobacco. -- Has seen the body -- finds points of resemblance between the body and her husband. His teeth, his hands, his hair, breast, his nails, on fingers and toes, similar to those of the body. He was innoculated for the small pox on the left arm. Had double teeth all round. Two teeth were gone and one was split off. -- Dr. Strong extracted drew two teeth for him. His suspenders were cotton and knit. Coat pockets were lined with white -- coat lining of the pantaloons was white, thinks linen. Morgan was bald on the top of his head, except a small place in the centre of his head, where there was fine hair like down. Dressed his hair latterly by combing it down. The teeth were gone on the right side of the upper jaw. I have no doubt but this is the body of my husband. On the joint of the big toe on the left foot he had been frozen, and the bone, and the physician cut open the flesh and scraped the bone, which left the same appearance which is now upon the body. He had a good deal of hair on his chest, which was gray, and he was full breasted. Never had a broken bone to my knowledge. On being shown the dress, I can recognize no part of it as the same which my husband had on when he went away, nor the tracts. The hand-writing I cannot swear to, tho' one or two somewhat resemble his. I am fully convinced in my own mind, that this is the body of William Morgan.
L. MORGAN.          

David C. Miller, being sworn, says that he knew William Morgan and has partly examined the body. Did not know that Morgan had double teeth, or that he had lost two teeth. His dress when he went away, was a blue frock coat, blue vest and pantaloons. My impression is that he was bald on the top of his head wholly . -- Thinks he had on boots, was 50 years age or over, had a habit of drawing his hair over his head with his hands when in conversation .
D. C. MILLER.          

George W. Harris, being duly sworn, says that he knew William Morgan, and has seen the body. Morgan shaved at my glass and shaved higher than any man I ever saw. The body has been shaved up to the eyes -- does not know particularly about his hair. Saw him the day he was taken away, and knew him more than one year previous. His dress was a blue frock coat, blue vest, and blue pantaloons, old boots -- he never wore a flannel shirt as I can say, might have wore a flannel wrapper; the size and shape of Morgan's fingers and fingernails were same as the body's; Morgan had double chin, and thinks the body has a double chin. He had a fine set of teeth and had lost some, which he showed when he grated his teeth or laughed. He had an extreme full chest; his bosom was quite hairy and grey; the color of the hair is the same as on the body. -- Morgan had a lump towards the top of his head, which thing I observed on the body; he was not far from 50 years of age, I think about 5 feet 8 inches high; don't know of his having small or kine pox; he had a tapering arm, and had a small wrist; fully satisfied that this is the body of William Morgan. He had a short nose, was a bricklayer; lived over my shop; was agitated for some time when talking before he was taken away.
GEO. W. HARRIS.          

William W. Morgan, being sworn says, That he was acquainted with William Morgan -- his head, his beard, the hair upon his breast resembles this body -- and the make of his features are similar. -- Does not recollect any thing about his teeth; was acquainted with him two years ago last February, and from that time since until he was missing. I was absent about nine months from Batavia, but saw him frequently.
Wm. W. MORGAN.          

Russel Dyer, being sworn, says he knew William Morgan -- has seen this body; thinks it is the body of Wm. Morgan; the shape of the head; the hair, are similar, he had double teeth; one tooth broken or split, and one gone in the upper jaw; mentioned when he first heard the Coroner's Report, if the teeth were gone in the lower jaw, it could not be the body of Morgan; thinks he saw Morgan a year ago last August last; he boarded with him, does not know that he had the small or kine pox; he had no scar about his body as he recollects; when I first saw the body, found hair in the ears, long hair and white, which fell out. He was 51 years of age, as he informed me about 3 years ago -- I have no doubt but this is the body of Wm. Morgan; he had hair about the breast, and a grey beard.
RUSSEL DYER.         

Dr. Ezra Strong, being sworn says, that he knew William Morgan 4 years ago, from April to September in the next year; Morgan and his wife boarded at my house about six months; he was sick much of the time with sore eyes; I attended him two or three months, sometimes with other physicians; thinks from the appearance of the upper part of the head of this body. it is the body of Wm. Morgan. I extracted two teeth for him, which I found charged in my book against him; don't recollect from which side they were taken; Mrs. Morgan handed me the two teeth taken out, and they about fill up the vacancy, though the face is so much swollen I cannot exactly determine as to their firmness; he had a heavy beard and much hair on the breast; the body is inoculated as seems by a scar on the arm; one other tooth was broken or split off; If a body had been floating about since Morgan was missing, it would putrify more than this, but if it had been under water, it might have been better preserved.
EZRA STRONG.         

Dr. John D. Henry, being sworn says, that he knew Wm. Morgan, when he resided in Rochester; I attended him as a physician; I do not recollect any strong mark which would distinguish him as this body; he had inflamed eyes and I prescribed for him for nearly nine months; I knew his hair but cannot identity him by that to my own satisfaction -- I remember his whiskers, and shaved them frequently -- he had fine teeth in front; the teeth of the body appear as I should suppose the teeth of Morgan would appear; the shape of this head, though bloated much, much the same as Morgan's; I should be unwilling to say it was Morgan, or that it was not, though his teeth, the shape of his head, and the hair, resemble Morgan's.
JOHN D. HENRY.         
All the above informations were severally taken and acknowledged, the fifteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, in the town of Carlton, Co and State aforesaid.

Orleans County, ss.  An inquisition indented and taken for the people of the State of New-York, at the town of Carlton, in the county of Orleans aforesaid, in the open air, on the shore of Lake Ontario in said county and town, the 15th day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, before me, Robert M. Brown, Gentleman, one of the Coroners of the said state, for the county aforesaid; upon the view of the body of William Morgan, then and there lying dead upon the [oaths] of John Archer, Silas Joy, Suell Joy, Wm. Williams, Matthew Dunham, John Barnum, R. Wilcox, Rodney Parish, John H. Tyler, Asa Simpson, Asa Kimball, I. Hall, Stephen Jennings, Richard Barry, Ebenezer Handy, Abel Barnum, John Murdock, Samuel Baldwin, Asahel Byington, Reuben Scofield, Jesse Hall, James Tift and Lyman G. Hoxsie; good and lawful men of the said County, who, being sworn and charged to enquire on the part of the people of the state of New-York aforesaid, when, where, how, and after what manner, the said William Morgan came to his death; do say, upon their oaths aforesaid, that the said Wm. Morgan came to his death by suffocation by drowning, and so the said jurors aforesaid do say, he, the said Wm. Morgan came to his death -- In witness whereof, as well the said Coroner, as the jurors aforesaid, have to their inquisition set their hands and seals, the day and year aforesaid, at the place aforesaid.
                      SAMUEL BALDWIN,
                                           Foreman.
Asahel Byington, John H. Tyler, L. G. Hoxsie, Asa Simpson, John Barnum, [Abel S. Barnum], James Tefft, A. Kimball, Matthew Dunham, Stephen Jennings, S. Joy, Silas Joy, John Archer, Richard Barry, Rodney Parish, Jesse Hall, John Murdock, Reuben Scofield, Wm. Williams, E. Handy, R. Wilcox, and Israel Hall.
                      ROBERT M. BROWN
                                           Coroner.


Note 1: The above report was evidently first published in the Gaines, New York Orleans Whig of Oct. 17, 1827, and subsequently copied into the columns of the Batavia Advocate. As mentioned elsewhere in contemporary reports, the deposition of Mr. Henry Henderson, of Albion was not published by the Orleans Whig, "in consequence of the requisite signature having been inadvertently omitted. The testimonies of David C. Miller and Dr. Ezra Strong were cut short in this initial report, although they were filled out in other contemporary news items.

Note 2: No copies of the Orleans Whig for Wednesday, Oct. 17, 1827 are known to exist and very few news sources evidently reprinted that small town paper's article. Instead, nearly all subsequent reporting copied a similar (but somewhat different) transcript of the Inquest testimony, as released by Thurlow Weed at Rochester on that same Wednesday. For Weed's own recollection of these events, see the New York Herald of Aug. 9, 1875. Presumably Mr. Weed's version of the Inquest appeared in his Rochester Daily Telegraph of Oct. 17th or 18th, 1827. It was widely reprinted and can be found in the pages of books published as late as 1873.

Note 3: A close comparison of Thurlow Weed's transcript with that of the Orleans Whig, shows that the two texts must have been taken from independent sources. The likely explanation is that the Whig's version was an abbreviated copy of the Coroner's written report, while Mr. Weed's longer and more detailed text was compiled from notes he had written down during the actual proceedings of the so-called "second inquest."


 



No. 25 - Vol. VI.             Lyons, N. Y., Wed., October 24, 1827.              Whole No. 233.



==> Several members of the Lewiston Convention left this place late on Sunday night, to meet others from Batavia, &c. and hold an investigation over the body mentioned below, on account of its alleged resemblance in some respects to Capt. Morgan. The result of the measure is not as yet officially known here.

Coroners Report. -- A Coroner's inquest was held on the 7th inst., over the body of a man unknown, on the Lake shore near the mouth of the Oak Orchard creek in Carlton, Orleans county. Verdict of the Jury suffocation by drowning. The body was discovered at the margin of the water, probably thrown on shore by the surf. The body being in so putrid a state it would be difficult to give a very minute description of it; it appeared, however, to be the body of a man about forty-five or fifty years of age; about 5 feet 8 inches in height; hair about the ears considerably grey.

There was apparently an old scar on the forehead over the right eye -- teeth sound excepting two missing on the lower jaw, a set of what is generally termed double teeth in front. His clothing was a frock coat, of black broad cloth of a good quality -- pantaloons and vest apparently the same.

A white homespun flannel shirt, flag handkerchief around his neck, an almost new pair of cowhide shoes, and coarse socks. No papers were found about him to give any light; all that was found in his pockets was simply four religious tracts printed in London -- a scrap of paper on which was written September 24th, 1828, Mr. James Websa, and two plugs of tobacco. --
                                R. M. BROWN, Cor.
Carlton, Oct 8, 1827.

__________

A NEW CRISIS IN THE MORGAN ERA.

In consequence of some strong coincidences in identity observable in the Coroner's Report published in our last, between the body recently discovered on the shore of the lake directly north of the village, and the person of the late WILLIAM MORGAN, several gentlemen who were intimately acquainted with Morgan while living, from Rochester and Batavia repaired to the place where the body was buried, on the 13th inst. and in disintering and examining it, became convinced of the propriety of a further examination, which was accordingly instituted by the coroner, on the 15th inst. and the result of which will be found below. The verdict of the jury was unanimous.

The deposition of Mr. Henry Henderson, of Albion, which was equally clear and conclusive, is not embodied in the proceedings before the Coroner, in consequence of the requisite signature having been inadvertantly omitted.

INFORMATION of Witnesses, severally taken and acknowledged, on the behalf of the people of the State of New-York, and touching the death of an unknown person found at the town of Charlton in the county of Orleans, on the shore of Lake Ontario, on the 15th day of October, in the year of our Lord 1827, before Robert M. Brown, Esq.....

[several affadavits follow, including those of Thurlow Weed, David C. Miller, George W. Harris, etc.]

ROBERT M. BROWN,
                Coroner.


Note: Batavia Silversmith (and alleged "coiner") George W. Harris latter married William Morgan's widow and they both joined the Mormon Church during the Far West period. Morgan's widow (Lucinda Morgan Harris), in turn, became one of Joseph Smith, Jr.'s first "plural wives." Mr. Harris became the head of the Nauvoo High Council, and a couple of years after that council had moved west to Winter Quarters (then to nearby Council Bluffs), Harris presided over the hearing in which it considered reinstating Oliver Cowdery as a member of the Church. Possibly Harris was also the Mormon elder who re-baptized Cowdery at that time. One 19th century Masonic source identifies William Morgan as a proselyte of Joseph Smith, Jr.'s treasure-hunting magic during the period shortly before the advent of Mormonism. Another source of the same era says that Oliver Cowdery served as William Morgan's scribe. The writers of the 2000 CD-ROM book, The Spalding Enigma, speculate that Oliver Cowdery was once a printer on the staff of David C. Miller's Republican Advocate newspaper in Batavia.


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. V No. 5.               Palmyra, N. Y., Tues., October 26, 1827.               Whole No. 213.



(under construction)

LUCINDA MORGAN: "I am the wife of William Morgan. I saw him the last time on the 11th of September, 1826. He had on a blue coat, vest and pantaloons of different kind of cloth from the vest and coat. Should know the clothes if I saw them. He had no flannel shirt, but was in the habit of wearing a flannel wrapper. He had on boots and woolen socks, boots were old and worn. Think they were calfskin. Had on a white neck handkerchief and linen shirt. Had a silk pocket handkerchief, something worn. Used tobacco. She has seen the body. Finds points of resemblance between the body and her husband. His teeth, his hands, his hair, breast, nails on fingers and toes similar to those of the body. He was inoculated for small-pox on the left arm. Has double teeth all round. Two teeth were gone and one was split off. Dr. Strong drew two teeth for him. His suspenders were cotton and knot. Coat pockets were lined with white. Vest lined with the same cloth as coat. Lining of pantaloons was white, think linen. Morgan was bald on the top of his head except a small place in the center of his head, where there was fine hair like down. Dressed his hair latterly by combing it down. The teeth were gone on the right side of the upper jaw. On the joint of the big toe of the left foot he had been frozen, and the physician cut open the flesh and scraped the bone, which left the same appearance which is now upon the body. He had a good deal of hair on his chest, which was gray and he was full breasted. Never had a broken bone to my knowledge. On being shown the dress I can recognize no part of it as the same which my husband had on when he went away, nor the tracts. The handwriting I cannot swear to, though one or two letters somewhat resemble his. I am fully convinced in my own mind that this is the body of William Morgan."



... George W. Harris being duly sworn, says that he knew William Morgan and has seen the body. Morgan shaved at my glass and shaved higher than any man I ever saw. The body has been shaved up to the eyes -- does not know particularly about his hair. Saw him the day he was taken away, and knew him more than one year previous. His dress was a blue frock coat, blue vest, and blue pantaloons, old boots -- he never wore a flannel shirt as I can say, might have wore a flannel wrapper: the finger nails were same as the body's: Morgan had a double chin, and thinks the body has a double chin. He had a fine set of teeth, and had lost some which he showed when he grated his teeth or laughed. He had an extreme full chest; his bosom was quite hairy and grey; the color of the hair is the same as that on the body; Morgan had a lump towards the top of his head, which I think I observed on the body; he was not far from 50 years of age, I think about 5 feet 8 inches high; don't know of his having small or kine pox; he had a tapering arm, and had a small wrist; fully satisfied that this is the body of William Morgan. He has a short nose, was a brick layer; lived over my shop; was agitated for some time when talking before he was taken away.
              GEO. W. HARRIS....


Note 1: Lucinda Morgan's statement and George W. Harris's statement are taken from unverified transcripts and their texts should not be relied upon as being accurately reproduced from the particular issue of the Sentinel.

Note 2: Harris's statement also appeared in the Oct. 24, 1827 issue of the Lyon's Advertiser. He operated a silversmith's shop in Batavia near the offices of David C. Miller's Republican Advocate. Four years after William Morgan's disappearance George Washington Harris married his widow, Lucinda Morgan (on Nov. 23, 1830). Both George and Lucinda later became Mormons and she was very likely Joseph Smith, jr.'s first recognized plural wife. Smith's physical relationship with Lucinda Morgan Harris apparently began when he was living temporarily in the Harris house at Far West. George Washington Harris later became the President of the Nauvoo High Council and remained the head of that Mormon body when it moved to Winter Quarters and then to Kanesville (Council Bluffs). He is thought to have initiated and positively influenced the vote when Oliver Cowdery applied to the High Council for rebaptism at Kanesville, and may well have been the officiator in that ordinance when it was conducted on Nov. 12, 1848. George was suspected of working with William Smith and others to produce counterfeit Mexican dollars in Adams and Hancock counties, Illinois during the early 1840s; he probably knew the Joseph Smith, sr. family and their relative, Oliver Cowdery, as early as 1826.


 


Vol. I.                            Trumansburg, N. Y., October 29, 1827.                           No. 3.



From the Orleans Whig, Oct. 17.

In consequence of some strong coincidences in identity observable in the Coroner's Report published in our last, between the body recently discovered on the shore of the lake directly north of the village, and the person of the late WILLIAM MORGAN, several gentlemen who were intimately acquainted with Morgan while living, from Rochester and Batavia repaired to the place where the body was buried, on the 13th inst. and in disintering and examining it, became convinced of the propriety of a further examination, which was accordingly instituted by the coroner, on the 15th inst. and the result of which will be found below. The verdict of the jury was unanimous.

The deposition of Mr. Henry Henderson, of Albion, which was equally clear and conclusive, is not embodied in the proceedings before the Coroner, in condequence of the requisite signature having been inadvertantly omitted.

INFORMATION of Witnesses, severally taken and acknowledged, on the behalf of the people of the State of New-York, and touching the death of an unknown person found at the town of Charlton in the county of Orleans, on the shore of Lake Ontario, on the 15th day of October, in the year of our Lord 1827, before Robert M. Brown, Esq.....

(several affadavits follow -- see the Wayne Sentinel of Oct. 26th for those of Lucinda Morgan, George W. Harris, etc.)


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


ROCHESTER  DAILY  ADVERTISER.

Vol. II.                      Rochester, N. Y., Thursday, November 1, 1827.                      No. 316.



THIRD  INQUEST
Over the body found on the Lake shore,
in the County of Orleans.

The investigation commenced at Gaines last Saturday was resumed on Monday at Batavia, where the body, being disinterred, was, with the clothing, submitted for the third time jury. The result (in another column) nullifies the verdict of the preceding jury, by showing the body to be -- NOT MORGAN'S -- but TIMOTHY MONRO'S.

The facts now brought out and which solemnly believe to have been in the reach individuals who attended and sanctioned the second inquest, (not as jurors, but spectators) prove as plainly as the light of day, that the body, be it whose it might, was not Morgan's, and resembled it not in many of the very particulars referred to as establishing its identity. The assertion is, we are aware, a bold one; but with the testimony last elicited, and what has come within our observation within a few days, we have the fullest confidence proving it, (if it be not alroady self-evident) and shewing that there was full as much as met the car in the boast of one who pretended trace the hand of Providence in the discovery of the body, -- viz. that it was " a good enough Morgan for their purpose TILL AFTER ELECTION."

Why were not the two Potters who found the body; why was not Mr. Hinman Holden, who,in company wither. Fitch, saw the body before the second inquest; why was not constable who summoned tho two first juries, and knew exactly the condition of the body; why were not Drs. Hall and Vinton, one whom scrutinized the body when first found why were not these -- not to mention others known to some who interested themselves in getting up tho second inquest -- why were not these, we repeat, sworn on that, as they were on the third inquest? The answer will furnish food for a further showing-up of this strange matter. -- They swear point blank that the head of the body when first found, was NEITHER BALD, NOR DESTITUTE OF WHISKERS -- their oaths would convince any unprejudiced jury in the world, that the body, notwithstanding the proofs about the teeth and the big toe, was no more Morgan's than were the clothes upon it.

We shall have more to stiy on the subject, but must conclude for the present with the confession of having been deceived like others, and the determination to set what we believe to the truth of the matter in its true light....

[several affadavits follow, including those of Sarah Munro, Hinman Holden, Dr. Hall, etc.]

The verdict of the jury was that the body is that of TIMOTHY MONRO, who was drowned in the Niagara river on the 26th Sept. 1827.

==> We the undersigned, having been present during the investigation, certify the above to be a correct statement of the principal facts proved before the coroners inquest at Batavia on the 29th instant. EBENEZER GRIFFIN,
JAMES F. MASON,
JACOB GOULD.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


WAYNE  SENTINEL.

Vol. V No. 6.]                 Palmyra, (N. Y.) Tuesday, November 2, 1827.                 [Whole No. 214.


(under construction)

... The investigation commenced at Gaines last Saturday was resumed on Monday at Batavia. where the body, being disinterred, was with the clothing, submitted for the third time to a jury. The result nullifies the verdict of the proceeding jury by showing the body to be -- NOT MORGAN'S but TIMOTHY MONRO'S....


Notes: (forthcoming


 



No. 25 - Vol. VI.              Lyons, (NY) Wed., November 7, 1827.              Whole No. 235.



List of Letters remaining in the Post Office
Newark, Oct. 1st, 1827.


...
Oliver Cowdery
William Cowdery
Solomon Chamberlain ...


Note 1: This same list appeared in the Advertiser on Oct. 17th, Oct 24th, and Oct 31st, but the Nov. 7th copy is the most legible for transcription. There were no more letter lists published in the Advertiser until Jan. 2, 1828. No Cowdery family members' names are mentioned in the 1828 lists, however.


Note 2: This is the first known published mention of Oliver Cowdery in the State of New York. Presumably he had recently migrated to Newark, in Arcadia township, Wayne Co., NY. The "William" Cowdery listed here was William Cowdery, Jr. (1777-1847) the father of Oliver Cowdery. The Jan. 1 and Jan. 15, 1823 issues of the Poultney Gazette show letters waiting in the local post office for William Cowdery, while the same paper, on Apr. 2 and 16, 1823 show letters waiting for his second wife, Keziah. Evidently William, his wife, and their young daughters moved from Vermont to the Newark-Lyons, NY area between 1823 and late 1827. Since undelivered letters typically sat in in the post office for about a month before they were advertised in the newspapers, it appears likely that some letter writer expected to be able to reach William and Oliver, in Arcadia township, in late August or early September of 1827.

Note 3: Oliver Cowdery probably relocated from Rutland Co., Vermont, to western New York in the year 1822. According to one of his Vermont schoolmates (Hiland Paul), the young Oliver "attended school in the [Wells] District" of Vermont "in 1821 and 1822." Oliver "then went to Palmyra." Probably this means that young Cowdery finished his schooling in his home town of Wells, during the winter term (lasting from after the fall harvest in 1821, until the spring planting season of 1822) and then joined the annual emigration of New Englanders to western New York. While Oliver may have had reason for going directly from Vermont to Palmyra (see William L. Moore's 2002 theory of his travels), he more likely first became associated with his editor/printer cousin, B. Franklin Cowdery, in Lockport, New York, about the beginning of 1823. At the end of 1822, B. Franklin Cowdery moved his family to Lockport, and there engaged in several months of job printing, using the press of Orsamus Turner when it was free for Cowdery's part-time work. At that time B. Franklin Cowdery was also acting as a sales agent for one or more publications issued from the press of James D. Bemis in Canadaigua. Among these emphemeral printed works was Bemis' Farmer's Diary, or Ontario Almanac for 1823, which, among other articles, carried an interesting account of money-digging. Whether or not Oliver served a formal apprenticeship under his printer cousin, in western New York, the strong probability remains that Oliver was associated with B. Franklin Cowdery when the printer set up shop in Lockport in 1823, and again, a year later when he moved his business to Newport. This would have been the logical time for editors Orsamus Turner (then at Lockport) and John St. John (then nearby at Buffalo) to have first encountered Oliver Cowdery, whom both St. John and Turner describe as then being a young pedestrian peddler and dabbler in printing (the terms "occasional printer" and "dabbler in printing" might well refer to an employee of a clandestine press -- turning out unauthorized copies of others' publications, racy literature, abolitionist tracts, counterfeit currency, etc. -- Oliver was excommunicated from the LDS Church, in 1838 for counterfeiting, among other transgressions). Mr. Turner continues his account of Oliver's younger days, to the point of alleging that Oliver also frequented the Palmyra area and became involved with the Joseph Smith, Sr. family, at a time far earlier than most other accounts reveal. As a peddler of printed matter, Oliver would have needed to tout his wares; and oral announcements of the money-digging story in the 1823 Bemis almanac would have been just the sort of advertisement that might have brought around paying customers -- or, perhaps, actual money-diggers (such as Oliver's cousin, Joseph Smith, Jr.). Besides peddling items like the Bemis almanac, young Oliver might also have taken susbscriptions for forthcoming periodicals and books -- see the Aug. 1826 notice of just such traveling book agents operating in and around Lyons and Arcadia townships.

Note 4: The 1820 Census report for Ontario Co., NY, shows only one Cowdery head of a household -- John Cowdry of Freeport township. A Frederick Cowdry is shown as living in Angelica twp., Allegany Co., and a Thomas "Cowdren" in Mt. Morris twp., Genesee Co. Oliver Cowdery's brother, Warren A. Cowdery, is also shown in the 1820 New York Census as living in Genesee Co. -- in LeRoy, later made notorious by its problematic citizen, William Morgan. The 1830 Census report for Wayne Co., NY, shows both William Cowdery, Jr. and his son Lyman Cowdery as heads of households in Arcadia township. Oliver Cowdery is not listed since he was not then a head of a household -- he was apparently living with the Whitmer family in Fayette township, Seneca Co. during most of 1830.

Note 5: Solomon Chamberlain (1788-1862) was an early Mormon convert who left an account of his discovery of Mormonism in the first part of 1830. In his account he does not mention having known the Cowdery family in Arcadia township.


 


Vol. I.                            Trumansburg, N. Y., November 12, 1827.                           No. 5.



FOR THE LAKE LIGHT.

THE  DEAD.

(Occasioned on viewing the grave of Frank Lyman,
who went to his "Long home," last Fall, aged 6 years.)

It is a solemn grief and pleasure,
    To muse among the slumb'ring dead --
A time of gloomy, holy leisure,
    As o'er silent tombs we tread!

Vain man! - the grave has no distinction --
    In dust, the whole sleep side by side,
With here and there a short inscription --
    "Was born, and liv'd; deceas'd, and died."

O life! to be! to live! -- what is it,
    With all the flames that flesh can find?
A little spirit on a visit,
    That comes and goes like gusts of wind.

There's Franklin's narrow habitationa! --
    Alas, how short the time since he,
By parents' final anticipation,
    Was nurs'd upon his mother's knee!

Why did disease so soon affect him?
    Why none, on earth, that cause explain?
Is there a reason to expect him,
    Alive, in this frail world again?

The spring returns to cheer the lily,
    And deck the flowers on the sod; --
But Franklin comes not -- na; nor will he --
    He lives, in yonder realms, with God.

Cortland Village, April 5, 1827.   W. W.

Note: This is the first known poem written and published by W. W. Phelps, later the author of lyrics for such well known LDS hymns as "The Spirit of God..." and "Redeemer of Israel."


 


GENEVA  PALLADIUM.
Vol. XIII.                            Geneva, N. Y., Wednesday, January 16, 1828.                           No. 627.


 

Eighth of January. -- This day was celebrated in a commendable manner in this village, by a respectable collection of yeomanry of Fayette and Junius. An excellent dinner was prepared for the occasion, by Col. Van Alstyn, at the Brick Hotel; Gen. Hugh W. Dobbin presided as president, and Jacob L. Lazalere, Esq. as vice president. Among the many worthy and respectable gentlemen who surrounded the festive board, we were pleased to see Col. John Coudry, a soldier of the revolution. Great harmony and good feeling pervaded the meeting. Many patriotic sentiments were elicited and responded to by the company.
  Waterloo Gazette.


Note: According to the 1876 History of Seneca County, p. 82: "H. W. Dobbin is regarded as the first settler upon Lot 92 [in Waterloo]. His farm embraced one hundred and thirty acres in the central portion.... About 1818, John Cowdry moved upon it with a family, and erected a frame dwelling. He had acquired the rank of colonel in the war of of 1812, and had been a resident of New York City, to which he returned in 1830..."


 


Vol. I.                            Trumansburg, N. Y., January 21, 1828.                           No. 15.



Proposals for Establishing
IN Canandaigua Ontario county
a new weekly Newspaper entitled the

ONTARIO  PHOENIX,
BY W. W. PHELPS & Co.

The object of starting another paper in Ontario county, when there are already six respectable ones issued weekly, is to give the people more light in masonry. -- Necessarily, then, its principles will be strictly anti-masonic; -- its aim, to expose the evil consequences of secret societies in a free government, and its course independent, -- manly, and free from the cousining of monied aristocracies, or dictation of individuals for personal glory. The time has arrived in the United States for every unshackled citizen to rise in his might and crush an institution, which, in the dark ages, was formed by tyrants for self ends, -- and has been continued through blood and terror for individual or party benefit, till it has become a monstrous machine of evil on the earth -- as contemptible as the oriental Juggernaut. To prove which we shall recur to the fatal tragedy of William Morgan, who, for publishing the secret to the world, was inhumanely kidnapped and murdered by minions of masonic vengeance, -- and is among the noble martyrs of liberty.

Our discussions shall be candid, prudent, decent, and reasonable, without paining individuals, unless guilty. A prostration of masonry is our design: -- not to scatter fire-brands among men, for honesty is every day bringing masons from darkness to light; and from what assurances are given us by our friends, we hope to be able to unravel the hitherto hidden end of Morgan, and explain the whole of the great mystery, that has been dark for ages,

As to politics, in their proper time & season, a mild, steady course will be pursued, and the sovereign will of the people; that patriotic democracy which prospered a Washington in the field; supported a Jefferson in the hall, and has happified a nation for nearly a half a century, shall, while we have "love for country" be cherished in the Phoenix, rather than the kingly doctrine, that "the world was made for Caesar alone;" or an "enlightened few" are a privileged order, and the rest of mankind must serve them, (not probably as slaves) but ascreatures to enrich and ennoble them.

Religion through the merits of a Saviour shall receive our aid.

Intemperance, that odious sin; that canker worm of morality; that fell destroyer of health; that ruiner of domestic felicity, shall be pointed out as it is, a curse to a country.

Finally the Phoenix will be a newspaper of imperial size -- embracing anti-masonry, correct notions of liberty, anti-intemperance, poetry, amusement, the doings of state & national governments, foreign news, passing events, and literary advances, and to support which we ask the patronage of a generous public.

TERMS -- $2.00 to mail and office subscribers, in advance. $2.50 to village subscribers, furnished. Advertisements, the usual price.

Jan. 15, 1828.


Note: W. W. Phelps began the anti-Masonic Ontario Phoenix in Canandaigua in April of 1828. He did not disclose who provided his financial backing, but it probably came from anti-Jacksonian professionals Ontario county who hoped to influence political affairs in the county, in order to gain office or influence in local and national elections.


 



Vol. XIX.                             Geneva, N. Y., February 6, 1828.                              No. 35.


 

Changes. -- Mr. Geo. Willson gives notice in the last Geneva Chronicle, of his having parted with his interest in that establishment, and negotiated for the purchase of the Ontario Repository. The Chronicle is continued by O. P. Jackson, Esq.


Notes: (forthcoming)


 


The [     ] Album.
Vol. III.                             Rochester, N. Y., February 12, 1828.                              No. 19.


 

W. W. Phelps & Co. by an advertisement in the Trumansburgh Lake Light, propose publishing an anti-masonick newspaper in Canandaigua, to be called the "Ontario Phoenix."


Notes: (forthcoming)


 



Vol. XIX.                             Geneva, N. Y., February 13, 1828.                              No. 36.


 

Mr. F. Cowdery has become one of the Publishers of the Chronicle in this village and the paper assumes the title "Ontario Chronicle." The Canandaigua Chronicle has been discontinued.


Note: The above named co-publisher of the Chronicle was, of course, B. Franklin Cowdery, a cousin to Oliver H. P. Cowdery. Whether or not Oliver "helped out" Franklin, "around the shop" in Geneva at this time, history has not recorded.


 


CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE AND JOURNAL.
Vol. II.                            N. Y. C., February 15, 1827.                             No. 24.


 

American Jews Society. -- We learn from the last number of Israel's Advocate, (now discontinued) that the board of directors of the A. S. M. C. J. have purchased a farm of five hundred acres in the town of New Paltz, on the margin of the Hudson, directly opposite Hyde Park, at the cost of $6,500. A committee has been appointed to procure a suitable person to superintend the farm and also supply it with stock, and in all respects fit it for the reception of Jewish converts. The subject of sending an agent to Europe has at different times occupied the attention of the board; but the definite arrangements are postponed till April next. -- Observer.


Note: Compare this news report with the one on the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, as published in the Plattsburgh Republican during the summer of 1823. The planned Jewish colony was relocated from northwestern Pennsylvania, to a spot between Rochester and Buffalo, to Plattsburgh, and, finally, to New Paltz, before it ever became a reality -- a failed reality, one might add.


 


ONTARIO  CHRONICLE.
Vol. ?                                Geneva, N. Y., April 14?, 1828.                                 No. ?


 

... If masonry had been belied, and the character of the institution traduced, by those of its professors who betrayed its secrets at Le Roy, six or eight weeks since, have not the fraternity had sufficient time to satisfy the public mind on the subject? Yes; the public mind is satisfied, that the disclosure is undeniable to truth, and that honest men, have been led blindfolded and haltered, to the higher and more wicked abominations of this earthly pandemonium, to become "kings," scribes and "priests" to his "Royal Arch highness," who once, showing to the Savior the kingdom of the world, said, "all these I give you to fall down and worship me." Quere. -- Was not this the ancient circumstance recorded in the Bible, (masonry being founded on Bible history,) from which was derived the title of Worshipful Master?

We were "blinded," and, some eight or nine years since prevailed upon to "pay money for that which profited not." In "search of more light," we were raised to the third degree -- no more. The disclosures have given "more light," not only, but have "opened our eyes," therefore, be it known to the world that we now declare total absolution, from this time for ever, from the institution of Free Masonry; assuring all persons, at the same time, that we know not of an individual mason, against whom we harbor the least degree of enmity or ill will.

Our paper henceforth, so far as we may engage in the subject at all, we pledge to the cause of anti-masonry; under the self-approving confidence, that the best interests, nay, the freedom of our country required it, have come to this conclusion.


Note 1: The exact date and full text for this renunciation made by B. Franklin Cowdery remain undetermined. The wording is derived from reprints in other papers.

Note 2: Benjamin Franklin Cowdery, a cousin of the Mormon Elder Oliver Cowdery, purchased the Geneva, NY: Ontario Chronicle about the beginning of Feb., 1828, after having worked for a few years as supervisory printer on the Rochester Daily Telegraph, operated by the famous editor-publisher, Mr. Thurlow Weed. Cowdery continued as the editor of the Geneva paper (which went through several name changes) until the late summer of 1830, after which time he returned to Rochester.


 


The  Geneva  Palladium.
Vol. XIII.                            Geneva, N. Y., April 16, 1828.                             No. 640.


 

More Patriotism. -- In the last Geneva "Chronicle," the publisher of that paper renounces masonry. If this proceeds from honest motives it is right. We cannot judge of people's motives, but by their actions. There is a certain kind of patriots, who discover their opinions only when the contest is ended. And who consider, that as a general rule of action, it is always safest to be on the strong side. And how, we may naturally ask, is a prudent and discreet man to discover the strongest side, until after the battle is ended? -- This publisher -- Franklin Cowdery -- applied to C. S. M'Connell, Esq. one of the republican editors of this state, and the publisher of the "Onondaga Journal," to purchase that paper, and to print a Bucktail paper. He offered to take the Press, upon the condition that the republican party would advance $300, to make the first payment. Mr. M'Connell is the authority upon which this statement is given.


Note: The Palladium editor is, perhaps, being a bit too harsh with B. Franklin Cowdery. Franklin's anti-Masonic credentials must have come intact, from his previous association with Thurlow Weed in Rochester, where Mr. Cowdery was chief printer on the Telegraph until both he and Weed left, due to anti-Masonic sentiments. At that early date a political supporter of Tompkins or Van Buren might still have remained a "Republican" (increasingly being called the "Democratic" party, by then) and renounced Freemasonry, as it had been practiced in western New York, at any rate.


 



Vol. XIX.                             Geneva, N. Y., May 7, 1828.                              No. 36.


 

An Anti-Masonic paper was commenced at Canandaigua on the 1st instant, entitled "The Ontario Phoenix" -- by Phelps and Bloomer, for the Proprietors.

Note: Thus William Wine Phelps moved from the realtive obscurity of the Trumansburgh Lake Light, to the "big city" action of Canadaigua, the center-place of Freemasonry in Ontario Co.


 



No. 18. ]                                        Thursday, May 8, 1828.                                         [ Vol. III.



Renunciation of Masonry. -- The following gentlemen have recently and publicly renounced their connexion with the masonic institution: -- Rev. Noble. D. Strong, of Auburn; Rev. Reuben Winchell, of Lockport; Rev. Lampshire, of Starkey; Elder Wm. Robinson, of Springwater; Deacon Josiah Bissell, of Pittsfield, Mass.; Orson Nicholson, of Albion; Noah Ingersoll, of Albion; Silas Allen, of Romulus; Isaac Crane of Romulus, F. Ryerson of Patterson, N. J.; William Fay of Geneseo; Stephen Robinson, of Springwater; James Rolfe, of Elba; Kneeland Townsend, jr., of Lewiston; Charles Sedman of Hartland; Wm. Hall, of Amherst; De Lose Warren, of Aurora; Lewis Hancock of Wethersfield; R. L. Torrence, of Lodi; Franklin Cowdry, Editor of the Ontario Chronicle, Geneva; Rev. Elam Badger of Casenovia; James Heath, of Geneseo, Sands Bouton of Ellicotville; Taber Potter of Seneca Falls; Darius Sprague, William Hyde, Lund Tarbox and Phineas Smith of Randolph, Vermont.



We welcome the Ontario Chronicle into the list of independent presses. The following is the editor's renunciation:

(see April issues of the Chronicle for this text)


Note: In a prior issue, the editor of the Le Roy Gazette had this to say about Benjamin Franklin Cowdery and his new newspaper at Geneva: "Our neighbor of the Chronicle makes a sort of half-way apology for his learned correspondent's wit, if it may be so called, which, miserable and vulgar as it is, has certainly given an unusual degree of interest and importance to his columns for the last two weeks. As Mr. Cowdery has but recently taken up his residence among us, he may have yet to learn that there are in the ranks of his political associates, many individuals who may be considered fair subjects of retaliation, and against whom the shafts of irony and ridicule may be directed with a pointedness they cannot evade; and with humiliating effect. 'Those who live in glass houses,' &c., &c."


 


Free (   ) Press.

Vol. V.                        Auburn, N.Y., Wednesday, June 18, 1828.                         No. 4.



WHO  FIRST  PEOPLED  AMERICA?

This question is suggested by the evidences afforded Travellers to the west of the existence there, particularly in the vicinity of the Mississippi river, of a race of civilized men long before the discovery of America by Columbus. If it be shown that such an order of men inhabited this country before it was discovered by Europeans, another not less interesting question will arise in regard to their destiny -- whither they have departed? Were they driven off or exterminated by the savage inhabitants who possessed the country at the time of its discovery by Columbus?

The following extract containing some proofs of an earlier settlement of the country by civilized men than is commonly allowed, is taken from a review in the last number of the North American, of Schoolcraft's Travels in the valley of the Mississippi: -- Newburyport Herald.

In some cursory remarks upon the large mounds in the vicinity of St. Louis, Mr. Schoolcraft justly observes, that "enough has certainly been written on the subject, to prove how little we know either of their origin, or of their interior structure." These remains of ancient art have attracted the attention of travellers since the first settlement of the country; and standing as they do, the sole monument of human industry, and interminable forests, it is not surprising, that curiosity should be busy in investigating the age and objects of their founders. But little, however, has been effected to satisfy the rational inquirer, and before much progress can be made, all the facts connected with the topographical situation and construction of these works, and with the remains of earthen and metallick instruments found in and about them, should be collected and preserved. -- The Rev. Isaac McCoy, the Principal of the Missionary establishment upon the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, a man of sound judgement and rigid integrity has observed a class of works in that country, differing essentially from any which have been elsewhere found. As his account of them is interesting, we shall transcribe the letter he has addressed to us.

"Aware of the interest you feel in every thing relating to the character and condition of the aborigines of our country, I do myself the pleasure to enclose to you a plot of a tract of land, which has been cultivated in an unusual manner for this country, and which was abandoned by its cultivators ages ago.

These marks of antiquity are peculiarly interesting, because they exhibit the work of civilized, and not of savage man. All, or nearly all, the other works of antiquity, which have been found in these western regions, convince the observer, that they were formed by men, who had made little or no advance in the arts. If we examine a number of mounds in the same neighborhood, we find them situated without any regard to order in the arrangement, precisely as modern savages place their huts in their vilages. If we observe a fortification made of earth, we shall find it exhivits no greater order in its formation, than necessity in a similar case would suggest to an uncultivated Indian of modern days. If it be a wall of stone, the stones are unbroken, as they were taken from the quarry, or rather from the neighboring rook or river.

In the works to which I now allude, we find what we suppose to have been garden spots, thrown into riges and walks with so much judgement, as to forbid a thought, that they were formed by uncivilized man. The plans sent you by no means represent the most striking works. I procured these, because the places were near my residence. I can find several acres together, laid out into walks and beds, in a style which would not suffer by a comparison with any gardens in the United States.

These places were not cultivated by the early French emigrants to the country, because:

1. They evince a population at least twenty times greater than the French ever had in any of the lakes in those early times. In the tract of country in which I have observed them, of the one hundred and fifty miles in extent, north and south, from Grand River to Elksheart, I think the number and extent of these ancient improvements indicate a population nearly or quite equal in density to that of Indiana.

2. The early French establishments were generally made on navigable streams. But these improvements are spread over the whole country. Scarcely a fertile prairie is found, on the margin of which we do not observe these evidences of civilization.

3. These works were abandoned by their proprietors long before the country became known to the Europeans. The timber standing, fallen, and decaying, on these cultivated spots, has precisely the same appearance in respect to age, as that immediately adjoining. On a cluster of these beds, a plan of which I send you, I cut down a white-oak tree which measured three feet two inches in diameter, two and a half feet above the ground., and which was three hundred and twenty-five years old, if the real age of a tree is indicated by the number of its concentrick circles.

From the indications yet remaining, it is certain that most of these works have disappeared. We find nine in the beach, ash or walnut land, because here the earth is loose and mellow to the surface and not bound with grass, We find them rarely in the prairies far from the timber, because the places of which I speak have been, as I suppose, not fields but gardens, convenient to dwelling houses, which were probably placed in the vicinity of the timber for the same reasons which induce our present settlers to select similar sites for their residence. In what we call barrens, adjoining prairies, the surface of the earth is bound by the grass, in the same manner as that of the prairie itself, and by these means the ridges are preserved. And nothwithstanding the causes which are in daily operation to destroy these works, I am confident I have seen acres of them which will exist for centuries, if assailed by no other hand than that of nature. The Indians of Grand River informed me, that these appearances are found on all the waters of the river, and that they extend south from the waters of the Kekalimazoo. A few are found near Mickillimackinac. To use their expressions, 'the country is full of them.'

The Indian tradition on this subject is, that these places were cultivated by a race of men, whom they denominated the Prairie Indians and that they were driven from the country by the united tribes of Chippewas, Ottawas, and Potawatomies. The few who survived the calamities of war, went westward, and some may even yet exist beyond the Mississippi. But the smallest reliance can be placed on any Indian tradition relating to a remote period."

Note 1: Although compiler Dan Vogel lists Schoolcraft's 1821 Narrative... in his book describing of pre-1830 publications which could have influenced the text of the Book of Mormon, he neglects mentioning any North American Review articles on antiquities, the Indians, etc. after 1817.

Note 2: If the Rev. Isaac McCoy's reports of the artifacts of ancient culture in the west had any impact upon the Book of Mormon, it was something of an irony that he was later viewed by the LDS in Missouri as their sworn foe. For example, in his 1900 book The Missouri Persecutions, Mormon historian B. H. Roberts says: "the Reverend Isaac McCoy and other preachers of the gospel (!) were seen leading armed bands of marauders from place to place; and were the main inspirers of cowardly assaults on the defenseless." See Warren A. Jennings's "Isaac McCoy and the Mormons" in the Oct. 1966 Missouri Historical Review for a less vindictive view of McCoy.


 



Vol. XX.                             Geneva, N. Y., June 25, 1828.                              No. 3.


 

It appears that the Chronicle, of this village, considering itself in duty bound to follow in the wake of its brother, the Repository, has repeated the falsehood against us; but perhaps more with a view of displaying its wit and knowledge of grammar -- "negative adverb and injunction," -- than to advance either the cause it expouses or the cause of truth.


Note: It seems that the editor of the Geneva Gazette was accused by the editor of the Ontario Repository, with not renouncing one of M. M. Noah's recent misstatements. Chronicle editor, B. F. Cowdery repeated the Canandaigua paper's assertion, to the chagrin of his rival in Geneva -- a tempest in a teacup, for sure.


 


THE
GOSPEL  ADVOCATE
AND  IMPARTIAL  INVESTIGATOR.


Vol. VI.                             Auburn, N. Y., Sat., October 11, 1828.                              No. 21.



SECTARIES  VERSUS  SECTARISM.

A letter from an aged brother in the faith residing in Trumbull county, Ohio, affords us farther information of the proceedings of some of our brethren in the ministry, who have discovered how infinitely important it is to renounce sectarism and be baptized in water! Our correspondent informs us that he has enjoyed the faith of God's great love and impartial grace for "nearly fifty years," and seems to feel the wound which our cause has sustained "in the house of its friends." We can sympathize with our aged brother in his trials, but at the same time can assure him that our religion cannot be destroyed or seriously injured by the case he so feelingly deplores -- it has taken too deep root in the faithful hearts of thousands -- it is too firmly established upon the throne of God to be moved by mortals, however respectable, or however well convinced of the propriety of "divers washings" they may chance to be.

We feel no other emotions than those occasioned by the purest friendship towards Brs. Rains, Williams, St. Clair and others, who have become Campbellites, but with due regard to their feelings and for the increase of unadulterated truth, we shall submit a few remarks on the course they have adopted. We concede to them and all others the right to think, to believe, and to act, according to the dictates of their consciences; and while we yield them the privilege of so doing, we claim for ourself the right to animadvert upon their opinions and policy as publick men with the utmost freedom and good nature. Should we, in exercising the prerogative we claim, fail to appreciate their motives, it will remain for them to correct us with all the frankness that becomes those who have received from the "Bishop" the Holy Ghost, with all its spiritual benefactions.

We have perused, for the two years past, the periodical work edited by Mr. A. Campbell, the leader -- nay, the Bishop of the Christian Baptists, and have endeavoured to become acquainted with his leading views. We understand from his writings that he is opposed to sectarism in all its forms, and pretends to advocate the "ancient order of things," as established by Christ and his Apostles. It is not our purpose, at this time, to enter into an examination of his peculiar views with an intention of refuting or trying to refute them; but shall compare the pretentions of the man and his followers, with their practice.

He pretends to be at war with every thing of a sectarian character. This fact is apparent from almost every page of his paper. Now, we are not surprized that he and his followers should write and preach against sectarism -- there is nothing strange in all this: But we marvel that he and his brethren should say so much against the evil in question, while they themselves are at work, "might and main," in building up a mammoth sect -- an “ism,” which it is intended shall swallow up all other “isms!” How is the fact? Not long since it was triumphantly announced in the "Christian Baptist" that several Universalist ministers had renounced sectarism. True. But what did they become after they had renounced this so much hated “ism?” Answer: They became "Campbellites" -- a sect of no sectarians -- advocates of the "ancient order of things," forsooth: -- Believers in what? in no creed, perhaps, but in “the ancient order of things!”

Now the sum of the matter seems to be this: -- Mr. Campbell desires to be the head of a new sect -- he retains many of the errors of his predecessors, has sought out many inventions of his own -- has acquired some popularity by his writings, and more by novelty of his views; and sets himself up as a zealous opponent of creeds and sects, and is enjoying a short-lived fame -- not from any particular beauty in his system, when abstractly considered, but from the success he has met with in contrasting his own peculiar views with those of his quondam associates. When we scan down his principles we find, at the bottom, the notion of endless hell-torments, and materials in abundance for a new "Chatechism" and the "thirty-nine articles" to boot! Besides all this, he labours hard show the propriety of using the title of "Bishop" and applying it to those who preside over the "ancient order of things" -- and for aught we can discover, will yet improve his anti-sectarian system so far as add to the ghostly appellations already assumed, those of a "Right Reverend Father in God" -- His Holiness, the Pope," &c. &c.

We do not wonder that an aspiring man, or a good Christian, should aim at acquiring the signal honour being the leader of a sect -- nor that, in his zeal should do as Mr. Campbell has done; but our astonishment arises from the fact that any of our brethren should desert the standard of reason, and suffer themselves to be led aside from the path of duty by hollow pretensions and unmeaning ceremonies. What is religion? It is not to be dubbed a "Bishop," an "Elder," a "Deacon," or a "Campbellite!" What are the best means of promoting pure and undefiled religion? Unless we are misinformed, "being baptized in water" is no means of promoting the good cause. What, then, is the leading or governing motive with those who have resorted to that summary process of obtaining the Holy Ghost? We leave it for those concerned to answer.

In view of all the facts that have come to our knowledge we have only to caution our brethren in Ohio against being led astray or disheartened by what they have experienced or may hereafter be called to endure. Although we desire not to perpetuate the evils of sectarism, we would adhere to the distinctive features of pure unadulterated Universalism, to long as it continues to serve the cause of humanity and virtue. From a somewhat extensive acquaintance with the effects produced by the promulgation of our views, we have become convinced that they are salutary -- and so believing, we are bound to keep on in the straight forward course of our duty. The truth is, the doctrine of "Impartial Grace" has laid the axe at the root of orthodoxy; it is scattering the works of darkness to the winds of heaven! Hence, many, seeing its march, and beholding its triumphant conquests, have set themselves at work to save the fragments of orthodoxy, by assuming the garb of liberality, but still retaining the essentials of partialism. So with the system of Mr. Campbell. He retains all the remnants of those sentiments which have deluged the earth in blood; and yet endeavours to palm himself off upon community as a friend to liberal principles and liberal men! We have been told of his liberality, of the good he is doing in the world, of his enmity to creeds and priest-craft; but we are yet to be convinced that he is any thing more than a zealous and ambitious sectarian, and that his views are more liberal than those, of other limitarians. We have been told that he is a Universalist, at heart -- but so much the worse! If he be a Universalist, let him throw off the mask and espouse our cause; -- if not, let him preach his doctrine of wrath to the world! We fellowship none but those who have sufficient mental courage to speak, and that openly, their honest sentiments.

We cannot close this article without making one more remark, by way of a caution to our friends generally. Since our doctrine has attained to a respectable standing in the estimation of the enlightened part of community, there have not been wanting those who would put a stop to its glorious career by drawing our brethren aside to the support of other sentiments, whose advocates have affected to be liberal. Their story has been -- "names are nothing -- we respect your persons, we inwardly approbate your sentiments -- come, then, and unite with us -- we are respectable in the eyes of mankind, and our cause is popular, therefore it will be for your interest to support us." With this delusive tale some of our brethren have been beguiled. But our more intelligent friends need only be convinced of the deception, to elude the vigilance of those who practice it. The truth is, UNIVERSALISM has been despised, but UNIVERSALISM is now respected by nine tenths of the intellect of this country; and UNIVERSALISM will live -- will flourish -- will effect the destruction of error in the Church; and, though the magicians of darkness may yet a little longer practice their deceptions with success, the time is not far distant when UNIVERSALISM will stand forth, justified by her works and good fruits, and be recognized as the doctrine which has saved Christianity from ruin and the liberties of our country from destruction.

We had written thus far and put our manuscript into the hands of the compositor, when the following letter was received from Mr. Rains, one of the persons whose names occur in the foregoing. We insert it without delay, that our readers may have the benefit of the investigation, and that its authour may not have cause of complaint.

MR. RAINS' LETTER. -- NO. I.

MR. EVERETT: -- Last night, for the first time, the 17th No. of the 6th Volume of the Gospel Advocate was put into my hands, in which, on the 268th page, I read a communication from Solomon Kingsbury, which informs you and your readers, that "three of your brethren, viz. Williams, Cotton and Rains, have been baptized by immersion," (to which he might have added Sinclair and Jones,) "and that Rains is baptizing, and preaching baptism, as a very necessary duty, in order to gain admission into the kingdom of heaven," together with your reply. These facts considered in connexion with the fact, that I have not only been immersed, but that I am actually preaching immersion, as a mean by which for sinners to enter into the enjoyment of grace, seem to exhibit me as a ringleader of those "weak men," who have been foolish enough to obey Jesus Christ in preference to men, and to adopt the primitive Christian usage, in preference to following the nice, subtle, fastidious philosophers of the present age, who, supposing themselves to be blessed with reason's all-penetrating eye, disdain every duty which does not suit their own convenience, and these are considerations sufficiently weighty to induce me, through the medium of your Advocate, if you please, to make know to all your readers the principles upon which we have acted, and to vindicate those principles, should it be necessary against every opposer.

2. I am heartily disgusted with the course which has been pursued by the ministers of Universalism. The deleterious effects of this course, might well cause every philanthropist to lament. Those Universalists with whom I have been acquainted, with the exception of a few individuals, are destitute of all religious energy, and in fact of every thing else necessary to the advancement of the religion of Jesus Christ among men. Very often have I dropped the tear of regret in beholding the coldness of my former brethren who, though they had a name to live, were evidently dead. I have preached to them in the popular Universalist way, until my constitution is much impaired, but their condition is not any better. But thanks be to God, I have lately learned the reason why such a want of energy exists among the Universalists, as well as among other sectarians, and if it should be necessary, I will, in some subsequent communication, make this reason known.

3. So fully am I convinced of the pernicious tendency of all sectarian preaching, that I did, when I was baptized for the remission of my sins, Acts 2nd chap., invoke God that my sins of sectarianism might, with my other sins, be washed away. And God being my helper, I am determined during the remainder of my life, to preach, instead of Universalism, the Gospel and the law of Christ, believing that when the New Covenant with its laws shall be preached, without any, and independently, of all human speculations, traditions, inventions, subversions, and equivocations, a mould of doctrine will be exhibited into which the minds of men may be, and will be cast upon the primitive plan, having the primitive impressions, the primitive simplicity, and by whom will be exhibited the whole golden cluster of primitive graces and virtues.

4. Those who have entered fully into the spirit of the present joyful revival which prevails in this county, have " determined to know nothing but Jesus Christ, and him crucified." They confine themselves and their faith to the obvious declarations of the New Covenant and the laws growing out of that covenant; and if in their New-Testament researches, they find any thing not so obviously definite as to preclude all rational doubt, as it respects its meaning, they forbear to urge it upon others, until its meaning shall be more clear, not only to themselves, but also to the minds of their brethren. "Follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify another," is a good rule, and we are determined to walk by it.

5. We know, however, that this rule will not suit the restless, sectarian spirits of our age. But they are not of us. They are unanimously possessed of the ancient factional, sectmaking spirit, which began to disturb the peace of the Christian Church even in the days of the Apostles. In this enlightened age, (as you and Mr. Kingsbury would say,) this sectarian spirit is very capricious. One party must be called Presbyterian, others Methodist, Baptist, Episcopalian, Restorationist, Universalist, Quaker, &c. &c. &c. Do we find any of these names in the New-Testament? Suppose that one of our modern fashionable sectarians had arisen in the Christian Church on the day of Pentecost, and should have called himself by any of these names, do you not suppose he would have been viewed as an alien from the New-Jerusalem, and a stranger to the Gospel Covenant? With what astonishment would he have been gazed at from every corner? Suppose, sir, that yourself and some others of our hydrophobial Universalists had been present in that august assemblage of baptized converts who were so ignorant and destitute of the refinements of later ages, as to be baptized for the remission of their sins, and the gift of the Holy Spirit, would not you and your friends have supposed these converts at this great revival to have been "full of new wine?" would you not have said, as you have said in your reply to Mr. Kingsbury, "we regret" (that you who have gladly received the word,) "should be constrained or in any way induced" (even by the positive command of the Holy Spirit) "to return to the beggarly elements of the world," (the command to be baptized.) "Not that we feel in the least disposed to censure or condemn our brethren for the course they have pursued -- far from it," (no, not even for returning to the weak and beggarly elements of the world -- this is Universalist lenity with a witness,) "but we deplore the circumstance, inasmuch as, in our estimation, a thing so obviously unimportant," (as Baptism for the remission of sins,) "should be reckoned among the means of grace. Now to us" (Universalists) "it appears that when a person can be made willing to receive the ordinance of baptism from a priest," (Peter,) "either by sprinkling a little water on his face, or by being dipped in a pond," (Jordan,) "he has not only lost sight of the new and living way, but is in a situation to be led almost any where," (to hell.) "Will it be urged that the weakness of some renders it expedient to adopt such ordinances? Our reply is," (a strange reply too,) "it would be best to let such weakness cure itself." Strange! strange! strange!! This is really a new discovery. That weakness is efficaeious in curing weakness, is a discovery which our western simpletons have never made. We were "weak" enough to think that grace is the medicine which the great Physician administers to sin-sick souls, and that this grace is efficacious in all cases of spiritual weakness; but perhaps this notion originated in our "weakness."

6. We will hear you a little farther. "Will it be said," (you say,) "that the bible requires the observance of such ordinances? Our reply is, if so, it teaches us that God Almighty has instituted an ordinance, at once inconvenient, and to the eye of reason, vain and absurd," &c &c. From this it appears, sir, that you are not disposed to do any thing, even though God commanded it, unless it suits your own convenience. This, sir, is precisely the same spirit which prevails in this country, among those who call themselves Universalists. They do not consider baptism to be a convenient ordinance, and the same may be said of the Lord's Supper, and of the whole routine of church order. They seem to think that it was well enough for the foolish, old-fashioned people, in the days of the Apostles, to be baptized, partake of the Lord's Supper, and even for them to be united in churches; but in these latter days of reason's triumphant refinement, it is not necessary to attend to any of these old-fashioned things, or indeed any thing else, except prating against orthodoxy. Now, Mr. Everett, suppose you had exhibited your reply to Mr. K., before the Christians on the day of Pentecost, do you not think they would have stared at you? But enough! enough!!

7. You will please to excuse me, my dear sir, for the plainness of speech which I have used in this letter. "Do to others as you would have them to do to you," is a law, to which we have no objections. If I am in an errour, I should be very glad if some friend wbuld convince hue of it, and the sooner the better. I have indeed lately been immersed for the remission of my sins, and the gift of the Holy Spirit, and I have been earnestly engaged in preaching this ordinance. If I have strayed from the good old way, my everlasting thanks shall be given to the kind mortal, who will convince me of errour. But after all, one thing I do know, my preaching has been, since I espoused the ancient Gospel, much more efficacious in reforming sinners than it was before. Do, if you please, contrast your sentiments with the sincere milk of the word exhibited in the 2nd chapter of Acts.

8. As you have challenged us to "break a lance" with you, we must inform you that we have no objections to permitting you to choose your own weapons. We must however inform you, that we backwoods people, have no particular predilection to lance-fighting. -- We prefer a sword -- "the sword of the spirit which is the word of God." We believe that "truth is mighty and will prevail," and we are not very anxious, as to the termination of this contemplated controversy.

I am yours respectfully, AYLETT RAINS.
Braceville, Sept. 20, 1828.

REMARKS.

Now, we rejoice to find that brother Rains steps forth, like a man, as the champion of "the ancient order of things," alias anti-sectansm. We hope he did not understand us to mean, that we were willing literally to fight, with sword and pistol -- no, we meant nothing more than that, if he desired in good earnest to vindicate his present views, we would engage with our only weapon-- the goose quill! We pray him, and all concerned, to take warning that we are totally averse to the use of any deadly weapon; and should an unlucky word chance to fall from us, while pursuing the subject, that can be tortured into a challenge to fight, we do hope he will take it in a spiritual sense, according to the New Translation by "Bishop" Campbell for we only intend to fight with the "sword of" the spirit, the word of God, and the shield of faith." For the sake of perspicuity we shall notice each paragraph in the foregoing letter, separately; though at the same time we shall study brevity.

The first paragraph is intended, no doubt, as an acknowledgement that our information was correct, as far as it went, and that the fact was correctly stated in our 17th number. We had not, before, been informed that Mr. Jones had also been converted. Truly, the holy Spirit must have selected Universalist preachers as the special subjects of its care! Human sagacity would, probably, discover in all this "turning about," an appearance of something like a “concert of action,” but most likely the age of miracles has returned. Mr. Rains informs as that he is "actually engaged in preaching IMMERSION as a means by which for sinners to enter into the enjoyment of grace." We have no doubt of the fact; but could wish he were "actually engaged in preaching" THE GOSPEL. What he says about being "foolish enough to obey Jesus Christ," &c. is begging the question. Wait, dear sir, until we learn what Jesus hath commanded; wait, until it is settled whether you are obeying Jesus Christ, before you claim the honours of martyrdom for your obedience. He commanded his servants to preach the GOSPEL, but you, sir, from your own confession, are "preaching IMMERSION" -- a word not found in the sacred oracles! Show your commission, before you talk against "nice, subtle, fastidious philosophers" -- or claim to be directed by the letter and spirit of our Saviour's instructions. "We hold you to your offer -- stand fast, therefore, and vindicate your kind of preaching "against every opposer" -- it is "necessary."

We are informed in the second paragraph of Mr. Rains' letter, that he is "heartily disgusted with the course which has been pursued by the ministers of Universalism," and that "those with whom he has been acquainted, with the exception of a few individuals, are destitute of all religious energy." Well, we sincerely pity friend Rains, or any other man who has been equally unfortunate in selecting his associates! If those who have renounced the faith, and turned Campbellites are a fair specimen of the preachers with whom he has associated, we cannot blame him for being "heartily disgusted:" For men who will labour for years without knowing what they believe, or why they believe -- and be "blown about by every wind of doctrine," are enough to "disgust" any body. And it is our humble but ardent prayer, that, if there be any more of a similar stamp, they too, may be "heartily disgusted" with themselves -- Mr. Campbell is welcome to all such -- we need them not. And if either of the gentlemen feel aggrieved at the severity of this remark, let them look at the spirit of the foregoing letter. We happen to know more of this matter than meets the eye of the reader, and feel justified in retorting. Mr. R. need not put himself to the trouble of letting our readers know the reason why it is so -- they know it already. They know, and deplore the fact, that many of our western preachers have not acted up to the spirit of the holy religion they professed; but have degraded and disgraced the cause, and finally abandoned it, while, through their neglect and abuse, it was bleeding at every pore! -- Well might they have been "heartily disgusted" with themselves, and well may they deplore the want of energy with which they were afflicted. Did they shed tears? It was well; and it would have been better had they suffered themselves to have wept more bitterly. But note we suppose our quondam brethren can rejoice all the day long -- since the "ancient order of things" is established, there is is no cause for tears -- since it has become their duty to preach “immersion,” our brethren find energy enough and to spare!

The third paragraph commences with a statement of the writer's own case, at the time he was baptized, and informs us how he "invoked God, that his sins of sectarianism might be washed away." How far this prayer was efficacious may be seen from the following fact. A correspondent informs us, that "Mr. Rains declared in his hearing, that he renounced all creeds whatever; and at the same time, he declared that the system of Mr. Scott, old Mr. Campbell and others of the baptist order, was correct, which consisted of five points, viz. Faith, Repentance, Baptism, Receiving the Holy Ghost, (which they promised to all as soon as baptized) and fifthly, a pardon for all their sins." -- Now, in the name of wonder, we demand, what are these "five points," but so many articles of faith? The two last "points" appear to approximate as near the faith of the "Mother Church" as they well can; and we should not be greatly surprized if it should finally turn out, that our brethren have mistaken the Old Catholick beast for the "ancient order of things." --

Mr. R. refers us to the 2nd chapter of Acts. Does he mean to insinuate that he and his present associates have enjoyed blessings similar to those experienced on the day of Pentecost? If any part of the chapter is applicable to their condition why not the whole? Have they heard a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind -- have they seen cloven tongues of fire -- do they speak with other tongues -- or have the "last days," spoken of by the prophet Joel, been enjoyed by the Campbellites? We wait a reply. -- Mr. R. next informs us, that he is now determined to "preach, instead of Universalism, the Gospel and the law of Christ," &c. A noble resolution, truly! And what is Universalism but the Gospel of Christ? And what is the Gospel of Christ but "good tidings of great joy which shall be unto all people?" And what is the "law of Christ," but the law of impartial love? Return to your duty, brethren, and preach GOSPEL, instead of "IMMERSION!" The gospel of Christ needs no speculation -- no tradition -- no inventions -- no subversions -- and no equivocations; and when faithfully proclaimed, will mould the heart into the image of its Author, the God of love, who baptizes with (not water) the "Holy Ghost and with fire." The Gospel of Christ is too pure to come in contact with any modern inventions without being contaminated; and we would therefore advise our brethren to make converts by proclaiming it: and though persons thus converted may not have so much "energy" as those converted by the preaching of "immersion," yet we venture to say, they will endure full as long, and be full as valuable.

There is nothing in the fourth paragraph of our friend's letter particularly interesting aside from the following. He speaks of a "joyful revival" and inform[s] us that those who have been its subjects have "determined to know nothing but Jesus Christ and him crucified." This passage may be tortured into any thing. With the Presbyterian, it means, to know nothing but Calvinism -- with the Methodist it means, to know nothing but Arminianism -- with the Universalist it means, to know nothing but God's Son as the "Saviour of all men" -- while with our Campbellite friends, it means, to know the," five points" above noticed; or perhaps -- to know things just as Mr. Campbell knows them. We are probably correct in the latter case, at least, as we understand Mr. C. has published a new translation of the New-Testament, and will probably remove all doubts from the minds of his devoted followers, so far as relates to the infalibility of his own scheme.

The fifth paragraph commences with an assumption that the rule before mentioned "will not suit the restless sectarian spirits of our age." This is doubted. It seems to suit Mr. R. and what is he but a restless sectarian? That he is "restless" is evident from the fact that there was not "energy" enough amongst the Universalists to suit the temper of his mind; and that he is a sectarian is as certain as it is that he is a follower of Mr. Campbell. What right, then, has he to say of sectarians -- "they are not of us?" Does he mean they have not yet assented to his "five points," that they have not yet been immersed? What was it but a sectarian spirit that in ancient times led to disputes about circumcision? And what but such a spirit that now requires us all to be baptized in water by "immersion?" True, people are called by certain names, and pray by what name shall we call our friend Rains? ==> A "Christian Baptist" we suppose! or is he to be called by no name? Do we find the appellative of "Christian Baptist" applied to any person, or any people, in the scriptures? Suppose, then, that a "person had arisen in the Christian Church on the day of Pentecost, and should have called himself a Campbellite, do you not suppose they would have viewed him as an alien from the New Jerusalem and a stranger to the gospel Covenant? With what astonishment would he have been gazed at from every corner?" &c. &c. He continues, -- "Suppose, sir, that yourself, andsome others of our hydrophobial Universalists, had been present in that august assemblage of baptised Converts, who were so ignorant and destitute of the refinements of latter ages as to be baptized for the remission of their sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit; would not you and your friends have supposed these converts at this great revival to have been 'full of new wine?'" Answer. What we or our friends might have done on such an occasion, we pretend not to say; but if we should happen to be present at a "great revival" in Trumbull county, Ohio, and should there find an august assemblage of priests, and should hear them pretending to the power delegated to the Apostles on the day of Pentecost, and should witness the rant sometimes discoverable on such occasions, amongst the religiously insane, we should think there was "something rotten in Denmark!" that there was more wind and water, than true religion among them! We did not know, till now, that Universalists were afflicted with canine madness; but we must now believe it to be the fact, or put the modesty and veracity of Mr. R. to the test. "Hydrophobial Universalists!!" A pretty epithet, indeed, to be applied to us, by one under the influence of the Holy Ghost -- by one, who has adopted the rule of studying and striving to "follow the things which make for peace." Pray, sir, if this is the legitimate consequence of your recent conversion, what spirit actuated you before your regeneration? We respectfully recommend a prescription to be found in the "Christian Baptist" of Sept. 1, entitled "New-Testamentism a cure for, and preventative against Campbellism and all other isms" -- which, if an emetick is wanted, will cure any thing but an extreme case of hydrophobia in amphibious animals. --

Again: We by no means regret to hear that our friends "gladly receive the word" -- nor that they should obey the positive command of the holy Spirit -- nor that they, should be baptized; -- but we have yet to learn, that receiving the word consists in being immersed in water, or that the holy Spirit enjoins it upon Christians to be Campbellites -- or that the "one baptism" of the gospel is water baptism. And while we feel no inclination to censure or despise those whose weakness turns them back from the liberty of the gospel, to "divers washings and carnal ordinances," to the "beggarly elements" of the world, we would do all in our power to strengthen them and lead them back to the fold of Christ. Nor do we deny that baptism for the remission of sins was once considered essential, and justly so; but contend that when the kingdom of God was established on earth, all the ceremonies of that description were rendered unnecessary. And we firmly believe that when a person can be made willing to receive the ordinance of water baptism from the priest, he has not only lost sight of the "new and living way," but is in a situation to be led almost any where. Not because there is any thing in the ordinance itself, that extinguishes intellectuai vision or leads astray; but whoever is so ignorant as not to be able to discriminate between the day of Pentecost and the 4th of July -- between Peter of old, and Bishop Campbell -- between water baptism and the baptism of the Holy Ghost and fire, is in a situation to "see God in clouds and hear him in the Wind," or look for the "pearl of great price" in a mill-pond. We say. therefore, that we cannot find it in our heart to censure such persons; but we deplore their weakness -- and, "strange" as it may appear to some, we think it best to let such "weakness cure itself." Whether "western simpletons" (as Mr. R. is pleased to call himself and brethren) understand it or not, there is a kind of weakness of the human mind, which, when the fever has turned, will work its own cure -- and this remark is peculiarly applicable to mental complaints of an inflammatory kind; whether our prescription would be salutary in cases of hydrophobia or not, we leave for Mr. Rains to determine. He continues: -- "We were 'weak' enough to think that GRACE is the medicine which the great Physician administers to sin-sick souls, and that this grace is efficacious, in all cases of spiritual weakness. But perhaps this notion originated in our 'weakness.'" Now, Mr. R. was never more deceived in his life, than he appears to be in two respects, as expressed in the foregoing sentence. First, he errs in supposing that we intended to dignify his recent conduct by calling it sin -- we meant it was “weakness.” Secondly, he errs in supposing that the fact, that GRACE will be "efficacious in all cases of spiritual weakness" originated in his, or his brethrens' "weakness." No, sir, it originated in the strength of God Almighty! And so sure as God hath told the truth, GRACE will finally triumph over all sin, and all weakness. Indeed, the only thing we complain of, is that Mr. R. has renounced the idea that it will be efficacious in reconciling the whole world to God, and turning to the "beggarly element" of water, to cure mankind. There is a difference, we opine, between "grace" and "immersion."

In reply to what is contained in his sixth paragraph, we have Only to say: First make it appear that baptism by "immersion" is enjoined by the gospel covenant, and we shall be as ready to bo immersed as we now are to write against it. But believing as we most sincerely do, that God does not require sacrifice, that nothing is required of us but to "deal justly, love mercy, and walk humbly," -- that nothing unseemly or "inconvenient" is enjoined by the gospel, we repeat, that such things are unnecessary -- that they only tend to detract from the simplicity of the gospel, and cause men to prostrate reason at the shrine of modern delusion; Talk no more of, the day of Pentecost, then, nor of what was done by the Apostles, until you prove, by signs and wonders,"by splendid miraeles, that ye are possessed of Apostolick power! And, how ridiculous it is, for men, "in this enlightened age," to pretend, that they, poor mortals, are to do and be, as Peter and others did and were! It reminds us of the fable of the frog -- they seem to be anxious to inflate themselves with wind and water, until they reach the size of Peter or John or Paul! But "enough, enough!"

Lastly: We cordially reciprocate the wish, to be excused for our "plainness of speech" -- and if we have been too plain, we hope our friend Mr. Rains will attribute the errour of the head to the warmth and friendship of the heart. Believing that he has been led from the straight forward path of duty, by enticements other than the beauty of his present system, we have felt it a privilege to expose wThat we think his errours. We desire no thanks -- we expect no praise, for making an effort to reclaim him. We doubt not the sincerity of his heart, in supposing that his preaching has been more efficacious in converting sinners than formerly -- but let him remember, that the lion's whelps are not so numerous, as those of the cat; but they are lions. It cannot be expected that his present course can yet be fairly tested by the result now manifest; and we greatly fear his converts will be but little benefitted by a water conversion. But, after all, we wish him success in his attempts to be useful, and trust, that, like the prodigal son, he will yet return to his Father's house, where there is bread enough and spare.   EDITOR.


Note 1: The modern reader can only wonder how Elder Sidney Rigdon might have responded to the Gospel Advocate editor's 1828 condemnation of Campbellism. The article appeared about a year after Rigdon himself had accepted Elder Walter Scott's "five points" of the restored gospel, and had set about issuing immediate altar calls to potential converts in northeastern Ohio -- in what the editor calls "a 'great revival' in Trumbull county, Ohio," (which by then had spread to congregations at Mentor, Kirtland, Hiram, Mantua, etc.). Certainly Rigdon would have been stung by the criticism that he and other Ohio reformers were not yet exhibiting pentecostal "signs and wonders" in the latter part of 1828. Eight years later, in Massachusetts, Rigdon would rehearse the earliest Mormon doctrine: "that no man can preach the true gospel, unless the same signs and wonders follow those who believe it and are baptized, which did follow it in the days of the Apostles -- consequently, none can be true Christians, except those who have received the Holy Ghost, and who have power to see visions, dream dreams, look into futurity, utter prophecies, handle poisonous reptiles or drink any deadly thing, without receiving any injury, of healing the sick by laying their hands upon them, and the gift of speaking with other tongues, as on the day of Pentecost."

Note 2: It should be recollected, that the Campbellite practice of bestowing the "Holy Ghost" upon newly immersed converts typically amounted to something less than a "baptism of fire" in 1828. Some innovative preachers and followers of Alexander Campbell appear to have ventured beyond Campbell's own dispassionate "Holy Ghost" teachings, however. One of the new movement's harshest critics (and Rigdon's replacement in the Pittsburgh Baptist pastorate) taunted these innovative Ohio reformers with the following caustic remarks: "you excite deluded men, under the title of Reformer bishops, to proclaim... [those] who are or shall be immersed in that water, shall have their sins forgiven, washed away, and come out thereof, and up therefrom, holy as angels! and shall have the Holy Ghost given unto them in 24, 48, 72 hours, or four days at furthest... your converts... have rushed out of their houses at night, exclaiming in the streets and high-ways, 'I have got it, I have got it' -- in allusion to the Holy Ghost, which your bishops, their dippers, had promised to them, if they would be immersed: and which converts ran from house to house in the town, and in the country, like rabid dogs -- all night, calling on the people to got up, and go and be immersed, for the gift of the Holy Ghost'... some of your female converts, having been baptized, with the promise from their dippers, that they should have the Holy Ghost given to them at such a time after being dipped -- but not receiving the Holy Ghost by the time specified, they... inquired, if they could not send the Holy Ghost down to them by the stage... therefrom, the wags and wits were wont to say, that they were enciente by Scott, Rigdon, Bentley, or Campbell's holy ghost."

Note 3: The Auburn editor perhaps felt he was making an important doctrinal point when he augmented a line from Campbell's own publication: "'New-Testamentism a cure for... isms" -- which, if an emetick is wanted, will cure any thing." The idea thus put forth is that a believer's careful adherence to the Christian Bible would serve as a purgatorial remedy for false doctrine. Sidney Rigdon made use of similar language in 1837, when he boasted: "One thing has been done by the coming forth of the Book of Mormon; it has puked the Campbellites effectually, no emetic could do half so well."


 
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