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An example of 1860s British "Mormonism" popular fiction

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Vol. ?                                   Monday, London, April 15, 1850.                                  No. 26,013.

[p. 21]




Public Health -- The Irish -- Religion in the Iron Works.

A memorable event in the abbals of Merthyr was the visit of the cholera to the town last summer. It was a four months' reign of terror and desolation. Go where you will -- but especially amongst the labouring classes and the poor -- the people still speak of it as of a heavy trial, and a frightening calamity...

I wished to obtain an accurate account of the religious accommodation afforded by the churches and chapels, as well as the educational provision made by them, for the 40,000 inhabitants of this town. I obtained these particulars from the Church, and I called on the leading ministers of the three principal sects here, and asked their co-operation, which was I promised me, but from one minister only -- Mr. I. Fletcher, of the English Wesleyans -- did I obtain what I required. I have seen a statement which showed that in 1845 there were 6,000 Dissenters in Merthyr and Dowlais, and that the places of worship would contain 18,000 persons. Obviously, from the number of chapels and the church accommodation here, both particulars are understated. I give the names of some of the chapels as I find them in a list before me; they are characteristic: -- Bethel, Zion, Tabernacle, Ebenezer (two), Zoar, Adulbam, Bethesda, Siloh (two), Elim, Pennsylvania, CarSalem, Hebron, Bethania, Hermon, Carmel, Tabor; the others bear the name of their locality. The English Wesleyans have two chapels, and the Welsh Wesleyans two; the congregations of the English Wesleyan Society in Merthyr and Dowlais are returned to me at 510 -- the number of communicants, 270. Beyond this I can give no exact particulars of the numbers of the congregations in these chapels. The English Baptists have one chapel, whilst the Welsh Baptists have not less than eight. The English Independents have one chapel only; the Welsh Independents have ten. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists have five chapels. The Primitive Methodists have two chapels. The Unitarians have two chapels. Besides these there is a Catholic chapel, supported mainly by the Irish; and the Jews have also a place of meeting.

Strange as it may appear, after the exposure of the frauds of Joe Smith, there are in and around Merthyr many Mormonites; they call themselves "Latter-day Saints." There has been some emigration of this sect to Nauvoo, their Holy City in America. Regarding the number of chapels as a criterion for judging of the relative extent of each sect in Merthyr and Dowlais, they will take numerical precedence as follows: -- 1. English and Welsh Independents. 2. English and Welsh Baptists. 3. Welsh Calvinistic Methodists. 4. English and Welsh Wesleyans. 5. Primitive Methodists. 6. Unitarians (The number of Primitive Methodist chapels and of Unitarian chapels is the same, but the congregations of Primitive Methodists being the largest, I have given them precedence). 7. Roman Catholics. 8. Mormonites, or Latter-day Saints. 9. Jews....

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Rev. ii. 7.

Vol. XII.                                         Liverpool, Lancs., July 1, 1850.                                        No. 13.

[p. 207]


Elder Wallace informs us that Oliver Cowdery died last February of consumption. Brother Cowdery is one of the THREE WITNESSES to the BOOK OF MORMON. For rebellious conduct he was expelled from the church some years since. Although he stood aloof from the Church for several years he, never in a single instance cast the least doubt on the truth of his former testimony. Sometime in 1847 or 1848 he sought to be admitted to the fellowship of the Saints. His return to the fold was hailed with great joy by the Saints, who still remembered him with a kindly recollection as one who had suffered much in the first rise of the Church. He has now gone the way of all the earth. May he rest in peace, to come forth in the morning of the first resurrection unto eternal life, is the earnest desire of all Saints.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                   London, Monday, July 29, 1850.                                  No. 26,101.

[p. 6]





During the course of my inquiry into the extent of emigration from the port of Liverpool, I learned that the followers of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, who are known by the names of Mormons, Mormonites, and Latter-Day Saints, had many years ago established an emigrational agency in the town, having ramifications in all parts of England, Wales, and Scotland. I learned that the number of Mormon emigrants sailing from the port of Liverpool to New Orleans, on their way to Deseret and Upper California, during the year 1849, was no less than 2,600 -- chiefly farmers and mechanics of a superior class, from Wales, Lancashire and Yorkshire, and the southern counties of Scotland; and that since 1840 the total emigration of the sect from Great Britain has been between 13,000 and 14,000. The progress and present position of this remarkable sect both in the United States and in Great Britain, will put the reader in possession of the facts necessary to the due comprehension of the subject. They unfold one of the most curious episodes in the modern history of the world, and certainly the most singular story in the recent annals of fanaticism

The founder of the sect -- Joseph Smith, jun., as he was called till within a year or two of his death -- was born in 1805. The first congregation of Latter-day Saints was organized in 1831, and now, in less than twenty years, the sect numbers nearly 30,000 people in Great Britain, and about four times, or according to some statements six times, that number in America. Joseph Smith was a digger for gold before he took up the trade of preaching and prophesying; and to his people after his people after his death belongs the merit, or the credit, of discovering the gold of California. The Mormons are now the principal inhabitants of a State to which they have given the name of Deseret, a word that occurs in their new Bible, or Book of Mormon, and which is said to signify a honey-bee. They expect, within a short time, by means of immigration from Great Britain, and by the gathering together of their people from all parts of the Union, to muster a sufficient number in Deseret to claim formal admission into the American Union. The number of inhabitants requisite for this purpose is 60,000, and there can be little, if any doubt, that, in a few years, the object of the Mormons will be accomplished. Such is the present position of the Latter-day Saints. The growth of Mohomedanism, rapid as it was, is not to be compared to the rise and growth of Mormonism.

I now proceed to detail more particularly the history of Joseph Smith and the sect he founded -- appending an abstract of their religious belief. To avoid the appearance of unfriendliness towards men who -- whatever the character, or views of their leader may have been, or whatever may be thought of their own fanaticism -- are carrying on a remarkable work, but little understood, or even heard of, in this country beyond the limits of their own body, I shall, whenever it is possible to do so, present their history in the words of their own writers, appending such statements as may be necessary for the exposition of the truth. The following particulars are extracted from the Remarkable Visions of Mr. Orson Pratt, their emigrational agent at Liverpool, a gentleman who styles himself, in the title-page, One of the twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; but who is styled in Liverpool, Head Apostle of the Latter-day Saints in England, and chief Agent for the Church of Jesus Christ for all Europe: --

"Mr. Joseph Smith, jun. who made the following important discovery, was born the town of Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont, on the 23d December, 1805. When ten years old his parents, with their family, moved to Palmyra. New York, in the vicinity of which he resided for about eleven years, the latter part in the town of Manchester. He was a farmer by occupation. His advantages for acquiring scientific knowledge were exceedingly small, being limited to a slight acquaintance with two or three of the common branches of learning. He could read without much difficulty, and write a very imperfect hand, and had a very limited understanding of the elementary rules of arithmetic. These were his highest and only attainments, while the rest of those branches so universally taught in the common schools throughout the United States were entirely unknown to him. -- When somewhere about fourteen or fifteen years old, he began seriously to reflect upon the necessity of being prepared for a future state of existence; but how, or in what way to prepare himself, was a question as yet undetermined in his own mind. He perceived that it was a question of infinite importance, and that the salvation of his soul depended upon a correct understanding of the same. * * * He retired to a secret place in a grove, but a short distance from his father's house, and knelt down and began to call upon the Lord. At first he was severely tempted by the powers of darkness, which endeavoured to overcome him, but he continued to seek for deliverance until darkness gave way from his mind, and he was enabled to pray in fervency of the spirit, and in faith; and while thus pouring out his soul, anxiously desiring an answer from God, he at length saw a very bright and glorious light in the heavens above, which at first seemed to be at a considerable distance. He continued praying, while the light appeared to be gradually descending towards him; and as it drew nearer it increased in brightness and magnitude, so that by the time it reached the tops of the trees the whole wilderness around was illuminated in a most glorious and brilliant manner. He expected to see the leaves and boughs of the trees consumed as soon as the light came in contact with them; but perceiving that it did not produce that effect he was encouraged with the hopes of being able to endure its presence. It continued descending slowly, until it rested upon the earth, and he was enveloped in the midst of it. When it first came to him, it produced a peculiar sensation throughout his whole system; and immediately, his mind was caught away from the natural objects with which he was surrounded, and he was enwrapped in a heavenly vision, and saw two glorious personages, who exactly resembled each other in their features or likeness. He was informed that his sins were forgiven. He was also informed upon the subjects, which had for some time previously agitated his mind -- namely, that all the religious denominations were believing in incorrect doctrines, and consequently that none of them was acknowledged of God as his church and kingdom. And he was expressly commanded to go not after them; and he received a promise that the true doctrine, the fulness of the gospel, should at some future time be made known to him; after which, the vision withdrew, leaving his mind in a state of calmness and peace indescribable. Some time after having received this glorious manifestation, being young, he was again entangled in the vanities of the world, of which he afterwards sincerely and truly repented.

"And it pleased God, on the evening of the 21st Sept., A.D. 1823, to again hear his prayer. * * * It [seemed] as though the house was filled with consuming fire. This sudden appearance of a light so bright, as must naturally be expected, occasioned a shock of sensation visible to the extremities of the body. It was, however, followed with a calmness and serenity of mind, and an overwhelming rapture of joy, that surpassed understanding, and, in a moment, a personage stood before him. -- Notwithstanding the brightness of the light which previously illuminated the room, yet there seemed to be an additional glory surrounding or accompanying this personage, which shone with an increased degree of brilliancy, of which he was in the midst; and though his countenance was as lightning, yet it was of a pleasing, innocent, and glorious appearance; so much so, that every fear was banished from the heart, and nothing but calmness pervaded the soul. -- The stature of this personage was a little above the common size of men in his age; his garment was perfectly white, and had the appearance of being without seam. This glorious being declared himself to be an angel of God, sent forth by commandment to communicate to him that his sins were forgiven, and that his prayers were heard; and also, to bring the joyful tidings that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel concerning their posterity, was at hand to be fulfilled; that the great preparatory work for the second coming of the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand for the gospel in its fulness, to be preached in power to all nations, that a people might be prepared with faith and righteousness, for the Millennial reign of universal peace and joy.

"He was informed, that he was called and chosen to be an instrument in the hands of God, to bring about some of his marvellous purposes in this glorious dispensation. It was also made manifest to him that the American Indians were a remnant of Israel; that when they first emigrated to America they were an enlightened people, possessing a knowledge of the true God, enjoying his favour, and peculiar blessings from his hand; that the prophets, and inspired writers among them, were required to keep a sacred history of the most important events transpiring among them; which history was handed down for many generations, till at length they fell into great wickedness; the [most] part of them were destroyed, and the records * * * were safely deposited, to preserve them from the hands of the wicked, who sought to destroy them. He was informed that these records contained many sacred revelations pertaining to the Gospel of the kingdom, as well as prophecies relating to the great events of the last days; and that to fulfil his promises to the ancients, who wrote the records, and to accomplish his purposes in the restitution of their children, they were to come forth to the knowledge of the people. If faithful, he was to be the instrument who should be thus highly favored in bringing these sacred writings before the world. * * * After giving him many instructions concerning things past and to come, he disappeared, and the light and glory of God withdrew, leaving his mind in perfect peace, while a calmness and serenity indescribable pervaded his soul. But before morning the vision was twice renewed, instructing him further and still further concerning the great work of God about to be performed on the earth. In the morning he went out to his labour as usual, but soon the vision was renewed -- the angel again appeared, and having been informed, by the previous visions of the night, concerning the place where those records were deposited, he was instructed to go immediately and view them.

"Accordingly he repaired to the place, a brief description of which shall be given in the words of a gentleman named Oliver Cowdery, who has visited the spot: --
"As you pass on the mail-road from Palmyra, Wayne county, to Canandaigua, Ontario county, New York, before arriving at the little village of Manchester, say from three to four, or about four miles from Palmyra, you pass a large hill on the east side of the road. * * * It was at the second-mentioned place where the record was found to be deposited, on the west side of the hill, not far from the top, down its side; and when myself visited the spot in the year 1830, there were several trees standing -- enough to cause a shade in summer, but not so much as to prevent the surface being covered with grass -- which was also the case when the record was first found.

"How far below the surface these records were placed I am unable to say, but from the fact that they had been some fourteen hundred years buried, and that, too, on the side of a hill so steep, one is ready to conclude that they were some feet below, as the earth would naturally wear, more or less, in that length of time. But being placed towards the top of the hill, the ground would not remove as much as two-thirds perhaps. Another circumstance would prevent another wearing of the earth -- in all probability, as soon as timber had time to grow, the hill was covered, and the roots of the same would hold the surface. However, on this point I shall leave every man to draw his own conclusion, and form his own speculation: but, suffice to say, a hole of sufficient depth was dug. At the bottom of this lay a stone of suitable size, the upper surface being smooth. At each edge was placed a large quantity of cement, and into this cement, at the four edges of this stone were placed erect four, others, their bottom edges resting in [this] cement at the outer edges of the first stone. The four last named when placed erect, formed a box; the corners, or where the edges of the four came in contact, were also cemented so firmly that the moisture from without was prevented from entering. It is to be observed also that the inner surfaces of the four erect or side stones were smooth. This box was sufficiently large to admit a breastplate such as was used by the ancients to defend the chest from the arrows and weapons of their enemy. From the bottom of the box, or from the breastplate, arose three small pillars, composed of the same description of cement used on the edges; and upon these three pillars were, placed the records. This box containing the records was covered with another stone, the bottom surface being flat, and the upper crowning. When it was first visited by Mr Smith, on the morning of the 22d of September 1823, a part of the crowning stone was visible above the surface, while the edges were concealed by the soil and grass. From which circumstance, it may be seen, that however deep this box might have been placed at first, the time had been sufficient to wear the earth, so that it was easily discovered, when once directed, and yet not enough to make a perceivable difference to the passer-by

"After arriving at the repository, a little exertion in removing the soil from the edges of the top of the box, and a light lever, brought to his natural vision its contents." While viewing and contemplating this sacred treasure with wonder and astonishment, behold! the angel of the Lord, who had previously visited him, again stood in his presence, and his soul was again enlightened as it was the evening before, and he was filled with the Holy Spirit, and the heavens were opened, and the glory of the Lord shone round about and rested upon him. While he thus stood gazing and admiring, the angel said, 'Look!' And as he thus spake, he beheld the Prince of Darkness, surrounded by his innumerable train of associates. All this passed before him, and the heavenly messenger said, And all this is shown, the good and the evil, the holy and impure, the glory of God, and the power of darkness, that you may know hereafter the two powers, and never be influenced or overcome by that wicked one. Behold, whatsoever enticeth and leadeth to good and to do good, is of God, and whatsoever doth not is of that wicked one. * * * You cannot at this time obtain this record, for the commandment of God is strict, and if ever these sacred things are obtained, they must be by prayer and faithfulness in obeying the Lord. They are not deposited here for the sake of accumulating gain and wealth for the glory of this world; they were sealed by the prayer of faith, and because of a knowledge which they contain; they are of no worth among the children of men only for their knowledge. On them is contained the fulness of the gospel of Jesus Christ, as it was given to his people on this land; and when it shall be brought forth by the power of God, it shall be carried to the Gentiles, of whom many will receive it, and after will the seed of Israel be brought into the fold of their Redeemer by obeying it also. * * *
"During the period of the four following years, he frequently received instructions from the mouth of the heavenly messenger. And on the morning of the 22d of September, A.D. 1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records into his hands.

"These records were engraved on plates, which had the appearance of gold. Each plate was not far from seven by eight inches in width and length, being not quite as thick as common tin. They were filled on both sides with engravings, in Egyptian characters, and bound together in a volume as the leaves of a book, and fastened at one edge with three rings running through the whole. This volume was something near six inches in thickness, a part of which was sealed. The characters or letters upon the unsealed part were small, and beautifully engraved. The whole book exhibited many marks of antiquity in its construction, as well as much skill in the art of engraving. With the records was found "a curious instrument, called by the ancients the Urim and Thummim, which consisted of two transparent stones, clear as crystal, set in the two rims of a bow. This was in use in ancient times by persons called seers. It was an instrument, by the use which they received revelation of things distant, or of things past or future. * * * Having provided himself with a home, he commenced translating the record, by the gift and power of God, through the means of the Urim and Thummim; and being a poor writer, he was under the necessity of employing a scribe to write the translation as it came from his mouth.

"In the meantime, a few of the original characters were accurately described and translated by Mr. Smith, which, with the translation, were taken by a gentleman, by the name of Martin Harris, to the city of New York, where they were presented to a learned gentleman of the name of Anthon, who professed to be extensively acquainted with many languages, both ancient and modern. He examined them, but was unable to decipher them correctly; but he presumed that if the original records could be brought, he could assist in translating them.

"But to return -- Mr. Smith continued the work of translation, as his pecuniary circumstances would permit, until he finished the unsealed part of the records. The part translated is entitled the 'Book of Mormon,' which contains nearly as much reading as the Old Testament. * * *

"After the book was translated, the Lord raised up witnesses to the nations of its truth, who, at the close of the volume, send forth their testimony, which reads as follows: --


"Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto whom this work shall come, that we through the Grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, have seen the plates which contain this record, which is a record of the people of Nephi and also or the Lamanites, their brethren, and also of the people of Jared, who came from the tower of which hath been spoken; and we also know that they have been translated by the gift and power of God, for his voice hath declared it unto us; wherefore we know of a surety that the work is true, and we also testify that we have seen the engravings which are upon the plates; and they have been shown unto us by the power of God, and not of man. And we declare, with words of soberness, that an angel of God came down from heaven, and he brought and laid before our eyes, that we beheld and saw the plates, and the engravings thereon; and we know it is by the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, that we beheld and bear record that these things are true, and it is marvellous in our eyes; nevertheless, the voice of the Lord commanded us that we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be obedient unto the commandments of God, we bear testimony of these things. And we know that if we are faithful in Christ we shall rid our garments of the blood of all men, and be found spotless before the judgment-seat of Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in the heavens. And the honor be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, which is one God. Amen.


"Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, unto whom this work shall come, that Joseph Smith, jun., the translator of this work, has shown unto us the plates of which hath been spoken, which have the appearance of gold: as many of the leaves as the said Smith has translated we did handle with our hands; and we also saw the engravings thereon, all of which have the appearance of ancient work, and of curious work- manship. And this we hear record with words of soberness, that the said Smith has shown unto us, for we have seen and lighted, and know of a surety that the said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken: and we give our names unto the world of that which we have seen; and we lie not, God bearing witness of it.

[Such is] the story of Mr. Orson Pratt, derived from himself, and [also from] the corroboration of [the] witnesses. It will be seen that the latter were principally of the two families of Whitmer and Smith. The Smiths were the father and brothers of Joseph.

The next incident is the appointment of Joseph to the priesthood. It is related by Joseph himself in the followhing terms in the Millennial Star, vol. iii, page 148: --
While we (Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery) were thus employed, praying and calling upon the Lord, a messenger from heaven descended in a cloud of light, and having laid his hands upon us, he ordained us, saying unto us, "Upon you, my fellow-servants, in the name of the Messiah, I confer the priesthood of Aaron, which holds the keys of the ministering of angels, and of the gospel of repentance and of baptism by immersion for the remission of sins; and this shall never be taken away from the earth until the sons of Levi do offer again an offering unto the Lord in righteousness." He said this Aaronic priesthood had not the power of laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, but this should be conferred on us hereafter; and he commanded us to go and be baptized, and gave us directions that I should baptize Oliver Cowdery, and afterwards that he should baptize me. Accordingly we went and were baptized. I baptized him first, and afterwards he baptized me. After which I laid my hands upon his head, and ordained him to the Aaronic priesthood; afterwards he laid his hands on me, and ordained me to the same priesthood, for so we were commanded. The messenger who visited us on this occasion, and conferred this priesthood upon us, said that his name was John, the same that is called John the Baptist in the New Testament, and that he acted under the direction of Peter, James, and John, who held the keys of the priesthood of Melchisedeck, which priesthood, he said, should in due time be conferred on us -- and that I [should be called the first first elder, and he the second. It was on the 15th day of May, 1829, that we were baptized and ordained under the hand of the messenger.] .... [illegible lines follow]...

[Insert for 1851 reprint: The scheme was now ripe for a fuller development; but as we have hitherto had the story as in the words of Joseph himself, and of his ardent disciples, Mr. Orson Pratt and the "witnesses," it is necessary to go back a little, and narrate a few circumstances relative to one of the most important of these witnesses, and to the manner in which he was originally induced to become a believer in the "prophet" and his book. It will also be necessary to inquire whether the statements of Mr. Pratt, with reference to Professor Anthon, were admitted by that gentleman.]

Joseph Smith having made known his doctrine to various persons, the wonderful plates, began to be talked about. Among the persons who were originally most disposed to join the new sect was Mr. Martin Harris, whose name appears along with those of other witnesses in the above testimony. Mr. Orson Pratt does not, however, state the whole of the facts connected with the interview of Martin Harris with Mr. Anthon, of New York, the learned professor to whom he alludes. A report having, been spread abroad by the Mormons that the Professor had seen the plates, and pronounced the inscriptions to be in the Egyptian character, that gentleman was requested by a, letter, directed to him by Mr. E. D. Howe, of Patnesville, Ohio, to declare whether such was the fact. Professor Anthon returned the following answer...
New York, Feb. 17, 1834. Dear Sir. -- I received your letter of the 9th, and lose no time in making a reply. The whole story about my pronouncing the Mormonite inscription to be 'Reformed Egyptian Hieroglyphics,' is perfectly false. Some years ago a plain, apparently simple-hearted farmer, called on me with a note from Dr. Mitchell, of our city, now dead, requesting me to decipher, if possible, a paper which the farmer would hand me. Upon examining the paper in question, I soon came to the conclusion that it was all a trick, perhaps a hoax. 'When I asked the person who brought it how he obtained the writing, he gave me the following account: -- A 'gold book,' consisting of a number of plates fastened together by wires of the same material, had been dug up in the northern part of the State of New York, and along with it an enormous pair of 'spectacles!' These spectacles were so large, that if any person attempted to look through them, his two eyes would look through one glass only; the spectacles being altogether too large for the human face. 'Whoever,' he said, 'examined the plates through the glasses, was enabled not only to read them, but fully to understand their meaning. All this knowledge, however, was confined to a young man, who had the trunk containing the book and spectacles in his sole possession. This young man was placed behind a curtain, in a garret, in a farm-house, and being thus concealed from view, he put on the spectacles occasionally, or rather, looked through one of the glasses, deciphered the characters in the book, and having committed some of them to paper, handed copies from behind the curtain to those who stood outside. Not a word was said about their having been deciphered by the 'gift of God.' Everything in this way was effected by the large pair of spectacles. The farmer added, that he had been requested to contribute a sum of money towards the publication of the 'golden book,' the contents of which would, as he was told, produce an entire change in the world, and save it from ruin. So urgent had been these solicitations, that he intended selling his farm, and giving the amount to those who wished to publish the plates. As a last precautionary step, he had resolved to come to New York, and obtain the opinion of the learned about the meaning of the paper which he had brought with him, and which had been given him as part of the contents of the book, although no translation had at that time been made by the young man with the spectacles. On hearing this odd story, I changed my opinion about the paper, and instead of viewing it any longer as a hoax, I began to regard it as part of a scheme to cheat the farmer of his money, and I communicated my suspicions to him, warning him to beware of rogues. He requested an opinion from me in writing, which of course I declined to give, and he then took his leave, taking his paper with him.

"This paper, in question, was in fact a singular scroll. It consisted of all kinds of crooked characters, disposed in columns, and had evidently been prepared by some person who had before him at the time a book containing various alphabets, Greek and Hebrew letters, crosses, and flourishes; Roman letters inverted or placed sideways, were arranged and placed in perpendicular columns; and the whole ended in a rude delineation of a circle divided into various compartments, decked with various strange marks, and evidently copied after the Mexican Calendar, given by Humboldt, but copied in such a way as not to betray the source whence it was derived. I am thus particular as to the contents of the paper, inasmuch as I have frequently conversed with my friends on the subject since the Mormon excitement began, and well remember that the paper contained anything else but 'Egyptian hieroglyphics.'

"Some time after the same farmer paid me a second visit. He brought with him the 'good book' in print, and offered it to me for sale. I declined purchasing. He then asked permission to leave the book with me for examination. I declined receiving it, although his manner was strangely urgent. I adverted once more to the roguery which, in my opinion, had been practised upon him, and asked him what had become of the gold plates. He informed me that they were in a trunk with the spectacles. I advised him to go to a magistrate and have the trunk examined. He said 'The curse of God' would come upon him if he did. On my pressing him, however, to go to a magistrate, he told me he would open the trunk if I would take the 'curse of God' upon myself. I replied, I would do so with the greatest willingness, and would incur every risk of that nature, provided I could only extricate him from the grasp of rogues; he then left me. I have given you a full statement of all that I know respecting the origin of Mormonism, and must beg you, as a personal favour, to publish this letter immediately, should you find my name mentioned again by these wretched fanatics. -- Yours respectfully, CHARLES ANTHON."

This letter speaks for itself, and needs no comment. The following summary of the contents of the Book of Mormon, thus strangely issued into the world, is from a publication called the Voice of Warning, by Parley P. Pratt, another apostle

"The Book of Mormon contains the history of the ancient inhabitants of America, who were a branch of the house of Israel, of the tribe of Joseph; of whom the Indians are still a remnant; but the principal nation of them having fallen in battle, in the fourth or fifth century, one of their prophets, whose name was Mormon, saw fit to make an abridgment of their history, their prophiecies, and their doctrine, which he engraved on plates, and afterwards, being slain, the record fell into the hands of his son Moroni, who, being hunted by his enemies, was directed to deposit the record safely in the earth, with a promise from God that it should be preserved, and should be brought to light in the latter days by means of a Gentile nation, who should possess the land. The deposit was made about the year 420, on a hill then called Cumora, now in Ontario county, where it was preserved in safety until it was brought to light by no less than the ministry of angels, and translated by inspiration. And the great Jehovah bore record of the same to chosen witnesses, who declare it to the world."

The question will be asked, could Joseph Smith, a notoriously illiterate man, really write [even so clumsy] a composition as the Book of Mormon? The following short history will throw some light upon the matter. It appears that in the year 1809 a man of the name of Solomon Spaulding, who had formerly been a clergyman, failed in business, at a place called Cherry Vale, in the State of New York. Being a person of literary tastes, and his attention having been directed to the notion which at that time excited some interest, namely, that the North American Indians were the descendants of the lost ten tribes of Israel, it struck him that the idea afforded a good ground-work for a religious tale, hisitory, or novel. For three years he laboured upon this work, which he entitled, The Manuscript Found. Mormon and his son Moroni were two of the principal characters in it. In 1812 the MS. was presented to a printer or bookseller, residing at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, with a view to its publication. Before any satisfactory arrangement could be made, the author died, and the manuscript remained in the possession of the printer, apparently unnoticed and uncared for. The printer also died in 1826, having previously lent the manuscript to one Sidney Rigdon, a compositor in his employ, who afterwards became, next to Joseph Smith himself, the principal leaders of the Mormons. How Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon became connected is not very clearly known, and which of the two originated the idea of making a new Bible out of Solmon Spaulding's novel is equally uncertain. The wife, the partner, several friends, and the brother of Solomon Spaulding, affirmed, however, the identity of the principal portions of the Book of Mormon with the novel of The Manuscript Found, which the author had from time to time, and in separate portions, read over to them. John Spaulding, brother to Solomon, declared upon oath that his brother's missing book was an historical romance of the first settlers in America, endeavouring to show that the American Indians are the descendants of Jews, or the lost ten tribes. It gave a detailed account of their journey from Jerusalem by a land and by sea, till they arrived in America under the command of Nephi and Lehi. He also mentioned the Lamanites. [He added] "I have recently read the Book of Mormon, and to my great surprise, I find nearly the same historical matter, names, &c., as they were in my brother's writings. To the best of my recollection and belief, it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote, with the exception of the religious matter."

[illegible lines follow -- possibly Spalding's widow's 1839 statement and Rigdon's reply]

The religious matter derived from the Old and New Testaments has been engrafted upon Solomon Spaulding's romance in a manner that shows the clumsy, the ignorant, and the illiterate workman. Such phrases as the following are of frequent occurrence: --

"Ye are like unto they." -- "Do as ye hath hitherto done." -- "I the Lord delighteth in the chastity of women." -- "I saith unto them." -- "I who ye call your King." -- "These things had not ought to be." -- Ye saith unto him." -- "For a more history part are written upon my other plates." -- Anachronisms are also frequent. The mariner's compass is spoken of before the date of the Christian era; and the Saviour of the world is represented as appearing immediately after his resurrection to the Jews in America -- a people whom Joseph Smith affirms to have known no Greek, and to have [recorded?]...

"Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the son of God. I created the heavens and the earth, and all things that in them are. I was with the Father from the beginning... I am the light and the life of the world. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end." Joseph did not know that Jesus is the Greek for the Hebrew name of Joshua, and that Christ is the Greek of anointed -- or that Alpha and Omega were the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, and could, like the other two words, have had no meaning to a Hebrew people in America utterly ignorant of Greek. Many other similar instances could be cited. Joseph Smith was often asked, both by friends and foes, the meaning of the word Mormon, which occurred originally in Solomon Spaulding's novel, and appears to have been derived by him from the Greek. The following reply of Joseph, as published in a letter to the editor of the Times and Seasons, is highly characteristic both of his cool audacity and his self-sufficient ignorance: --

Sir -- Through the medium of your paper, I wish to correct an error among men that profess to be learned, liberal, and wise; and I do it the more cheerfully, because I hope sober-thinking and sound-reasoning people will sooner listen to the voice of truth than be led astray by the vain pretensions of the self-wise. The error I speak of is the definition of the word 'Mormon.' It has been stated that this word was derived from the Greek word mnioss. This is not the case. There was no Greek or Latin upon the plates from which I, through the grace of God, translated the Book of Mormon. Let the language of that book speak for itself. On the 523d page, of the fourth edition, it reads: And now behold we have written the record according to our knowledge in the characters, which are called among us the Reformed Egyptian, being handed down and altered by us, according to our manner of speech; and if our plates were i sufficiently large, we should have written in Hebrew, Behold ye would have had no imperfection in oar record, but the Lord knoweth the things which we have written, and also, that none other people knoweth our language; therefore he hath prepared means for the interpretation thereof.' Here, then, the subject is put to silence, for 'none other people knoweth our language;' therefore the Lord, and not man, hath to interpret after the people were all dead. And, as Paul said, 'the world by wisdom know not God,' and the world by speculation are destitute of revelation; and as God, in his superior wisdom, has always given his saints, wherever he had any on the earth, the same spirit, and that spirit (as John says) is the true spirit of prophecy, which is the testimony of Jesus, I may safely say that the word Mormon stands independent of the learning and wisdom of this generation. Before I give a definition, however, to the word, let me say that the Bible, in its widest sense, means good; for the Saviour says, according to the Gospel of St. John, 'I am the good shepherd,' and it will not be beyond the common use of terms to say, that good is amongst the most important in use, and though known by various names in different languages, still its meaning is the same, and is ever in opposition to bad. We say from the Saxon, good; the Dane, god; the Goth, goda; the German, gut; the Dutch, goed; the Latin, bonus; the Greek, Jcalos; the Hebrew, tob; and the Egyptian, mon. Hence, with the addition of more, or the contraction mor, we have the word Mormon, which means, literally, more good. Yours, Joseph Smith."

In addition to the Book of Mormon, the Latter-day Saints have a book of ''Doctrinesand ''Covenants, purporting to be direct revelations from heaven to Joseph Smith and others, upon the temporal government of their church, the support of the poor, the tithing or taxation of the meinbers, the establishment of cities and temples, the allotment of lands, the emigration of the saints, the education of the people, the gathering of moneys, and other matters. This book abounds in grammatical inaccuracies, even to a greater extent than the Book of Mormon. --

"God, that knowest thy thoughts" -- "A literal descendant of Aaron," meaning a lineal descendant -- "An hair of his head shall not fall." -- "Your father who art in Heaven knoweth" -- "And the spirit and the body is the soul of man" -- "The stars also giveth their light as they roll upon their wings in glory" -- "Her who sitteth upon many waters" -- "Thou shalt not covet thine own property, but impart it freely to the printing of the Book of Mormon" -- form but a sample of hundreds of similar sentences that might be culled, were it worth while. A few specimens of the kind of Revelations -- and the style in which Joseph Smith represents the Almighty as speaking to him -- will show the height of knavery, the depth of folly, and what absurdity men will believe under the influence of strong fanaticism. The following is part of a revelation purporting to have been given by Jesus Christ, in February 1831. In these revatious the Almighty is invariably represented as giving Joseph his proper designation of Smith junior, that he might not be mistaken for his father, Joseph Smith, senior: --

Hearken, all ye elders of my church, who have assembled yourselves together in my name, even Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, the Saviour of the world. Behold, verily I say unto you, I give unto you this first commandment, that you shall go forth in my name, every one of you, except my servants, Joseph Smith, jun., and Sidney Rigdon. ... If there shall be properties in the hands of the church, or any individuals of it, more than is necessary for their support, it shall be kept to administer to those who have not."

The following is part of a revelation given to Joseph Smith in March, 1829, when Martin Harris desired to see the golden plates, and before he was put off with the paper transcript, which he showed to Professor Anthon: --

"Behold, I say unto you, that as my servant Martin Harris has desired a witness at my hand, that you, my servant Joseph Smith, jun., have got the plates of which you have testified and borne record that you have received of me; and now, behold, this shall you say unto him -- 'He who spake unto you said unto you, I the Lord am God, and have given those things unto you, my servant, Joseph Smith, jun., and have commanded you that you should stand as a witness of these things; and I have caused you that you should enter into a covenant with me that you should not show them except to those persons that I commanded you; and you have no power over them except I grant it you.'... And now, again I speak unto you my servant Joseph, concerning the man that denies the witness. Behold, I say unto him, he exalts himself, and does not sufficiently humble himself before me. But if he will bow down before me, and humble himself in mighty prayer and faith, in the sincerity of his heart, then will I grant unto him a view of the things which he desires to see."

[illegible lines follow]

... Joseph and his principal assistant, Sidney Rigdon, appear to have soon quarrelled with the three witnesses. The first witness to the truth of his book of Mormon was declared by Smith himself in a revelation given in November, 1831, to be unfit to be trusted with moneys: --

"Hearken unto me, saith the Lord your God, for my servant Oliver Cowdery's sake. It is not wisdom in me that he should be entrusted with the commandments, and the moneys which he shall carry into the land of Zion, except one go with him who shall be true and faithful."

In a paper drawn up by Sidney Rigdon in June, 1838, when a great schism took place in the church, it is stated that Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and another were united with a gang of counterfeiters, thieves, liars, and blacklegs of the deepest l dye, to deceive, cheat, and defraud the saints. Martin Harris, the last of the three, is spoken of at the time of the schism by Joseph himself in the following terms, in a paper called the Elder's Journal: -- "There are negroes who wear white skins as well as black ones. Grames Parish and others who acted as lackies, such as Martin Harris &c., but they are so far beneath contempt that a notice of them would be too great a sacrifice for a gentleman to make."

While, by means of revelations, those who were not longer to be trusted were pointed out to true believers, Joseph Smith took care to have special revelations upon matters relating to his own comfort. -- "It is meet" says a revelation of the Lord in February, 1831, "that my servant Joseph Smith, jun., should have a house built, in which to live and translate." A second revelation of the same month says: -- "If ye desire the mysteries of my kingdom, provide for him (Joseph Smith, jun.) food and raiment, and whatsoever thing he needeth."

Nor was Smith, according to the revelations, to labour for his living. ''In temporal labours," says another revelation of July, 1830, "thou shalt not have strength, for that is not thy calling. Attend to thy calling, and thou shalt have wherewith to magnify thine office, and to expound all scriptures."

An extract from one more Revelation will suffice for the present. It purports to have been given in July, 1830, to Emma Smith, the wife of Joseph, through Joseph himself: --

"The office of thy calling shall be for a comfort unto my servant Joseph Smith, jun., thy husband. And thou shalt go with him at the time of his going, and be unto him for a scribe, while there is no one to be a scribe for him, that I may send my servant Oliver Cowdery whithersoever I will. And it shall be given to thee also to make a selection of sacred hymns, as it shall he given thee, which is pleasing unto me to be had in my church."

The Hymn-book of Emma Smith does not appear to have been published; but a little Hymn-book, containing hymns selected by Brigham Young, the present head of the church and successor of Joseph Smith, has gone through eight editions. The eighth was published in Liverpool, in 1849, by Apostle Orson Pratt.

A few extracts wtill not be out of place. The following hymn, which is said to be sometimes sung on shipboard in Liverpool, prior to the departure of Mormon emigrants, is, in point of literary merit, among the best in the volume --

"Yes, my native land, I love thee;
All thy scenes, I love them well;
Friends, connections, happy country,
Can I bid you all farewell?

Can I leave thee,
Far in distant lands to dwell?
Home! thy joys are passing lovely,
Joys no stranger heart can tell;

Happy home! 'tis sure I love thee,
Can I -- can I -- say 'Farewell?'

Can I leave thee?
Far in distant lands to dwell?
Yes! I hasten from you gladly,

From the scenes I love so well;
Far away, ye billows, bear me,

Lovely native land, farewell!
Pleased I leave thee,
Far in distant lands to dwell.

In the deserts let me labour,
On the mountains let me tell
How he died -- the blessed Saviour,
To redeem a world from hell!

Let me hasten,
Far in distant lands to dwell!

Bear me on, thou restless ocean,
Let the winds my canvass swell;
Heaves my heart with warm emotion,
While I go far hence to dwell!

Glad I bid thee, Native land,
farewell! farewell!

The next is a hymn for the Twelve Apostles, who are now engaged in different parts of Europe, in procuring emigrants and gathering the saints to the Salt-Lake Valley in Deseret: --

Ye chosen twelve to ye are given
The keys of this last ministry --
To every nation under Heaven,
From land to land, from sea to sea.

First to the Gentiles sound tise news,
Throughout Columbia's happy land;
And then before it reach the Jews,
Prepare on Europe's shores to stand.

Let Europe's towns and cities hear
The Gospel tidings angels bring;
The Gentile nations, far and far and near,
Prepare their hearts His praise to sing.

India and Afric's sultry plains
Must hear the tidings as they roll --
Where darkness, death, and sorrow reign,
And tyranny has held control.

Listen! ye islands of the sea,
For every isle shall hear the sound;
Nations and tongues before unknown,
Though long since lost, shall soon be found,

And then again shall Asia hear,
Where angels first the news proclaimed;
Eternity shall record bear,
And earth repeat the loud Amen.

The nations catch the pleasing sound,
And Jew and Gentile swell the strain,
Hosannah o'er the earth resound,
Messiah then will come to reign."

Many of their hymns and songs are adapted to popular tunles, such as "The sea, the sea, the open sea;" "Away, away to the mountain's brow," &c. One to the first mentioned tune is inserted in the Times and Seasons, page 895, and commences: --

"The sky, the sky, the clear blue sky,
Oh, how I love to gaze upon it
The upper realins of deep on high,
I wonder when the Lord begun it!"

The following additional specimens of Mormon devotional poetry [appear in their authorized organ, the Times and Seasons....]

The God that others worship is not the God for me;
He has no parts nor body, and cannot hear nor see;
But I've a God that lives above --

A God of Power and of Love --
A God of Revelation -- oh, that's the God for me;
Oh, that's the God for me; oh, that's the God for me!

A church without apostles is not the church for me;
It's like a ship dismasted, afloat upon the sea;
But I've a church that's always led
By the twelve stars around its head

A church with good foundations -- oh that's the church for me;
Oh, that's the church for me; oh, that's the church for me!

A church without a prophet is not the church for me;
It has no head to lead it, in it I would not be;
But I've a church not built by man,
Cut from the mountain without hands;

A church with gifts and blessings -- oh, that's the church for me;
Oh, that's the church for me; oh, that's the church for me!

The hope that Gentiles cherish is not the hope for me;
It has no hope for knowledge, far from it I would be;

But I've an hope that will not fail,
That reaches safe within the veil;
Which hope is like an anchor -- oh, that's the hope for me;
Oh, that's the hope for me; oh, that's the hope for me!

The heaven of sectarians is not the heaven for me;
So doubtful its location, neither on land nor sea;
But I've an heaven on the earth,
The land and home that gave me birth;

A heaven of light and knowledge -- oh, that's the heaven for me;
Oh, that's the heaven for me; oh, that's the heaven for me!

A church without a gathering is not the church for me;
The Saviour would not order it, whatever it might be;

But I've a church that's called out,
From false traditions, fear, and doubt,
A gathering dispensation -- oh, that's the church for me;
Oh, that's the church for me; oh, that's the church for me!"

It only remains to add that the Mormons recognize two orders of priesthood, the "Aaronic" and the "Melchizedek." They are governed by a prophet or president, twelve apostles, the "seventies," and a number of bishops, high priests, deacons, elders, and teachers; that they assert that the gifts of prophecy and the power of working miracles have not ceased; that Joseph Smith and many other Mormons wrought miracles and cast out devils; that the end of the world is close at end; and that they are the "saints" spoken of in the Apocalypse, who will reign with Christ in a temporal kingdom in this world. They assert also that the seat of this kingdom is to be either Missouri -- the place originally intended -- or their present location of the Great Salt Lake Valley of Deseret. They allege that their Book of Mormon and the "Doctrine" and "Covenants" form the fulness of the Gospel -- that they take nothing from the Old or the New Testament -- both of which they complete. They seem, however, not to have formed the same ideas of God which are stated in the Gospel -- but to acknowledge a material Deity. This idea appears in the song or hymn to the tune of the Rose that all are praising, above-quoted, but is stated more broadly in the Times and Seasons, and other works. The following extract from a kind of Confession of Faith, signed by Orson Spencer, one of the apostles of the church, gives the views of the sect upon this and other subjects: --

"In some, and indeed in many respects, do we differ from some sectarian denominations. We believe that God is a being who hath both body and parts, and also passions. Also of the existence of the gifts, in the true church, spoken of in Paul's letter to the Corinthians. I do not believe that the career of sacred Scripture was closed with the Revelation of John, but that wherever God has a true church, there he makes frequent revelations of his will; and as God takes cognizance of all things, both temporal and spiritual, his revelations will pertain to all things whereby his glory may be promoted."

Joseph Smith is more explicit. The following passage occurs in the Millennial Star, vol. vi., under the prophet's authority, and signed with his name: --

"What is God? He is a material organized intelligence, possessing both body and parts. He is in the form of a man, and is, in fact, of the same species, and is a model or standard of perfection, to which man is destined to attain, he being the Great Father and Head of the whole family. This being cannot occupy two distinct places at once, therefore he cannot be everywhere present.

"What are angels? They are intelligences of the human species. Many of them are the offspring of Adam and Eve -- of men, it is said, 'being Gods, or sons of God, endowed with the same powers, attributes, and capacities, that their Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ possess.'"

"The weakest child of God, which now exists upon the earth, will possess more dominion, more property, more subjects, and more power and glory, than is possessed by Jesus Christ or by his Father; while, at the same time, Jesus Christ and his Father will have their dominion, kingdom, and subjects, increased in proportion."

Materialism is in fact the strong point of the Mormons; and one of the pamphlets, whichl they circulate most largely, is entitled "The Absurdities of Immaterialism." The Mormons lay claim to the power of working miracles; and mnany ludicrous stories are told by their enemies of the attempts made by Joe Smith and others, to get out of difficulties with their own people, after having promised too much in this respect. These stories are, of course, considered false and scandalous by the Mormons. I shall not reproduce them, but select, in preference, a specimen of their miracles, as recorded by themselves, in their own publication, the Millenial Star. It will answer the purpose far better than any statement made by their opponents. In a letter addressed to Mr. Orson Spencer, and published in the Millenial Star for August 1, 1847, the writer, a Mormon, who dates from Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England, after detailing the attempts made to ordain one Currell to the Mormon priesthood -- attempts which were defeated by the devil, says: --

When we laid our hands upon him the devil entered him, and tried to prevent us from ordaining him, but the power of Jesus Christ in the holy priesthood was stronger than the devil, and after all the endeavours of the powers of darkness to prevent us, in the name of Jesus Christ we ordained brother Richard Currell to the office of a priest in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

In consequence of what had taken place, many came to our meeting in the evening and paid great attention. The scenes of the twentieth of June will long be remembered by us as a day of rejoicing in the glorious manifestation of the power of God, confirming the faith of the Saints, and spreading the sound of the gospel farther than we could have done it in a long time. I should inform you that when the devil found he was defeated in brother C. he entered a sister, and kept coming in for several hours; as fast as one lot were expelled another lot entered: at one time we counted 27 come out of her. When we rebuked them they would come out, but as soon returned again. How was it they could acknowledge the power, and would damn our power, -- damn our gospel, and tear and bite. The sight was awful, but it has done us all good. I may as well say that some of the devils told us they were sent some by Cain, some by Kite, Judas, Kilo, Kelo, Kalmuonia, and Lucifer; some of these, they informed us, were presidents over sevenities in hell. The last that came, previous to our going to prison, told us he was Kilo, one of the presidents, and his six councillors. We cast them out thirty times, and had 319 devils, from three to thirty-seven coming out at a time. I shall feel obliged for any instruction you can give me on this subject. Yours, THOS. SMITH.

But enough as regards the doctrines and the miraculous pretensions of the Mormons. The reader has by this thine acquired a sufficientt knowledge of them. The full extent of their fanaticism is not portrayed in these extracts, but enough has been said in their own words to show what kind of men they are in a religious point of view. In my next letter I shall proceed to detail the remarkable growth of this extraordinary sect, first amid contempt and laughter, and ultimately amid the most relentless and vindictive animosity and persecutions through good and evil fortune, until the present day, when they number themselves by hundreds of thousands -- when they boast of having an emigration fund of three-and-a-half tons of Californian gold -- when they have emissaries in every country in Europe -- and when they are a prosperous and daily increasing people, and carry on emigration on a larger scale than was ever attempted in modern times by any political or religious society.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               London, Monday, August 5, 1850.                               No. 26,107.

[Eve. pp. 5-6]





The truth that no absurdity of fanaticism is too outrageous to attract believers, finds continual corroboration. The learned and the unlearned, the rich and the poor, the gentle and the simple, alike break through the trammels of reason, and become the dupes of religious impostors, or of persons who are still more dangerous -- the religious maniacs, who strengthen their cause by their own conscientious belief in it. To whichever of these two classes Joseph Smith is most properly consignable, it is certain that his doctrine was no sooner preached than he began to make converts of the people around him. The idea of the "Latter Days," or days immediately prior to the second coming of Christ to establish the Millennium, is one that has a great hold upon the imagination of large classes of persons. Joseph Smith worked upon this idea, and every earthquake recorded in the newspapers -- every new comet discovered -- every falling meteor that was observed -- every war and rumour of a war in Europe or America -- every monstrous birth among inferior animals -- every great public calamity, tempest, fire, or explosion -- was skilfully and pertinaciously adduced as a proof and a warning of the "Latter Days." He had two great elements of success in his favour -- sufficient novelty and unconquerable perseverance. His doctrine was both old and new. It had sufficient of the old to attract those who would have been repelled by a creed entirely new, and it had sufficient of the new to rivet the attention and inflame the imagination of those on whose minds an old creed, however ably preached, would have fallen and taken no root. Basing his doctrine upon isolated passages of the Bible -- claiming direct inspiration from the Almighty, promising to true believers possession of the earth, temporal power and glory, and the blessing of Heaven -- and being gifted with a courage and audacity that despised difficulty and danger, Joseph Smith soon found himself the recognised head of a small but increasing body of ardent disciples. On the 1st of June, 1830, the first conference of the sect, as an organised church, was held at Fayette, which place was for some time the "prophet's" residence, and the head-quarters of the sect. The numbers of the believers, including the whole family of the Smiths, was thirty. Even at this early period in the history of the sect, they met considerable opposition from the people. Joseph ordered the construction of a dam across a stream of water, for the purpose of baptizing his disciples. A mob collected, and broke it down, and used language towards Joseph that was anything but flattering to him or his followers, threatening him with violence and assassination. He was nothing daunted, however. With a rare skill he broke the keen edge of detraction, by confessing boldly that he had once led an improper and immoral life; but, unworthy as he was, "the Lord had chosen him -- had forgiven him all his sins, and intended, in his own inscrutable purposes, to make him -- weak and erring as he might have been -- the instrument of his glory."

But notwithstanding all this, Palmyra and Fayette, the first seats of the sect, and of the family of the Smiths, father and brothers, who all joined in the scheme of Joseph for founding a new religion, were somewhat too well known. They therefore removed, after a short time, to Kirtland, in Ohio. The attention of the whole fraternity was directed from the very commencement of their organization to the policy and expediency of fixing the headquarters of the sect in the Far West, in the thinly settled and but partially explored territories belonging to the United States, where they might squat upon good lands, clear the primeval wilderness, and purchase Iarge states with small means. Oliver Cowdery, having been sent on an exploratory expedition of this sort, reported so favourably of Jackson county in Missouri, that Joseph Smith, after remaining but a few weeks in Kirtland, determined to visit Missouri himself. Leaving his family and principal connections in Kirtland, he proceeded with his then faithful Sidney Rigdon and some others upon a long and arduous journey to the wilderness to fix upon a site for the "New Jerusalem" and future City of Christ, where the Lord was to reign over the saints as a temporal king, in "power and great glory." They started about the middle of June, travelling by waggons or by canal boat, and sometimes on foot, as far as Cincinnati, From this place they proceeded by steamer to Louisville and St. Louis. At the last-mentioned village all further means of transport failed them and they walked a distance of three hundred miles to Independence, in Jackson county, Missouri, the seat of the promised inheritanceof the saints. They arrived at their destination, foot-sore and weary, in the middle of July. Joseph was in raptures with the beauty and fertility of the country and his delight broke out into the following description, which occurs in his autobiography, published in the "Times and Seasons": --
"Unlike the timbered states in the east, except upon the rivers and water-courses, which were verdantly dotted with trees from one to three miles wide, as far as the eye can glance, the beautiful rolling prairies lay spread around like a sea of meadows. The timber is a mixture of oak, hickory, black walnut, elm, cherry, honey locus, mulberry, coffee bean, hackberry, box, elder, and bass wood, together with the addition of cotton wood, button wood, pecon -- soft and hard maples upon the bottoms. The shrubbery was beautiful, and consisted in part of plums, grapes, crab apples, and parsimmons. The prairies were decorated with a growth of flowers that seemed as gorgeous and grand as the brilliancy of the stars in the heavens, and exceed description. The soil is rich and fertile, from three to ten feet deep, and generally composed of a rich, black mould, intermingled with clay and sand. It produces, in abundance, wheat, corn, and many other commodities, together with sweet potatoes and cotton. Horses, cattle, and hogs, though of an inferior breed, are tolerably plenty, and seem nearly to raise themselves by grazing in the vast prairie range in summer, and feeding upon the bottoms in winter. The wild game is less plenty where man has commenced the cultivation of the soil, than it is a little distance further in the wild prairies. Buffalo, elk, deer, bears, wolves, beaver, and many lesser animals, roam at pleasure. Turkies, geese, swans, duck, yea, a variety of the feathered race, are among the rich abundance that graces the delightful regions of this goodly land of the heritage of the children of God. Nothing is more fruitful, or a richer stockholder in the blooming prairies, than the honey-bee; honey is but about twenty-five cents per gallon.

"The season is mild and delightful nearly three-quarters of the year, and as the land of Zion is situated at about equal distances from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as well as from the Alleghany and Rocky Mountains, in the thirty-ninth degree of north latitude, and between the tenth and twentieth degrees of west longitude, it bids fair to become one of the most blessed places on the globe."
The longer he staid in Missouri, the more delighted he was with the "location" fixed upon for the saints; and that there might be no difference of opinion upon the subject in the church, he had a direct "revelation" from the Almighty upon the subject; -- establishing it as the future Zion, and setting forth his views relative to the organization of the church, the building of a temple, the allotment of lands, and the means of living of the people. This extraordinary document ran as follows: --
"Hearken, O ye elders of my church, saith the Lord your God, who have assembled yourselves together, according to my commandments, in this land which I have appointed and consecrated for the gathering of the saints; wherefore this is the land of promise, and the place for the city of Zion. And thus saith the Lord your God, if you will receive wisdom, here is wisdom. Behold, the place which is now called Independence, is the centre place, and a spot for the temple is lying westward, upon a lot which is not far from the court-house: wherefore it is wisdom that the land should be purchased by the Saints; and also every tract lying westward, even unto the line running directly between Jew and Gentile. And also every tract bordering by the prairies, inasmuch as my disciples are enabled to buy lands. Behold, this is wisdom, that they may obtain it for an everlasting inheritance.

"And let my servant, Sidney Gilbert, stand in the office which I have appointed him, to receive moneys, to be an agent unto the church, to buy land in all the regions round about, inasmuch as can be in righteousness, and as wisdom shall direct.

"And let my servant, Edward Partridge, stand in the office which I have appointed him, to divide the Saints their inheritance, even as I have commanded; and also those whom he has appointed to assist him.

"And, again, verily I say unto you, let my servant, Sidney Gilbert, plant himself in this place, and establish a store, that he may sell goods without fraud; that he may obtain money to buy lands for the good of the Saints; and that he may obtain whatsoever things the disciples may need to plant them in inheritance. And also let my servant, Sidney Gilbert, obtain a licence that he may send goods also unto the people, even by whom he will, as clerks employed in his service, and thus provide for my Saints, that my Gospel may be preached unto those who sit in darkness, and in the region and shadow of death.

"And, again, verily I say unto you, let my servant, William W, Phelps, be planted in this place, and be established as a printer unto the church; and lo, if the world receiveth his writings, let him obtain whatsoever he can obtain in righteousness, for the good of the Saints. And let my servant, Oliver Cowdery, assist him, even as I have commanded, in whatsoever place I shall appoint unto him, to copy, and to correct, and select, that all things may be right before me, as it shall be proved by the Spirit through him. And thus let those of whom I have spoken to be planted in the land of Zion, and speedily as can be, with their families, to do those things even as I have spoken.

"And now, concerning the gathering. Let the bishop and the agent make preparations for those families which have been commanded to come to this land, as soon as possible, and plant them in their inheritance. And unto the residue of both elders and members, further directions shall be given hereafter. Even so. Amen."
On the first Sunday after their arrival, Joseph preached in the wilderness to a crowd of Indians, squatters, and, as he himself records, "to quite a respectable company of negroes." He made a few converts. On the 3rd of August, after a sojourn of less than three weeks, the spot for the temple was solemnly laid out, and dedicated to the Lord; and Joseph in a day or two afterwards -- having completed all his arrangements, established a bishop, and acquired, as he thought, a firm footing for his sect in this remote but lovely and fertile spot -- prepared to return into Ohio, to look after his business in Kirtland. Some dispute, of which the nature is not clearly known, appears to have arisen between Joseph and his friend Sidney Rigdon before their return. It is probable, from the course of subsequent events, that Sidney, even at this time, aspired to greater power in the church than suited the purposes of the "prophet;" but, whatever the disagreement was, Joseph thought fit to rebuke his chief disciple by a revelation from Heaven, in which he accused him of "being exalted in his heart, and despising the counsel of the Lord." They afterwards became good friends again, and in partnership or conjunction of some kind, and by the aid of other saints and elders of the church, they established a mill and a store in Kirtland, and set up a bank, with Joseph as its president, and Sidney Rigdon as cashier. To Kirtland, they gave the name of a "stake," or support of Zion, intending to remain there for at least five years, and make money, until the wilderness was cleared and the temple built in Zion.

From this time until January, 1832, Joseph continued preaching in various parts of the United States, making converts with considerable rapidity, and combating some charges which were brough against his character by one Ezra Booth, formerly in his council, and whom he denounced as an apostate. His strange doctrines, and these charges against his character, united to the hatred with which other fanatics as violent as himself regarded his preaching, created much ill-feeling against him. On the 25th of that month, being then resident at a village called "Hiram," he was dragged out of his bed at midnight, from the side of his wife, by a mob of Methodists, Baptists, and "Campbellites," who stripped him naked, and tarred and feathered him. Sidney Rigdon was similarly treated by the same lawless assemblage. Joseph now thought it high time to absent himself for a little, and on the 2nd of April he started, in company with some of his adherents, for Missouri, "to fulfil the revelation." Although he left secretly, his persecutors received notice of his design, and tracked him for several hundred miles, until he arrived at Louisville, where he was sheltered and protected from his assailants by the captain of a steam-boat. He arrived at "Zion," or Independence on the 26th, where he was enthusiastically received by a large congregation of thriving "Saints," and solemnly acknowledged as "prophet" and "seer," and president of the high priesthood of the church. He found that in his absence, but in obedience to a revelation which he had given, a printing-press had been procured, and a monthly newspaper or magazine established, under the title of the Evening and Morning Star. A weekly paper was also planned and established, called the Upper Missouri Advertiser. Both of these journals were exclusively devoted to the interests of Mormonism, which by this time numbered between 2,000 and 3,000 disciples, principally in Missouri. The number of the Saints in Kirtland, including women and children, was but 150. Joseph, however, had his mill, his store, and his farm to look after at Kirtland, and although, while in that town he lived among enemies, it was necessary that he should return to it. He therefore left Zion, with the full confidence that all was going on prosperously. In January, 1833, while attending to his worldly business, a schism broke out in "Zion" itself, which threatened, and, in combination with other circumstances, ultimately produced, the greatest calamities, and led to the violent expulsion of the Mormons from the whole State of Missouri. The manner in which the Mormons behaved in their "Zion" was not calculated to make friends. The superiority they assumed gave offence, and the rumours that were spread by their opponents, as well as by some "renegades," who had been turned outof the church for misconduct, excited against them an intense feeling of alarm and hatred. They were accused of Communism, and not simply of a community of goods and chattels, but of wives. Both these charges were utterly unfounded; but they were renewed from day to day, and found constant believers, in spite of denials and refutations on the part of the Mormons. Joined to the odium unjustly cast upon them for these reasons, they talked so imprudently of their determination to possess the whole state of Missouri, and to suffer no one to live in it who would not conform to their faith, that a party was secretly formed against them, of which the object was nothing less than their total and immediate expulsion from their promised "Zion." In a letter to Mr. Phelps, the editor of the Mormon paper, the Morning and Evening Star, dated from Kirtland Mill, Joseph threatened the vengeance of God upon all the schismatics of "Zion." "I say to you (and what I say to you I say to all), hear the warning voice of God, lest Zion fall, and the Lord swear in his wrath the inhabitants of Zion shall not enter into nry rest. The brethren in Kirtland pray for you unceasingly; for, knowing the terrors of the Lord, they greatly fear for you." Some of the Missouri Saints, it appeared, had accused Joseph Smith of aiming at "monarchical power and authority;" and two of the high priests, in a letter written at the time, in support of the rebuke of the prophet to these "rebels," speak of "low, dark, and blind insinuations against Joseph's character and intentions." Whatever Joseph's views in this respect may have been, he found it necessary to take the sting out of this accusation, by associating with him in the supreme government of the church his old colleague, Sidney Rigdon, and another "saint." As usual, when any great movement was to be made, he had a "revelation." Under the date of the 8th of March, 1833, the Lord is represented as declaring that the sins of Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams were forgiven, and "that they were henceforth to be accounted as equal with Joseph Smith, jun., in holding the keys of his last kingdom." As it appears that Sidney Rigdon was too ambitious of power to be safely trusted among the saints of Missouri, he was commanded by this revelation to remain in Kirtland. The bishop was also ordered by the same authority to "search diligently for an agent," who was to be a "man who had got riches in store -- a man of God, and of strong faith, that thereby he might be enabled to discharge every debt, that the storehouse of the Lord might not be brought into disrepute before the people." Joseph also condescended to forgive the rebellious of Zion. "Behold, I say unto you," said the revelation, "your brethren in Zion begin to repent, and the angels rejoice over them. Nevertheless, I am not well pleased with many things, and I am not well pleased with my servant William E. Maclellan, neither with my servant Sidney Gilbert, and the bishop also; and others have many things to repent of. But verily I say unto you, that I the Lord will contend with Zion, and plead with her strong ones, and chasten her, until she overcomes and is clean before me, for she shall not be removed out of her place. I the Lord have spoken it. Amen." On the same day Joseph "laid his hands on Brothers Sidney and Frederick, and ordained them to take part with him in holding the keys of the last kingdom, and to assist in the presidency of the high priesthood as his councillors. After which he exhorted the brethren to faithfulness and diligence in keeping the commandments of God; and gave much instruction for the benefit of the Saints, with a promise that the pure in heart should see a heavenly vision, and after remaining a short time in secret prayer the promise was verified. He then blessed the bread and wine, and distributed a portion to each, after which many of the brethren saw a heavenly vision of the Saviour and concourses of angels, and many other things."

But although the dissensions in the church were apparently healed by the judicious step thus taken, the old settlers of Missouri caused Joseph much alarm by the daily increasing hostility they expressed against the whole sect. The Mormon paper of June, 1833, published an article entitled "Free people of colour," which roused against the sect the hostility of the whole pro-slavery party -- then, as now, peculiarly sensitive upon the question of abolition. The anti-Mormon press contained at the same time an article entitled "Beware of false prophets," written by a person whom Joseph called "a black rod in the hand of Satan." This article was distributed from house to house in Independence and its neighbourhood, and contained many false charges against Smith and his associates, reiterating the calumny about the community of goods and wives. The Mormons were insulted wherever they made their appearance, and quarrels and fights were of frequent occurrence. In the beginning of April a meeting of 300 people, enemies of the Mormons, had been held in Independence, or "Zion," itself, at which a resolution was unanimously agreed to, "that the Mormons should be removed out of their diggings;" but after the publication of these two articles, other meetings were held in various parts of Jackson county, at which still more violent resolutions were agreed to. A general meeting of the citizens of Jackson county, expressly convened, as the requisition stated, "for the purpose of adopting measures to rid themselves of the sect of fanatics called Mormons," was held on the 20th of July. Between four and five hundred people attended from every part of the county, and an address to the public was agreed upon. The address stated that little more than two years previously, "some two or three of these people made their appearance in Missouri; that they now numbered upwards of 1,200; that each successive autumn and spring poured forth a new swarm of them into the country, as if the places from which they came were flooding Missouri with the very dregs of their composition; that they were but little above the condition of the blacks in regard to property and education; and that, in addition to other causes of scandal and offence, they exercised a corrupting influence over the slaves." The boast of the Mormons, that the whole country of Missouri was their destined inheritance, and that all the "Gentiles," or unbelievers in Joseph Smith, were to be cut off in the Lord's good time, was not forgotten. The address concluded --
"Of their pretended revelations from heaven -- their personal intercourse with God and his angels -- the maladies they pretend to heal by the laying on of hands -- and the contemptible gibberish with which they habitually profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the appellation of unknown tongues, we have nothing to say: vengeance belongs to God alone. But as to the other matters set forth in this paper, we feel called on, by every consideration of self-preservation, good society, public morals, and the fair prospects that, if they are not blasted in the germ, await this young and beautiful country, at once to declare, and we do hereby most solemnly declare-

"That no Mormon shall in future move and settle in this country.

"That those now here, who shall give a definite pledge of their intention within a reasonable time to remove out of the country, shall be allowed to remain unmolested until they have sufficient time to sell their property and close their business without any material sacrifice.

"That the editor of the Star be required forthwith to close his office, and discontinue the business of printing in this country; and, as to all other stores and shops belonging to the sect, their owners must in every case comply with the terms of the second article of this declaration, and upon failure prompt and efficient measures will be taken to close the same.

"That the Mormon leaders here, are required to use their influence in preventing any further emigration of their distant brethren to this country, and to council and advise their brethren here to comply with the above requisitions.

"That those who fail to comply with these requisitions be referred to those of their brethren who have the gifts of divination and of unknown tongues, to inform them of the lot that awaits them."
This address being read and duly proposed and seconded, was unanimously adopted. The meeting adjourned for two hours, and a deputation waited upon Mr. Phelps, the Mormon editor, upon Mr. Partridge, the bishop, and upon the keeper of the Mormon store, and urged upon them the expediency of complying with these terms above stated. The deputation reported to the meeting that they could not procure any direct answer to the terms proposed, and that the Mormons wished an unreasonable time for consultation upon the matter, not only among themselves in Independence, but with Joseph Smith, their prophet, in Kirtland. It was therefore resolved, nem. con., that the Star printing-office should be immediately razed to the ground, and the type and presses secured. "This resolution," said the anti-Mormons, in an account of the occurrence published under their authority, "was, with the utmost order, and the least noise and disturbance possible, forthwith carried into execution, as also some other steps of a similar tendency, but no blood was spilled, nor any blows inflicted." The meeting then adjourned for three days, to give the Mormons an opportunity of considering their position and prospects, in case of refusal to leave the country.

The "other steps of a similar tendency," alluded to in this extract, appear to have been the tarring and feathering of two Mormons. Phelps, the editor, managed to escape from the mob, but Partridge, the Mormon bishop, and another Saint named Allen, were not so fortunate. These two were seized, stripped naked, tarred and feathered, and set loose. The Lieutenant-Governor of the State of Missouri, Lilburn W. Boggs -- a man who from thenceforward appears to have pursued the Mormons with unrelenting hostility, and whom they appear to consider as one of the chief agents of the untimely end of their Prophet, and worse than Pontius Pilate -- was in the immediate neighbourhood of the riot, but declined to take any part in preserving the peace. Joseph Smith afterwards stated that he actually looked on, and aided the movement, saying to the Mormons, "You know what we Jackson boys can do. You must all leave the country." A Presbyterian preacher declared from the pulpit that "the Mormons were the common enemies of mankind, and ought to be destroyed." On the morning of the 23rd of July, the meeting again assembled. It was composed of several hundred persons, well armed, and bearing a red flag. They declared their intention of driving the whole sect forcibly out of Missouri if they would not go out peaceably. The Mormons saw that it was useless to resist, and their leaders agreed, if time were given, that the people should remove westward into the wilderness. It was arranged, and an agreement was duly signed to that effect, that one half of the Mormons, with their wives and families, should leave by the 1st of January, and the other half by the 1st of April next ensuing; that the paper should be discontinued, and that no more Mormons should be allowed to come into the country in the interval. The opposite party pledged themselves that no violence should be done to any Mormon, provided these conditions were complied with.

Oliver Cowdery was immediately despatched to Kirtland with a message to the "Prophet." On his arrival, it was resolved, in solemn conclave, Joseph himself presiding, that the Morning and Evening Star should be published in Kirtland, and that a new paper, to be called the Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate, should be forthwith started. It was also resolved to appeal for protection to Mr. Dunklin, the governor of the state of Missouri, and to demand justice for the outrages inflicted upon the sect. Joseph himself did not venture into "Zion," in the dangerous circumstances of his people, but undertook a journey to Canada with Sidney Rigdon and another, where they made some converts to the Book of Mormon. In the meantime, Governor Dunklin wrote a sensible and conciliatory letter in reply to the Mormon petition, stating that the attack upon them was illegal and unjustifiable, and recommended them to apply for redress to the ordinary tribunals of the country. This letter was widely circulated, and the Mormons, upon the strength of it, resolved to remain in Independence, and "proceed with the building up of Zion." They commenced actions against the ringleaders of the mob, and engaged, for a fee of $1,000, the best legal counsel they could procure to support their case. On the 30th of October the mob was once again in arms to expel them. Ten houses of the "saints" were unroofed and partially demolished at a place called Big Blue; and on the following days several houses were sacked at Independence. The Mormons in some instances defended their property, and a regular battle ultimately ensued between thirty of the saints, armed with rifles, and a large company of their opponents, also well armed. In this encounter two of the anti-Mormons were killed. Things at last assumed so alarming an aspect, that the militia, under the command of Lieutenant-Governor Boggs, was called out. The militia, however, was anti-Mormon to a man, and the unhappy "saints" saw that they had no alternative but in flight. The blood that had been shed had caused such an exasperation against them, that it was unsafe for a solitary Mormon to show himself. The women first took the alarm, and fled, with their children, across the Missouri river.
"On Thursday, Nov. 7th," says the account in the Times and Seasons, "the shore began to be lined on both aides of the ferry with men, women, and children, goods, waggons, boxes, chests, provisions; while the ferry-men were busily engaged in crossing them over; and when night again closed upon the saints, the wilderness had much the appearance of a camp meeting. Hundreds of people were seen in every direction, some in tents, and some in the open air, around their fires, while the rain descended in torrents. Husbands were inquiring for their wives, and women for their husbands; parents for children, and children for parents. Some had the good fortune to escape with their family, household goods, and some provisions; while others knew not the fate of their friends, and had lost all their goods. The scene was indescribable, and would have melted the hearts of any people upon earth, except the blind oppressor, and prejudiced and ignorant bigot. Next day the company increased, and they were chiefly engaged in felling small cotton trees, and erecting them into temporary cabins, so that when night came on, they had the appearance of a village of wigwams, and the night being clear, the occupants began to enjoy some degree of comfort. The saints who fled, took refuge in the neighbouring counties, mostly in Clay county, which received them with some degree of kindness. Those who fled to the county of Van Buren were again driven and compelled to flee, and those who fled to Lafayette county were soon expelled, or the most of them, and had to move wherever they could find protection."
The public authorities of the State of Missouri, and indeed all the principal people, except those of Jackson county, were scandalized at these lawless proceedings, and sympathized with the efforts made by the Mormon leaders to obtain redress. The Attorney-General of the state wrote to say that if the Mormons desired to be re-established in their possessions, an adequate public force would be sent for their protection. He also advised that the Mormons should organize themselves into a regular company of militia, in which case they should be supplied with public arms. The "Prophet," having by this time returned to Kirtland, wrote to the "saints" in their distress, though ho did not take the bold step of personally appearing among them. He reiterated that "Independence," or "Zion," was the place divinely appointed by God for the inheritance of the saints; that, therefore, they should not sell any land to which they had a legal title within its boundaries, but hold on "until the Lord in his wisdom should open a way for their return." He also advised that they should, if possible, purchase a tract of land in Clay county, for present emergencies. He also had a "revelation," in which the Lord was represented as saying that these calamities were a punishment on the saints for their "jarrings, contentions, and envyings and strifes, and lustful and covetous desires." Zion, however, was the appointed place, and thither, in due time, the Saints should return "with songs of everlasting joy." The "revelation," which was of unusual length, and contained a long parable, commanded the saints to "importune at the feet of the Judge; and if he did not heed, to importune at the feet of the Governor; and if the Governor did not heed, to importune at the feet of the President of the United States; and if the President did not heed, then the Lord God Himself would arise and come forth out of his hiding-place, and in his fury vex the nation."

The saints, however, did not succeed in their object. They never returned to their "Zion," but remained for upwards of four years in Clay county. It was mostly uncleared land where they settled or squatted, but being a most industrious and persevering people, they laid out farms, erected mills and stores, and carried on their business successfully. They also laid the foundation of the towns of Far-West and Adam-On-Diahman -- but their fanaticism, here, as well as in their former location, soon proved the cause of their expulsion from the whole State of Missouri. The slavery question, the calumny about their open adulteries and community of wives, their loud vaunts of their supreme holiness, their continually repeated declarations that Missouri was to be theirs by Divine command, and the quarrels that were the constant result, led to the same ill-feeling in Clay county. But before the final consummation, when, as one of their hymns says --             "Missouri,
Like a whirlwind in its fury,
And without a judge or jury,
    Drove the saints and spilled their blood" --
various interesting events in their history took place. On the 5th May, 1834, Joseph resolved to proceed to Clay county and put the affairs of the scattered and dispirited church into order. Having organized a company of one hundred persons, mostly young men, and nearly all elders, priests, deacons, and teachers, he started at their head for Missouri. They travelled on foot; several waggons with their baggage and provisions, and relief to the destitute saints in Clay county, following behind. They were well provided with "fire-arms and all sorts of munition of war of the most portable kind for self-defence." They were joined in two days by fifty more "saints," similarly armed. Their baggage waggons now amounted to twenty. Joseph divided his band into companies of twelve -- consisting of two cooks, two firemen, two tent makers, two watermen, one runner or scout, one commissary, and two waggoners. Every night, "at the sound of the trumpet they bowed down before the Lord in their several tents; and at the sound of the morning trumpet every man was again on his knees before the Lord." They passed through extensive wilds, and forded many streams and rivers; and though, as Joseph says, "their enemies were continually breathing threats of violence, they did not fear, neither did they hesitate to prosecute their journey, for God was with them, and his angels were before them, and the faith of the little band was unwavering." We knew," he adds, "that angels were our companions, for we saw them."

On their arrival in June at the Illinois river, the people were very anxious to know who and what they were. Many questions were asked, but the Mormons evaded them all, and gave no information as to their names, profession, business, or destination. Joseph himself travelled incognito, and though the settlers in Illinois vehemently suspected the band to be Mormons, they did not think it prudent to molest them. Having been safely ferried over the river, with all their baggage, they encamped two days afterwards amid some mounds, or ancient burial places of the Indians. Here Joseph played the "prophet," and gave his followers an additional proof of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon, and of the history of the Lamanites, the descendants of the Jews, therein recorded. This was intended as a master-stroke of policy, and doubtless was so under the circumstances. "The contemplation of the scenery," says Joseph, "produced peculiar sensations in our bosoms. The brethren procured a shovel and a hoe, and removing the earth of one of the mounds, to the depth of about a foot, discovered the skeleton of a man almost entire, and between his ribs was a Lamanitish arrow. The visions of the past being opened to my understanding by the spirit of the Almighty, I discovered that the person whose skeleton was before us was a white Lamanite, a large thick-set man, and a man of God. He was a warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Omandagus, who was known from the hill Cumorah, or Easter Sea, to the Rocky Mountains. His name was Zelph. He was killed in battle by the arrow, found among his ribs, during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites." On the next day, refreshed by this incident, and marvellously confirmed in the faith by the wisdom and knowledge of their prophet, they moved onwards, and crossed the Mississippi river, into the limits of the State of Missouri. Joseph was now on dangerous ground, and chose twenty men for his body-guards, appointing his brother Hyram Smith as their captain, and George Smith, as his armour-bearer. He also appointed a "general," who daily inspected the little army, examined their firelocks, and drilled them on the prairies. The people of Jackson county by this time were informed of Joseph Smith's arrival with his army. A deputation of them, who were in Clay county, to submit a proposal for the purchase of all the Mormon lands in Independence, no sooner heard that Mr. Smith was in the field in person, than they returned towards their own county to raise a force with which to meet and chastise the "prophet." One of their leaders, named Campbell, swore, as he adjusted his pistols in his holsters, "that the eagles and turkey buzzards should eat his flesh if he did not, before two days, fix Joe Smith and his army, so that their skins should not hold shucks." Joseph, who relates this story, adds, that Campbell and his men "went to the ferry and undertook to cross the Missouri river after dusk; but the angel of God saw fit to sink the boat about the middle of the river, and seven out of the twelve that attempted to cross were drowned. Thus suddenly and justly," he adds, with great complacency, "they went to their own place by water; Campbell was among the missing. He floated down the river some four or five miles, and lodged upon a pile of drift wood, where the eagles, buzzards, ravens, crows, and wild animals ate his flesh from his bones, to fulfil his own words, and left him a horrible-looking skeleton of God's vengeance, which was discovered about three weeks afterwards by one Mr. Purtle."

Joseph, much delighted at the death of Campbell and his men, continued his march, and had a new "Revelation" from the Lord to comfort and excite his people. The cholera, however, broke out in his camp on the 24th of June, and Joseph attempted to cure it by "laying on of his hands and prayer." He failed, however, to do any good, and accounted for his failure by stating that "he quickly learned by painful experience that when the Great Jehovah decrees destruction, man must not attempt to stay his hand." Though he could not cure the cholera, he endeavoured to maintain his influence over the minds of his credulous followers, and impress them more forcibly with the miraculous nature of his mission, by stating that the enemies of the Mormons would suffer more severely from the visitation than the Mormons themselves. He laid particular stress upon the case of a woman who refused a "saint" some water to drink. "Before a week," said the 'prophet,' "the cholera entered that house, and that woman and three others of the family were dead." Joseph lost thirteen of his band by the ravages of the cholera. On the 1st of July he crossed into Jackson county, with a few friends, "to set his feet once more on that goodly land;" and, after remaining one day, proceeded with the remainder of his company to Clay county. He did not remain long with the saints, for we find that he arrived on the 2nd, and started back for Kirtland on the 9th. It was not prudent, it appears, that he should make himself too familiar with his believers. The great man was not to be seen too closely with impunity, for some of his travelling companions began to accuse him of "prophesying lies in the name of the Lord," and also of appropriating "moneys" to which he had no right. He did not leave, however, without organizing and encouraging the main body of the fugitives from Jackson county, and establishing the community in Clay county on a better footing than when he arrived. On his return to Kirtland, his first step was to bring to trial before his church the brother who accused him of "prophesying lies," and of appropriating moneys. The brother confessed his error, retracted his charge, and was forgiven.

The history of the sect for the next three years is one of strife and contention with their unrelenting and vindictive enemies in Missouri. The numbers of the Mormons increased with the numbers of their opponents, and the warfare raged so bitterly that the whole people of Missouri were ranged either on one side or the other. In the autumn of 1837 Joseph's bank at Kirtland stopped payment, the district was flooded with its worthless paper, and Joseph had a "revelation" commanding him to depart finally for Missouri, and live among the saints in the land of their inheritance. Joseph obeyed the "revelation" by departing secretly in the night, or "between two days," as it is called in America, leaving his creditors to their remedy. He found the affairs of his "church" in considerable confusion on his arrival. The "saints" formed a numerous and powerful body, but they did not agree among themselves; and occasional seceders and deserters from their camp -- many of them consisting of men who were ashamed of their own delusions, besides others who were actuated by vindictive motives or disappointed ambition -- spread abroad all sorts of rumours and stories to the disadvantage of the sect. The great schism alluded to in a previous part of this Letter broke out in 1838, when Joseph Smith found it necessary to denounce some of his oldest confederates, among others "Oliver Cowdery," one of the three witnesses to the authenticity of the Book of Mormon, and the existence of the gold plates; Martin Harris, another witness; Sidney Rigdon, his co-equal in the government of the church, and various disciples and apostles. Sidney Rigdon was afterwards forgiven, being too important a personage to be turned into an enemy. In the midst of these squabbles, the people of Jackson county, joined by the people of Clay county, Caldwell county, and others, made a series of pertinacious efforts to expel them finally from Missouri. The Mormons were all well armed, and a body of them, instituted expressly for the defence of the sect, was organized under the name of the "Danite Band," or, as they were sometimes called, the "Destroying Angels." An affidavit made before a justice of the peace in Ray county, Missouri, on the 24th of October, 1838, and sworn by a man named Marsh, who had held office in the Mormon Church, and another affidavit, signed by Orson Hyde, an ex-apostle of the church, alleged the following facts with reference to the "Danites,"and their proceedings: --
"They have among them a company consisting of all that are considered true Mormons, called the Danites, who have taken an oath to support the heads of the church in all things that they say or do, whether right or wrong. Many, however, of this band are much dissatisfied with this oath, as being against moral and religious principles. On Saturday last, I am informed by the Mormons that they had a meeting at Far West, at which they appointed a company of twelve, by the name of the Destruction Company, for the purpose of burning and destroying; and that if the people of Buncombe came to do mischief upon the people of Caldwell, and committed depredations upon the Mormons, they were to burn Buncombe; and if the people of Clay and Ray made any movement against them, this destroying company were to burn Liberty and Richmond. The plan of said Smith, the prophet, is to take this State; and he professes to his people to intend taking the United States, and ultimately the whole world. This is the belief of the church, and my own opinion of the prophet's plans and intentions. The prophet inculcates the notion, and it is believed by every true Mormon, that Smith's prophecies are superior to the law of the land. I have heard the prophet say that he would yet tread down his enemies, and walk over their dead bodies; that if he was not let alone, he would be a second Mahomet to this generation, and that he would make it one gore of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean; that, like Mahomet, whose motto, in treating for peace, was 'the Alcoran or the sword,' so should it be eventually with us, 'Joseph Smith or the sword.' These last statements were made during the last summer. The number of armed men at Adam-on-diahman was between three and four hundred.
                     "Thomas B. Marsh.
"Sworn to and subscribed before me, the day herein written.      "Henry Jacors, J. P., Ray county, Missouri.
"Richmond, Missouri, October 24, 1838."


"The most of the statements in the foregoing disclosure of T. B. March I know to be true; the remainder I believe to be true.
                     "Orson Hyde, Richmond, Oct. 24, 1838.
"Sworn to and subscribed before me on the day above written.      "Henry Jacors, J.P."


"The undersigned committee, on the part of the citizens of Bay county, have no doubt but Thomas B. March and Orson Hyde, whose names are signed to the foregoing certificates, have been members of the Mormon church in full fellowship until very recently, when they voluntarily abandoned the Mormon church and faith, and that said March was, at the time of his dissenting, the president of the Twelve Apostles, and president of the church at Far West; and that said Hyde was at that time one of the Twelve Apostles, and that they left church, and abandoned the faith of the Mormons, from a conviction of their immorality and impiety. "Thomas C. Burch. William Hudgins. Henry Jacors. George Woodward. .1. R. Hendley. C. R. Morehead. "Richmond, October 24, 1838." 0. H. Searcy."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               London, Monday, August 12, 1850.                               No. 26,113. ?

[Eve. pp. 5-6]





My last Letter brought down the history of Joseph Smith to his establishment in Nauvoo, as mayor of that city, and his self-appointment to the rank of General of the Nauyoo Militia. For time, the "prophet" and his foliowers were warned by sad experience, and "were less hanghty, less overbearing, and, less presumptuos in their intercourse with the "Gentiles," as they called all who were not Mormons, But the prosperity which attended them in Illinois; and the rapid sfrowth of Nauvoo, soon filled them again with insolence and spiritual pride. The dissensions, which had subsided in adversity, were renewed in prosperity. The power and influence of Joseph were too great not to excite envy, and Sidney Rigdon did great mischief by introducing a novelty called the "spiritual wife" doctrine. This caused great scandal, both among the Mormons and among the Gentiles. Joseph himself appears, unless he has been grievously maligned, and unless the affidavits published by his opponents were forgeries, to have had as great a jicncAont for a ploralify of wives as Mahomet himself. Sidney Rigdon, according to the same authority, outdid hiin in this respect, and had "revelations" of his own, which he made subservient to the gratification of his passions. There was possibly some exaggeration in these stories, but they do not appear to have been wholly unfounded. A public lecturer of the name of Newhall published, in the Salem (Massachusetts) Advertiser, an account of a visit made to Nauvoo, in 1843. He described the Temple as a very "magnificent structure, different from anything in ancient or modern history," and "General" Smith?s legion as a very fine body of men. He was present at a grand review of the corps by Joseph himself, accompanied by "six ladies on horseback -- who were dressed in black velvet, and wore waving plumes of white feathers, and rode up and down in front of the regiment." He described Joseph himself as "very sociable, easy, cheerful, obliging and kind, and very hospitable -- in a word -- a jolly fellow -- and one of the last persons whom he would have supposed God would have raised up as a prophet or a priest." Another account of Joseph was published about the same time by a Methodist preacher of the name of Prior. This gentleman says: -- "I will not attempt to describe th e various feelings of my bosom as I took my seat in a conspicuous place in the congregation, who were waiting in breathless silence for his appearance. While he ts rrira I had plenty of time to revolve in my mind the character and common report of that truly singular personage. I fancied that I should behold a countenance sad and sorrowful, yet containing the fiery marks of rage and exasperation. I supposed that I should be enabled to discover in him some of those thoughtful and reserved features, those mystic and sarcastic glances, which I had fancied the ancient sages to possess. I expected to see that fearful, faltering look of conscious shame which, from what I had heard of him, he might be expected to evince. He appeared at last; but how was I disappointed when, instead of the heads and horns of the beast and false prophet, I beheld only the appearance of a common man, of tolerably large proportions. I was sadly disappointed, and thought that, ?? though his appearance could not be wrested to indicate anything against him, yet he would manifest all had heard of lum when he began to preach. I sat uneasy, and watched him closely. He commenced preaching, not from the book of Mormon, however, but from the Bible; the first chapter of the first of Peter was his text. He commenced, calmly and continued dispassionately to pursue his subject, while I sat in breathless silence, waiting to hear that foul aspersion of the other sects, that diabolical disposition of reV en?, and to hear that rancorous denunciation of every individual bnt a Mormon. I waited in vain; I listened with surprise; I sat uneasy in my seat, and could hardly persuade myself but that he had been apprised of my presence, and so ordered his discourse on my account, that I might not be able to find fault with it, for instead of a jumbled jargon of half connected sentences, and a volley of imprecations, and diabolical and malignant denunciations heaped upon the heads of all who differed from him, and the dreadful twisting and wresting of the Scriptures to suit his own peculiar views, and attempts to weaiie a ireb of dark and mystic sophis t^ around the Gospel truths, which I had anticipated, he glided along, through a very interesting and elaborate discourse with all the care and happy facility of one who was well aware of his important station and his duty to God and man." The same writer thus describes Nauvoo: -- "A t length the city burst upon my sight. Instead of seeing a few miserable log cabins and mud hovels, which I had expected to find, I was surprised to see, one of the most romantic places th at I had visited in the west. The buildings, though many of them were small, and of wood, yet bore the marks of neatness which I have not seen equalled in this country. The far-spread plain at the bottom of the hill was dotted over with the habitations of men, with such majestic profusion, that I was almost willing to believe myself mistaken, and instead of being in Nauvoo of Illinois, among Mormons, that I was in Italy at the city of Leghorn (which the location of Nauvoo resembles very much), and among the eccentric Italians. I gazed for some time with fond admiration upon the plain below. Here and there arose a tall m?estic brick house, speaking loudly of the genius and untiring labour of the inhabitants, who have snatched the place from th e clutches of obscurity, and wrested it from the bonds of disease; and in two or three short years rescued it from a dreary waste to transform it into one of the first cities in the west. The hill upon which stood was covered over with the dwellings of men, and amid them was seen to rise the hewn stone and already accomplished work of the Temple, which is now raised fifteen or twenty feet above the ground. The few trees th at were permitted to stand are now in full foliage, and are scattered with a sort of fantastic irregularity over the slope of the hill. "But there was one object which was far more noble to behold, and far more majestic than any other yet presented to my sight, and that was the wide-spread and unrivalled father of waters, the Mississippi river, whose mirror-bedded waters lay in majestic extension before the city, and in one general cnrve seemed to sweep gallantly by the beautiful place. On the farther side was seen the dark-green woodland, bending under its deep foliage, with here and there an interstice bearing the marks of cultivation. A few houses could be seen through the trees on the other side of the river, directly opposite to which is spread a fairy isle, covered with beautiful timber. The isle and the rom antic swell of the river soon brought my mind back to days of yore, and to the bright em erald isles of the far-famed fairy land, The bold and prominent rise of the hill, fitting to the plain with exact regularity, and the plain pushing itself info the river, forcing it to bend arouiid its obstacle with becoming grandeur, - and fondly to cling around it to Id to the heightened and refined lustre of this sequestered land. "I passed on into the more active parts of the city, looking into every street and. lane to observe all' that was passing'. I found all the people engaged in some ''n se M 'ra d healthy employment. The place was alive with business -- much 'parare. ?? than any place I have visited since the hard times commenced. I sought in vain for anything th at bore the marks of immorality, but was both astonished and highly pleased at bay in success. I could see no loungers about the streets, nor any drunkards about the taverns; I did not meet with those distorted features of ruffians, or with the ill-bred and impudent. I heard not r a o ath ip the place, I saw not a gloomy coontenrace; all were cheerful, polite, and industrious." From this time until 1844, the wealth and power of the sect continued to increase; their numbers being augmented from time to time by the English immigration from Liverpool. The "Times and Seasons," of the 15th of May in that year, announced to the Saints "that Nauvoo was becoming a large city, and, that a number of splendid houses were erected. Three ships? companies had arrived in the spriim from England, and the Prophet was in good health and spirits." In 1844, they carried their heads so high that they put Joseph forward as a candidate, for the Presidentship of; the United Stotes, and his still faithful Sidney. Rigdon as a [candidate for the Vice-Presidentship., Joseph was of course aware that his canditure was an act which had no other, meaning than please hip di^ipiesf [and he wrote to, Mr. CKV; who? was supposed to have a good chance, pi being elected to that office, to know what course Jx?.wbald ^rshe^ towards the Mormons? As Joseph Smith (hnffir the ansnjer oif Mr. CSaytw sfec^ojisly courteons. "I have viewed," said he, with a hyely, interest the progress of the Latter-Day Saints. I have sympathized in their suffering dez.. in jo si^ , and I think in common with an other ^?g?otM communities they ought to enjoy the jecmyty and the protection of the constitution and the laws." Joseph was at the cliinax of hie efirthl^p gi?rni and might have been comparatively happy even amid the persecutions of his neighbours the "Gentiles," had it not been for secessions from his church, and the annoyances springing out of the ? spiritual wife ? doctrine of his indiscreet friend Rigdon. The population of Nauvoo was almost wholly composed of Mormons. The corporation over which the "Prophet" presided as "mayor" assumed a jurisdiction independent of, and sometimes hostile to, that of the state of Illinois. They denied validity to the legal documents of the state, unlessconntersigned by the mayor of Nauvoo, and they passed a law to punish any stranger in the city who should ure disrespectful language about Smith. As time wore on, hostility against the sect increased. They waged a constant warfare with the nine counties that adjoin Handcock county, m which Nauvoo is situated, and their old feud with Missouri was kept up by legal proceedings which, in a somewhat vexatious manner, here instituted against Smith. Lieut.-Governor Boggs, of Missouri, was fired at through a window by a Mormon, and narrowly escaped assassination. He swore that to the best of his belief Joseph Smith was a party to this attempt to murder him. The legal proceedings consequent upon this charge, tended to excite and maintain the bitterest animosity between the "Saints" and the "Gentiles." But the "spiritual-wife" doctrine of Sidney Rigdon was the cause of the greatest scandal, and ultimately produced an unloeked for catastrophe -- the murder of Joseph Smith and his brother Hiram, by an exasperated mob in the gaol of Carthage. It appears from many conflicting stories which have been published, that one Dr. Foster, a Mormon, aud member of the Banite Band, or society of the "Destroying Angels," having been absent from home, suddenly returned without giving notice to his wife. He found the carriage of the prophet at the door. Being the leader of a recession from the Mormon church, and having, it b alleged, had previous suspicions of an improper intercourse, he questioned his wife as soon as Simth took his departure. Tbe enemies of the "prophet" assert that she confessed that he had been endeavouring to prevail upon her to become his "spiritual wife." Dr. Foster brooded over th b grievance for some time, and finding ^ o n g the rec?dera that many were inclined to support him in attacking the characters of Joreph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, he, and another person named Law, commenced the publication, in the city of Nauvoo itself, of a newspaper, called the Expositor. In the first number they published the affidavits of sixteen women, to the effect that Smith, Rigdon, and others, had endeavoured to convert them to the spiritual wife doctrine, and to seduce them under the plea of having had especial permission from Heaven. This was somewhat 'too daring, and Joseph Smith in his capacity of Mayor of Nauvoo immediately summoned the corporation to consider the publication. They unanimously declared it to be a public nuisance, and ordered the city marshal to "abate it forthwith." A body of the ? prophet?s?? adherents, to the number of two hundred and upwards, sallied forth in obedience to this order, and, proceeding to the office of the Expositor, speedily razed it to the ground. They then destroyed the presses, and made bonfire of the papers and furniture. Foster and Law fled for their lives, and took refuge in Carthage. The Mormons, it must not be forgotten, indignantly deny the charges brought against Joseph Smith Upon this subject of "spiritual wives," and especially the story of Mrs. Poster, which they treat as a hare and utterly unfounded calumny. As regards Sidney Rigdon they are not so emphatic in their denial. "Whatever the truth may have been, the consequences to the sect were momentous. Foster and Law applied for a warrant against Joseph and Hiram Smith, in the County Court at Carthage. The warrant was granted and served upon the Mayor of Nauvoo. He refused to acknowledge its validity, and the constable who served it was marched out of Nauvoo by the city marshal. The authorities of the county could not suffer thb affront to the law; and the militia were ordered out to support the county officer in arresting the Smiths. The Mormons in Nauvoo fortified the city, and determined to fight to the last extremity insupport ofthe "Prophet." The "brethren" from all parts of the country hastened to give assistance. Illinois, like Missouri, divided itself into two great camps, the Mormons and the Anti- Mormons, and the circumstances were so menacing that the governor took the field in person. In a proclamation to the people of Illinois, he stated that he had discovered that nothing but the utter destruction of the city of Nauvoo would satisfy the troops under hb command, and that if he marched into the city pretexts would not be wanting oa their part for the commencement of slaughter. Anxious to spare the effusion of blood, he called upon the two Smiths to surrender peaceably, pledging his word and the honour of the State that they should be protected. He also called upon the Mormons to surrender their public arms, and upon the Nauvoo legion to submit to the command of a state officer. The Mormons agreed to the terms, and Joseph and his brother surrendered to take their trial for the riot, and for the destruction of the office of the "Expositor." The prophet had a presentiment of evil, and said as he surrendered, "I am going like a lamb to the slaughter, but I have a conscience void of offence, and shall die innocent." While in prison at Carthage, another writ was served upon him and his brother for high treason against the state of Illinois. As the mob breathed vengeance against both prisoners, and as the militia of the country very indecently sided with them, and were not to be depended on in case of any violence being offered to the two Smiths by the people, the Governor was requested by the Mormons to set a guard over the gaol. On the morning of the 26th of June, 1844, the Governor visited the prisoners in gaol, and pledged his word to protect them against the threatened violence. It now began to be rumoured among the mob that there would be no case against the Smiths on either of the charges brought against them, and that the Governor was anxious that they should escape. A band of ruffians accordingly resolved that as "law could not reach them, powder and shot should." About six o?clock in the evening of the 27th the small guard stationed at the gaol was overpowered by a band of nearly two hundred men, with blackened faces, who rushed into the prison where the unfortunate men were confined. They were at the time in consultation with two of their friends. The mob fired upon the whole four. Hiram was shot first, and fell immediately, exclaiming "I am a dead man." Joseph endeavoured to leap from the window, and was shot in the attempt, exclaiming "Oh Lord, my God." They were both shot after they were dead, receiving four balls. John Taylor, one of the two Mormons in the room, was seriously wounded, but afterwards recovered. Thus died this remarkable man. "In the short space of twenty years," says the account of his "Martyrdom," appended to the Book of Doctrines and Covenants, "he brought forth the Book of Mormon, which he translated by the gift and power of God, and was the means of publishing in two continents. He sent the fulness of the everlasting Gospel which it contained to the four quarters of the earth. He brought forth the revelations and commandments which compose the Book of Doctrines and Covenants, and many other wise documents and instructions for the benefit of the children of men. He gathered many thousands of the Latter-day'? Saints, founded a great city, and left a fame and a. name thht cannot be slain. He lived great, and. died great in the eyes of God and his people; and like most of the Lord?s anointed in ancient times, sealed his mission and his works with his own blood; and so did his own brother Hiram. In life, they were not divided, and in death they were not separated." -- The "Christian Reflector," a less friendly critic of his character and actions, thus spoke of his life and death "It is but a few weeks since the death of Joe Smith was announced. His body now sleeps, and his spirit has gone, to its reward. "Various are the opinions of men concerning this singular personage; but whatevar may be the views of ra y in reference to his principles, objects, or moral character, all ' raree that he was one of the most remarkable men of the age. Not fifteen years have elapsed since a J ^ d , composed of six letsoiisV- was formed in Palmyra, New York, of which Joseph i im itb. jn n .; was the presiding genius. Most of these were connected with the family of Smith the senior. They were notorious for breach o f contracts, and the repudiation of their honest debts. All of them were addicted to vice. They obtained their living not by honourable labour, but by deceiving their neighbours with their marvellous tales of money digging. Notwithstrading the low origin, poverty, and profligacy of the members of that land of rao ? n teb rak s, the? have augmented their ?? numbers-til) more than 100,000 persons are now. numbered among the followers of the Mormon prophet, and never were ?ncreasing so rapiqly as at, th? ? to? of his death. From ih the very lowest w ^ 'l i te, reared in poverty,, educated in vice, baring r a claim s Ao e ^ ^ common intelligence, ?3aise!tuid vulgaxin.'dq)0rt?n en t, ih s. Prophet Smith succeeded in establishing w refigfeps irree^ > the tenets of which ia.y? been ta s^ h t throa ^ o p t the length and breadth of America. The prophet's virtues have been rehearsed and admired in Europe; the ministers of Nauvoo have ever found a welcome in A sia; and A f n c a has h s t e ^ t o t h e ^ ^ sayings nttheaeen of P a l i ^ -The ^ day Saints has been r e a r ^ on the j ^ ^ ef even the Holy Land has been entered by the ettissanes of this wicked impostor. "He founded a city in one of the most America. Its walls are o f'sohd f ^ ?n Owckne ?! supported by thirty stone ptilaraj That building u a monument pointing the traveller to the genius of its founder. "The acts of his life exhibit a charactor as incongruous as it is remarkable. If we can credit his own w n ^ , w d j i e testimony of eye-witnesses, he was at toe ?m e time the vicegerent of God -- a tavern-keeper and prophet of Jehovah, fnd a base libertine -- a minister of the religion of peara, auda lieutenant-generel -- a rider of tens of thousands, and a slave to all his own base, unbndled passions -- a prober of righteousness, and a profane swearer -- a worshipper of Bacchus, mayor of a city, and a miserable bar-room fiddler; a judge upon the judicial bench, and an the c iw . spciaf; and moral relations of men; these inconsistencies of character. and, notwithstanding _____________ there are not wanting thousands who are willing to stake their souls? etem?d salvation upon his veracity. For aught we know, time and distance will embellish his life with some new and rare virtues which, his most intimate friends fmled_ to discover while living with him. "Reasoning from effect to cause, we must conclude that the Mormon Prophet was of no common genius ? few are able to commence and carry out an imposition like his, so. long, and to such an extent. And we see, in the bistow of his success, most striking proofs of the gullibility of a large portion of the human family. What may not men be inri need to believe?" The perpetrators of the shameful murder of the two brothers were never discovered. Several persons Were arrested on suspicion; but there was not fluffidient proof to Convict them. The event ww greatly deplored. The sincerest opponents of Mormonism were those who were most grieve at it. Joseph Smith murdered was a greater prophet than Joseph Smith alive j and it was predicted, both by friends and foes, that, however rapid the progress the sect might have been in past tunes, it would be still more rapid when fanaticism might point to the martyrs of the faith -- when the faults of Smith would be buried in the oblivion of the tomb, and when his virtues would be enhanced by the remembrance of his fate. The prediction was apeeduy verified, but not however until the Mormons ted passed through another long period of persecution and suffering. No sooner had the Smitbs 'been removed from the way of his long-cdijcealed .but violent ambition, than Sidney Rigdon strove to vault into the varant place of the deceased "prophet." Sidney, however, miscalculated his power and influence. Joseph had long been mistrustfol of him. Sidney knew too much, and Joseph, without quarrelling with him, had kept him at arm's length. The mistrust of the prophet was sh?redhy the principal Mormons, and his "spiritual wife" doctrine had alienated from him the confidence of many who had once looked upon him as a founder of the faith, and a pillar of the church. After the death of Joseph, Sidney Rigdon had a "revelation," commauding the saints to withdraw from their enemies, and leave Nauvoo, and establish themselves in Pittsburg. This "revelation" contradicted the "revelations" of Joseph; and the Saints under the guidance of Brigham Young, who ba,d his own ambitious views to serve, treajiea Sidney's "revelations" as the unwarrantable innovations of a man who "lied before the Lord," and sought the destruction of his Saints. He was summoned to answer for his misdeeds before the high quorums of the priesthood. He refused to appear, and, evidence having been given in his absence, he was expelled from the church, and, to use the words of his sentence, "handed over to the buffetings of Satan." The Missourians and anti-Mormons relaxed in their hostility after the death of the prophet and his brother, and for a twelvemonth affairs went on more. quietly in the city of Nauvoo. Brigh^ Young succeeded to .the chief presidency of the churte, and the Saints, carried on with vigour the building of the temple and the Nauvoo House, in order, as- they said, .,to fulfil the ? revelation,? and prove to the Hent?es, not' only the divinity of their mission, but their power, wealth, and perseverance. Qumr?ls occasionally took place. The Mormons, when insulted, or opr pressed, had not always the patience to forbear from retaliation; and among men who habitually bore arms to protect themselves it is not surprising that the conflicts should not in all cases have been confined to words. Skirmish succeeded ,8kirm?6h,unt? it became once more necessary to call out the militia for the preservation of the peace. Regular battles ensued, blood was shed, lives were lost, and the exasperation of both parties was raised even beyond its former height. The Governor was called upon to interfere actively, and a meeting of delegates from the nine counties surrounding Nauvoo was convened, at which it was asserted ? by all the speakers that there ?would be no peace for Illinois as long as the. Mormons remained within its boundaries. The delegates pledged themselves to support each other to the last extremity in expelling them forcibly, if they could not otherwise be induced to go. After a series of struggles and negotiations, and -a regular siege of the city of Nauvoo by tbe Anti-Mormons, the Saints agreed to leave Illinois in the spring of ?18?, or as ? soon as grass grew and. water rani? provided that in the interval they should not be molested, and that they should be. allowed time and opportunity to sell their farms and properties, and remove beyond the limits of civilization. The first companies of the Mormons commenced crossing the Mississippi on the 3d February, 1846. They amounted to 1,600, men, women, ana children, and passed the river on the ?ce. They continued to leave^ in detachments or companies of similar magnitude until July aud August, travelling by ox-teamsntowards California, then almost unknown, and quite unpeopled by the Anglo-Saxon race. The Anti-Mormons asserted that the intention of the Saints was to exoite the Indians against the commonwealth, and that they would return at the head of a multitude of the red skins to take vengeance upon the white people for the indignities they had suffered. Noching appears to have been further from the intentions of the Mormons. Their sole object was to plant their church iu some fertile and hitherto undiscovered spot, where they might worship God in their own fashion, unmolested by any other sect of Christians. The war against Mexico was then raging, and, to test the loyalty of the Mormons, it was suggested by their foes that a demand shomd be made upon them to raise 600 men for the service of the country. The Mormons obeyed, and 500 of their best men enrolled themselves under the command of General Kearney, and marched 2,400 miles with the armies of the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican war they were disbanded in Upper California. The Mormons allege that it was one of this hand who, in working at a mill, first discovered the golden treasures of California, and the Saints are said to have succeeded in amassing large quantities of the precious metal before the secret was made generally nowu to the "Gentiles." The "Great Salt Lake Valley" was ultimately fi^ed upon as the halting-place and future home of the sect; and thither large detachments of Mormons have since directed their steps. In 1846, whilst one party went overland to Upper California another party chartered the ship Brooklyn at New York, and sailed round in the Pacific, by Cape Horn. This party was amongst the earliest of the arrivals in Oalifornia, and its members are said to have been exceedingly fortunate at the "diggings," and to have am assi large quantilies of gold. The courage of the sect reviv?a, ,(md th?y'were never more eh^^ at any period of ih?ir ?ustory'Ih??'now. The Salt Lake Valley, in Deseret, is about eighty miles in length by twenty or thirty in breadth. Through the middle runs a beautiful stream , to which they have given the name of the ? Western Jordan.? They uiid out a large city in 1847, and commenced the building of a new Temple. The climate is said to be excellent aud the soil highly fertile. Fifteen thousand Mormons, exclusive of Indians, already inhabit the valley; About 6,000, in detachments of 400 and 500 each, are iiUi- present on theiir road overland from New Orleane, by St. Louis and Council Bluflfe, the whole: of whom. are expected to reach their dest?uation in August, September, and October the br???bt year. - At .their half-way station at Council Blufs there ia a Mormon population of about 20;000 people, who have squatted ^ a vast plain or praine extending for abont 100 m d^ by 6Dor 60 in breadth. Here they raise p ro to n s and buy cattle, make and taeni fr^ o n s, and sa^ money to establish themselves nltunately in the Great Salt Lake City. Many of them remain a year or two hdore they move o n w ^ , te that these settlements are always filling with the new, and thinning of the old immigration. The principal town in this district is Kanesville, where there are said to be about 1,000 Mormons. Several emissaries, or "Apostles" of the sect were despatched to TEuroj^^d the commencement of the present year, to ? gather ? the European Saints to the New Zion. Some have proceeded to Germany, to France, to Norway, and to Russia, but the strongholds of tbe sect are in England, Wal?s^ and Scotland. Their eldere ' stete that neariy 30,000 people m Great Britain are , mepihers of .their church, and that there ? not a consid?rable town in which they have hot A congr^ation. The number of Mormons ih London is about 1,200 ; m laverpool, 600 ; in Manch?ster, 700 ; in B in g h a m , 1,100 ; in Glasgow; 600; in R d i n h u i g b , ; m Sheffield, 400; in Macclesfield, 200 ; m P ^ley, 100 ; in Dundee, lOO^yrh?e ? branches ^of from ^ to 50 membera are to be found in te the minor towns. The Mormon emigration ?from Liverj^i, By mean? of an agency establisbed there^m has amCnpted, accot^hg. to a statement furnished by a principal Mormon, "Apostle" now in Liverpool on an emigrational mission, to about 13,600. For the two ?eaw prior to the death of Joseph Smito, thirteen vessels wholly engaged by the Mormons for the emigration of their people quitted Liverpool for New Orleans; the largest number p r o c ^ ^ vessel being 314, and the smallest W, the last year the Mormon emigrahon amounted to neariy 2,600. Being desirous to know something of the class of persons. Who emigrate under Mormon auspices, to establish themselves in the Salt of the Pilkmgt^'*ted "Wilsdn, ' the h i# ?y respeot^^^ Shipping agents for the New Orleans packets. The gentleman .who is the principal manager of this branch of their business, and who is thus thrown into frequent intercourse with the Mormons, vwas kind enough to frirmsh 'me with the following statement: -- ? With regard to * Mormon ? emigration and the class of persons of which it is composed, they are ipriucipaliy farmers and mechanics, with some few clerks, siirgeons, &c. They are generally intelligent and well-behaved, and many of them are highly respectable.. Since the 1st of October, whep, : apcordiUg to' the new act, a n?te of the trades, pr?fessions, and avocations of emigrants was firat req??red to be taken by the emigration officer,- until March in the present year, the following seems to be the numbers of each who have gone out in our ships as far as I can ascertain. I find in oiir books the names of 16 miners, 20 engineers, 19 farmers, 108 labourers, 10 joiners, 25 power-Ioom weavers, 15 shoemakers, 12 smiths; 19 tauors, 8 watchmakers, 25 stone-masons,' 6 butchers, 4 bakers, 4 potters, 10 painters, 7 shipwrights, 4 ironmoulders, ?3 basketmakers, 6 fiyersi Siropeirs, 4 papermakers, 4 glasscutters, 6 naUors, 6 saddlers, 6 sawyers, 4 guumakers, dfo. These;emigrants generally take with them .the implements necessary to pursue their occupation in the Salt Lake Valley, and it is no nnusual thing to ^?rceive (previous to the ship leaving the dock) a watchmaker with his tools spread out upon his box, busy examining and repairing the watches of the ? brethren,? or a cutler displaying to his fellow-passengers sarnies of his handicraft which he is bringing out with him. Of course the stock thus taken out is sinall when placed in the scale with the sp?culations of commercial men ; but judging from the enormous quantity of b.oxe's generally taken by these people, in the aggregate it is large indeeq. Many of these families haye four, five, or six boxes, bound aud hooped with iron, marked ? Not wanted on the passage,? and which are stowed .down in the ship?s hold ; these all contain implements of ; husband^ or trade. I have seen with Mormons on hoard ship a piano placed before one berth, and opposite the very - next a travelling-cutler?s machine for grinding knives, &c. ; indeed it is a general complaint with captains that the quantity ofluggage put on board with Mormons quite takes them by surprise, and Often; sinks ?? ships upwards of an inch deeper in the water than they would otherwise have allowed her to go. Their provisions are always supplied by their agent here, of the venr best description, and more than ample ; for while the law requires that a certain qumitit? shall be put on board for eaeh passenger, the Mormon superior puts in all cases twenty pounds per head above this quantity, and in addition a supply of butter and cheese. Everything is good. The bread always is good, frequently better than that used by the ship. The surplus provisions are given to the passengers on their arrival at New Orleans, and distributed by their superiors to each family in proportion to its numbers. As to the localities from which they come?the majority are from , the manufacturing districts, -Birmingham, Sheffield, the Potteries, &c. Scotland and Wales have also despatched a large quantity. When the Scotch or Welsh determine on going, it is generally in large companies. It may perhaps be worthy of remark, that no Irish - ? Saints ? have yet made their appearance. The Mormons have the greatest objection against going in any ship carrying other passengers than themselves, and when such is the case, they invariably stipulate that a partition shall be erected across the ship?s lower decks, so as separate them from all other passengers. "The means taken by these people for the preservation of order and cleanliness on board are admirable, and worthy of imitation. Their first act, on arrival here, is to hold a general meeting, at which they appoint a 'president of the company,' and ? six committee-men.? The president exercises a complete superintendenceover everything connected with the passengers ; he allots the berths, settles disputes, attends to all wants, complaints, or inquiries, whether for or by the passengers ; advises each how to proceed the most economically whether in purchasing provisions, bedding, or other articles, and he being in constant communication with the superiors here, the people are thus safely guarded from the hands of ? Man-catchers ? and all others of the many who frequent our quays, and whose profession it is to entrap and prey upon the unwary stranger. The duty of the committee-men is to assist in getting the luggage on board, and to make a proper arrangement in the ship, ?he. They also stand sentinel alternately at the hatchway day and night during the period the ship remains in dock, to prevent the intrusion of strangers To show how effectually this is done, I may just mention that while in every ship taking the general class of emigrants, persons are found concealed on board, or ? stow aways,? in no instance has*such been the case in a ship wholly laden with Mormons. To those acquainted with the slovenly and dirty arrangements of emigrants on shipboard, those of the Mormons, for the preservation of decency and moralityj are deserving of the highest commendation. Each berth, or at least a great majority of the berths, have their little cortalss spread before them so as to prevent the inmates from being seen, and also to dress and undress behind. In allotting the berths, each family or r?tives are all placed in the berths nekt each other ; and in case the passengers are from different parts?say from England ted Scotland?tbe Scotch are berthed on one side of the ship, the ]l^1is1i on the other. The duties of the president ana committee do not cease after the ship leavte dock, but are ?ont?nued during the entire voyage. The president still exercises his Buperinttedenee over the general conduct of the oMsengers, the delivery of provisions, water, &c. The committee act at sea as police. Three of them take each side of the between decks, and see that every person is in bed by eight o?clock in the evening, and in the moriiing that every passenger is up, the beds made, and the rubbish swept together, hauled up in teckets, and thrown overboard l^ore seven o?clock. It is remarkable the implicit obedience paid by the passengers to those whom they thus elect over tn?m ; their slightest word is lawj always respected, and cheerfully obeyed; in their steim mtercourse they address each other as 'brother and sister' and with regard to their care of the entrusted to their charge, I have bteU toldte an American captain who carried them, that having delivered to their committee a quantity of [^t?r which he told them was to serve for three days he found at the end of the third day a fourth day?s supply left; whereas had he jrivte it into th? char^ of one of his sailors for distribut??ii, it ^ m d not have lasted the three days. From mj teow lte^ of the emigrarion at present going on from Inveirteli,; I can trufy. ^ that fr' would, indeed; ^ conducive to the comfort and health, Irat would absolutely save the lives of many who?^ ?ow ffie on shipboard, could the same rules for chMBil??Bt?, order, dr?., be introduced amon^tkh? gte?ihl ?l?ss of emigrants who leave this port for 'AS?iic^^ . The Mormons have, it is said, put aside 3 1/2 tons, or 94,000 ounces, of gold, gathered in California for the purpose of "gathering" the poor Saints from England and other parts of Europe, as well as from the remote disfricts of the Ainericau union, into the gfcat Salt Lake Valley. ' At | ?4 m o^c?^ this would amount to ?37f^3S^. It is possible that they may have exaggerated their resouccea in this respect, but the fact is presented nn Mormon authority. I was showp at Liverpool some pf the gold coinage of their new Deseret. ? The five-dollar pieces are of pure Califprii^n gold, withte t alloyyted.Bomewhat smaller; but muchheavier, than a sovereign. The reverse h e ^ th e.inscription ? Holiness to the Lord,? surmounting the eye of Jehorah; ?nd a cap somewhat like a mitre, both' very rudefy executed.. The obverse bears two hands _ pined, and the words ? Five dollars.? The Mormons have established a perpetoa! emigration fand, th? nature and objects pf which are stated, iu the feUowing epistle from, the present h e ^ . of the church, the successor of Jteeph Smith, to their emigration agent in Livereool "Great Salt Lake City, Oct. 14,1849. ?? Grert iPke Oity, Oct. 14,1849. ? To Elder Orson Pratt?Dear Brother-^Yqu will jearh from dur General Epistle, toe prinoifArevents oecurrinffwith us, but we have totfught proper to write you; inoro particulanyin relation to .some matters of general interest, in an espeeiat manner, the perp?tuai emigration fund for the poor saints. This fund, we wish all to understand, is perpetual, and in order to be kept good, will'need constant accessions: To farther this end, we expect all who are beuefited by ite oi^rktfonr will?die willing to reimburse that amount as soon As they are able, facilities for which will very soon after their arrival herd present themselves in tlm shape of public works; donations will also continue to be taken from all parts of the world, and expended for the gathering uf the poor saints. This is no Jomt-Stock Company arrangement, but free donations. ? Your office in Liid the place of deposit foi^.aU funds received, eito?r (or this or the tithing fands, tor all Enrop^ and you will not pay out only upon our order, and to such persons, as we ahall; direct. We wish to have machinery of all kinds introduced in these valleys aa soon as practicable. If you commence operations now^ before you can get men to engage in toe business, the material for cotton and woollen factories wjll be produced. Our settlements another season will extend over toe rim of the basin, where we can raise the cotton, tbe sugar cane, rice, &c. Therefore, if you can find those who will engage in ipanufacturiDg cloth for this market in the Valley, we want you should let these cotton factory proprietore, operatives, and all, with all the necessary fixtures. Come to this place. 'We have a carrying company started. Who will accommodate all *emig#ants to this placo Wii^ nassagq and freight from M ji^pri nver ; they not bo obliged under this arrahg?ment to buy oxen and ?wag'^ gons wnen they arrive there, and can be immediately transpoifted torongh the entire route. We have considered it policy for us to collect tithing in money, instead of labour, as heretofore, therefore we employ constant hands upon our public works, and pay them the money, dr such thin^ as they need for themselves and families. We therefore have appointed Joseph L. Heywood and Edwin D. Wooley our agents to go east, and purchase such things as we need to supply our public works with, such as are nec?ssaiy, such as glass, hails, paint, &c., and furnish workmen ; these agents will probably call upon you from Boston for funds, if they should, yon will send them accordingly. I t is distinctly understood that these arrangements are entirely disconnected with the Perpetual Emigrating Fund ; that is, sacred to its proper use in gathering th? poor saints. Our true policy is^ to do our own work, make our owu goods as soon as possible ; therefore do all you can to further the emigration of artisans and mechanics of all kinds : also continue to collect tithing. ** Our beloved brother Franklin D. Richards, who is appointed to go on a mission to England, will co-operate with you, and give you more particular items, policy, sc. ? With sentiments of the highest esteem, love, and kindness, we reihEdn your brothren in the new and everlasting covenant, "Brigham Young. "P.S. -- We want a company of woollen manufacturers to come with machinery, and take our wool from the sheep, and convert it into the best clothes?and the wool is ready. We want a company of cotton manufacturers, who will convert cotton into cloth and calico, &c., and we will raise the cotton before the machinery can be ready. We want a company Of potters. We heed them. The. clay is ready, and dishes wanted. Send a company of each; if possible, next spring. Silk manufacturers and all otoers will follow in rapid succession. We want some, men to sUirt a furnace forthwith ; the coal, iron, and moulders arc waiting. B. Y." It will be seen, from the foregoing statements, that the Mormons have made a great movement in advance since the death of Joseph Smith. California has been their golden land, and the source of their present prosperity and hope in the future. ? When the saints were aW it leaving Nauvoo,? says an epistle in top AfiUenntoiiSter, ? HeberC. Kimball proph^ sied that in five years they would be better off than at this time. Little more than three yeai?8 have elapsed when we behold the poor exiled Mormons in flourishingcircumstances, counting amongst their rielies a thousand hills and valleys, situate in the most remarkable, interesting, and auspicious portion of the globe ; having the fountains of rivers that must sp?edily command toe commerce of the worid, in tbe midst of their territories. Thus the banishment of the church has become her freedom, the greatest boon her opponents could confer, and the glad signal for her to arise and shine. Forcibly ejected from the mother countiy on her arrival at the age of puberty, and thrown back iroon her own unaided resources, the development of her wonuerful constitution, capabilities, and organization,. strikes the whole world with astoniebment and admiration. They who have plundered, rubbed, and driven her into the wilderness, and thought she was dead, now turn their eyes, and discover to their great surprise that she lives, and nobly aspires to power, honour, might, mtoesty, glory, and dominion. She nas triumphed over every form of persecution and every species of cruelty. Under circumstances the most extraordinary and discouraging, she has proved herself not a whit behind Hie very first and foremost in all the characteristics necessary to constitute a great people. She has earned a title to a fair name and place amongst the nations. Yes, Zion is firmly established in the strongholds of the land. Riches unknown are at her disposal. And it is to be hoped that her oppressors will rejoice over her no more ; and that no weapon formed against her shall prpsper. Every one is aware of 'the impracticability of subduing a brave people, entrenched in the. fastnesses of the mounteins, A nation of mountaineers is not easily subjected. Even our enemies begin to acknowledge the manifest natural advantages and rising importance of the peculiar locality of the city ?sought out,? and are not teckward in foretelling the proud and enviable station we must shortly occupy. They look co her for support, and think of calculating on her assistance, whom they have driven to the last extremity. "All things work together for good. 'When an iron highway shall be cast np in the desert, not only will the flight of the righteous be greatly facilitated, but the kings, nobles, and rulers of the earth, with the great men, will flock to the city of refuge, painfully aware that in Zion alone will be found peace and safety. The signs of the times augur an unparalleled growth for the city in the midst of the everlasting hills." The following particulars, with reference to the Great Salt Lake Gity, are of interest: -- ? The Nauvoo L ^ o n ,? says a general epistle to the saints signed by the new Premier, Bingham Joy, and dated on the 12th of October last, ? has been re-organised in the valley, and it would have been a source of joy to the saints throughout the earth, could they have witnessed its movements on the day of its great parade ; to see a whole anny of mighty men in martial array, ground their arms, not; by command, but simply by request, repair to the temple block, and with pick and spade open the foundation for a place of worship, and erect the pilasters, beams, and roof, so that we now have a commodious edifice, 100 ny 60 feet, with brick walls, where we assemble with the saints from Sabbath to Sabbath, and almost every evening iu the week, to teach, counsel, and devise ways and means for the prosperity of toe kingdom of God ; and we feel thankful that we have a better house or bowery for public worship the coming winter, than we have heretofore had any winter in' this dispensation. " The 24th of July last was a daylong to 1? remembered by all prekent in this valley, and all saints who shall learn of our celebration, as the anniversary of the arrival of the Pioneers two years previous. To behold 1,200 or 1.500 feet of tables, ffiling the boW?ty and ?1 adjoinii^ grounds, loaded with all luxuries of the field and garaens, and nearly all the varieties toat any vegetable maricet in the world conld produce, and to see to e seats around those tables filled and re-filled by a people who bad been deprived of those luxuries for years by toe cruel hand of oppression, and freely offering seats to every stranger within their borders, and this, too, in the valley of the monntains, a thousand miles from civilization, woere two year? before, nought \ras to be found save the wild root of the oraine, and the mountain cricket, was a theme of nnhonndea thanksgiving and praise to the Giver of ail good, as the dawning of a day when toe children of the Kingdom, can sit under their own vines and fi^recs, and in l^ it their own houses, having none to make them afraid. May the time be hastened when the scattered Israel may partake of such like bimquets from the gardens of Joseph. " Thourands of emigrants from the States to the gold mines have passed torongh onr city this season, leaving large >f dom md mi blessing to both parties. quantities for horses of domestic and mules, which lothing, waggons, &c., in exchange exchange hasI b? een a mutual The direct emigration of the saints to this place will be some five or six hnndred waggons this season, besides many who came in search of gold, have heard toe Gospel for the first time and will go no further, having believed aud been "On the 28th September, fourteen or fifteen of toe brethren arrived from the gold country, some of whom were very comfortably snpphedwith the precious metal, and others, who had been sick, came as destitute as they went on the ship Brooklyn in 1846. Tluit there is plenty of gdd in ?Western California is beyond doubt, but the valley of toe Sacramento is an unhealt^ place, and the smnts can be better employed in raising grmn, and bnilding houses in this vicini^, than digging for gold in the Sacramento, unless they are counselled so t o ^ . The true use of gold is for I housra, and making culmary diskes, and when itbe saints shall have preached the gospel, raised grain, and .fanilt up mties enongfa, the Lord will open m the way for a supply of gold to toe perfect satisfaction of His people ; nntil thbn, let fbeni not be over-anxiona, for toe tieatores Of the earth are 'in the lord?s store-house, and he wiliopen toedoorstbereof, when and where He pleases* , . . . "The gain crops in the vaDey have been good tois season; wheto, barley, oats, rye, and peas, more p ^cu larly . The late com and buckwheat, and some lesser grains and vegetables, have been materially hunred by the recent frosts; and some early com at Brownsville, forty miles north, a Bumtb since ; and the buckwheat was severely damaged by Rail at toe Utah settlement, sixty miles sonth, about three weeks sinee ; but we have great occasion for thank^ving to pim who pveto the increase, that He has blest ourlabours. so th a t with pm dence we shall have a comfortable,suj^ilw for ourselves, and onr brethren oh the w ^ , who niay be m need, until another harvest; but^ we, feef the .need iff'm ore labourers, for m ore effici?nt help, and multiplied means of farming imd building a t this place. We want men. Brethren, come from toe' States, from toe nations, home ! and help us to build and ^ w , until we can say, enough?the valleys of Ephraim are full." The following letter from a Mormon to his father in England, gives some additional particulars of the city, and the joarney overland from New Yorh :? ? City of toe G reat Salt Lake, ? B otoy Mountains, October 6,1849. ? My dear F a th e i^ I scwre?ly know how to commence the chequered history of my journey from New York; b n t m il endeavour to give you a very abbreviated account, reserving my jonm ai until we again meef, which happiness will, I trust, yet be perm itted to us. We started 24 n numbOT, on lOUi of March, a m e d and equipped for a long and toilsome journey. During toe first part, having the ^ v a n ta g e of hotels, we were very merry, and eqjbyed ourselves amassinriy. but this was not to last long, as we had yet to experience the toils of a camp life. Wertravelled some 1,000 mfles upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers in American steamers, a mode of transit I am by no means partial to, as I was in a fever of apprehension the whole tim e, th e accidents on these rivers being innumerable. They?arise from ' snags? ( p i e ^ of timber sticking up in the muddy. waters), from fire, coUij sion. and bursting of the thin boilers, which are placed under the saloon. This part of our travel was, however, ^ complished,with only the loss of a few goods; and m the eariy part of May our mules were purchased, aud we were ready for a start across the prairie. Our party h ^ four waggons, each drawn by eight mules, and, in E d itio n , we rod? upon these coxnbiiiations of all that is stupid, spiteful, and obstinate. For some little time I enjoyed the chaMe? the novelty of this predatory mode of life. A t day-te?eak wo left onr tents, and were soon busy around the camp fire, preparing breakfast. Our stores did not admit of much variety ; coffee, bacoDi and hard biscuit, forming the staple of our provisions. The weajher soOn became oppressively hot, tbe thermometer rising to 100 and 110. This was re n d e r^ very trying by the entire absence of shade upon this ocean of land ; indeed these vast? plains closely res?mble in atmospbr?io phenomena and in the appearance of the ground, the dry bed of some mighty sea. . . . . The heat, with the quality of our food, soon produced bilious fever, and before our journey thus far was accomplished, half our number had suffered from this complaint. We were much mistaken in believing the route a healthy one, the r o ^ being marked with the graves of victims to the California fever. About the middle of June I was taken ill, and with slight interruptions continued so till we reached this ? city.? You wUl perhaps i m ^ n e th at being so styled, it resembles a a English city, bnt it is only in prospect. The housra are either of logs, or built of mud bncks, called ' dobies, and but in ? few instances are not larger th?n one or two rooms ; but time will accomplish much for this enereetic and faithful people. Each house stands in H acre o f garden ground, eight lots in a block, forming squares. The streets, which are wide, are to be lined with trees, with a canal, for the purpose of irrigation, running through the centre. As our waggon entered this beautiful valley, with the long absent comforts of a home in prospect, I experienced a considerable ctan M for the better ; and when, to my surprise and gratitude, I met a pious, kind, and intelligent artist, and a countryman also, who took me, emaciated, sick, and dirty, to his humble Lome, my happiness seemed completed............................... You must, from their own works, read the history of the Mormpnites, aud you will then learn Low this despised people have been persecuted and driven from place to place, until they have at length found a haven in the all but inaccessible valley of the Rocky Mountains, where are gathered together, almost from every nation, some 10,000 of those who felt happy in sacrificing all that the world holds dear for the sake of their faith ; M d after struggling with innumerable difficulties and hardships, are building their temple in the wilderness, and are rapidly increasing Both in spiritual and temporal wealth, having a church organised according to the New Testament pattern, and endeavouring to live by every word that proceedeth from the mouth of the Lord. The land here is most fruitful?I am told it produces 80 bushels of wheat to the acre ; and vines, delicious melons, with other fruits and vegetables, grow in profusion. A city lot?that is, 1)4 mire?may be purchased a t $1 50c., and would produce food sufficient for my wants the whole year. No man wdlh ordinary intelligence can be poor in such a place ; and then, glorious privilege, he can be free from the harassments and perplexities which continually destroy the peace of those who live in an artificial state of society . . . . . ? . ? ? . ? When recruited, in order to accomplish the remaining 600 miles, the distance that still intervened between the city and California, the waggons were sold, and ten of our number startec^^r their original destination, through mountains covered with snow, with a prospect of being slain by Indians, or of feeding either upon their mules or each other. The other thirteen remained, earned their living in different ways, until later in the season ; and have since started upon a southern route of 1,600 miles, for the gold mines, leaving me still too unwell to accompany them." * * * The constitution of the New State of Deseret has already beeu drawn up and promulgated. It does not differ materially from the constitution of the other states of the Union. The preamble, which is as follows, shows its geographical position and limits;? ? THE CONSTITUTION OF THE NEW STATE OF DESEBET. ? Whereas a large number of the citizens of the United States, before and since the treaty of peace with the R epublic of Mexico, emigrated to and settled in that portion of the territory of the United States lying west of the R o c k y Mountains, and in the great interior basin of Upper California ; and ? Whereas, by reason of said treaty, all civil organization, originating from the republic of Mexico became abrogated and ? Whereas, the Congrras of the United States hra failed to provide a form of civil government for the territory so acquired, or any portion thereof ; and " Whereas, civil government and laws are necessary, for the security, peace, and prosperity of society ; and ? Whereas, it is a fundamental principle in all the republican governments, that all political power is_ inherent in the people ; and governments instituted for their protection, security, and benefit, should emanate from the same ?? Therefore, your committee beg leave to recommend the adoption of the following constitution, until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise provide for the government of the territory hereinafter named and described. ? We, the people, grateful to the Supreme Beitig for the blessings hitherto eiyoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a continuation of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and independent government, by the name of the State of D eseret; including all the territory of the United Stotes within the following boundaries, to w it: commencing at the S3d degree of north latitude, where it crosses the 108th degree of longitude, west of Greenwich; thence running south and west to the northern boundary of Mexico ; thence west to, and down the main channel of the Gila river, on the northern line of Mexico, and on the northern boundary of Lower California to the Pacific Ocean ; thence along the coast north-westerly to 118 deg. 30 rain, of west longitude; thence north to where said line intersects the dividing ridge of the Sierra Nevada m ountains; thence north along the summit of the Sierra Nevada mountains to the dividing rMge of mountains that separates the waters flowing into the Columbia river ? from the waters running into the Great B asin ; thence easterly, along the dividing range of mountains that separates said watera flowing into the Columbia river on the north from the waters flowing into the Great Basin on the south, to the summit of the Wind river chain of mountains ; thence south-east and south, by the dividing range of mountains that separate the waters flowing into the Gulf of Mexico from the waters flowing into the Gulf of California; to the place of beginning, as set forth in a map drawn by Charles Preuss, and published by order of the Senate of the United States' in 1848,? &c. The following particulars respecting the route of the emigrants after their arrival at New Orleans will conclude this part of the subject. After remaining a few days in New Orleans, the emigrants start in companies, sometimes of two or three hundred or more, to St. Louis, by steamboat on the Mississippi. The distance is 1,300 miles. The next stage, also by steamboat, is a distance of 800 miles from St. Louis, to the settlements of Council Bluffs, already mentioned. Here they either remain to fatten their young cattle on the prairies, or sauat upon the rich lands, until they are ready to go forward to the Great Salt Lake City. The distance from Council Bluffs to their final destination is 1,030 miles. The emigrants travel in ox teams, and their large caravans present a singular spectacle. Each waggon is drawn generally by six or eight oxen, and there are sometimes as many as 600 waggons in the procession. Each contains a bed-room and sittingroom. They cook on the road side while they give their cattle an hour?s grazing in the prairies. They take three months to complete the journey, from Council Bluffs to tbe Salt Lake City, and being supplied with provisions purchased at St. Louis, they want nothing but the occasional proceeds of the chase, in pursuing which the male emigrants amuse themselves on the way. They trade with the Indians as they go for bufiialo robes and peltries, which the Indians exchange for fire-arms and ammunition. I might extend the history of these remarkable fanatics to a much greater length. Enongh, however, has been said, to prove the greatness of the work in which their leaders are engaged, and to which the discovery of the treasures of California has given a strong impetus. ?When their formal claim for admission into the American Union shall be made, some important debates will doubtless take place in Congress, and the old sore of slavery will once more te laid bare. Deseret is to be a free, and not a slave state; and the whole question wRl have again to be, aigued. It is probable that it will lose none of Us bitterness when the once despised but now powerful Mormons shall he the means of bringing it forward. It only remaius to add, that the Mormons believe in the approaching destruction of all the kingdoms ?f the earth, and the immediate establishment of Christ?s kingdom, nnder Mormon auspi

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Rev. ii. 7.

Vol. XII.                                 Liverpool, Friday, November 1, 1850.                                No. 21.

[p. 329]
ARRIVAL OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE VALLEY MAIL. -- We have just received despatches from "Utah Territory," containing news up to July 31st. The Saints there are prospering in a most wonderful manner; crops of every kind are very abundant; universal health prevails: many thousands of emigrants for the gold mines were passing through the valley, many of whom were being baptized with a desire of locating themselves in the territory. A newspaper entitled "Deseret News ," is being published weekly. We have received No. 7, and hope to receive a complete file soon. We shall publish the general news from that quarter in our next.

The following question was asked by one of our correspondents, "WHEN DID SIDNEY RIGDON HAVE THE FIRST INTERVIEW WITH JOSEPH SMITH THE PROPHET?"

We answer that Sidney Rigdon never saw Joseph Smith until December, 1830, the visit being prolonged into January, 1831. These two persons had never been within two or three hundred miles of each other until that period. Elder P. P. Pratt, in speaking of this visit, represents it as taking place early in 1831. Some have have supposed this statement to be incorrect in point of time, but it is strictly true: the visit commenced in December and was prolonged into January.

Note: Apostle Pratt's exact words were: "Early in 1831, Mr. Rigdon having been ordained, under our hands, visited elder J. Smith, Jr., in the state of New-York, for the first time; and from that time forth, rumor began to circulate, that he (Rigdon) was the author of the Book of Mormon." Pratt does not disclose what interaction may have occurred between the Rev. Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, jr., before the latter was made an Elder in the Church of Christ, in April of 1830.


No. ?                              London, Friday, June 13, 1851.                               5.5 pence.


... Mormons had sent out two new colonies, one to Lower-end Basin, the other to Lower California. The General Assembly of the Church for the State of Deseret had transferred all their powers to the territorial government. Governor Young was awaiting the arrival of the Territorial officers to organize the government...

The Salt Lake crops were promising...

Notes: (forthcoming)


No. ?                              London, Tuesday, January 20, 1852.                               5.5 pence.

The report of the Judges of the Utah territory relative to the proceedings of the Mormons is full of disgusting details of the debauchery carried on by the leading members of that sect. It should be perused by the numerous persons who, even at the present time, are emigrating from Great Britain to join them. The following is an extract from the report: --

"We deem it our duty to state, in this official communication, that polygamy, or 'plurality of wives is openly avowed and practised in the territory, under the sanction and in obedience to the direct commands of the church.' So universal is this practice, that very few, if any leading men in that community can be found who have not more than one wife each, which creates a monopoly, and which was peculiarly hard upon the officers sent to reside there. The prominent men in the church, whose examples in all things it is the ambition of the more humble to imitate, have each many wives, some of them, we are credibly informed and believe, as many as 20 or 30, and Brigham Young, the governor, even a greater number. Only a few days before we left the territory, the Governor was seen riding through the streets, with a large company of his wives, more than two-thirds of whom had infants in their arms -- a sure sign that the evil is increasing. It is not uncommon to find two or more sisters married to the same man; and in one instance, at least, a mother and her two daughters are among the wives of a leading member of the church. The practice, regarded and punished as a high and revolting crime in all civilized countries, would, of course, never be made a statutory offence by a Mormon Legislature; and if a crime at common law, the Court would be powerless to correct the evil with Mormon juries. The City of the Great Salt Lake, is an important point in the overland route to Oregon and California for the emigrant to replenish his stores, or to winter if overtaken by the advance of the season; but the intimidation which is produced by the denunciations and conduct...
[remainder of text missing]

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                              London, Wednesday, January 28, 1852.                              No. 26,549.

[Eve., p. 4]

The writers and speakers -- no longer assuming to be merely speculative, but claiming to be eminently practical -- who attribute all animosity between communities to the ineffaceable distinctions of Race, are nowhere more strikingly confuted than in the relations between the great divisions of the United States. The American republic assimilates differences of blood by a process so rapid that the narrowest scrutiny can scarcely detect any one of its stages beyond the beginning and the end; but, on the other hand, it comprises two populations which, as far as habits, sentiments, and political leanings can make them, are two self-contained nationalities, and of these the diversity is entirely referable to an institution artificial in its character, removable by positive law, and introduced within a period so recent as to be distinctly cognizable by history. The bondage of the negroes makes two nations of North and South; circumstances equally fortuitous, though not equally homogeneous, are setting up an impregnable barrier of manners between East and West; and now one of the deepest and most hopeless incompatibilities of which people living under the same sky are capable seems to have been created by a creed not too old for the youngest of us to remember its origin in the self-convicting impostures of a profligate vagabond. The early success, the subsequent sufferings, and the eventual exodus of the Mormons, were first laid before the English reader, in a consecutive narrative, by one of the special correspondents of The Morning Chronicle. His account left them settled on the borders of the Great Salt Lake, under the shadow of the Rocky Mountains, governed by their own hierarchy, practising the rites of their faith and the peculiar social institutions which it sanctions, recruited in numbers by plentiful accessions from the Eastern States and from England, turning the wilderness into a garden by assiduous culture, and affecting a lofty disdain for the gold of California, which they were the first to detect among the glittering sands of their water-courses. Since then, we have heard of them, at intervals, as claimants for a place within the broad pale of the Republican Government, and as recipients of the provisional organization which they had demanded. And now at last -- four years from the break in their history -- they re-appear, in the report of the United States Judges to the President of the Republic, as indulging in the license of Oriental manners under the laws of an Anglo-Saxon democracy, as utterly alienated in feeling from the American Government, obedient to a rule of conduct completely inconsistent with its principle, pillaging its public funds, outraging its officers, and cursing the memory of its immortal founder.

There is no reason to doubt that when the Mormons fled from the banks of the Mississippi to their present settlements, they believed themselves, after the type which they keep constantly in view, to have escaped forever into the wilderness from a more than Egyptian oppression. When they afterwards solicited admittance into the Union, there was no want of complacent remark, on the other side of the Atlantic, that native-born Americans, however perverted by creed, could never be debased into resigning their natural pride in the citizenship of the great Republic, or their claim to the other privileges which it confers. Whatever might be the force of these motives among the rank and file of the "Saints," it may be taken for granted that the chiefs of their hierarchy, never deficient in capacity or penetration, had discovered that a position of independence, in the territory which they occupied, had become untenable. They had been gradually enveloped on all sides. The riches of California, which the Mormons were long careful to conceal, had peopled the Pacific seaboard with thousands of the most active and encroaching spirits among the population from which they had fled. The cessions of Mexico had flanked them on the South with the possessions of the Republic. Their own settlements were fast becoming a regular station on the overland route to the gold mines, and they must have known that, wherever such a road was once struck, it was sure to fix the direction of permanent emigration from the Western States. It was impossible but that a host of strangers should soon invade their borders, laying claim to all the privileges of the "Saints," but disloyal to their government and disdainful of their faith.

It was probably on a consideration of all these dangers that Brigham Young and his colleagues determined to apply to Congress for a law to constitute the settlement a Territory or Provisional State. Still distant and still little cared for, they might hope to get the organization of the new dependency entrusted to the members of the Mormon Church, and thus the very instruments, from which they feared so much, might be turned against the intruders whom they were expecting. The scheme seems to have so far succeeded that Brigham Young, the person invested by his Church with the prophetic office, was named Governor or Executive Head of the Territory; but, unfortunately for the Mormons -- though fortunately, perhaps, for the eventual civilization of the vast tracts of country at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains -- the Supreme Court of the United States, whose functions always follow and control those of Executive authority, despatched judicial officers to Utah who had no original connection with it whatever. The Report of these gentlemen, drawn up on their retirement from the territory in disgust, is a singular record of mortifications heaped on themselves, and of gross insults offered to the powers which they represented. It is difficult to see how the Central Government, consistently with its dignity, can avoid inflicting condign punishment on the Mormons. They appropriated to the purposes of their Church a fund which Congress had voted for the erection of public buildings. They arrested an official who was charged with the conveyance of public moneys, in the avowed design of confiscating them. They contemptuously refused to put in execution the enactments of Congress fundamentally applicable to the new Territory. They selected the most public and solemn ceremonies as occasions for putting slights upon the Judges. They openly disowned the United States Government, and execrated the name of George Washington. The apparently gratuitous folly of these proceedings, which seems hardly reconcilable with the known acuteness of the Mormon chiefs, is no doubt to be explained by their conviction, that it was better to brave the vengeance of the republic than to let their authority be impaired by the least deference to its officers or its behests. Much, too, of the violent language employed is only characteristic of the strata of Anglo-Saxon society from which the bulk of the Mormons has been taken. There are, however, many reflections suggested by the report which are not so easily disposed of.

How is this strange people to be dealt with? That they can ever be amalgamated or live in peace with the "Gentile" communities which will shortly be rising on all sides of them, no one can suppose for a moment who has thought on the nature and tendencies of a society which is based on polygamy. Indeed, if natural repulsion could be subdued, the very friendliness which would follow, coupled with the latitude allowed to individual action by the American institutions, would make the example of such a society a peril of signal imminency and magnitude. It is fortunate, therefore, that the antipathies between the Mormons and their neighbours must prove unconquerable, and must multiply with each succeeding generation. Insurmountable political differences will shortly be added to them. ls it to be imagined that the citizens of California, or of New York will ever allow their free vote to be controlled by the verdict of a community which, however sincere itself, must always be despotically governed by an ambitious impostor? Between their polygamy, their fanaticism, and their dependence on a divinely-accredited chief, the Mormons exhibit some singular resemblance to the Mahomedan races; and we know, from experience, that political relations between Mahomedans and Christians have ever proved impossible, except on the terms of absolute subjection on one side or the other. What, then, is to be done with the "Saints"? Is their Church to be violently dissolved, and their customs prohibited? Hitherto they have only gained strength, cohesion, and confidence under persecution. Are they to be conquered and expelled? While they were yet a feeble folk, the Mormons stood a regular siege at Nauvoo; and, since then, their numbers have decupled, and a campaign against them, in their own deserts, might chance to prove as bloody, dangerous, and costly as the conflict with Mexico; while it would certainly be as inglorious, and probably as long protracted, as an Indian war. Suppose them even dislodged from Utah. The annexations from Mexico have transferred almost the whole of the unsettled countries to the allegiance of the United States, and the removal of the Mormons would therefore only postpone the problem which is offered by their extraordinary social organization. The matter is destined to cause the American Government much serious, though unprofitably bestowed, perplexity.

Notes: (forthcoming)


No. ?                             London, Tuesday, February 3, 1852.                              5.5 pence.

FATAL RESULT OF MORMON FANATICISM. -- During several successive days a number of men have been engaged in searching the Trent between Nottingham and Beeston for the purpose of finding the body of a young man named William Barnes, recently a resident of the last named place. Barnes having latterly distinguished himself as a zealous partisan among the Mormonites, who unhappily are becoming rather numerous in and around the county of Nottingham, had been elevated to the rank of a priest or prophet. In this capacity he was about to receive a couple of converts into the bosom of "the church" on Wednesday night at ten o'clock. The "priest," the candidates, and a number of "brethren" approached the left bank of the Trent at the time named, the spot selected being in a place known as the Rye-fields, near Beeston. The converts, both young women, hesitated about going into the water, being fearful of danger, but Barnes bravely led the way, assuring them that no harm could befal the faithful. He had scarcely uttered some expression to this effect, and was stepping into the stream, which was unusually high and the current very strong, when in a moment he was carried off his legs and sank directly. One of the "brethren" with him, who could swim will, plunged after the unfortunate man, but was unable to reach him, and his body has never been seen since. The enthusiasm of these wretched fanatics is astonishing. They are constantly engaged in making proselytes, and many families have already been induced by their agency to leave this neighborhood for the Mormon settlement in California.

Notes: (forthcoming)


No. ?                             London, Thursday, February 5, 1852.                              5.5 pence.

The recent Mormon revelations [have] created considerable discussion in Congress. The New York Herald describes a scene which occurred in the House: --

"The curious political transactions and extraordinary financial operations of the Mormons, which have recently come to light, combined with the peculiar social notions which they are said to entertain, are beginning to create a great deal of surprise, amazement, and consternation among our pious members of Congress at Washington. During the debate in the House of Representatives on Thursday, on the question of the legality of the election of Mr. Bernheisel, the delegate from Utah, that gentlemen, in his defense, said the he received every vote cast in the territory, and that his election did not cost him one dollar. Mr. Briggs, of New York, here rose, and remarked that he had excellent authority for saying that Mr. Bernheisel had received his certificate of election through fraud and corruption and that he paid Brigham Young, the governor of the territory, and chief saint of the Mormons, the sum of $3,000 to secure his seat in Congress. This announcement created extraordinary excitement and confusion -- members rose upon their feet, and the Speaker had much difficulty in quelling the distirbance. One gentlemen wished to know whether polygamy was really countenanced and practised. Another was desirous of ascertaining whether the delegate himself was a polygamist? Several members averred that if Mr. Bernheisel was guilty of any such abominable conduct he would have to be kept out of the House, else they would leave it themselves; they could not, and would not, associate with any such men. After the noise had somewhat subsided, the subject was postponed till another day, when it is expected that developments of a most astounding character will be made."

The winter throughout the States was much more severe than had been experienced for many years...

Notes: (forthcoming)


No. ?                             London, Monday, February 9, 1852.                              5.5 pence.


The New York Herald has the following extraordinary statement: --

"We have just received from Charleston, South Carolina, a variety of papers and documents, containing copies of a very curious diplomatic correspondence... It is, in fact, a British recognition of the independence of South Carolina, and is a practical secession of the highest order. South Carolina, from this date, may be considered as having taken the first step outside the Union -- it has even got ahead of the Mormons; they only drove back their judges, without saying they would refuse another batch with more morality and less law -- but South Carolina has opened diplomatic communications with British functionaries, and set aside entirely the authority of the general Government..."

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Rev. ii. 7.

No. 16.                                           April 16, 1853.                                          Vol. XV.

[p. 253]


Extract of a Letter from Elder Moses Clawson.

                                                   New Orleans, March 7th 1853.
Beloved President S. W. Richards, -- I take the earliest opportunity of informing you of the safe arrival at this place of thee company of saints on board the Ellen Maria, on the 6th of March, making her passage from Liverpool in forty-seven days.

I was, nearly the whole of the voyage, confined with sickness, but the brethren in the priesthood have diligently co-operated with me in carrying into effect such measures as the Spirit of God dictated would be for the good of the Saints; and the Saints generally have appreciated and realized the necessity of obedience to every council given; so that all things have moved on harmoniously and almost without an hard feeling. I never experienced more pleasure in presiding over any people than I have over those who came out on this ship, for the manner in which the Saints have conducted themselves has exceeded my most sanguine expectations. The first eight days of the voyage were very rough, which caused the Saints to be sick.

We have had five births, two marriages, and five deaths on board as follows: --

Births. -- Sister Diggle from the Heywood Branch, Manchester Conference, was safely delivered of a daughter, January 20th. Sister Mary Barnes, aged thirty-two from the Hull Branch was delivered of a son, January 25th, during a raging storm. Sister Kendall, wife of George Kendall, late President of the Derbyshire Conference, was safely delivered of a son, January 30th. Sister Caroline Finn from the Worcester Branch, was safely delivered of a son, February 7th. Sister Matilda Rebbeck from the Queens Forest Branch, Southampton Conference, was safely delivered of son, February 19th.

Marriages. -- Brother William Bown, from the Hull Branch, to Sister Jane Ann Metcalf, from the York Branch. Brother Alfred Sparks from the Worcester Branch, to Sister Jane Fowler, from the Pershore Branch, Worcestershire Conference. These parties were married January 30, by Elder Moses Clawson.

Deaths. -- Sister Mary Barnes, and infant, the former January 25th, the latter, January 26th; they were both committed to the deep on the 26th. William Reed, aged six years, an orphan, under the care of Sister Elizabeth Smith from the Portsmouth Branch; he died of decline February 13th. Jacob Broadhurst, aged two years and four months, son of Samuel Broadhurst, from the Leigh Branch, Manchester Conference, March 2nd. Sister Matilda Rebbeck, March 2nd. The two last were consigned to a watery grave at the mouth of the Mississippi river.

Our passage across the ocean was rough and stormy at times. We have been in very straight places and unless the God of israel had stretched out His arm to our deliverance, our position would have been hopeless. But the Saints have been cheerful and happy in the midst of their greatest trials and the blessing of the Lord has attended this people during this portion of their journey -- they have been diligent in seeking the Lord, and He has heard their prayersand prayers and blessed them with the rich blessings of His Spirit. And I pray that He may still continue to bless them until they shall reach the mountain home of the Saints.

In conclusion I pray that the blessings of my Heavenly Father may rest upon you, that you may be a blessing to the British Saints. And may they be wise and obedient to all the commandments of God through His servants the Prophets of the last days.

I remain your brother in the bonds of the new covenant of peace,
                                                    MOSES CLAWSON.

Note 1: Elder James Farmer, one of the passengers aboard the Ellen Maria, records the following in his diary entries for the first week in March, 1853: "March 1. A beautiful morning   several ships in sight... at sun down we could see land at a place called the "Bar" at the mouth of the Mississippi. Had some conversation with Bro. Clawson. 2nd. Fair morning with many ships in sight and packets towing ships up the river.... About 1/2 past 5 this morning a little boy named Jacob Broadhurst died. He was 2 years old, son of Samuel Broadhurst from the Leigh Branch, Manchester Conf. He was interred at 1/2 past 11 by Elders Clauson and Kendall... This afternoon we made some progress as the wind changed at 12 and brought us near the Bar and they cast anchor."

Note 2: In 1999 the great-grand-nephew of Jacob Broadhurst composed these words in his behalf: "I am proud of my great great Grandfather, Samuel Broadhurst, presiding elder of the Leigh, Lancashire branch, who in 1853 brought his little flock out of Babylon and set sail for the Land Bountiful aboard the Ellen Maria. His baby boy died in sight of the Promised Land. There was no ram caught up in the thicket to stop that sacrificial seizure. But a few weeks later my great great Grandmother, Betty Boardman, gave birth to man-child in St. Louis, Missouri and the blood of that infant flows in my veins today."


He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Rev. ii. 7.

No. 46.                                           November 12, 1853.                                          Vol. XV.

[p. 748]


                                                Great Salt Lake City, Aug. 31st, 1853.
Elder S. W. Richards -- Dear Brother -- Having arrived safely at home, and being surrounded with the endearments of wife, children, and friends, I embrace the earliest opportunity to drop you a few lines to let you know of the welfare of the Saints that are on their way to the home of the Saints in the vallies of Ephraim.

I wrote you from the Missouri River, giving you all the information that I was in possession of relative to the camps. After seeing all the companies safely across the Elk Horn, I waited there some four days for Elder Levi Stewart to accompany me across the plains. We left the Horn on the 26th of July, and proceeded on our way to the Loup Fork. All the companies had to ferry both the Horn and the Loup Fork, which made a great addition to the expense. I came up with Elder John Brown's company (which was the last company that started) on the 27th, camped with them, and found them all well and in good spirits. I left them on the 28th and came up with Elder A. M. Harmon's company; left them on the 29th and overtook Elder J. W. Young's company, in the Sand Hills, between Loup Fork and Wood River, and travelled with them to Wood River, and staid over Sunday the 31st,with them. Sister Young's health is very delicate, also Elder Rostron's. After making some repairs, we held meeting in the evening. All seemed to feel first-rate, and rejoiced that they were thus far on their journey, enjoying good health, except the above cases. I left Wood River on the 1st of August; overtook Elder Gates and company on the 4th, on Skunk Creek, all well; passed Elder Forssgren and company at Cold Springs and Elder Wheelock and company the same day, all getting along first-rate, good health prevailing in all the three camps, and their cattle were doing well. There has been more feed on the banks of the Platte this year than ever has been, and far too much water -- all the dry creeks were full of water. I passed Elder Shurtleff on the 6th on the Sand Hills, quite well; left Elder Spencer and company on the 14th, twenty miles above Laramie, all well; Elder Clawson's company, on Deer Creek, on the 17th, Elder Crosby and company, on the 21st, at the three crossings of Sweet Water; left my horses and carriage with him, and got some fresh horses to come in with; Passed Elder Miller's company on the Sandies, and Elder Wilkie on Bear River; and arrived at home on the 29th in good health.

I will now say that I never saw the emigrants enjoying better health than this year. The Lord has blessed them exceedingly in all things. Their cattle have done well, feed being good except on the Sandies, or from Pacific Springs to Green River. The indians have been very peaceable on the way. We met a large posse going out to arrest Bridger and some of his gang that resisted the authorities of utah. They have stirred up the indians to commit depredations upon our people, and some of our people have been killed; among others brother Dixon that lived with Elder Taylor. What will be the result I do not know, but I fear that we shall have some little trouble with them. Every thing is going along first-rate here, prosperity has attended the Saints in all their settlements.

I must now draw this scrawl to a close, praying the Lord to continue to pour out His richest blessings upon you in all your labours.

With kind love to you, and all in [the] office, and all the faithful Saints, I remain your fellow servant.
                                                    I. C. HAIGHT.

Note: Elder James Farmer, one of the British emigrants then crossing the plains (with Elder Cyrus Wheelock's company of 400 Mormon pioneers), recorded that he reached the Great Salt Lake Valley on Oct. 6, 1853. See the LDS Journal History of the Church," Sept. 19, 1853, p. 4 for a list of the members of the Wheelock company. Elder William Bown, who traveled with Elder Kendall's group, wrote that the main portion of the Wheelock company passed him at Green River on Sept. 23, 1853. Bown and companions arrived in the Valley on Oct. 11th.


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 24.                                   June 13, 1857.                                   Vol. XIX.

[pp. 380-82]


Reader, did you ever see a locomotive upon a railway attached to a heavy train puffing and snorting, emitting volumes of steam and smoke its, wheels revolving with great rapidity, but withal making no headway, while every effort began and ended in noise? If so, you have seen a picture to my conception of the efforts of a man who has pledged his support to a bad cause...

I have been led into this train of thought by perusing several Anti-Mormon publications, most of which were, as usual anonymous, for the best of all reasons, the authors were ashamed to father such monstrosities. Among the number which I have lately read, there is, however one exception to this general rule; but had the author been half as bright as he evidently supposes himself to be, he would have withheld his name and saved his credit. I allude to a tract bearing the significant title, The Book of Mormon examined and its claims to be a Revelation from God, proved to be false, by John Haynes.

It is not my purpose to enter into a review of this work, for it would be spending time to a very poor purpose, inasmuch as I have no fears of any influence from it except such as shall tend to the advantage of truth whenever read by thinking people...

(view lengthier extract)

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 26.                                   June 27, 1857.                                   Vol. XIX.

[pp. 405-06]


(From the "Mormon.")

Our readers will doubtless be startled with the above announcement; our heart is deeply pained to say it, but we have no reason for doubting the sad intelligence that has reached us, though, as yet, only by the way of the public press. A few days ago we were advised of his apprehension near Fort Gibson; and, close upon the receipt of that information, we learned, by telegraphic despatch, that he had been assassinated near Van Buren, Arkansas, May 14. Many of our contemporaries are rejoicing over the bloody deed, justifying the murderer, and spitting out their vengeance with the fury of hell that nestles in their corrupt hearts.

As we have not the space this week that we require to enter into details, and may, before another issue, receive additional information on the subject, we shall only say, for the benefit of those who are interested, that the lady who returned to New Orleans from Utah, last fall, for her children -- a lengthy account of which was published in The Mormon, March 14th -- [had] been overtaken en route for her mountain home, by the demon in human form who had so flagrantly violated every vestige of claim to the title of husband. Herself and children are once more in his power. After failing to sustain the charge against President Pratt "of stealing the clothing on the children, in value eight or ten dollars," he followed him some eight miles from the place of trial, and, taking advantage of his lonely position, shot him, justifying his crime by a charge of seduction.

Though we deeply deplore the loss to the Church of such a great and upright man, and the bereavement to his family, yet we mourn not. His life has been one of honour and faithfulness; his days have been well spent in the service of his God; his name is revered by thousands and tens of thousands, and will be honored by millions yet unborn; when that of his cowardly assassins, and those who have cheered them on to this damning deed, and who now rejoice over their crime, will be loathsome, and a stink in the nostrils of God and good men.

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 27.                                       July 4, 1857.                                       Vol. XIX.

[pp. 417-25]


Another martyr has fallen -- another faithful servant of God sealed his pure and heavenly testimony to the truth of the Book of Mormon, with his blood. Though our own dear brother according to the flesh, yet we weep not. He fell in a righteous cause -- he be fell in the defence of suffering innocence, while endeavouring to aid by his letters a helpless female with her little children, to escape the fury of her savage persecutors. He had been made acquainted, from the most respectable and reliable sources, with the sad and most heart-rending description of her sufferings. Years ago the poor woman had been turned into the streets of San Francisco, in a dark, dismal night, houseless and unprotected, by an unfeeling, brutal monster of a husband. For years her life had been threatened and deadly weapons brandished about her head; and to cap the climax of brutality, he tore the children from their fond mother's embrace, stealing them without her knowledge, and smuggled them on board a Pacific steamer, to traverse thousands of miles of water and land, unpitied and uncared for, to the distant port of New Orleans. This inhuman, fiendish act, added to the long catalogue of her sufferings, made her resolve to renounce for ever the society of one whom she could no longer look upon as a husband, but as a tyrannical, unfeeling, inhuman monster. The final separation took place at San Francisco about two years ago.

Learning that her children had been sent to her parents, near New Orleans, she set sail, friendless and unprotected for that port. Upon her arrival, what was her surprise to find that her parents were in the dark plot and that she could have no freedom with her own children. And, at length, becoming wearied with the persecutions which she endured, she started without any acquaintance to accompany her for Utah Territory -- a journey of about three thousand miles from New Orleans. After incredible hardships she arrived in Great Salt Lake City in the autumn of 1855. In the autumn of 1856 she again returned to her parents in New Orleans, and sometime about the close of last year she succeeded in rescuing the children from their unnatural and tyrannical bondage, and fled with her own little family to Texas. But the hellish brute in California, from whom she had been separated about two years, came in pursuit; and having employed some of the old "Mormon" persecutors to join him in his blood-thirsty expedition he, at last discovered the object of his former abuse, and again tore from her embrace her lovely little children.

The sympathies of thousands who have been made acquainted with the unparalleled sufferings of this lady, have been aroused in her behalf. Among these, we are proud to say, was that great philanthropist, and good man, Parley P. Pratt, who on learning the facts of her escape with her children, sought to advise her, by letters through the post, of the pursuit of her old enemy. While engaged in this work of humanity, this monster from California swore out a writ against him and several others, under a false charge of larceny. They were tried before the United States Commissioner at Van Buren, Arkansas, and found not guilty, and discharged. The murderer then, in a cowardly manner, waited for him to leave; and in about ten minutes after, in company with two other murderers, started in pursuit, immediately followed by others; all thirsting for the blood of innocence. About twelve miles from Van Buren on the road leading northward, they came up with their victim -- fired seven shots and then stabbed him several times in his left side, one of the cuts piercing his heart. After this he be lived about two hours and a half.

And thus he be fell the victim of his bigotted enemies, but the friend of suffering humanity.

The following correspondence dated Cincinnati, Ohio, February 20th, 1857, taken fron a New York paper will give further particulars concerning --

THE MOTHER AND CHILDREN. -- During my late missions to California I became acquainted with the following train of lamentable and heart-rending rending circumstances growing out of the spirit of intolerance, which alas! still characterizes some of the more popular sects of the age.

A certain family had emigrated from the south a few years since and were then residing in San Francisco; consisting of a man, his wife and three children, and a young man who was a brother of the wife and a boarder in the family.

The whole were a branch of an old and somewhat noted Presbyterian stock, which still resided in the vicinity of New Orleans.

The lady was an accomplished and educated person, given to reading and intellectual pursuits, and was withal a woman of sound judgment and of an independent turn of mind.

As is generally the case with such minds, this lady had only to investigate Mormonism in order to become most firmly convinced of its truths.

She therefore wished to embrace them. On learning these facts the husband and brother manifested a most violent and tyrannical opposition. They raged, foamed, cursed, railed, stormed and called hard names, &c., but all to no purpose. The lady was still of the same mind and wished to obey the Gospel.

The husband finally purchased a large sword cane with which he entered the parlor one day; and turning pale with rage, he unsheathed the same in the presence of his wife and menacing her and brandishing the naked steel over her head, swore an awful oath, that that weapon had been purchased expressly for her and the minister who dare baptize her, and should penetrate both their vitals the she should be baptized.

Her brother, in turn, brandished the same weapon over her in the same angry manner with the same threats.

These and many other threats, railings, and abuses repeated from time to time. by both husband and brother, served to deter the lady's baptism for some two years -- the Elders there making it a point not to baptize a woman without her husband's consent.

After many long painful and prayerful struggles, she at length obtained a written consent of her husband and was baptized and duly confirmed as a member of the Church of the Saints. She still remained a faithful and obedient wife and mother. She served her husband, looked after his interests, kept his house, continued to board her brother and trained her children in the ways of obedience, morality and truth. She took great pains in their education and taught them to believe in Jesus Christ, to read the Bible and to sing and pray.

Her husband was still harsh and tyrannical in the highest degree and her brother also. Her life was often threatened and she was utterly forbidden to mention any point in her religion in presence of her husband, or to intrude any sentence on his notice from any of the books of the Church. She had not even the privilege of singing a single line of her hymn book in his hearing. Having lived in this unnatural bondage for a few years and having borne with meekness and submission every railing,insult and abuse which a tyrant could heap upon her, she finally ventured on one quiet Sunday evening to sing in his presence two lines of one of her favorite hymns. (See Saints hymn book, page 201.)

    Behold the Great Redeemer comes
    To bring his ransomed people home!

Her husband on hearing this, flew into a violent rage -- snatched the book out of her hand, tore it up and threw it in the fire. He then laid violent hands on her and forced her into the street and locked the door on her. It was a dark evening, and in one of the back dark streets of San Francisco where an unprotected female would hardly be considered safe for a moment. She, however, entered a neighbouring house and immediately sent a message to Dr. ____, an old family physician, who was the mutual friend of both herself and husband. She threw herself upon his protection, and he conducted her to a respectable hotel, where she took lodgings and board at the husband's expense. Next day she called on the city recorder and made oath of the assault and battery and other outrages of her husband, demanding his arrest and that she might be secured in her life and peace in the future. But through the influence of Dr. ____, and other parties in high places, the matter was finally dropped and the parties seemed reconciled so far, that she returned to her house and again took charge of her children, and of her husband's housekeeping.

For a few weeks, all seemed to go on as usual. The husband and brother went to their daily business -- returned at the proper hours, found their meals in order, and the usual economy, industry and taste which she had ever displayed in trying to render home agreeable.

On a certain day -- breakfast being over and the husband and brother gone to business at an early hour, as usual, she assembled her children as her manner was, for family devotion. These consisted of two boys, between eight and ten years of age and a girl of seven. The mother and children mingled their glad voices in the morning hymn and bowed the knee together in solemn prayer -- when rising from their knees, the children gave their dear mother the usual parting kiss, and cheerfly [hastened] away to the city school.

O! how little did that tender mother and those innocent babes then realize the awful trial which immediately awaited them; or that two oceans and a continent would separate them ere should meet again.

Talk not of Rome, of Nero, of the dark ages, or of the Spanish inquisition. All these combined could scarce form a parallel worthy to compare with the heartless, unfeeling, inhuman, savage and worse than fiendish tyranny of the nineteenth century. And all this enacted by Protestants in a land of freedom! Nay, rather by the nearest kindred and on a helpless woman and children!

Evening came -- the husband and brother returned from the business of the day -- but no children came to gladden the heart of a fond mother! Where are our children? exclaimed the anxious mother in alarm.

The brutish husband and unfeeling brother answered with a fiendish grin, or a taunt of triumph -- They are on the bosom of the Pacific you will never see them again -- they will be brought up Presbyterians -- not Mormons!

The only answer to this was a wild shriek and a sudden fall -- the mother had fainted! Her heart, as it were, had died within her. She remained through that dreadful night in alternate spasms, fainting fits -- occasionally awaking to a realizing sense of her desolation: "Rachel weeping for her children, and could not be comforted, because they were not."

She would sometimes so far awake from her swooning fits as to rave, and wander, and call loudly for her little ones by name and then she would burst into tears -- groan and lament, and finally again drop away and become insensible.

The brutal husband and brother stood over her through the entire night, somewhat troubled and alarmed but durst not call a physician or any assistance, lest their fiendish cruelty should be detected in all its horrors.

In the morning, being compelled to go to business at an early hour, they left her alone in in the house, locking her in as a prisoner, in solitude and helplessness.

She, however, sufficiently recovered in the course of the morning, to open a window and raise the alarm. The neighbours soon learned the true circumstances and sympathized deeply in her bereavement.

Some of the merchants best acquainted with the family offered to raise a subscription and send her to her children, it being soon ascertained that they had been sent to her parents in New Orleans.

Public odium soon wrought upon the obdurate husband and brother that change which human sympathy had failed to accomplish. They saw that the matter must be ameliorated and hushed up as far as possible by compromise.

They had been plotting for weeks, and, by the assistance of other bigots of their sect, had prepared trunks of clothing for the children and had procured through tickets for them on the transit route between the Pacific and Atlantic.

All things being in readiness they had watched [for] an opportunity to snatch them from school and thrust them on board of a steamer without so much as a farewell look or word from their mother, and had committed them to the care of strangers to pass two oceans and a continent, with no kindred or acquaintance to love or care for them.

This done the inhuman bigots had resisted all the eloquent and heart-rending heart appeals of a mother, and nothing but the fear of disgrace, or the vengeance of an excited and indignant populace constrained them to compromise and hush up any further excitement, by agreeing to send the mother to the children.

She was finally soothed and comforted with the hope of following them in two weeks, on the next steamer; she went quietly and diligently to work to prepare for the journey.

Her house was now desolate and lonely beyond endurance. She, therefore by consent of her husband, spent the time with some friends friend in the country till near the time lime of her embarkation.

But alas! her trials had but just begun. She had a prosperous passage to New Orleans, found her parents, and with them her two youngest children -- but alas! the other she was never permitted to see. He is concealed from her in some distant part of the country.

She found her bigoted and hard-hearted Presbyterian parents and brothers and sisters in the same plot. Her children were held by them in bondage, under a strict watch as prisoners. She must not associate with them, even in her own father's house, except in presence of others -- she must not sleep in the same room, nor even to retire to a private room, to bow the knee with them at the hour of prayer, as she had always been in the habit of doing. In short, she was in bondage intolerable, and was daily abused, insulted, mocked, ridiculed and railed at in every possible manner. She endured these things for months and finding herself sinking under the accumulated wrongs and oppressions of those who should have been her friends; as well as under the effects of the pestilential climate of the advancing summer of New Orleans, she, by the consent of her children, left them for a season for the north, promising to return to them in due time.

She at length, after incredible hardships and toils, made her hir way to Great Salt Lake City, where she arrived in safety in the autumn of 1855. She had, by this long journey, somewhat recovered her health and true to the instincts of a mother, she immediately commenced and constantly persevered in a most rigid course of economy and industry, in order to redeem her pledge to her children

She taught school in that city almost constantly for one year. She then made her way over the dreary plains for some fifteen hundred miles to the frontiers of the States and thence down the rivers to the children.

The account which appeared in the New Orleans Bulletin, some time near the close of the past year, may possibly refer to her.

If so, making due allowance for its numerous falsehoods and misrepresentations, it opens another chapter in her somewhat romantic and heroic life.

Had the lady in question had a kind and dutiful husband, instead of an unfeeling tyrant, religious differences would not have separated the family to this day; but on the contrary, the father, mother and children might still have been living in San Francisco in peace.

It was not Mormonism, but Presbyterianism that broke up the family.

                                                     A FRIEND OF THE OPPRESSED.
Cincinnati, O., February 20, 1857.


This great Apostle and martyr of the nineteenth century was born on the 12th day of April, 1807, in Burlington, Otsego County, State of New York. He was the third son of Jared and Charity Pratt; Jared was the son of Obadiah and Jemima Pratt; Obadiah was the son of Christopher and Sarah Pratt; Christopher was the son of William and Hannah Pratt; William was the son of Joseph Pratt; Joseph was the son of Lieutenant William and Elizabeth Pratt, who were found among the first settlers of Hartford, Connecticut, in the year 1639. They are supposed to have accompanied the Rev. Thomas Hooker and his congregation, about one hundred in number, from Newton, now called Cambridge, Massachusetts, through a dense wilderness, inhabited only by savages and wild beasts, and became the first founders of the colony at Hartford, in June, 1636.

This ancient pilgrim, William Pratt, was a member of the Legislature for some twenty-five or thirty sessions; and the General Court gave him one hundred acres of land in Saybrook, Connecticut, for service performed as lieutenant in the Pequot war; he was one of the judges of the first Court in New London County. Parley P. Pratt is a lineal descendant, of the seventh generation, from that distinguished pilgrim and humble pioneer to the New World.

The youthful days of our martyred brother were characterized by the soberness and thoughtfulness of manhood. Though from adverse circumstances his education was extremely limited, yet he displayed, even in youth, an originality of mind seldom exhibited. In September, 1830, he, being led by the Spirit of the Lord from his home in the State of Ohio, came several hundred miles eastward, where he fortunately obtained a copy of one of the most remarkable works of modern times -- the Book of Mormon. He read the same, was convinced of its divine authenticity, and traveled in search of the highly favored men of God who had seen angels and heard the voice of the Almighty. He soon succeeded in finding some of them, from whom he learned that about five months previous the first Church of the Latter-day Saints had been organized. He requested baptism, and was immediately after ordained an Elder. The same month he visited Canaan, Columbia County, New York -- the county where he had spent many of his youthful days -- and after preaching a few times in different neighborhoods, and baptizing Orson Pratt, his brother, he returned to Seneca County.

Receiving a revelation through Joseph the Prophet, he, in company with three or four others performed a mission, some fifteen hundred miles, to the western boundaries of the State of Missouri, and was among the first of the Saints to stand upon that choice land where the City of Zion is hereafter to be built, preparatory to the second advent of our Savior.

In the spring of 1831 he returned to the northern part of Ohio, where he met Joseph the Prophet. In the summer he again performed a mission through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, preaching, baptizing and building up the Church.

In the autumn of 1833 he and about twelve hundred men, women and children were driven by a murderous, furious mob from their own houses and lands in Jackson County, Missouri. Two hundred houses were burned, cattle shot, hay stacks and grain burned, many whipped until their bowels gushed out; others killed, and the afflicted remnant driven across the river into Clay County.

Soon after this Elder Pratt performed a long journey of about fifteen hundred miles east, preaching repentance and strengthening the Saints.

In 1834 he again returned to Clay County, Missouri, officiating in his holy calling wherever he went.

In 1835, having returned to the northern part of Ohio, he was chosen and ordained one of the Twelve Apostles of this last dispensation, and the same year performed a lengthy journey through Pennsylvania, New York, and several of the New England States, and returned again to Ohio.

In 1836 he visited Canada, and established a large branch of the Church in Toronto, and other branches in adjoining towns.

In 1837 he visited New York City, where he founded a large branch of the Church.

In 1838 he removed to Caldwell County, in the western boundaries of Missouri; and in the same year another dreadful persecution commenced against the Saints, and they were for the third time driven from their own houses and inheritances, and their property to the amount of millions was destroyed; some scores of defenseless men, women and children were murdered; scores of others incarcerated in dungeons, among whom was the subject of this memoir; the balance, about fifteen thousand, were exterminated from the State, and found refuge in Illinois. Elder Pratt was kept in prison, without trial, about eight months, when, by the kind providence of God, he made his escape; an account of which is published in the Millennial Star, Vol. VIII, pages 129, 145 and 161. Immediately after gaining his liberty he published a history of the Missouri persecution, written while in prison. The first edition appeared in Detroit in 1839.

In 1840 he visited England, and in the town of Manchester commenced the publication of a periodical entitled the Millennial Star, which has continued until the present time -- this being the nineteenth volume.

In 1841 he was appointed the President over all the British Conferences, and remained in this high and honorable station until the autumn of 1842, during which he edited the Star, superintended the Saints' emigration, and published several small but interesting works. The following winter he returned to Illinois, where he continued laboring in the ministry for one or two years.

About the beginning of the year 1845 he was appointed the President over all the Churches in the New England and Middle States, his headquarters being at New York City, where he wrote for a periodical entitled The Prophet. In the summer he returned to Nauvoo.

In February, 1846, he was again driven from his home by a ruthless mob. Some fifteen or twenty thousand Saints were also driven from the United States about the same time, with the loss of houses, and lands, and an immense amount of property, which the mob are in the unmolested possession of until the present day. After wading through unparalleled sufferings with his family, he and the suffering Saints succeeded in reaching the Indian country at Council Bluffs, and being called by the Holy Ghost, through the Prophet Brigham Young, to go to England, he left his family upon the broad prairie, without house or scarcely any food, to comply with the word of the Lord. He arrived in England, assisted in setting the Churches in order, and in strengthening the Saints throughout the British islands.

In the spring of 1847 he returned to his family and brethren; and in the summer and autumn of that year he removed to Great Salt Lake Valley, and suffered incredible hardships until the harvest of 1848.

He assisted in forming a Constitution for the Provisional Government of Deseret, and was elected a member of the Senate in the General Assembly; and was afterwards elected to the Legislative Council when Utah became a Territory of the United States.

The year 1851 he was sent on a mission to the Pacific islands and to South America.

In the summer of 1855 he returned over the Sierra Nevada mountains to his home, and occupied a part of his time in preaching in the various settlements of Utah, and at other times laboring with his own hands in the cultivation of his farm. The following winter he officiated as chaplain in the Legislative Council at the State House in Fillmore City.

In the autumn of 1856 he accompanied about twenty missionaries across the plains to the States. During the winter and part of the following spring he visited the Saints at St. Louis, Philadelphia, New York and other places, preaching, writing and publishing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God.

And finally, on the 13th of May, 1857, he fell a noble martyr for the cause of truth, which he had advocated with such untiring perseverance for nearly twenty-seven years. His last great and magnanimous act, in trying to rescue helpless innocence from the fury of their savage persecutors, will be handed down to unborn generations as an imperishable monument to his praise; while his wicked, brutal murderers, and all that gave countenance to the diabolical deed, shall gnaw their tongues for pain, and perish, and be forgotten.

Among the numerous writings of this martyred Apostle may be mentioned first, the ' Voice of Warning,' printed in New York in 1837, and which has since passed through many editions, and been translated into several foreign languages; second, his 'History of the Missouri Persecutions;' third, his 'Poems;' fourth, his 'Key to Theology;' a masterly production, lately published. 'The History of His Life,' up to near the time of his martyrdom, was written by himself, and is now about ready for the press; this will doubtless prove to be one of the most interesting works proceeding from his pen.

O, how pleasant is the death of a righteous person! He lays down his body with a sure and certain hope of coming forth from the tomb in the morning of the first resurrection, to reign as a mighty King and Priest of the Most High God, to sit enthroned in eternal glory, ruling with power and dominion for ever and ever.

O, kind hearted, affectionate brother! How dearly we loved thee in life! How joyous to our soul were the words of life which flowed from thy mouth by the pure spirit of inspiration! How lovely still is our remembrance of thee! We weep not for thy death, for it was glorious! Thou hast left us only for a short moment, and we shall soon embrace thee again! Thy fiftieth year had but just rolled away, and now thy Jubilee has come! Rest in thy Father's house, with all the noble martyrs of the nineteenth century, until the Jubilee of the earth shall also come; then shalt thou return and reign triumphantly with all the redeemed of Adam's race."

From the following letter, written only about four months prior to his martyrdom, he plainly indicates that his pilgrimage and "personal history in this world," were near their close:

                                             New York, United States,
                                              January 2d, 1857.
"Dear Brother Orson -- I received your kind letter on the 30th December, 1856. I was thereby glad to hear from you and of your welfare.

"I am well; I spent about a month in St. Louis; I then came on to Cincinnati and stayed four days, drawing full houses. I arrived in Philadelphia the day before Christmas -- was present next day at a grand party in that city, in Washington Hall. It was a fine time. Sunday last I preached three times to a full house.

"I arrived here on Wednesday last; found Presidents Taylor and Smith as well as usual.

"Yesterday I attended a party here, in the Saints' Hall; it was an interesting affair, some four hundred persons being present. We were entertained with songs, prayers, preaching, praying, recitations, eating, drinking, etc.

"In the midst of our evening's enjoyment the news arrived of the arrival of the Columbia, with a ship load of Saints from England. Today we accompanied brother Taylor to see them. All well, but a rough passage; no deaths. The weather is mild here, and the winter so far very fine.

"I have not yet seen the Pratt family, of whom you speak, but I think I will visit them in a day or two.

"You ask how long I will stay in the States. I answer, till spring. I will then go home, if God will, if I have to go with a hand cart. This country is no place for me; the darkness is so thick I can literally feel it. I cannot obtain the least assistance here for my family; a tight match to obtain traveling expenses.

"I have heard nothing from home since October 1st, but I hope to hear soon. I congratulate you on the marriage of your first born, and hope you will soon become a grandfather.

"Now, dear brother Orson, be of good courage -- our pilgrimage will soon be over, and our personal history in this world will naturally come to the word FINIS.

"As to my history, I have it now complete from my birth up to today. It will contain about as much reading as the Book of Mormon. I would publish it, in part or in full, if gold was plentiful. * * *

"I have written to Nelson Pratt and received an answer; he is well. I am going there soon, if all is well.

"I am to start from St. Louis for home just as early in the spring as the weather will permit. Farewell! God bless you.
                                         "I am your own brother,
                                                         "P. P. PRATT. "

Note: For a rather different telling of this story, see the Dec. 19, 1856 issue of the New Orleans Commercial Bulletin. There Mrs. McLean is pictured as being a deluded convert, "wrapped up in the gross and disgusting deception" of Mormonism, who abandoned her own children in order to move to Utah. Parley P. Pratt is portrayed as an "artful polygamist" who was "steathily insinuating himself into the affections of the wife of an honorable and highminded gentleman, influencing her to dispise and abandon her own husband and friends, and smuggle off his goods to the Mormon Church." Neither Mormon nor Gentile newspaper accounts of the lurid affair mention the fact that Mrs. McLean had already consumated an illegal, quasi-marital union with Pratt, while she was still married to Mr. McLean. Pratt finally took Eleanor McLean as his plural wife on Nov. 14, 1855. For more on the story see the Arkansas Intelligencer's issues of May 15, 1857 and May 22, 1857 as well as Steven Pratt's 1975 article, "Eleanor McLean and the Murder of Parley P. Pratt" in BYU Studies, XV:2


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 28.                                      Liverpool, July 11, 1857.                                       Vol. XIX.

[pp. 441-25]


ANTI-MORMON LIES CONTRADICTED BY ANTI-MORMONS. -- The good people of the United States and Great Britain. not long since, were deardfully excited by the reports of one Mr. Drummond, concerning the "Mormons" in Utah... [he] wickedly accuses the Mormons of Utah with sending men some seven hundred miles to murder COLONEL BABBITT. The editor of the Crescent City Oracle, and brother-in-law to Colonel Babbitt, most pointedly proves this accusation of the ex-judge to be maliciously false. The editor's statement of May 22nd is as follows: --

"We notice in the letter of resignation, of Hon. W. W. Drummond to Attorney-General Black, that he there, among other very grave charges, asserts that the Hon. A. W. Babbitt was murdered by white white men disguised as Indians, by order of the authorities of Utah. In justice to the parties thus maligned, we will state that we have taken much pains to gather all the information possible calculated to throw light upon the death of our relative, Mr. Babbitt, and the particulars connected with the same; and we have not a shadow of doubt but that indians of the Cheyenne nation murdered him for revenge and plunder, and for the satisfaction of his friends who have not heard the full particulars, we will recount them briefly.

"As Secretary of Utah, the late and lamented Col. Babbitt purchased the stationery and other necessaries for Legislative purposes, &c., and at a proper season started in from Florence across the plains with ox teams, under the charge of a Mr. Nichols. Late in August, with only one attendant and in an open carriage, Mr. B. left Florence for Utah. Upon arriving at Fort Kearney he there found some of his stock, his wagons, and a portion of the goods, and one man wounded from his train, being all that remained, four of the number having been killed, three on the spot and one (Mrs. Wilson) the next day after capture.

"Mr. Babbitt hastened to purchase more cattle, and, gathering up the remains of his freight, started the train again forward and wrote us two several letters, stating that he would start forward himself with two attendants the day following. These are, probably, the last he ever wrote.

"Mr. Babbitt left the fort as had been arranged and was never again seen by white men. All the emigration were ahead. He intended to reach Fort Leavenworth in three days and was making good his time. Some weeks later an indian came in to a French trader's station with a gold watch which bore the initials of Mr. B.'s name and soon another came with a massive ring which was also marked as a seal ring.

"The Indians then being charged with the murder acknowledged they had done it. News was sent to the Fort and Major Wharton immediately sent out a detachment in search, which found Mr. Babbitt's carriage, trunk and many valuable papers; but nothing of the unfortunate victim but a few bones. detachment "The indians then confessed that having been insulted and abused by the parties in charge of the mail, and then were killed by the soldiers, a company of twelve had fallen upon Mr. Babbitt's ox train as being the first they had met; to avenge the wrong. That they had seen Mr. Babbitt arrive at the Fort and knew him, (he having crossed the plains nearly twenty times,) and that he was a big man, and by killing him they might be likely to get plunder and revenge at the same time. They had gone on ahead and lay in wait; when he passed they followed him at a distance until he be had stopped, the second day in the afternoon. Then they rode down upon him yelling and screaming. Mr. B. shouted at them and motioned them to stop and pointed his pistol at them; but they passed on and he fired at them. "Frank Rowland, (a young man accompanying him) stood with his arms by his side until shot down; the other man ran away in some willows. The Colonel fought like a tiger, fired all his arms, then clubbed his rifle and fought the whole twelve savages, disputing every inch as he slowly backed up to his carriage for protection behind. He had seriously wounded several, when one more cowardly than the others, jumped up into the wagon and with the tomahawk killed a brave and noble man. detachment "Major Wharton still has possession of the ring which he be obtained of the Indians, and some other valuables and relics found on the spot of the murder. detachment "Mr. _____, a French trader, has a fine gold watch which belonged to Mr. B. which he purchased of the Indians, together with some articles of minor value. "All that is now known of the murder of the late Mr. Babbitt is obtained through the Indians themselves, who acknowledge they committed the murder. "It seems to be a very malicious charge the ex-judge is thus making agains the people of Utah, without anything to justify him in doing so. detachment "The widow of the late Mr. Babbitt is now on her return from Utah to this place. Upon her arrival, we shall, at the earliest moment announce the receipt of any thing further connected with his murder."

Note 1: Judge Drummond's allegations concerning Mormon involvement in the murder of Almon W. Babbitt was disputed in the press by various LDS elders, including Feramorz Little. Drummond replied to Elder Little's protests in a letter that the ex-judge wrote to the New York Times on May 4, 1857. On Aug. 5, 1857 the LDS Deseret News carried a passing reference to the Babbitt murder, spoken by Brigham Young, but without offering any special commentary: "William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel... What is now the news circulated throughout the United States? That Captain Gunnison was killed by Brigham Young, and that Babbitt was killed on the Plains by Brigham Young and his Danite band." The New York City LDS organ, The Mormon, reprinted the Crescent City Oracle report on June 20, 1857. See also the Council Bluffs Western Bugle of Sept. 9, 1856 and the Ohio Defiance Democrat of Nov. 22, 1856.

Note 2: Babbitt's widow came out from Utah to investigate the murder in person. She interviewed various relevant parties, obtained signed statements, etc. In late July, 1857 the New York Herald published her findings -- which were that Cheyenne Indians, who knew her husband, had killed him. In 1914 her son, Don Carlos Babbit, furnished a similar account for publication in the 1914 Babbitt Family History. The text was written by Elder Anthon H. Lund, who quoted the story's essentials from an earlier account written by Orson F. Whitney.

Note 3: It is altogether possible that Almon W. Babbitt was killed by Cheyenne Indians -- but, if so, they were assassins who knew that they had nothing to fear from Brigham Young after they had carried out the deathly deed. High ranking Mormons like Babbitt enjoyed the automatic friendship and protection of Indian leaders, all along the trail from Council Bluffs to Salt Lake City. It is highly unlikely that even a renegade, leaderless band of Cheyenne would have murdered Elder Babbitt, unless other, higher ranking Utahans had made it clear to them that such a man was an "apostate" and "fair game" for plunder. The modern reader can only wonder if a "Lamanite missionary" and "Danite" like Elder Jack Reddin were not standing by, watching from a distance, as the tragic events occurred.


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 9.                                 Liverpool  February 27, 1858.                                   Vol. XX.


(From the "San Francisco Chronicle.")

I have read with some attention what accounts we have received from Mormondom and what has been written upon the subject. I have not made it a question of my special study, feeling no interest in the subject itself; but what little attention I have given to it has not enabled me to concur with the opinions generally expressed in newspapers. Yet I do not find myself singular on this subject. On conversation with other gentlemen I find the majority of the well-educated in a similar predicament. I am not willing to see my country plunged into an unjust war, nor am I willing to see any injustice done, or to see the established principles of our government violated for any temporary advantage....

The late massacre of a train of emigrants is charged upon them. The charge may be true or it may be false. But I ought to throw this out of the question. It was not one of the causes of the present military movement. That had long before then been threatened, and was then under way. Neither was it nor any of the other individual crimes committed by them a cause of war. Individual violations of the law are not treason, and are not warrant for levying war upon a whole people. They are injuries to be remedied through the ordinary channels of administrative justice. These often prove temporarily insufficient; but I am not yet prepared to admit that such ends justify a departure from the principles of the Constitution. Time always affords a remedy; and it is better in my view to endure for a time such evils than by violating the principles of our Government, to confess before the whole world its insufficiency and weakness...

the violations of law charged upon the Mormons do not amount to treason, and are no cause of war... Consider, my dear sir, the thing we are contemplating -- a civil war -- and a religious one at that. Let us not plunge into it thoughtlessly, to be the derision of all the world as a people proclaiming liberty of conscience to all people, and thefirst in these modern days to attempt its suppression by force.   B.

Notes: (forthcoming)


No. 23,005                          London, Friday, May 28, 1858.                           5.5 pence.

A M E R I C A.

The New York Herald of the 15th says: --

"...The War Department has received despatches from General Johnston, dated Camp Scott, March 14. A large train of provisions was within two days; march of Camp Scott, as was also the eastern mail, being the first official mail since September. Mr. Jones, the contractor, deemed it advisable to cause a halt till he should be reinforced by General Johnston, to whom he had sent for assistance, as a large body of Mormons appeared in his rear. General Johnston immediately sent the necessary aid. It is reported that the Mormons appear very warlike. They can be seen at all hours in large numbers on the adjacent hills. It is believed here that general Johnston has had a brush with them before this."

A man, escaped from Salt Lake, had arrived at the camp of General Johnston in a sorry plight. He took intelligence that the Mormons were equipping companies to go out on the road this spring for the purpose of cutting off the trains and harrassing the troops. We learn also, from New Mexico, that a number of Utah Indians, who are known to be in complicity with the Mormons, are endeavouring to corrupt the savages in the New Mexican superintendency, in order to enlist them against the army, but their attempts are, so far, unsuccessful.

Notes: (forthcoming)


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 30.                                     Liverpool  July 23, 1859.                                       Vol. XXI.

[pp. 476-78]


                                           AMERICA. -- DESERET.
Great Salt Lake City,      
May 3, 1859.    
Brother Asa Calkin.

An opportunity offering of safely sending to the States, I improve it to forward you a line or two. My letter to brothers Williams and Tullidge furnishes a picture, as far as it extends, of matters and things in this Territory.

There are a class of men here who are studying the hardest to create excitement in the hope of making it appear that nothing can be done with the "Mormons," except by military force, wholly independent of civil restraint, or in other words by a military dictatorship. Is it not a curious thing that Americans consider such an iron government desirable on American soil? Yet there are some respectable men in this Territory who think the dignity of the republic of the United States can be vindicated by nothing less than by martial law, and who earnestly hope that the people of this Territory will be goaded on to commit some overt act which may be coloured so as to make eastern folks believe there is no salvation for the country except by exterminating the "Mormons." I said the speculators here leaned towards military dictatorship and martial law -- I ought rather to have said, to those "co-ordinate functions," as Judge Sinclair would say, of anarchy, mobbery, and lynchery. In their patriotic zeal to punish the "Mormons," the federal Judges ruthlessly overstep the laws bothe of the Territory and of the United States; and their seconds or, in other words, the real instigators of the hullabaloo about the "Mormons," care less about the laws, their ambition being unalterably concentrated on the dollars and dimes, and to secure which all their efforts tend, like the various tributaries of a mighty river.

Judge Sinclair greatly desired to "pitch into" the "Mormons," and he tried it on in this city; but bhe concluded that without the military he could do nothing. Judge Cradlebaugh had the same desires, and he thought he would try what virtue there was in soldiers; but he found that he could do less with them than Sinclair did without them. But if the military or judiciary were only absolute, oh, Jerusalem! what great things would transpire in Utah Territory! Autocrats and despots of every name, age, country and colour would be out-Heroded. Oh, if I were but some great body! But, alas! I am only an imported federal judge in a remote and land-locked desert Territory! What boots it that in my judicial peregrinations I am enveloped in a forest of glittering steel -- that I am surrounded by a thousand grim iron demons which belch forth thunder-bolts and sulphurous flames when that arch-impostor Brigham sits in his palace and wields an influence so latent, ubiquitous, almighty and inscrutable, as to paralyze my devited efforts! Oh, my country! Alas, poor judge!

Can it be wondered at that the nations of the Old World sometimes point in derision to the weaknesses of republicanism and the occasionally-manifested majesty of the mob in the dominions of "the smartest nation in all creation"

From the time Judge Cradlebaugh commenced his court at Provo, there has been little lack of rumours tending to disturb and harass the community and to prevent the free development of that persevering industry for which the Mormons are famous and which are so essential to the temporal prosperity of any community. I give the following as a specimen of the rumors of a day.

It is rumoured that General Johnston has sent an express to Governor Cumming, stating that if he, Cumming, did not attend to the case of the "Mormons," he, Johnston, would have to take it into his own hands:

That two or three regiments, with one heavy battery, are coming from Camp Floyd to this city, in consequence of some disclosures extorted from men by hanging them up till they made statements desireable to their inquisitors:

That Judge Sinclair has declared that he will not leave Camp Floyd to hold a court in this city, unless be be accompanied by a large force of U.S. troops:

That General Johnston has told Mr. Box that bhe will march his Infantry to this city (40 miles) in six hours, to show the "Mormons" what he can do, before they are aware of it.

That 50 soldiers are going to springville to institute another search for "Mormon" officials.

That a company of volunteers from Arkansas and Missouri are on the way to Iron County to use up the folks there:

That five Deputy Marshals have started from Camp Floyd to take Bill Hickman, dead or alive; money being so scarce that several distinguished gamblers had jumped at the opportunity of serving as Deputy Marshals.

That 500 stands of arms, with 100 rounds of ammunition each have arrived from Camp Floyd, and are lodged in Miller and Russell;s store in this city, for the use of Gentiles and aprostates, in case of a muss:

That all the affidavits and testimony that could be scraped up concerning outrages said to have been committed by the "Mormons" have been sent by express to President Buchanan: that President Young's mansion is to come down, and civilization is to be introduced into this city:

That the cavalry expedition south with Judge Cradlebaugh is to arrest two Presidents, four Bishops, and sixteen other church officials; that he took with him 100 camp-loafers making over 300 in all, to help him, the loafers having the promise of being boarded through to California.

Some of the above rumours may be entirely false and some wholly or partially true. But true or false, as they mostly originate with Gentiles direct from Camp Floyd, they are evidently intended to disturb and annoy the people; and they have that effect to some extent, and it is certain that they indicate clearly which way their originators desire events to turn.

Just now rumours are not quite so plentiful as they were a few days ago. Every one is waiting with interest to hear of the result at Washington, of the reports concerning the military-judicial proceedings at Provo, to learn whether the government intends to heap further indignities upon us, or take a common sense view of matters, and thrust away from us those who wish to cut our throats, and and those who wish to hold our hands during the cutting operation, and those who instigate the cutters and holders, -- though the instigators, being the most guilty, generally retire voluntarily when their cats-paws are called away.

Do not think that I have spoken too harshly of the Judges. They have refused to punish any persons guilty of crimes, when those persons are not "Mormons," and have taken into military custody, and now keep there, men who have not been tried, but who happen to be "Mormons. Cradlebaugh is now scouring the country with military posses, hunting for "Mormon" officials, who he presumes are hard to find in this mountainous country. Gentile culprits he does not look for. A "Mormon" is worth hanging if he is caught; but hanging is too good for a Gentile. So Cradlebaugh's course indicates...

Note: Oddly enough, the writer in Utah does not take the trouble to inform readers in England why it was that Arkansas citizens might have been angry at the Iron County militia (who participated in the Mountain Meadows massacre of a party of emigrants, mostly from Arkansas), or exactly why Judge Cradlebaugh was seeking the arrest of certain leaders in the territory (who were also known to have been implicated in that massacre).


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. 31.                                     Liverpool  July 30, 1859.                                       Vol. XXI.

[pp. 495-96]


                                           AMERICA. -- DESERET.
Great Salt Lake City,      
June 2, 1859.    
Elder Asa Calkin.

Enclosed I forward you a copy of the obituary of Leo Hawkins.

You have doubtless heard beard ere this will reach you, of the detour of the United States' Associate Judge, Hon. John Cradlebaugh, through the southern settlements of Utah, and of the accompanying developments of civilization. His Honour his was escorted by a military detachment of 100 dragoons and two companies of Infantry; and last, though not least, by 100 camp loafers, on whom the soldiers entailed the unkind sobriquet of "the shirt-tail militia."

The Judge's advance through the settlements was made terrible to the inhabitants by the unmerciful, bold and daring onslaught made upon chicken-coops, pigs pens, fat beeves, and everything else calculated to satisfy the appetites or fancy of his Honour's escort. Thus was a high-minded Judge and a portion of our oun gallant army triumphantly promenading the public domain, as though they were in an enemy's country forcibly levying black mail from the inhabitants.

The town of Parowan was an exception. It is very compactly built, surrounded by a wall. The citizens armed themselves with clubs and revolvers and kept watch during the nights that the Judge camped near that place. The inhabitants of Parowan, however, were indebted to the citizens of Beaver, who sent them timely notice of the thieving propensities of the reckless band, who were certainly a disgrace to the stars and stripes they bore.

The citizens who visited his Honour's camp were generally treated roughly and insulted. Messrs. Hiram Judd and Lucius Fuller, while peaceably in search of cattle, visited their camp at the Mountain Meadows and were fired upon by order of an officer.

About the time of his Honour's return to the Mountain Meadows, an express arrived in camp. What news it bore I know not; but it entirely changed the proceedings of the camp. After that, every citizen who visited the camp was treated with ordinary civility, and no attempts were made to disturb anybody on his Honour's further return.

Major Carleton and command were left at the Mountain Meadows. He was engaged in piling up, at the place of the attack upon the unfortunate emigrant party, a monument of cobble rock, about ten feet in diameter. Judge Cradlebaugh and escort returned north, with the exception of the "shirt tall" corps, who were left in camp at Jacobs Twist, with three days' rations and an old rifle and shot gun. They were in a very destitute and desponding condition, being left in Indian country with 400 miles of barren desert between them and the California settlements. A few of them had stolen some horses from a neighbouring settlement, had been pursued, and the horses were recovered. Captain Campbell refused to permit them to return with his company (the military portion of Cradlebaugh's escort). and they were afraid to return unaccompanied by the military, expecting that the citizens from whom they had stolen would justly wreak vengeance upon them. They assigned as a reason for stealing, that Captain Campbell refused to allow them the rations had been promised them before leaving Camp Floyd, and they were therefore compelled to steal or starve. Whether they will turn into bands of desperadoes and continue to infest our southern settlements, or pursue purtue their dreary way to California, is unknown. If they decide on the latter alternative, many of them, being without shoes, must inevitably die on the rough desert road.

These men stated they were employed by Government for a year, and were discharged without means to get away, although they had been promised, at Camp Floyd, transportation to California. In the course of the Judge's tour, the interpreters succeeded in bringing three Indians into the camp, and the officers asked the Indians to bring in their squaws. The interpreters said the Indians had been taught that they must be virtuous. The officers said they would be well paid.

The Judge told the people in the south that he should return with a greater number of troops. He told the Tithing Clerk at Beaver that the citizens might plough and plant, but they would not harvest.

President Young's health is very good. He has attended the Tabernacle the last two Sabbaths and preached. The saints were very much pleased to see and hear him.

President Kimball's health has been impaired by an attack of influenza, from which he has suffered considerably. He is, however, somewhat better.

President Wells and the Twelve Apostles are in tolerable good health, with the exception of brother Amasa Lyman, who has been afflicted with determination of blood to the head.

The season is very backward tbroughout the Territory, but the grass on the range is is unusually good. Slight frosts have done some injury recently.
Yours truly,            
            GEORGE A. SMITH.

Note: Apostle Smith neglected to inform his readers in England, of the purpose for Judge Cradlebaugh's visit to southern Utah. In an 1863 address to Congress Cradlebaugh explained his reason: "The scene of this horrible massacre at the Mountain Meadows is situate about three hundred and twenty miles west of south from Great Salt Lake City, on the road leading to Los Angeles, in California. I was the first federal Judge in that part of the Territory after the occurrence. My district extending from a short distance below Salt Lake City to the south end of the Territory. I determined to visit that part of my district, and, if possible, expose the persons engaged in the massacre, which I did in the early part of the year 1859. I accordingly embraced an opportunity of accompanying a small detachment of soldiers, who were being sent to that section by Gen. Johnson..."


He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. -- Jesus Christ.

Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. --
A Voice from Heaven.

No. ?                                       August 20, 1859.                                       Vol. XXI.

[pp. 545-46]

Additional Testimony of Martin Harris....

Sept. 15th, 1853.    
Be it known to all whom this may concern that I, David B. Dille, of Ogden City, Weber County, Salt Lake, en route to Great Britain, having business with one Martin Harris, formerly of the Church of Latter-day Saints, and residing at Kirtland, Lake County, Ohio, did personally wait upon him at his residence, and found him sick in bed; and was informed by the said Martin Harris that he had not been able to take any nourishment for the space of three days. This, together with his advanced age, had completely prostrated him. After making my business known to Mr. Harris, and some little conversation with him, the said Martin Harris started up in bed, and, after particularly inquiring concerning the prosperity of the Church, made the following declaration: -- "I feel that a spirit has come across me -- the old spirit of Mormonism; and I begin to feel as I used to feel; and I will not say I won't go to the valley." Then addressing himself to his wife, he said -- "I don't know but that, if you will get me some breakfast, I will get up and eat it."

I then addressed Mr. Harris relative to his once high and exalted station in the Church, and his then fallen and afflicted condition. I afterward put the following questions to Mr. Harris, to which he severally replied with the greatest cheerfulness: -- "What do you think of the Book of Mormon? Is it a divine record?"

Mr. Harris replied and said -- "I was the right-hand man of Joseph Smith, and I know that he was a Prophet of God. I know the Book of Mormon is true." Then smiting his fist on the table, he said -- "And you know that I know that it is true. I know that the plates have been translated by the gift and power of God, for his voice declared it unto us; therefore I know of a surety that the work is true." "For," continued Mr. Harris, "did I not at one time hold the plates on my knee an hour-and-a-half, whilst in conversation with Joseph, when we went to bury them in the woods, that the enemy might not obtain them? Yes, I did. And as many of the plates as Joseph Smith translated I handled with my hands, plate after plate." Then describing their dimensions, he pointed with one of the fingers of his left hand to the back of his right hand and said, "I should think they were so long, or about eight inches, and about so thick, or about four inches; and each of the plates was thicker than the thickest tin."

I then asked Mr. Harris if he ever lost 3,000 dollars by the publishing of the Book of Mormon. Mr. Harris said -- "I never lost one cent. Mr. Smith," he said, "paid me all that I advanced, and more too." As much as to say he received a portion of the profits accruing from the sale of the book.

Mr. Harris further said -- "I took a transcript of the characters of the plates to Dr. Anthon, of New York. When I arrived at the house of Professor Anthon, I found him in his office and alone, and presented the transcript to him, and asked him to read it. He said if I would bring the plates, he would assist in the translation. I told him I could not, for they were sealed. Professor Anthon then gave me a certificate certifying that the characters were Arabic, Chaldaic, and Egyptian. I then left Dr. Anthon and was near the door, when he said, "How did the young man know the plates were there?" I said an angel had shown them to him. Professor Anthon then said, 'Let me see the certificate!' -- upon which I took it from my waistcoat pocket and unsuspectingly gave it to him. He then tore it up in anger, saying there was no such thing as angels now -- it was all a hoax. I then went to Dr. Mitchell with the transcript, and he confirmed what Professor Anthon had said."

Mr. Harris is about 58 years' old, and is on a valuable farm of 90 acres, beautifully situated at Kirtland, Lake County, Ohio.

Note: The above account was reprinted in the Salt Lake City Deseret News of Jan. 30, 1878, and again, on pp. 88-89 of George Reynolds' 1883 Myth of the Manuscript Found.


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 21.                                       May 23, 1863.                                       Vol. XXV.

[pp. 326-28]


My Brother, Phinehas Howe, gives his history as follows: --

My earliest recollection of the scenes of life are relating to myself and my brother Joseph....

(see original article from Utah paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 23.                                       June 6, 1863.                                       Vol. XXV.

[pp. 360-61]


(Continued from page 328.)

In April, 1830, having received the Book of Mormon, as I was on my way home from the town of Lima, where I had been to preach...

(see original article from Utah paper)

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 24.                                       June 13, 1863.                                       Vol. XXV.

[pp. 374-76]


(Continued from page 361.)

In August following, my brother Joseph Young came from Canada to see me. He had been there preaching, and having a desire to have me in this field of labor for a season, he came over to the States with the intention of getting me to go back with him

We accordingly left for Kingston, in Upper Canada, about the 20th of August [1830], and passing through the town of Lyons, we called on an old acquaintance by the name of Solomon Chamberlain....

I was baptized by Elder Ezra Landon and in my father by Elder Daniel Bowen. The next morning, being the 6th of April, 1832, my brother Joseph was baptized by the latter. April 7th, my father and I started for home, a distance of 120 miles, where we arrived in health and found our friends and families rejoicing in fulness of the Gospel...

(see full original article from Utah paper)

Note 1: It seems inexplicible that Phinehas Young, having embraced the essential message of Mormonism as early as April, 1830, (as conveyed to him by Samuel H. Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith, jr.), should have waited two years to become a baptized Mormon. Also, since Phinehas lived practically within walking distance of the old Smith home at Manchester and the newspaper office where the Book of Mormon was published, it seems equally inexplicible that Phinehas did not make an effort to go and meet members of the Smith family, Martin Harris, W. W. Phelps, etc., during those two years. In June of 1830, Elder Samuel H. Smith returned to Mendon and loaned a second copy of the Book of Mormon to Rhoda and John P. Greene. Phineas lent his copy to his father, then to his sister Fanny, who gave it to Brigham Young. John's copy also circulated among relatives and friends of the Young family, including Brigham Young.

Note 2: In 1831 Mormon Elder Alpheus Gifford and his missionary companions came through the Mendon area, further arousing the interest of the Youngs to the possibility of Mormon conversion. According to Vilate Kimball's Autobiography, "Five elders of the Church of Latter-day Saints came to the town of Victor, which was five miles from Mendon, and stopped at the house of Phineas Young, the brother of Brigham. Their names were Eleazer Miller, Elial Strong, Alpheus Gifford, Enos Curtis and Daniel Bowen. Hearing of these men, curiosity prompted Mr. Kimball to go and see them. Then for the first time he heard the fullness of the everlasting gospel and was convinced of its truth. Brigham Young was with him." Elder Alpheus Gifford and Elder Miller returned again to the Mendon area at the beginning of April 1832. They had some initial success among the Baptists, the ranks of whom Vilate Murray Kimball 1806-1867) and her husband Heber C. Kimball had joined the year before. According to one account, Brigham Young was baptized on Sunday, April 15th, 1832, by Eleazer Miller, and the Kimballs were baptized by Elder Alpheus Gifford the next day. However, Brigham's own private journal places the baptism on April 9, 1832 and that may the correct date. From the Millennial Star's account of Phinehas Young's history, the reader might guess that Phinehas was baptized among the Mormons of Bradford Co,, Pennsylvania, but other sources confirm that the baptism took place near his home in Mendon, New York.

Note 3: It is possible that both Phinehas Young and his brother-in-law, the Rev. John Portineus Greene (1793-1844), delayed their Mormon baptisms in order to retain their Methodist credentials, while attempting to spread the new doctrine among the Methodists of New York and Canada. It also seems more than likely that these two preachers met in unpublicized gatherings with Mormons of higher rank than Solomon Chamberlain, prior to their openly embracing the latter day faith in April, 1832. As for Chamberlain, he took the opportunity of meeting and visiting with Hyrum Smith and other early Mormon converts, at Manchester, before eventually traveling to Fayette to meet Joseph Smith, jr. himself. According to Chamberlain, he was baptized by that Mormon leader, in Seneca Lake, during the first part of April, 1830. Thus, if Phinehas Young was "passing through the town of Lyons," where Chamberlain lived, on "about the 20th of August" of 1830, Solomon Chamberlain would probably have already possessed sufficent "Church of Christ" credentials to have baptized Phinehas. However, had he done so at that time, no doubt Phinehas would have been thrown out of Methodist gatherings, just as Solomon Chamberlain was. At any rate, if Phinehas Young did try to surrepitiously inject Mormonism into Methodism, he ended up with little more to show for those efforts than his helping to raise up "the first [Mormon] branch in British America."

Vicinity of Mendon, New York in the 1830s
(view larger map image)   (view area to the west)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 23.                                       June 4, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 359-60]


(Written by himself in Great Salt Lake City, November, 1857.)

I was born in the town of Acton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, November 1, 1799.

My father, James Marsh was born in Douglas, Mass., March 27, 1751.

My mother, Mary, daughter of Titus Law, was born in Acton, Mass., March 18, 1759.

I spent my early life in farming at Westmoreland, New Hampshire, until I was fourteen years of age, when I ran away and went to Chester, Vermont, where I worked on a farm three months; then went to Albany, New York and engaged in a public house as a waiter, where I remained eighteen months, when I went to New York and engaged in the city hotel and remained two years; when I returned to my old situation in Albany, and after serving a year returned to New York City Hotel for two years; then removed to Long Island, New York, where I engaged as groom to Edward Griswald, in whose service I remained one and a half-years; during which I became acquainted with Elizabeth Godkin, and married her on the 1st November, 1820.

Immediately after marrying I commenced in the grocery business, in New York, in which business I remained one and a half years, but did not succeed. I then engaged in a type foundry in Boston, where I continued seven years.

While engaged in this business I joined the Methodist Church and tried for two years to be a genuine Methodist, but did not succeed any better in getting Methodist religion than I did in the grocery business. I compared Methodism with the Bible, but could not make it correspond.

I withdrew from all sects, and being about to leave Boston my old class leader wished me to take a good certificate, but I informed him I did not want it. I had a measure of the spirit of prophecy and told him that I expected a new church would arise, which would have the truth in its purity. He said to me, you no doubt mean to be a leader in that new sect. I told him I had no such intentions. He said, he prayed that the Lord would make me a firebrand in the midst of that new religious body, as reformation was necessary.

My wife unknown to me, however, got a certificate for herself and me on one paper. I informed her that I never would attend, but I would find a suitable class for her if she wanted to join.

I remained in Boston several years engaged in the type foundry. During this period I became acquainted with several friends whose opinions concerning religion were like my own. We kept aloof from sectarians, and were called by them Quietists, because we resembled so much a sect in France known by that name professing to be led by the Spirit.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 24.                                       June 11, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 375-76]


(History of T. B. Marsh - Continued from page 360.)

I believed the Spirit of God dictated me to make a journey west. I started in company with one Benjamin Hall, who was also led by the Spirit. I went to Lima, Livingston County, New York, where I staid some three months [late 1829], and then left for home. I called on my return at Lyonstown, on a family, whose names I do not recollect. On leaving there next morning the lady enquired if I had heard of the Golden Book found by a youth named Joseph Smith. I informed her I never heard anything about it, and became very anxious to know concerning the matter. On enquiring, she told me I could learn more about it from Martin Harris, in Palmyra.

I returned back westward and found Martin Harris at the printing office, in Palmyra, where the first sixteen pages of the Book of Mormon had just been struck off, the proof sheet of which I obtained from the printer and took with me. As soon as Martin Harris found out my intentions he took me to the house of Joseph Smith, sen., where Joseph Smith, jun., resided, who could give me any information I might wish. Here I found Oliver Cowdery, who gave me all the information concerning the book I desired. After staying there two days I started for Charleston, Mass., highly pleased with the information I had obtained concerning the new found book.

After arriving home and finding my family all well, I showed my wife the sixteen pages of the Book of Mormon which I had obtained, with which she was well pleased, believing it to be the work of God. From this time for about one year I corresponded with Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith, Jun., and prepared myself to move west.

Learning by letter that the Church of Jesus Christ had been organized on the 6th day of April, 1830, I moved to Palmyra, Ontario County, in September following, and landed at the house of Joseph Smith, sen., with my whole family. During the month I was baptized by David Whitmer, in Cayuga Lake, and in a few days I was ordained an Elder by Oliver Cowdery with six Elders, at Father Whitmer's house.

Joseph received a revelation appointing me a physician to the Church.

After remaining in that State, during the fall and winter the Church moved to Ohio. In the spring of 1831 I journeyed with the main body to Kirtland.

In June, 1831, I was ordained a High Priest at a Conference held in Kirtland, where I received an appointment to go to Missouri with Ezra Thayer, and preach by the way. In consequence of Ezra Thayer delaying so long, I went to Joseph, who received the word of the Lord appointing Selah J. Griffin in Thayer's stead, with whom I journeyed to Missouri, preaching by the way; many believed our testimony, but we did not wait to baptize any. While near the end of our journey I was attacked by chills and fever and arrived very sick. I staid at the house of Brother Benjamin Slade till I got well.

Sometime in January, 1832, Bishop Partridge having furnished me with an Indian pony, I returned to Kirtland, accompanied by Cyrus Daniels. I labored, preaching through the country around Kirtland until the summer opened, when, in company with Ezra Thayer, I went on a mission through the State of New York and returned home early in the fall; and made preparations to go up to Zion in company with several other families from Kirtland. At that time an objection was raised to me being the leader owing to my inexperience, but there was division on this subject as some considered my office entitled me to the presidency. My opposers appealed to Joseph, who decided I should lead on account of my office; still, although we started with the understanding that I was to lead the company, my opposers never became reconciled to my presidency, until we got into difficulties at the Ohio River, where we could not proceed without better order. Here they yielded to my dictation through necessity; but when we had got down the Ohio River as far as Louisville a rebellious spirit was again manifested.

At this point I separated from the company; took my brother-in-law, Lewis Abbot and his wife, and proceeded by boat to St. Louis, where I arrived one day in advance of the company. On our arrival we found the cholera raging in St. Louis and vicinity. I went immediately to the outskirts of St. Louis, rented a house, and began my preparations to start overland to the west.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 25.                                       June 18, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 390-92]


(History of T. B. Marsh - Continued from page 376.)

On the arrival of the other part of the company, I was sent for by them about midnight, to doctor them, but the messenger being unable to pilot me, I had to return to my house until morning, when I was sent for again, and soon found Brother Blackslee, but too late to do him any good. He died the next day.

I started for Jackson County, and arrived Nov. 10, having been two weeks on the journey. I located in Jackson County with the brethren who had come from Colesville, where I was invited by Brother Joseph Knight, who was very sick with the bloody flux. I attended him faithfully and my wife nursed him; he succeeded in overcoming the disease and soon got well.

I had my inheritance, about thirty acres, set off by Bishop Partridge, on the Big Blue River, Jackson County, where, before spring opened, I had a comfortable log house built, into which I moved early in the spring and commenced clearing land to raise a small crop that year. I succeeded in getting some corn and potatoes planted, which did very well. Before the year was out the mob combined together and drove us out of the county. Some of the Saints moved into Clay county; others with myself removed to Lafayette county, where we wintered, and during which time I kept a common school and taught the children of the brethren.

In the spring of 1834, having learned that Joseph and a company were coming to relieve the brethren, I moved over with many others into Clay county, where I was living when they arrived. Several of those who came up in Zion's Camp remained in Missouri. I cultivated a small piece of land this summer and succeeded in raising some corn. I was chosen one of the High Council.

In January, 1835, in company with Bishop Partridge and agreeable to revelation, I proceeded to Kirtland, where we arrived early in the spring, when I learned I had been chosen one of the Twelve Apostles.

May 4th, 1835, in company with the Twelve I left Kirtland and preached through the eastern states, holding conferences, regulating and organizing the churches, and returned September 25.

In the winter of 1835-36, I attended school, studied the first English grammar under Sidney Rigdon, and Hebrew under Professor Seixas (a Hebrew by birth), and in the spring returned to my place on Fishing River, in Clay County, Missouri, where I arrived in the month of April.

Soon after this, difficulties having occurred between the citizens of Clay county and the Saints, a meeting was held near Liberty, the county seat, for the purpose of amicably arranging matters. I was appointed a delegate from Fishing River. At that meeting a committee of twelve were appointed to draft resolutions, which were received by unanimous vote; when a committee of three, -- viz., Lyman Wight, myself and Samuel Bent were appointed to meet next day in Liberty for the presentation of these resolutions. I was appointed by said committee, spokesman, and was enabled to speak so feelingly in relation to our previous persecutions and expulsions, that General Atchison could not refrain from shedding tears. This meeting passed resolutions to help the Saints to seek out a new location, and appointed committees to collect means to aid the poor Saints to remove.

The Church, considering the citizens were thus exerting themselves to have us removed, appointed Elisha H. Groves and myself to visit the churches in Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, for the purpose of borrowing money to enter lands in the new settlement at the land office for the convenience of the Saints who were coming on. We started in July, and succeeded in borrowing upwards of $1400, principally from the brethren in Kentucky and Tennessee, at 10 percent interest.

September 19, 1836. -- We parted with Brother Woodruff and the Saints in Kentucky, Brother D. W. Patten and his wife accompanying us to Missouri. I proceeded immediately to the new city which had been laid out, and called Far West, in our absence. On our arrival we delivered the money to those who sent us and received $1 per day and travelling expenses, for our services while gone. We furnished our own horses. I procured a lot immediately, built a house and moved into it. During the winter I made improvements on my lot; got up my firewood; attended councils and preached to the Saints.

About the month of June, 1837, I started for Kirtland in company with D. W. Patten and Wm. Smith, to try and reconcile some of the Twelve and others of high standing who had come out in opposition to the Prophet. On my journey I met Brother P. P. Pratt about five miles west of Columbus, Ohio, moving to Far West; I prevailed on him to return with us to Kirtland. On our arrival I went to Brother Joseph's house, where I remained all the time I was in Kirtland.

About this time a special meeting was appointed at Joseph's house, by himself, to which several of the brethren who were disaffected were invited. I was chosen moderator, and called upon the aggrieved parties to speak first. A reconciliation was effected between all parties.

July 23rd, Joseph Smith, jun., received a revelation to me concerning the Twelve apostles; and on the 27th, I started with Joseph and Brother Rigdon for Canada. During this mission we visited the churches in Canada west, and returned about the last of August.

Sep. 3. -- I attended a conference held in Kirtland, in which Luke Johnson, Lyman E. Johnson and John F. Boynton were rejected. John F. Boynton plead, as an excuse for his course, the failure of the Kirtland bank.

President Brigham Young, in a plain and energetic manner, strongly protested against his course, and was not willing to receive him into fellowship until a hearty repentance and confession were manifested. I sustained Brother Brigham's remarks and acquiesced in his testimony.

Soon after, in company with Hyrum Smith, I proceeded to Missouri, where we arrived in October, and in a few weeks, Presidents Joseph and Sidney arrived, and we held a conference which sustained the authorities of the Church.

Some time in the winter, George M. Hinkle, John Murdock and some others came to my house, and suggested the importance of calling a meeting to take into consideration the manner that W. W. Phelps and David and John Whitmer had disposed of the money which I had borrowed in the Tennessee and Kentucky Branches in 1836. Accordingly, a meeting was called Feb. 5th, 1838, and the conduct of the Presidency in Zion investigated. The Church would not sustain said Presidency, but appointed myself and Brother D. W. Patten Presidents, pro tem., until Joseph Smith would arrive. We also re-organized the Church in Zion, placing every officer in his proper place. Joseph arrived in Far West, March 14th, and approved of the course we had pursued.

May 18. -- In company with Joseph, Sidney and others, I went north in Daviess county. We met with Oliver Cowdery, Lyman E. Johnson and others encamped, who were also exploring northward on Grand River. We soon returned to Far West.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 26.                                       June 25, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 406-08]


(History of T. B. Marsh - Continued from page 392.)

In August the mob recommenced their depredations against the Saints.

About this time I got a beam in my eye and thought I could discover a mote in Joseph's eye, though it was nothing but a beam in my eye; I was so completely darkened that I did not think on the Savior's injunction: "Thou hypocrite, why beholdest thou the mote which is in thy brother's eye, when a beam is in thine own eye; first cast out the beam out of thine own eye, then thou shalt see clearly to get the mote out of thy brother's eye."

Had I seen this I should have discovered myself a hypocrite, but as I had often said while in the Church, if I ever apostatized I would go away quietly; I tried to do so, but the Saints kept inquiring of me if I was going to leave, and so did Joseph twice. I evaded him both times. The last time he almost got me into so tight a corner I could hardly evade. He put the question direct to me, whether I was going to leave? With an affected look of contempt I answered: "Joseph when you see me leave the Church, you will see a good fellow leave it."

After making preparations I started from Far West and moved three miles out of town, ostensibly for the purpose of settling, and soon moved off to Clay County, and from thence to Richmond, Ray County, where I saw David, John and Jacob Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery, who had all apostatized.

I enquired seriously of David if it was true that he had seen the angel, according to his testimony as one of the witnesses of the Book of Mormon. He replied as sure as there is a God in heaven, he saw the angel according to his testimony in that book. I asked him, if so, why he did not stand by Joseph? He answered, in the days when Joseph received the Book of Mormon, and brought it forth, he was a good man and filled with the Holy Ghost, but he considered he had now fallen. I interrogated Oliver Cowdery in the same manner, who answered similarly.

(Compiled principally from his own journal.)

In the early part of my life, I was often called upon to repent of my sins and the Spirit of the Lord did often reprove me. In the twenty first yearof my life the Lord visited me by his Holy Spirit and called upon me againto repent. I rejected the call at first, but, upon mature reflection considered it was reasonable the Lord should require obedience and I turned to the Lord and found his favor.

I lived in the enjoyment of his spiritfor three years during which time by dreams and visions many things were made known unto me which were to come and from the teachings I received of the Holy Spirit I was looking for the Church of Christ to arise in its purity according to the he promise of Christ and that I should live to see it.

From this happy state I fell away and lived, in a measure, in darkness, until the year 1830, when my mind became again aroused by the Spirit of God to a sense of my situation, and I began to pray mightily to God that he would pardon my sins and grant me his Holy Spirit.

About this time the sound of the Book of Mormon came to my ears, and I was greatly agitated in mind about it, and desired to see it. I saw the book that same summer, but had no opportunity of reading it further than the preface and testimony of the witnesses. A fear came upon me and I dare not say anything against it. From that time I began to cry to God for saving faith.

Nothing took place worthy of note until May, 1832, when on receiving a letter from my brother in Indiana, giving me information of the rise of the Church of Christ, the reception of the Holy Ghost and the gifts thereof by the Saints. My brother informed me that he had received the Holy Ghost by the laying on of the hands of the Elders of the Church. This caused my heart to leap for joy, and I resolved to go immediately and see for myself.

I soon became satisfied that the work was true, and was baptized on the 15th of June, 1832, in Greene Co., Indiana, by my brother, John Patten. I was ordained an Elder on the 17th, under the hands of Elisha H. Groves in said county, when I was appointed, in company with brother Wood, to preach in the Territory of Michigan. We travelled and preached together, and I recorded many remarkable cases of healing, which occurred under my administration: in many instances I went to the sick, who said they had faith and promised to obey the Gospel when they got better, and commanded them in the name of the Lord to arise and be made whole; and they were immediately restored. Sixteen persons were baptized near the Maumee river.

After preaching a short season, we returned home; and on the 16th, Oct., I started for Kirtland, preaching by the way, took steamer on the 18th from Detroit for Fairport; had much conversation on board, among others with a priest who tempted God and asked a sign, and pretended that he would believe if he could see a sign, and because he could not have a sign, he mocked and scoffed at all I said, not being able to maintain his position by argument. I was then attacked by sceptics, one of whom declared he was not under any obligation to believe anything that he could not see: I asked him if he considered himself bound by that rule; he answered in an air of triumph, yes! I asked him if he had got any back bone, he replied yes! when I asked him how he knew, if he had ever seen it? for according to his own words, he was not under any obligation to believe he ever had any back bone: at this the company shouted and laughed, and the sceptic sneaked off.

I arrived in Kirtland in October, and remained two or three weeks, helping the brethren to dig potatoes and harvest corn.

Nov. 9, 1832, I started on a mission to the east, travelling sometimes in company with brother John Murdock, and sometimes with brother Reynolds Cahoon; we baptized several on our journey.

Nov. 29. Held Council with brothers John F. Boynton and Zebedee Coltrin relative to our duty on our mission; we retired to a grove to enquire of the Lord, and agreed that brother Zebedee Coltrin should be the person through whom the Lord should make known his will unto us, and in mighty prayer we did call on him, and he heard our prayers and revealed unto us that we should pursue our journey eastward, not in haste nor by flight. Our hearts were filled with joy, and we praised the Lord, and pursued our journey, the Spirit of God leading us, and signs continually following.

When we arrived at the Springfield (Pa.) Branch we met with brothers Hyrum and William Smith. We held a meeting and had a joyful time together, brother Hyrum baptized six at the close of the meeting: next day two were baptized.

When we found any sick I preached to them faith in the ordinances of the Gospel, and where the truth found place in their hearts, I commanded them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to arise from their beds of sickness and be made whole; in many instances the people came after me to lay hands on their sick, because of this gift which the Lord had bestowed upon me, and almost daily, the sick were healed under my hands: a woman who had an infirmity for nearly twenty years was instantly healed. I arrived home in Kirtland, Feb. 25, 1833.

March 25. The Elders were sent out from Kirtland to preach the Gospel, and counsel the Saints to gather to Kirtland. I started with brother Cahoon east, and on reaching Avon I preached at father Bosley's, where there was a man present who had disturbed several of our meetings, and would not be civil or quiet; he had defied any man to put him out of the house or make him be still. I felt stirred up in spirit, and told him to be quiet, or I certainly would put him out; he said I could not do it; I replied, "In the name of the Lord I will do it," whereupon I walked up to him, and seizing him by the neck with one hand and by the seat of the breeches with my other hand, I carried him to the door, and threw him about ten feet on to a pile of wood, which quieted him for the time being. From this circumstance the saying went out that David Patten had cast out one Devil, soul and body.

May 20, 1833, brother Brigham Young came to Theresa, Indian River Falls, where I had been bearing testimony to my relatives; and after preaching several discourses, he baptized my brothers Archibald and Ira Patten, Warren Parrish, Cheeseman and my mother and my sister, Polly.

I continued my labors in Jefferson Co., and by the blessing of God, raised a branch of eighteen members in the town of Orleans, through much persecution and affliction, and all manner of evil speaking; and when divers persons were hardened in that vicinity, I went to Henderson, where I found a noble people who received the word of the Lord; and when I had preached the first principles of the doctrine of Christ, there were eight persons who came forward and were baptized for the remission of their sins, and when hands were laid upon them the Holy Ghost fell on them, and they spake with tongues and prophesied.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 27.                                       July 2, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 422-24]


(History of D. W. Patton - Continued from page 408.)

I labored continually through the months of May, June, July and August, during which time by the blessing of God, I raised some other branches, in all eighty members. Now the Lord did work with me wonderfully in signs and wonders following them that did believe in the fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ; insomuch that the deaf were made to hear, the blind to see, and the lame were made whole; fevers, palsies, crooked limbs and withered limbs, and in fine all manner of diseases common to the country, were healed by the power of God that was manifested through his servants.

I returned to Kirtland, Ohio, in company with my brother, Ira, and found the brethren all well. They had begun to build the house of the Lord; I tarried and worked on the house one month, and then went to Michigan Territory to my former place of residence, on business; and concluded to remove my effects to Florence, Ohio, which I did, and where I remained about seven weeks, during which time I was sick about five weeks; when I commended myself into the hands of God, and went into the world to proclaim the Gospel again, and travelled about two weeks, when the Spirit of the Lord came upon me, and the Lord said unto me, "Depart from your field of labor and go unto Kirtland, for behold I will send thee up to the land of Zion, and thou shalt serve thy brethren there."

I obeyed the word of the Lord, and was sent in company with Wm. D. Pratt to bear despatches to the brethren in Missouri. I started December 28, 1833, and arrived in Clay co., March 4, 1834, having passed through much cold and fatigue; still I was blessed of the Lord, and much good was done in consequence of my mission. I tarried in Missouri until the camp of Zion came from Ohio; and when they arrived the people of Clay county besought us in the name of God not to go over into Jackson County, and they would use their utmost endeavors to give us our rights according to the laws of the land. Now, the laws were good, and gave every man a right to worship the Lord according to the dictates of his own conscience; but the magistrates, officers and people were wicked, and trampled the law under their feet, and persecuted and murdered the Saints with impunity.

A violent persecutor stepped up to me, and said, "You damned Mormon," drawing his bowie knife, "I will cut your damned throat." I looked him full in the face, at the same time putting my hand in my left breast pocket, and said to him, "My friend, do nothing rashly." "For God's sake, don't shoot," he replied, and put up his knife and left me, though I was unarmed.

Sept. 12, 1834, I started in company with brother Warren Parish to go into the world to preach the Gospel, travelled through Upper Missouri, preaching by the way. At La Grange I took steamboat for St. Louis, and from thence by steamboat to the mouth of the Ohio, where we landed October 2nd, and proceeded to Paris, in Tennessee; where we tarried about three months, preaching the Gospel in that vicinity and the region round about, we baptized twenty, during which time several instances of the healing power of God were made manifest, one of which I will mention, which was wrought upon the wife of Mr. Johnston F. Lane, who had been sick for eight years, and for the last year had been unable to walk, she hearing of us, and the faith we preached, prevailed on her husband to send for us: I went with him immediately and taught them the Gospel, showing what power was exercised by the Lord upon those who had faith; she believed with all her heart all the words which I spake unto her; and I laid my hands upon her and said, "In the name of Jesus Christ I rebuke this disorder, and command it to depart." I took her by the hand, and commanded her to arise in the name of Jesus Christ, and be made whole; and she arose, and was made whole every whit. I then commanded her to go to the water and be baptized; she walked down straightway the same hour, and was baptized.

After I had baptized and confirmed her I told her she should amend and gain strength, and in less than one year she should have a son (she had been married some twelve years, and had no children,) which came to pass according to my words, and the parents called the child David Patten; she afterwards bore several children.

The following portion of Elder Patten's labors in the ministry, I extract from Elder Wilford Woodruff's journal:--

"Brother Patten was a man of great faith, and performed many miracles in the name of Jesus Christ; he had many visions and dreams, and was very valiant in the testimony of Jesus and the word of God.

He returned from Tennessee to Kirtland in the spring of 1835, and received his blessings in the Temple in Kirtland. After his endowment he took his wife and started for Tennessee, where I met with him of the 15th of April, 1836. We travelled together and preached daily.

May 17th, Brother Patten and myself laid hands on Margaret Tittle, who lay at the point of death, and she was instantly healed through the power of God. Brother Patten had preached faith, repentance and baptism to her, and she covenanted to be baptized; but after she was healed refused to attend to that ordinance. Brother Patten told her she was acting a dangerous part, and the Lord would again afflict her if she did not repent.

We pursued our journey, and on our return found her very low with the same fever; she begged us to lay hands upon her and heal her, and she would obey the Gospel. We again laid hands upon her, and she was healed, and went down to the water and I baptized her.

Sunday, 22nd, Brother Patten preached three times at the house of father Fry in Benton County, Tennessee, many hardened their hearts and a Mr. Rose rejected his testimony and asked him to raise the dead. Brother Patten rebuked him for his wickedness, when he and others came with their arms and threatened to mob us. At the close of the meeting, brother Patten walked out into the door yard and told the mob to shoot him if they wished. He had nothing but a walking stick in his hand: the mob fled and left him. After meeting in the evening, Brother Patten and myself went to a stream of pure water and cleansed our hands and feet, and bore testimony against those wicked men who had opposed and reviled us.

May 27th, Elder Warren Parrish arrived from Kirtland, and joined Elder Patten and myself. We held a Conference on the 28th, in Benton County, at which six branches were represented, containing 116 members. We travelled together from town to town through Kentucky and Tennessee preaching the word of God, healing the sick, and the Spirit of God was with us and attended our ministrations.

June 9th, we preached at Damon's creek, Kentucky, and brother Patten rebuked strongly some wicked men who had gathered together as a mob. At the close of the meeting, he went to the water and baptized two; one was Father Henry Thomas the father of Daniel and Henry Thomas, some 80 years of age; he was a revolutionary soldier, and had served under General George Washington.

Elder Patten was filled with the power of God and several were healed under his hands. Elders Patten and Parrish returned to middle Tennessee while I remained in Kentucky, -- When brothers Patten and Parrish arrived at brother Seth Utley's in Benton co., Tennessee, they were taken by a mob under pretext of law.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 28.                                       July 9, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 439-41]


(History of D. W. Patton - Continued from page 424.)

June 19th. About forty men armed with deadly weapons, led by Sheriff Robert C. Petty, and a Colonel and Major, with some other officers, and a Methodist priest with a gun on his shoulder; the Sheriff informed the brethren that he had a States' warrant for D. W. Patten, W. Parrish and W. Woodruff, issued on complaint of Mathew Williams the Methodist priest, who swore that those brethren had put forth the following false and pretended prophecy: 'That Christ would come the second time before this generation passed away,' and 'That four individuals should receive the Holy Ghost within twenty-four hours.' After examination brothers Patten and Parrish were bound over to appear on June 22nd under $2000 bonds.

Early on the 22nd Elders Patten and Parrish had their trial. The mob gathered to the number of 100 all fully armed, they took from brother Patten his walking stick and a penknife; they went through with a mock trial, but would not let the defendants produce any witnesses, and without suffering them to say a word in defence, the Judge pronounced them guilty of the charges preferred.

Brother Patten being filled with the Holy Ghost rose to his feet and by the power of God bound them fast to their seats until he addressed them. He rebuked them sharply for their wicked and unjust proceedings. Brother Parrish afterwards said, 'my hair stood up strait on my head for I expected to be killed.' When Patten closed, the judge addressed him saying, 'you must be armed with concealed weapons, or you would not treat an armed court as you have this.' Patten replied, 'I am armed with weapons you know not of, and my weapons are the Holy Priesthood and the power of God. God is my friend, and he permits you to exercise all the power you have, and he bestows on me all the power I have.'

The Court finally concluded to let the brethren go if they would pay the cost of court, and leave the country in ten days. The Sheriff informed the brethren to accept those propositions as it was the only means of escaping the violence of the mob. The Saints in that vicinity paid the cost. Elders Patten and Parrish left and went to brother Seth Utley's. They had not been gone long when the mob began to quarrel among themselves and were mad because they had let the prisoners go, and soon mounted their horses and started after them with all speed. The news of this movement reached the brethren and they immediately mounted their mules and went into the woods and by a circuitous route reached the house of brother Albert Petty and put up their mules and went to bed and slept. They had not been long asleep when some heavenly messenger came to brother Patten and told him to arise and leave that place for the mob were after them and would soon be at that house. Brother Patten awoke Parrish and told him to arise and dress himself, for the mob would soon be upon them. They arose, saddled their animals and started for Henry County, in the night; they had not been gone long before the house was surrounded by a mob, who demanded Patten and Parrish, -- Brother Petty informed them they were not there, but the mob searched the house, and remained till day break, when they found the tracks of the brethren's mules, which they followed to the line of the next county, when they gave up the chase. I accompanied Elder Patten into the woods and he went before the Lord in prayer and asked God to curse them, and destroy them off the face of the earth for their wickedness and abominations, to which I heartily responded, Amen.

Aug. 20th. -- Elder Patten preached at the house of Randolph Alexander, and after meeting baptized him and his wife. Brother T. B. Marsh arrived in Tennessee on his mission to collect means, and attend a Conference with the brethren laboring in Tennessee and Kentucky, which was held on Damon's Creek, Callaway County, Kentucky, Sept. 2nd 1836. T. B. Marsh presided. Seven Branches were represented containing 133 members. On the 4th Elder Patten preached from the words, 'Repent and be baptized,' at the close, five persons came forward and went to the water and he baptized them.

Sept. 19th. -- Elders T. B. Marsh, D. W. Patten, E. H. Groves and Sister Patten left the Saints in Kentucky and Tennessee and started for Far West, Missouri, where they arrived in peace and safety." Elder Patten remained in Missouri until the spring of 1837, when he performed a mission through the States preaching by the way until he arrived in Kirtland. He attended a Conference held in Kirtland Sept. 3rd 1837. It was a time of great apostacy in the Church, Warren Parrish, his brother-in-law and his fond associate apostatized, and labored deligently to draw away Elder Patten from the Church, these things troubled Elder Patten and caused him much sorrow. He soon after returned to Missouri.

Feb. 10th, 1838. Elders T. B. Marsh and D. W. Patten were appointed to take the Presidency in Far West until President Joseph Smith arrived. Brother Patten wrote an epistle and delivered his last testimony to the world and Church, which was published in the 3d No. of the Elder's Journal.

Brother Patten continued to labor in the Church in Missouri through the summer of 1838. When the persecution and mobbing commenced, he was foremost in defending the Saints.

[I extract the following from Charles C. Rich's history.]

"News came to Far West that the Rev. Samuel Bogart, with a mob of 75 men, were committing depredations on Log Creek, destroying property and taking prisoners. Whereupon Judge Higbee issued an order to raise a force to disperse the mob. A call to arms was sounded about 10 o'clock at night. Capt. D. W. Patten and myself with about forty others volunteered, which number he thought would be sufficient, but as I believed a battle was inevitable I proposed to go and raise some more men and meet Captain Patten about six miles from Far West: which was agreed to. I rode through the settlements on Goose and Log creeks, and rallied the brethren as I went along. When we met we numbered about seventy-five, and were divided into companies of ten, and then proceeded by the main road, four miles, to near Crooked river, where we left our horses tied to Randolph McDonald's fense, and placed a few men to guard them. Captain Patten divided the party into three companies, taking command of the first himself, I commanded the second company, and James Durfee the third. Apprehending that the mob were encamped at Field's house -- Captain Patten took his men and went round to the right of the field, Durfee through the field, and I round to the left. I arrived at the house about five minutes before the other companies, which gave me a little time to reconnoiter the premises, Captain Patten made a short speech, exhorted the brethren to trust on the Lord for victory, then ordered a march to the ford, along the road.

When near the top of the hill, the words, 'Who comes there,' were heard, and at the same instant the report of a gun; young P. O'Banion reeled out of the ranks and fell mortally wounded; whereupon Captain Patten ordered a charge, and rushed down the hill; when within about fifty yards of the clump, we formed a line. Captain Patten's company at the right, my company next, which brought me in the road, brother Patten's company was partly shielded by a club of trees, and brother Durfee's by a thicket of hazel brush.

The mob formed under the bank of the creek, below their tents, and fired upon us all their guns, brother James Hendricks fell wounded near me on my left, and brother Hodges fell wounded on my right. Captain Patten ordered the company to fire, which was obeyed immediately, after which a calm succeeded for a moment. I commenced calling our watch-word, 'God and liberty.' in which all the companies joined. Captain Patten ordered us to charge -- the enemy fired a few shots and fled, two lingered behind, Brother Patten pursued one, and I the other; the man that he pursued wheeled and shot him. Brother Patten wore a white blanket coat which made him a conspicuous mark.

The mob left all their animals and camp equipage and dispersed in nearly all directions, and were so completely routed that almost every one of them reported that Bogart's whole company were destroyed and he alone was left to tell the tale.

We took three of our brethren whom they had prisoners, one of whom was severely wounded by the mob; we gathered up Captain Patten and the others who were wounded and put them in a wagon, and left for Far West; the sun was not yet risen. After travelling a few miles, brother Patten's sufferings became so great he wished to be left; he and Brother Seeley were then placed upon litters and carried by the brethren. When we arrived near Log creek, we met President Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, H. C. Kimball and others. At this place Brother Patten became so ill, he was not able to be borne any further, we rested a short time."

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 29.                                       July 16, 1864.                                       Vol. XXVI.

[pp. 454-55]


(History of D. W. Patton - Continued from page 441.)

Elder Kimball's journal has the following: --

"Immediately on receiving the intelligence that Brother Patten was wounded, I hastened to see him. When I arrived he appeared to be in great pain; but still was glad to see us. He was conveyed about four miles, to the house of brother Stephen Winchester, during his removal his sufferings were so excruciating, that he frequently desired us to lay him down that he might die. But being desirous to get him out of the reach of the mob, and among friends, we prevailed upon him to let us convey him there. We carried him on a kind of a bier we fixed up with poles.

He lived about an hour after his arrival, and was perfectly sensible and collected until he breathed his last, at ten o'clock at night. Although he had medical assistance, yet his wound was such, that there was no hope entertained of his recovery; this he was perfectly aware of. In this situation, while the shades of time were lowering, and eternity with all its realities was opening to his view, he bore a strong testimony to the truth of the work of the Lord, and the religion he had espoused.

The principles of the Gospel which were so precious to him before, were honorably maintained in nature's final hour and afforded him that support and consolation at the time of his departure, which deprived death of its sting and horror. Speaking of those who had fallen from their steadfastness, he exclaimed, "O that they were in my situation! for I feel I have kept the faith, I have finished my course, henceforth there is laid up for me a crown which the Lord, the righteous Judge shall give to me."

Speaking to his beloved wife who was present and who attended him in his dying moments, he said, "whatever you do else, O, do not deny the faith!" He all the while expressed a great desire to depart. I spoke to him and said, "Brother David, when you get home I want you to remember me." He exclaimed, "I will." At this time his sight was gone. We felt so very much attached to our beloved brother, that we beseeched the Lord to spare his life and endeavored to exercise faith for his recovery. Of this he was perfectly aware, and expressed a desire, that we should let him go, as his desire was to be with Christ which was far better. A few minutes before he died he prayed as follows: -- 'Father, I ask thee, in the name of Jesus Christ, that thou wouldst release my spirit and receive it unto thyself:" and then said to those who surrounded his dying bed, "Brethren you have held me by your faith, but do give me up and let me go I beseech you." We committed him to God, and he soon breathed his last, and slept in Jesus without a groan.

This was the end of one who was an honor to the Church and a blessing to the Saints: and whose faith, virtues and diligence in the cause of truth will be long remembered by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance, and his memory will be had in remembrance by the Church of Christ from generation to generation."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. ?                                       January 28, 1865.                                       Vol. XXVII.


(From the Deseret News April 13, 1859.

We publish the tho following testimony thinking it may prove interesting and useful to the Elders and Saints in this Mission: --

(see original article)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 32.                                       July 15, 1865.                                       Vol. XXVII.

[pp. 438-41]



Sept. 10, 1832. I was baptized by Elder Joseph H. Wakefield, and confirmed by Elder Solomon Humphrey, in the presence of my father and mother, and many of our neighbors.

At the time of confirmation my mind was exceedingly calm and clear; but as I felt no powerful manifestation from the imposition of hands, I suffered the adversary to tempt me; it seemed as if a spirit came and said to me, "You have now committed the unpardonable sin, for you have been baptized without a change of heart." I was sorely tempted in this way for many hours but I soon overcame, and my mind was filled with light and peace.

After this, all my young companions commenced imposing upon me to ascertain, as they said, whether I had any religion; and unless I would submit to imposition without resenting it, they considered me a hypocrite. I went to school part of the winter of 1832-3; all the large boys combined to abuse me. I was large of my age; boys three or four years older than myself were of my size, and had always been able to handle me with ease. I endured their abuse until I could bear it no longer and soon convinced them by physical demonstration that my strength had very much increased, and that I was able to master the school; after which I was treated with respect.

On the evening of the 29th March, 1833, my father attempted to preach in the Yellow School-house in Potsdam village; there were present a large assembly including priests, magistrates and lawyers; but they got up such a riot that he was obliged obliged to desist; after which an old lady got up and reproved them sharply for their disgraceful conduct., The leaders in this disturbance were professors of religion.

My father sold his farm settled up his debts and paid several unjust claims rather than stay and defend law suits. He fitted up two wagons with a span of horses to each; in one of them he carried brother Moses Bailey and family, and in the other his own family, which consisted of my father and mother, my sister Caroline, who was born June 6, 1820; my brother, John Lyman, who was born November 17, 1828; my cousin Clarissa Lyman, and myself. We were accompanied by Norman D. Brown and his father and mother, members of the Church from Parishville. May 1, 1833, we started for Kirtland. On friday the 3rd we arrived at Burrs Mills, Watertown, Jefferson county, and stopped with Mr. William Huntington to wait for Elder Joseph H. Wakefield and family to accompany us; while there my father preached twice.

On the 6th we pursued our journey and camped in Ellisburgh. On the 7th camped near Oswego and pitched our tent for the first time. Our five covered wagons created much curiosity among the people and we were frequently asked if we were afraid of the British and were fleeing to the West: some told us we should die with the ague agne in the Michigan swamps.

On the 17th we arrived at Silver Creek, Chautauqua county, New York and found a branch of the Church, and stopped with Elder Alpheus Cutler, who was an old acquaintance of my mother; here I first met with Elder Amasa Lyman the son of Roswell Lyman, my mother's cousin, and Elder william F. Cahoon. We attended meetings with the brethren, and for the first time heard the gift of tongues. We travelled to Westfield, where there was a branch of the Church: my father preached in the evening. I was so sleepy I could not keep awake; I went to wagon but was so sleepy that I could get in to bed, although my bed was made there, but fell asleep by the wagon. While here, one of Brother Brown's horses died in in consequence of which he began to doubt the work of the Lord; for, said he, "If this was the work of the Lord he would not suffer our horses to die when we are on the way to Zion."

Friday, May 25th, we arrived at Kirtland, Ohio, having travelled 500 miles. We were heartily welcomed by cousin Joseph; this was the first time I had ever seen him; he conducted us to his father's.

I was engaged during the summer and fall quarrying and hauling rock for the Kirtland Temple, attending masons and performing other duties about its walls. The first two loads of rock taken to the Temple ground, were hauled from Stanard's quarry by Harvey Stanley and myself.

My father purchased a small farm of about 27 acres, two miles and a half from the Temple and finished clearing about 10 acres during the winter and spring of 1834, and planted it with corn, &c.

In consequence of the persecution which raged against Joseph and the constant threats to do him violence, it was found necessary to keep continual guard to prevent his being assasinated. During the fall and winter I took a part of this service, going two miles and a half to guard.

In Oct. 1833, my cousin, Jesse Johnson Smith, second son of my Uncle Asahel, [came] to Kirtland, accompanied by his brother-in-law, Amos B. Fuller. They remained during the winter and were baptized.

I was selected by President Joseph Smith to accompany him to Missouri. My father furnished me with a musket, generally known as a Queen's arm, a pair of pantaloons made of bed ticky, a pair of common cotton shirts, a straw hat, cloth coat and vest, a blanket, a pair of new boots and an extra shirt and pair of pantaloons, which my mother packed in a knapsack made mado of apron check.

On Sunday, May 4th, Joseph preached to the saints in Kirtland, under the shade of the new school house, which was partially enclosed. Many of those who were to form the "camp of Zion" being present, he impressed upon them the necessity necessity of being humble, exercising faith and patience and living in obedience to the commandments of the Almighty, and not murmur at the dispensations of Providence. He bore testimony of the truth of the work which God had revealed through him and promised the brethren that if they would live as they should before the Lord, keeping his commandments, and not like the children of Israel murmur against the Lord and his servants, they should all safely return and not one of them should fall upon the mission they were about to undertake; for if they were united and exercised faith, God would deliver them out the hands of their enemies, but should they, like the children of Israel, forget God and his promises and treat lightly his commandments, he be would visit them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.

May 5th, 1834, I started with my brethren in the company called "Zion's Camp." I was large of my age; my eyes which were always very weak were unusually sore. I performed the journey to Missouri and back to Kirtland, mostly on foot, in three months, about 2000 miles.

After my return to Kirtland I was attacked with the ague and fever, which made me an invalid until spring.

I was ordained into the first quorum of seventies in Kirtland, March 1st, 1835 by Joseph Smith, sen., Joseph Smith, jun., and Sidney Rigdon.

June 5, -- I started on a mission in company with Lyman Smith. We travelled about two thousand miles on foot, without purse or scrip, through the eastern part of Ohio, the western part of Pennsylvania and New York; held about eighty meetings, baptized eight and preached from house to house continually; returned on the 5th of October.

Went to school and studied grammar and history part of the winter under the direction of joseph. I was confined to my room by inflammatory rheumatism which rendered me nearly helpless for several weeks.

I received my endowment in the Kirtland Temple in the spring of 1836, and thereafter went on a mission to the counties Cuyahoga, Medina, Wayne, Richland and Knox, Ohio, travelling twelve hundred miles on foot. In july I suffered muchh from inflammatory rheumatism in my knees, brought on by an attempt to work in a harvest field. I could walk but little for six weeks.

In the fall I commenced going to school in the Temple and continued to do so about four months

In the spring of 1837 Joseph sent me on a mission to the south. I preached through Portage, Columbiana, Carrol and Jefferson co., Ohio, and about eight months in the counties of Tyler, Harrison and Monongahela in north western Virginia; met with much opposition and from exposure while travelling in the mountains, wading creeks, sleeping cold and incessant preaching, I suffered from inflammatory rheumatism, which again confined me for six weeks.

In the spring of 1838 1 returned to Kirtland, having travelled two thousand five hundred miles, one half on foot, the other half on horseback, and accompanied my father and family to Missouri. I drove a horse team one thousand miles, preached by the way every Sabbath and frequently week days; our little camp attracted large congregations. We settled in Adam-ondi-ahman, Daviess county.

I was ordained a high counselor by Josephs direction on the 28th of June, 1838.

I was brought before a mob court, falsely accused, and bound over for misdemeanor in $1000 bonds, without being allowed to introduce my witnesses; my life was threatened many times during the session of the court.

In the fall I was sent on a mission to Tennessee to and Kentucky, in company with Don Carlos Smith, and returned in the winter. We travelled fifteen hundred miles, one half by water and the rest on foot. On our way home, being pursued by the rmob, I came near perishing with cold, as we travelled two days and one night without stopping, facing a northwest wind and storm. Don Carlos prevented me from freezing to death by keeping me awake. After a night's sleep under the roof of a mobber, we travelled a day and night; we were lost on the prairie and Don Carlos came near perishing with cold. I found my father out of doors with frozen feet, the result of being driven with his family from Adam-ondi-ahman, by the State authorities of Missouri. I visited Joseph, Hyrum, and others in Liberty jail, in company with brothers Young and Kimball and we were locked looked up with them for one hour. I removed my father and family to Quincy, and thence to Green Plains, distance two hundred and fifty miles.

I went to Far West, and, on the morning of the 26th of April, 1839, was ordained one of the Twelve Apostles, in place of Thomas B. Marsh who had apostatized. I returned to Illinois, the journey being five hundred miles; moved my father to Nauvoo, assisted in taking care of the sick and laying hands on them until I was prostrated for several months. I accompanied the Quorum of the Twelve on a mission to England; started Sept. 21st; disease had impared my health until I could scarcely walk. I suffered much from sickness on the way. I sailed from New York on the 9th of March and arrived in England April 6th, 1840. I started from Nauvoo without money and landed in England with a sovereign. I travelled and preached in the counties of Lancaster, Chester, Stafford, Hereford, Worcester and Gloucester, and accompanied Elder Kimball and Woodruff in establishing the Church in London. My labors were crowned with success. Isailed from Liverpool on the 22nd of April 1841 and arrived in Nauvoo on the 5th of July, having travelled on this mission 13,000 miles.

On the 25th I married Bathsheba W. Bigler and moved to Zarahemla, Lee county, Iowa, near my father, where I built a log house. In the winter I moved to Nauvoo; Joseph gave me lot 4, in block 123. I built a frame house 16 by 20 and drained and improved the lot and made it one of the most pleasant in the city.

My son, George Albert, was born July 7, 1842.

In the fall of 1842 I went on a mission to the principle places in Illinois, preaching and allaying the prejudices that had been raised against President Joseph Smith by apostates and other enemies, travelling four hundred miles on foot, and returned to Nauvoo November 4. The winter was very severe and I was confined to the house most of the time with bleeding at the lungs.

In the summer and fall of 1843 I travelled and preached through the Eastern States attending conferences in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Massachusetts and returned to Nauvoo, having travelled six thousand miles.

In the spring of 1844 I travelled twelve hundred miles and preached and attended conferences through northern Illinois, Indiana and Michigan; returned to Nauvoo July 27th.

While in Nauvoo I was constantly attending councils and performing other duties at the call of President Joseph Smith. I was two years a member of the city Council of Nauvoo, and one year an alderman. A short time before his death Joseph wrapt me in his arms and said, "I love you as I do my life," and his affections were surely reciprocated. I have used my utmost endeavors to counsel the Saints and keep them from being led off the track up to the present hour.

Note: For supplementary information regarding George A. Smith's initial move to Kirtland, etc., see his Salt Lake City Tabernacle addresses of Jan. 10, 1858 and Nov. 15, 1864.


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. ?                                      March 30, 1867.                                      Vol. XXIX.

[pp. 200-04]


About seven hundred and twenty years before Christ the nine and one half tribes generally called the ten tribes were taken captive by the Assyrians and led away from their own lands into Assyria. The sacred historian records this event in the following language: -- "Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land and went up to Samaria. and beseiged it three years. In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel away into Assyria and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan and in the cities of the Medes." (II Kings 17: 5, 6.)

How long this numerous people remained in Assyria, is not exactly known. The prophet Esdras who wrote his books less than two centuries after the Assyrian captivity, records a wonderful event in the history of the ten tribes. A prophetic vision was unfolded to him in regard to the great events of the latter days the coming of the Son of God and the destruction of the wicked. In this vision he saw a great but peaceable multitude gathered to Mount Zion; and desiring to know who these peaceable people were, the Lord informs him as follows: -- "And whereas thou sawest that he gathered another peaceable multitude unto him; those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea (Hoshea) the king, whom Salmanasar the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land. But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt, that they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river. For the Most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over. For through that country there was a great way to go, namely of a year and a half. Then dwelt they there until the latter time; and now when they shall begin to come, the Highest shall stay the springs of the stream again, that they may go through: therefore sawest thou the multitude with peace." (II Esdras 13: 39-47.)

During their captivity, the ten tribes dwelt in the region of the Euphrates, and when they departed, instead of returning westward to their own land, they crossed the great river Euphrates, from the west to the east bank, the river being miraculously divided for the purpose. They must have repented of their sins or this wonderful manifestation of the power of God would not have been exhibited in their behalf. After arriving upon the east side of this great river, in what direction were they led to the remote uninhabited land, said to have been, "a far country," at the great distance "of a year and a half's" journey? We are told by Jeremiah and other Jewish Prophets, that they will return from the north. (Jer. 16: 15; also 31: 8.) consequently they must have been led in a northerly direction, and very probably passed between the Black and Caspian Seas, and continued through Russia to the extreme northern shore of Europe, which would bring them about 2500 miles to the north: but this could not be considered "a year and a half's" journey; indeed it would not be an average of 5 miles a day. From many intimations of ancient prophecy, they evidently had a highway made for them in the midst of the Arctic ocean, and were led to a land in the neighborhood of the North Pole. This region would be about 4000 miles north of their Assyrian residence; and could be travelled in 18 months time at an average of a little less than 8 miles per day.

The expression, "then dwelt they there until the latter time," is an evidence that they were not only to preserve their existence, but their nationality and were to return with a full knowledge of their israelitish origin; and what is still more wonderful, they are not to be so amalgamated as to lose all distinction of tribes, but each family will know the particular tribe to which it belongs: and thus the whole nation will be able to classify themselves themselves into ten distinct divisions, and each division, according to the Prophet Ezekiel, will receive its inheritance within the boundaries described in his prophecy.

The ten tribes cannot be among any of the known nations; for there is no one who is able to identify them and there are no people who even profess or claim to be of such origin. Who among all the known nations would be able to point out the tribe of Dan -- the tribe of Naphtali, the tribe of Zebulon, &c., &c. If there is no nation yet discovered who are thus classified, then it is certain that the ten tribes, are not yet discovered. There is no possible chance of their being south of the Arctic circle; and the only remaining portion of the earth north of that circle with which we are unacquainted, is the polar region. This unknown region is upwards of 1000 miles in diameter, containing about 800,000 square miles of surface. This large area may be all land, or it may be of both land and water. Even if we suppose only one-half this surface to be land, namely 400,000 square miles, and still further suppose its capabilities sufficient to sustain a population of 25 to a square mile, we should have the very large number of 10,000,000, or over one third of the population of Great Britain. But without any exaggeration, there might be some 50,000,000 of polar inhabitants now hidden up by impenetrable zones of ice. Enough to make quite a powerful nation, should they all return.

Some may suppose that a polar continent would be incapable of supporting human life, on account of the intensity of the cold; but bold and intrepid navigators have left their ships, and with sledges, drawn by dogs, have passed over several hundred miles of ice, and were only stopped by encountering an open, unfrozen sea. This proves the astonishing fact, that the great greatest intensity of cold is from latitude 76 to 83 degrees north. The open sea north of this zone, indicates a higher degree of temperature; and for aught we know, this temperature may increase from the beginning of this unfrozen sea, until the pole is reached. If such should be the case, (and many substantial facts strongly indicate the unexpected phenomenon,) then a polar country might be comparatively pleasant, and the temperature during its long summer day be sufficiently high to bring to maturity grain and other vegetables.

There may be several causes, independently of the sun, to produce this higher temperature. It is generally admitted that the nearer we approach the centre of the earth, the higher is the temperature: this is ascertained by a vast number of experiments in deep pits and mines; a certain number of feet in depth raises the temperature one degree; and the increase is said to be in arithmetical proportion to the number of feet downwards. This is undoubtedly owing to the great internal fires, raging far beneath the earth's surface. The poles are over 13 miles nearer the earth's centre, than the equatorial regions, and therefore the poles may be several miles nearer these terrestrial fires; and thus by the native heat of the earth, those region regions may be maintained at a comparatively high degree of temperature. The water at the bottom of the open sea, in the extreme northern latitudes, becomes warmed and hence specifically lighter, and rises to the top, and floats off towards the south, while the under currents of the ocean circulate to the north, until they in turn receive a higher temperature, and rise following the track of those in advance. This will satisfactorily account for the observed strong surface currents constantly setting to the south. Thus both the sea and land, near the pole are undoubtedly maintained in a much higher temperature, than what would be produced by the action of the sun's rays alone. Also five or six months of uninterrupted solar heat, will produce a higher temperature near the pole, than the shorter days, interrupted by nights, in the region of the ice zone.

If the polar region is not warmer than that of the ice zone, why do birds of passage in the region of this icy belt fly to the northward to escape the severities of winter? All these observed facts bespeak a warmer climate around the pole. There is a great probability that in that apparently inhospitable solitude will be found the great nation of the ten tribes, not in a barbarous or semi-barbarous state, but in the enjoyment of the Christian religion. They have had their Prophets and inspired men, at different periods; they have their sacred books, in addition to the ones which they carried with them: and their Bible is just as sacred to them as our Bible is to us. And when they return we shall have another Bible in addition to the Jewish Bible and the Book of Mormon.

That the ten tribes will come from the polar regions, is placed beyond all controversy by new revelation. The word of the Lord reads thus: --

"And they who are in the north countries shall come in remembrance before the Lord, and their Prophets shall hear his voice. and shall no longer stay themselves, and they shall smite the rocks, and the ice shall flow down at their presence. And an highway shall be cast up in the midst of the great deep. Their enemies shall become a prey unto them, and in the barren deserts there shall come forth pools of living water; and the parched ground shall no longer be a thirsty land. And they shall bring forth their rich treasures unto the children of Ephraim my servants. And the boundaries of the everlasting hills shall tremble at their presence. And then they shall fall down and be crowned with glory, even in Zion, by the hands of the servants of the Lord. even the children of Ephraim; and they shall be filled with songs of everlasting joy. Behold, this is the blessing of the everlasting God upon the tribes of Israel, and the richer blessing upon the head of Ephraim and his fellows. And they also of the tribe of Judah after their pain, shall be sanctified in holiness before the Lord to dwell in his presence, day and night forever and ever." (Doctrine and Covenants, page 326.)
This highway through the waters, cast up to favor the return of Israel, is often made the subject of prophecy by the inspired writers. Zion, on the American continent, is to be favored with a visit of these ten tribes, before they are finally located in Palestine. The ante-diluvian Zion that was translated with Enoch will come with the Son of God; and the two Zions, with the ten tribes, will be filled with the glory of the Lord, upon the mountain of his holiness and rejoice in his presence for evermore.

These grand events were shown to Esdras, and he prophesied as follows: --

"Behold the days come when the Most High will begin to deliver them that are upon the earth. And he shall come to the astonishment of them that dwell upon the earth. And one shall undertake to fight against another, and one city against another, one place against another, one people against another, and one realm against another. And the time shall be when these things shall come to pass, and the signs shall happen which I shewed thee before, and then shall my Son be declared, whom thou sawest as a man ascending. And when all the people hear his voice, every man shall in their own land leave the battle they have one against another. And an innumerable multitude shall be gathered together, as thou sawest them, willing to come, and to overcome him by fighting. But he shall stand upon the top of the mount Sion. And Sion shall come and shall be shewed to all men, being prepared and builded like as thou sawest the hill graven without hands. And this my Son shall rebuke the wicked inventions of those nations, which for their wicked life are fallen into the tempest; and shall lay before them their evil thoughts, and the torments wherewith they shall begin to be tormented, which are like unto a flame: and he shall destroy them without labor by the law which is like unto fire. And whereas thou sawest that he gathered another peaceable multitude unto him; those these are the ten tribes," &c., &c. (Esdras 13th chap.) Having seen all these things, Esdras exclaimed, "Now understand I the things that are laid up in the latter days, which shall happen unto them." (verse 18.)

The Zion which is to come and be shown to all people, is not the one to be built with hands here on the earth, but it is the heavenly one, to which we have already referred. The place whereon it will stand will be a great mountain which will then be cast up for the express purpose; or as Esdras says, "But I beheld, and lo, he had graved himself a great mountain and flew up upon it. But I would have seen the region or place whereout the hill was graven, and I could not." (verses 6, 7.)
The days have come when these things must shortly be fulfilled; for this reason the Lord has shown to the great Prophet of this dispensation, the very place of Zion which the Lord would not permit Esdras to see. This Zion will be on the western borders of Missouri. It is on that favored spot where the Saints will build the city of Zion; and it is to that holy place where the heavenly Zion will descend. It is that region which will be lifted up and formed into a great mountain. The land now is comparatively level, or rather a gently undulating country; but a mountain will be formed, and the Son of God, with his people, will stand upon it; and the ten tribes with the remnants of Joseph, and other branches of Israel, will be round about; and twelve thousand out of each tribe will be sealed in their foreheads, and ordained unto to the holy Priesthood, and will sing the song of Moses and the Lamb forever and ever. These are they who shall minister with power and great glory among all the nations that are spared, and "bring as many as will come unto the Church of the First born." Much more might be said in relation to the ten tribes, and their future union with Judah, and the wonderful prosperity which awaits them, and all their future generations in Palestine, but we have already exceeded the limits of our editorial and must close.     O. P.

Note 1: The above article may represent the first published pronouncement by an LDS "general authorty," on the location of the missing ten tribes of Israel. Apostle Pratt is not very specific in his information -- he does not cite revelation nor divine inspiration, beyond his quotations from the Mormon book of Doctrine and Covenants. His quotations from II Esdras have never officially been credited as inspired scripture by the Latter Day Saints. The reader must assume that Pratt is merely giving his opinion -- an opinion to which the other leaders of his Church must have subscribed, for there is no record of his being challenged by Brigham Young or his fellow apostles on the information he provides. In Pratt's day enough of the Arctic remained unexplored, for him to say that an advanced civilization of Israelites lived there undetected by outsiders. In later years, as the unexplored area shrank almost to nothing, the LDS apologists for the "north countries" doctrine would be forced to resort to speculation that the ten tribes' nothern land was miraculously camouflaged, or detached and floating above the north pole as a satellite -- or even hidden inside the bowels of the earth. Although Pratt must have been aware of these extraterrestrial and intraterrestrial explanations, he does not mention them in his 1867 article. For some interesting speculation on the Israelites being hidden within the earth, see LDS Elder Frederick Culmer's 1886 booklet entitled, The Inner World.

Note 2: In the Oct. 1835 issue of the Kirtland, Ohio LDS Messenger and Advocate, Elder W. W. Phelps published his eleventh "Letter to Oliver Cowdery," in which he set the general tone for Orson Pratt's later development of LDS doctrine regarding the missing ten tribes. There Elder Phelps says: "The parts of the globe that are known probably contain 700 millions of inhabitants, and those parts which are unknown may be supposed to contain more than four times as many more, making an estimated total of about three thousand, five hundred and eighty millions of souls: Let no man marvel at his statement, because there may be a continent at the north pole, of more than 1300 square miles, containing thousands of millions of Israelites, who, after a high way is cast up in the great deep, may come to Zion, singing songs of everlasting joy." Probably Phelps felt compelled to pen this explanation, in light of the fact that the previous issue of the same paper had addressed "the gathering of Israel from his long dispersion in the last days" at length, but there the only reference to the location of the ten tribes is on oblique reference made in quoting Jeremiah: "For thus saith the Lord; sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations; publish ye, praise ye, say O Lord save thy people the remnant of Israel. Behold I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the coasts of the earth."

Note 3: Elder George Reynolds (never an apostle, but Brigham Young's secretary and a general authority) followed Orson Pratt's example, and wrote extensively on the wanderings and probable fate of the missing ten tribes. See his "Are We of Israel?" in several consecutive issues of the LDS Millennial Star, beginning on Aug. 19, 1878, as well as his "The Assyrian Captivity," in the 1883 Juvenile Instructor, (Vol. 18, pp. 26-29)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 33.                                      August 19, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 513-15]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.



The belief that the Latter-day Saints hold, that the great majority of their number are of the house of Israel, and heirs to the promises made to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, like many other portions of their falth, has received the ridicule of the shallow-minded and the contempt of the ungodly. However, it is not our present intention to answer such, but to seek to adduce evidence outside of the sure word of modern revelation, to prove that the Latter-day Saints have good reasons drawn from history and analogy, for believing the words of their Patriarchs who, in blessing them pronounce bounce them of the house of Abraham and of the promised seed of Jacob.

It is unnecessary to here quote all of the many gracious promises vouchsafed by the great Father of us all to his friend Abraham, and to that patriarch's immediate posterity, as they are cherished by the Saints as of more than earthly value, as pearls beyond all price, as sweet comforters in the day of trial, and as strong towers of defence in the hour of temptation; yet it may not be out of place to refresh our minds by the recital of a few of the most prominent, that we may better comprehend the ideas and statements that follow after.

It is recorded (Genesis xvii, 4-7,) that the Lord covenated with Abraham, saying:

"As for me, behold my covenant is with thee and thou shalt be a father of many nations; neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee; and I will make thee exceedingly fruitful, and I will make make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee, and I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in thelr generations, for an everlasting covenant to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee."

Again (Genesis xxii xvii, 16-18,) Jehovah declares:

"By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, that in blessing I will bless thee and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed."

To Isaac and to Jacob were these glorious promises confirmed if possible in yet stronger wording (Genesis xxvi, 4-10; xxviii, 14). To the latter it was said:

"And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth and thou shalt spread abroad to the west and to the east, and to the north and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed."

The blessing of Jacob upon his son Joseph is doubtless so familiar to the majority of our readers, that we shall simply quote the latter portion:

"The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors, unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills. They shall be upon the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brethren."

We will take but one step further in this direction. Jacob in blessing the sons of Joseph, said (Gen. x, 8):

"Let my name be named on them, and the names of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth."

When Joseph reminded the aged Patriarch that his right hand was placed on the head of the younger boy, he declared:

"I know it, my son, I know it. He (Manasseh) also shall become a people. And he also shall be great. But truly his younger brother shall be greater than he; and his seed shall become a multitude of nations."

There are two points in these blessings that are very noteworthy. The first that the seed of these Patriarchs should become innumerable and grow to be a multitude of nations in the midst of the earth; the second, that in or through this seed all the nations and families of the earth should be blessed. With Abraham a covenant was made by the Most High, that he should become the father of many nations, and when we have laid aside the descendants of Ishmael -- the Arabians and their fellows, who have grown into mighty multitudes, and not even counted the posterity of the sons of Keturah and of Abraham's other wives, yet in the one son Isaac the promise is renewed, his seed also is to multiply as thestars "the stars of heaven." Once again we will divide the posterity, and leave unnoticed the dukes of Edom and the other descendant[s] of Isaac's favorite son. We will speak alone of Jacob; to him was repeated the divine promise: "Thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth;" and again, "A nation and a company of nations shall be of thee." Here let us pause for a moment and ask, Are they whom the world regard as the only representatives of Jacob to-day -- the dispersed of Judah -- all that that holy man of old has to show as the fulfillment of so great a promise as the one last quoted? We think not, but believe that future search will vindicate prophecy, and prove that the promises of the Eternal are not cut short in their complete fulfilment.

We are well aware, so great is the tendency of the races of the earth to mix and intermingle, that the Jews, as well as many Christians, point to their continued existence as a distinct people, as an unanswerable argument in favor of the divinity of their Scriptures and the inspiration of their Prophets. But their history, their exclusiveness, the dispersion, etc., do not fulfil a vast number of the prophecies uttered with regard to Israel. Yet when the history of all Israel is written, of Ephraim as well as of Judah, we are satisfied that no portion of God's holy word will be found to have returned to his mouth unfulfilled, and he will be as much glorified in the hiding up of the Ten Tribes and the mixing of Ephraim among the nations, as in the scattering of the sons and daughters of Judah.

Jacob had one son (and he not the ancestor of the Jews,) to whom these blessings were not only renewed, but extended. To Joseph it is said that this blessings have prevailed above the blessings of his progenitors unto the utmost bounds of the everlasting hills, whilst of Joseph's younger son it was declared, "his seed shall be a multitude of nations." Thus we observe that with each succeeding heir to these choice blessings the promises seem to have grown larger, extended and spread out. To Abraham it was promised that he should be the father of many nations; to Ephraim, his grandson's grandson, it was said of his seed, his seed alone, that it should become a multitude of nations. Where is that multitude of nations to-day? is a pertinent question, for God has promised it and they must exist.

The average student of history can not answer this question. He knows nothing of the posterity of Ephraim, they are hidden from his sight. But ae the believer in the Book of Mormon will point to its record and declare that in the aborigines of North and South America, and of many of the Pacific Isles, we find the seed of Joseph grown into a multitude of tribes, peoples, and nations. We thankfully admit this truth, we cannot contradict it did we wish to do so. God has so revealed it and the external confirmatory evidences are growing stronger and more convincing every year. Yet another pertinent question here presents itself. Ee understand from the Book of Mormon the Lamanites to be of the house of Manasseh. If so his greatness does not fulfil the promises to Ephraim, who was to be greater than he. Surely the Lord, having so abundantly fulfilled his promise to the one brother, has not forgotten his covenant with his "first born." But shall we be deemed inconsistent if we say that we do not think that the whole of that multitude of nations is found in the descendants of Lehi, of Mulok and their companions. Is it supposable that the Lord has confined the fulfillment of the promises to Joseph, whose blessings were to prevail above that of his progenitors, to tribes who are to-day, and, the majority of which have been for fifteen hundred years -- or one quarter of this world's existence since mortals dwelt hereon -- amongst the wildest, the most degraded of mankind? If so, the descendants of those to whom no promises were made have enjoyed the greater blessings.


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 34.                                      August 26, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 531-32]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.


We contend that where Israel is not under the ban of God's displeasure through its sins and follies, it leads the world. Its sons are princes among men and the ministers of God's law to all people, indeed that in it, according to the oft repeated promise, all the families of the earth will be blessed. Here we may be interrupted by our readers (for it is Latter-day Saints we are addressing) with the question if we have forgotten the ten tribes hidden by Divine Providence in the far off frozen regions of the north, and environed by a belt of snow and ice so unpenetrable that no man in modern days has reached them. Now, we have not forgotten them, and through them, we believe, as through Lehi and others, have the promises of God to Jacob and Joseph been partially fulfilled. But we ask further, is it altogether improbable that in that long journey of one and a half years, Esdras states it, from Media, the land of their captivity, to the frozen north, some of backsliding Israel rebelled, turned aside from the main body, forgot their God, by and by mingled with the Gentiles and became the leaven to leaven with the promised seed all the nations of the earth? The account given in the Book of Mormon of a single family of this same house, in its waywardness, its stiff-neckedness before God, its internal quarrels and family feuds are, we fear, an example on a small scale of what most probably happened in the vast bodies of Israelites who for so many months wended their tedious way northward. Laman and Lemuel had "no doubt" many counterparts in the journeying ten tribes. And who so likely to rebel as stubborn, impetuous, proud and warlike Ephraim. Rebellion and backsliding have been so characteristically the story of Ephraim's career that we can scarcely conceive that it could be otherwise and yet preserve the unities of that people's history. Can it be any wonder then that so much of the blood of Ephraim has been found hidden and unknown in the midst of the nations of northern Europe and other parts until the spirit of prophecy revealed its existence? But before proceeding further in our research, it may be well to insert the words of one having authority, to the effect that the Latter-day Saints are of Ephraim; to adduce ideas and reasons to substantiate this statement will be our pleasure as we proceed along.

President Young delivered a discourse in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, Oct. 8th, 1855, from which the following are extracts:

"The set time has come for God to gather Israel and for his work to commence upon the face of the whole earth, and the Elders who have arisen in this Church and Kingdom are actually of Israel. Take the Elders who are now in this house and you can scarcely find one out of a hundred but what is of the house of Israel. It has been remarked that that the Gentiles have been cut off, and I doubt whether another Gentile ever comes into this Church.

"Will we go to the Gentile nations to preach the Gospel? Yes, and gather out the Israelites whereever they are mixed among the nations of the earth. What part or portion of them? The same part or portion that redeemed the house of Jacob and saved them from perishing with famine in Egypt. * * * * Ephraim has become mixed with all the nations of the earth and it is Ephraim that is gathering together.

"It is Ephraim that I have been searching for all the days of my preaching, and that is the blood which ran in my veins when I embraced the Gospel. If there are any of the other tribes of Israel mixed with the Gentiles we are also searching for them. * * * It is the house of Israel we are after, and we care not whether they come from the east, the west, the north or the south; from China, Russia, England, California, North or South America, or some other locality; and it is the very lad (Ephraim) upon whom father Jacob laid his hands, that will save the house of Israel. The Book of Mormon came to Ephraim, for Joseph Smith was a pure Ephraimite, and the Book of Mormon was revealed to him, and while he lived he made it his business to search for those who believed the Gospel. * * * * You understand who we are, we are of the house of Israel, of the royal seed, of the royal blood." (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 2, pages 268-9.)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 35.                                      September 2, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 545-47]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




The idea, though widely diffused, that many of the races inhabiting Europe are impregnated with the blood of Israel, is by no means a new one. Many writers in their researches into the early history of that continent have been forcibly struck with the similarity that existed between the laws, manners, customs, etc., of the ancient inhabitants of its northern and northwestern portions and those of ancient Israel. These writers have endeavored to account for this peculiarity in two ways. First, by the supposition that Israelitish colonies, for various causes, left the land of their inheritance and gradually worked themselves north and north-westward over Europe; and second by the argument that remnants or branches of the lost ten tribes had emigrated emigran from Media into Europe, and through the ignorancee of historians, disguised under other names, they had remained unknown until the present, their habits, customs, traditions, etc., having in the meanwhile become so greatly changed by time and circumstance as to render them unrecognizable at this late day.

We will take up the first of these ideas and present a few of the arguments advanced by those who support it. It is asserted by them that Israel early became a maritime nation, that its location on the Mediterranean Sea admirably adapted its people for such a pursuit by means of the Red Sea in its rear, it also had undisturbed access to Africa, India, and the isles beyond. As early as the day of the Judges (say B. C. 1,300) we find that Deborah and Barak in their song of triumph, complain that Dan came not up to the aid of Israel in the hour of need, but remained in his ships whilst his fellows were contending with Sisera and his hosts. Why did Dan remain...
(under construction)



Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 36.                                      September 9, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 562-64]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.


It being thus admitted that the people of one Grecian state were of the family of Abraham, students of history have endeavored to trace Israel to other parts. The inhabitants of the Ionian Commonwealth, one of the most enterprising communities of Ancient Greece are claimed to have been of Israelitish...
(under construction)



Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 37.                                      September 16, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 577-79]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




Having traced the ten tribes to Media, the next question is, what has become of them for they are not to be found in that land to-day. Many attempts have at various times been made to discover the ten tribes of Israel as a distinct community, but all have failed. Josephus (Antiquities xi,) believed that in his day they dwelt in large multitudes somewhere beyond the Euphrates, in Asareth, but Asareth was an unknown land to him. Rabbinical traditions and fables, committed to writing in the middle ages, assert the same fact, with many wonderful amplifications. The imaginations of certain Christian writers have sought them in the neighborhood of their last recorded habitation. Jewish features have been traced in the Afghan tribes; rumors are heard occasionally of Jewish colonies in China, Thibet and Hindostan (the Beni-Israel,) whilst the black Jews of Malabar claim affinity with Israel. But none of these people would in any but the slightest degree, fill the place accorded in the prophecies to Ephraim and his fellows.

The fact that James the Apostle opens his epistle with the following words, has been adduced as an argument that the condition of the ten tribes was known to the early Christians: "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ to the twelve tribes who are scattered abroad, greeting." But it would rather convey the idea to our mind that the epistle was addressed to those of the houses of Israel and Judah, who, for the various reasons before cited and which by that time had multiplied, had wandered into Egypt, Greece Rome, and other parts of the earth, and, not to those whom God had hidden to fulfil more completely his promises to the patriarchs.

We have before stated that the Latter-day Saints believe that the ten tribes still exist and that their home is in the far north. That they still exist is absolutely necessary to fulfil the unfailing promises of Jehovah to Israel, and to all mankind the presence of the remnants of Judah in every land to-day is an uncontrovertable testimony that the covenant made with Abraham has not been abrogated or annulled. The vitality of the Jewish race is proverbial, and can we reasonably expect that when one branch of a tree shows such native strength that the other branches will not be proportionately vital? It is not more consistent to believe that as the Jewish race under the curse of the Almighty and suffering centuries of persecution still survives, so is it with the rest of Jacob's seed, rather than that they ages ago were blotted out of national existence.

The belief that the Latter-day Saints hold, that these tribes are residents of the northern regions of the earth, is sustained by a cloud of scriptural witnesses of ancient and modern days, to whom we now appeal. Our first witness shall be the Prophet Jeremiah. In the third chapter of his prophecies we find the Lord rebuking both Israel and Judah for their treachery and backsliding, yet still proclaiming his long-suffering and mercy to his covenant people. He then gives gives command to the Prophet, saying:

"Go and proclaim these words towards the north, and say, return thou back sliding Israel, saith the Lord, and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you; for I am merciful saith the Lord and I will not keep anger forever. * * * In those days (the latter days) the house of Judah shall walk with the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to this land that I have given for an inheritance to your fathers."

Again, in speaking of the mighty works accompanying the final glorious restoration of the house of Jacob, the same Prophet declares:

"Therefore, behold, the days come saith the Lord, that they shall no more say, the Lord liveth which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, but the Lord liveth which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries whither I had driven them, and they shall dwell in their own land." (Jeremiah xxiii.) Again it is written, (Jeremiah xxxi.) "For thus saith the Lord, sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations; publish ye, praise ye and say, O, Lord save thy people, the remnant of Israel. Behold I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the coasts of the earth. * * * I am a father to Israel and Ephraim is my first born."

we will turn for a moment from the Asiatic to the American continent. There we find Ether the Jaredite, about 600 years B. C. prophecying of the latter days: "And then also cometh the Jerusalem of old; and the inhabitants thereof blessed are they, for they have been washed in the blood of the Lamb; and they are they who were scattered and gathered in from the four quarters of the earth, and from the north countries and are partakers of the fulfilling of the covenant which God made with their father Abraham."

But the most definite word on this subject given by any of the ancient writers of the Asiatic continent is contained in Esdras, a book of the Apocrypha (2 Esdras xiii.) Therein is given a dream and its interpretation, showing forth the work and power of the Son of God. It is to him and his gathering of the people together that the Prophet refers. The verses more particularly bearing on our subject read as follows:

39. And whereas thou sawest that he gathered another peaceable people unto him.

40. Those are the ten tribes which were carried away captives out of their own land in the time of Oseas the king, whom Shalmadeser, the king of the Assyrians, took captive, and crossed them beyond the river; so were they brought into another land.

41. But they took this counsel to themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen and go forth unto a further country where never man dwelt.

42. That they might there keep their statutes which they never kept in their own land.

43. And they entered in at the narrow passages of the river Euphrates.

44. For the Most High then showed them signs, and stayed the springs of the flood till they were passed over.

45. For through the country there was great journey, even of a year and a half, and the same region is called Arsareth (or Ararath).

46. Then dwelt they there until the latter time, and when they come forth again.

47. The Most High shall hold still the springs of the river again, that they may go through; therefore sawest thou the multitude peaceable."

The statements of Esdras throw considerable light upon the reasons why the captives in Media preferred not to return to their ancient home in Canaan; supposing always that that privilege had been accorded to them as well as to the captives of the house of Judah. In their home of promise they had seldom kept the counsels and commandments of God and if they returned it was probable they would not do any better, especially as the Assyrians had filled their land with heathen colonists, whose influence would not assist them to carry out their new resolutions.


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 38.                                      September 23, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 595-96]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.


Hence they determined to go to a country "where never man dwelt," that they might be free from all contaminating influences. That country could only be found in the north. Southern Asia was already the seat of a comparatively ancient civilization. Egypt flourished in Northern Africa, and Southern Europe was rapidly filling with the future rulers of the world. They had, therefore, no choice but to turn their faces northward. The first portion of their journey was not however north; according to the account of Esdras, they appear to have at first moved in the direction of their old homes, and it is possible that they originally started with the intention of returning thereto, or probably in order to deceive the Assyrians they started as if to return to Canaan, and when they had crossed the Euphrates, and were out of danger from the hosts of the Medes and Persians, then they turned their journeying feet toward the polar star. Esdras states that they entered in at the narrow passage of the river Euphrates, the Lord staying the "springs of the flood" until they were passed over. The point on the River Euphrates at which they crossed would necessarily be in its upper portion, as lower down would be too far south for their purpose.

The upper course of the Euphrates lies among lofty mountains and near the village of Pastash, it plunges through a gorge formed by precipices more than a thousand feet in height and so narrow that it is bridged at the top; it shortly afterwards enters the plains of Mesopotamia. How accurately this portion of the river answers the description of Esdras of the "narrows," where the Israelites crossed.

From the Euphrates the wandering hosts could take but one course in their journey northward, and that was along the back or eastern shore of the Black Sea. All other roads were impassable to them, as the Caucasian range of mountains, with only two or three passes throughout its whole extent, ran as a lofty barrier from the Black to the Caspian Seas. To go east would take them back to Media, and a westward journey would carry them through Asia Minor to the coasts of the Mediterranean. Skirting along the Black Sea, they would pass the Caucasian range, cross the Kuban River; be prevented by the Sea of Azof from turning westward and would soon reach the present home of the Don Cossacks. It is asserted, on good authority, that along this route and for "an immense distance" northward, the country is full of tombs of great antiquity, the construction of which, the way in which the dead are buried therein, and the jewelry, curiosities, etc., found on opening them, prove that they were built by a people of similar habits to the Israelites. Dr. Clark, a well known traveler, states that he counted more than ninety such mounds at one view near the Kuban River.

We will here digress, and give some of the ideas of a writer on the Israelitish origin of the nations of modern Europe (Mr. J. Wilson) though in our own words. He endeavors to prove that Israel traveled north-westward from the neighborhood last spoken of, and claims that the names of all the principal rivers, in the regions round about, show that colonists from the Holy Land gave them. The Jordan was distinctively the River of Canaan as the Nile was of Egypt. The word Jordan is by some claimed to mean flowing, by others the River of Eden. There was also the Dedan or Dan (el Leddan) flowing into it; which would lead to the supposition that the word Dan had some connection with Israelitish rivers not now understood. Suffice it, the exiles doubtless carried with them many hallowed recollections of their ancient river, which it was but natural they should seek to perpetuate as they journeyed farther and farther from its waters and from their long-cherished home. As a result we find in south-eastern Europe the Don, the Daniz or Donitz, the Daneiper and Daniester (now contracted to Dneiper and Dnester) and the Danube. The conclusions of the writer already referred to are that Israel gradually drifted westward to the region known to secular history as Moesia and Dacia, the one north and the other south of the Danube, and called by modern English speaking people, Roumania and Bulgaria. To further strengthen his theory he claims that Moesia means the land of Moses, and Dacia the land of David (after Israel's shepherd king,) and that the people of the latter kingdom were called Davi. In this country dwelt also the Getae (a Latinized form of Gad) who some historians assert were the forefathers of the Goths, of whom we shall speak again hereafter. The historian Herodotus, in recounting the conquest of this people by Darius, states that the Getae "believed themselves to be immortal; and whenever one dies, they believe that he is removed to the presence of their god Zamoxis (Zalmoxis) * * * and they sincerely believe that there is no other deity." He also states that this god left them the institutions of their religion in books. Mr. Wilson directs attention to this idea of only one God, so different to the Pantheism of the surrounding peoples, and that of man's immortality as tending to prove the Israelitish origin of the Gatae, particularly as in analyzing the word Zalmoxis he finds it to be composed of Za, el, Moses. If his facts be correct, his conclusions are warranted, but of his facts we express no opinion.


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 39.                                      September 30, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 609-11]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




Having considered the cause that led the outcasts of Israel to determine to seek a home in a new and uninhabited land, we may be excused if we endeavor to follow them in fancy in their journey northward. We have no way of accurately estimating their numbers, but if the posterity of all those who were carried into captivity started on this perilous journey, they must have formed a mighty host. Necessarily they moved slowly. They were encumbered with the aged and infirm, the young and the helpless, with flocks and herds, and weighed down with provisions and household utensils. Roads had to be made, bridges built, and the course marked out and decided by their leaders. (Jesus distinctly states to the Nephites, that these tribes were led "by the Father out of the land.") Inasmuch as they had turned to the Lord and were seeking a new home wherein they could the better serve nim, they were doubtless guided by inspired leaders, who, by Urim and Thummim, or through dreams and visions, pointed out the paths ahead. Perhaps, as in the days of the deliverance from Egypt, a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night guided their footsteps; no matter the means, the end was accomplished, and slowly and gradually they neared the frozen regions of the Arctic zone. The distance in a direct line from the conjectured crossing of the Euphrates to the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, would be about 2,800 miles, or a seven months' journey, averaging 15 miles a day. But according to Esdras, one year and a half was consumed in the journey, which is an evidence that they were encumbered with families and cattle, who could only travel slowly and for whom many resting places had to be found where they could recuperate. It is highly probable that, like modern Israel in its journey westward to the valleys of Ephraim, they planted temporary colonies by the way, where the weary rested, and crops were raised for future use.

The length of the journey had its advantages as well as its drawbacks. The slow rate at which they traveled enabled them to become acclimatized to the rigors of the frigid zone. We must recollect that we are dealing with a people cradled in the burning sands of Egypt, and who, for many generations, had dwelt in one of the most balmy and genial climates on this globe. Their temporary sojourn in the bleaker regions near the Caspian Sea had partially prepared them for that which was to come, but it required time to give them the capability to endure the rigors of a northern clime, as they were, by ancestry and location, distinctively children of the sunny south.

No doubt, as the hosts of Israel advanced, the change in the climate, the difference in the length of the days and nights, the altered appearance of the face of the country, and the newness, to them, of many of its animal and vegetable productions, struck them with amazement, perhaps with terror, causing some of the weak-kneed to falter and tarry by the way. These defections probably increased as the changes became more apparent and the toils of the journey grew more severe. But what must have been their sensations when they came in view, of the limitless Arctic Ocean, if the climatic conditions were the same as those which exist to-day; of which, however, there is perhaps some reason to doubt. No matter whether they drew nigh unto it in winter or in summer, the prospect must have been appalling to the bravest heart not sustained by the strongest and most undeviating faith in the promises of Jehovah. Supposing they reached the northern confines of the European continent in summer, they were in a land where the snow is almost perpetual, and scarcely else but mosses grow. Before them was a troubled ocean of unknown width, every step they advanced took them further north into greater extremes of cold. Well might they question, if so little is here produced for the food of man and beast, how will it be yet further northward? Must we perish of hunger? If, on the other hand, they approached the frozen shores of this unexplored waste of waters in the gloom of the long night of an Arctic winter, with the intense cold freezing to their very blood, their feelings of dread must have been yet more intense. No wonder if some turned aside, declared they would go no further, and gradually wandered back through northern Europe to more congenial climes. Again it may be asked, how did this unnumbered host cross this frigid ocean to their present hiding place? On this point both history and revelation are silent. The Arctic Ocean was no narrow neck of the great waters like the Red Sea, with the mountains of the opposite shore full in view. No, it spread out before them eternally -- north, east and west, with no inviting shore in sight beyond. Yet despite all this, they did cross it; but how, we know not -- perhaps on the ice of winter, perhaps the Lord threw up a highway, or divided the waters as he did aforetime, that they passed through dry shod. But we must abide His time, when this and other secrets of their history shall be revealed.

Since penning the foregoing ideas, we have been informed that certain ancient Scandinavian legends entirely agree with our theory. We understand that these legends state that the ten Ttibes, in their journey northward, erected at various points, on prominent mountain heights and such like, monuments or heaps of stones, so that if they determined to return they might have some guides on the road back to the Euphrates. These same traditions state that colonies of the very young and infirm, as well as of the wayward and rebellious, were left by the wayside, and from these colonies the fathers of the Norsemen sprang. These legends, in time became crystallized, and make their appearance as verities in the traditional histories of the nations of northern Europe.

Esdras says that he was shown that they abode in this north country until the latter time, when they were to come forth again, a great multitude, to add to the glory of the Messiah's kingdom. This statement agrees with the word of modern revelation to which we now draw attention.

Nearly half a century ago the Lord, through Joseph Smith, in speaking of the lost ten tribes, says: (Doc. & Cov., Revelation called the Appendix.)

"They who are in the north countries shall come in remembrance before the Lord, and their prophets shall hear his voice, and shall no longer stay themselves, and they shall smite the rocks and the ice shall flow down at their presence. And an highway shall be cast up in the midst of the great deep. (Query -- The Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans.) Their enemies shall become a prey unto them, and in the barren deserts there shall come forth pools of living water: and the parched ground shall no longer be a thirsty land. And they shall bring forth their rich treasures unto the children of Ephraim my servants. And the boundaries of the everlasting hills shall tremble at their presence. And they shall fall down and be crowned with glory, even in Zion, by the hands of the servants of the Lord, even the children of Ephraim."


Note 1: It is in this, his 4th chapter of "Are We of Israel?" that Elder Reynolds finally catches up to the 1867 pronouncements of Apostle Orson Pratt, and firmly ensconces the lost tribes of Israel in the Arctic ice, somewhere near the North Pole. And yet, in order to get them to this unlikely destination, Reynolds must resort to artifice and "follow them in fancy in their journey northward." In other words, not even the mythical dreams of Esdras, nor the "revelations" of latter day prophets can provide Elder Reynolds with the connecting literary bridge, necessary to link the wandering tribes, with the Mormon belief in their residence at or near the North Pole. Besides that, the writer can find no physical bridge, by which to remove the missing tribes from the northern shores of Europe. Had they remained in the high latitudes of Scandinavia or Siberia, these Hebrew-speaking tribes would hardly be "missing" at all. By 1878 the larger islands in the Greenland and Barents seas had all been charted and more or less explored, so Reynolds could not leave his Israelites to thrive (?) on some such frigid hunk of rock. No -- they must be father north than that, and living on an undiscovered land mass very near the Pole itself. The best way Reynolds can imagine to remove the refugees from Europe, is to send them pole-ward over a magical highway or subway, which has since disappeared. Perhaps he should not be faulted too much in writing this poor excuse for a history -- after all, the Mormons yet believe that the ten tribes will soon return to the known world via just such a temporary, supernatural turnpike. Still, it is a striking omission in Mormon doctrine, that no satisfactory explanation for the transporting of these "missing" tribes to the far north has ever been offered up by the LDS leadership. Perhaps that is one of those accounts yet hidden from profane view, in the "sealed plates" of the Book of Mormon.

Note 2: LDS Elder Frederick Culmer was favorably impressed with George Reynolds' telling of the lost tribes story and quoted from it extensively when writing his own 1886 booklet, The Inner World. By that time Elder Reynolds' series of articles was available in pamphlet form, published by the Salt Lake City Deseret News (in which paper the items had originally appeared, between July 26 and Sept. 4, 1878), and Culmer took his several quotations from that sanctioned source. Perhaps Culmer viewed Reynolds' words as official Mormon doctrine, for he presents them under the heading of "Theological Evidences," after which the writer says: "having brought us to the confines of the present abode of the Ten Tribes of Israel, I will now proceed to give my own ideas on the matter." Culmer's argument is a simple one -- that God made a covenant with the missing tribes, and therefore must preserve them -- that Reynolds has shown how the reached the polar area -- and that Joseph Smith has said that they yet abide in that region. Having demonstrated (to his own satisfaction, at least) the the earth is hollow, with openings to the balmy "inner world" near the poles, Culmer then deduces that the missing Israelites must be inside the planet: "I maintain that there is no ship passage into the interior of the earth but that the openings are land, consequently the travel has been, and will be, on that element; and it will be the only one that will be used when the Lord's time shall come for the Ten Tribes of Israel to come forth again to the outside of the earth. I maintain that the interior of this globe has been inhabited by them for thousands of years, and that the word of the Lord through his prophets has been often directed to this people and recorded, but misinterpreted through the lack of His spirit and power." So much for Elder Culmer, his hollow world, and the hidden Israelites. For more on this matter, see the notes attached to a report transcribed from the July 9, 1831 issue of the Cherokee Phoenix.


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 40.                                      October 7, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 627-28]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.


It is very evident from the above quotation that Ephraim or at least a large portion of that tribe, had at some period of his history, separated from the rest of the tribes of Israel, and at the time of this restitution was to dwell in a land far from the north country in which the residue were hidden. These tribes are to have the frozen barriers of the north melted, so that they shall flow down, then a highway is to be cast up for them, in the midst of the great deep, next they cross barren deserts and a thirsty land and eventually arrive with their rich treasures at the home of Ephraim, the first born of God of the house of Israel, to be crowned with glory at his hands.

We must now draw the attention of our readers to certain extracts from the Book of Mormon, which show that at the time of our Savior's visit to this continent, Ephraim and the ten tribes dwelt neither on this land nor the land of Jerusalem. Jesus says: "Verily, verily, I say unto you, I have other sheep which are not of this land nor in the land of Jerusalem, neither in any parts of that land, round about whither I have been to minister. But they of whom I speak have not as yet heard my voice, neither have I at any time manifested myself unto them; but I have received a commandment of the Father that 1 should go unto them and they shall be numbered among my sheep, and there shall be one fold and one shepherd, therefore I go to show myself unto them. And I command you that ye shall write these sayings, after I am gone, that if it be so that my people at Jerusalem, they who have seen me, and been with me in my ministry, do not ask the Father in my name that they may receive a knowledge of you by the Holy Ghost, and also of the other tribes that they know not of, that these sayings which ye shall write shall be kept, and shall be manifested unto the Gentiles, that through the fullness of the Gentiles the remnant of their seed who shall be scattered forth upon the face of the earth, because of their unbelief, may be brought to a knowledge of me their Redeemer. And then will I gather them in from the four quarters of the earth; and then will I fulfill the covenant which the Father hath made unto all the people of the house of Israel (Book of Nephi, chap. vii.)

The statement of Jesus above cited, that the ten tribes did not dwell in the land of Jerusalem neither in any parts of that land round about, effectually disposes of the theory of Josephus a others, that they dwelt near the river Euphrates. The reason why the Jews had lost sight of their brethren of the house of Israel, is explained by Jesus, in the same chapters of the Book of Mormon as that from which the above quotation is taken. He states: "The other tribes hath the Father separated from them; (the Jews) and it is because of their iniquity that they knew not of them."

Some have imagined that it was unscriptural to look for Israel except in three places. The scattered Jews in all the world, the Lamanites on this continent, and the Ten Tribes in Azareth. But we claim that we have abundant reason from scripture to expect to find the seed of Joseph as well as that of Judah in every nation under heaven. The prophecies recorded in the Old Testament expressly state that Israel, especially Ephraim, was to be scattered amongst all people.

How completely they were to be scattered is shown by the following prophecies:

Hosea, (chapter xiii, verse 3) in rebuking Ephraim's idolatry in the name of the Lord, says:

"Therefore they shall be as the morning cloud and as the early dew that passeth away, as the chaff that is driven by the whirlwind out of the floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney."

Amos (chapter ix, verses 8 and 9) states:

"Behold the eyes of the Lord are upon the sinful kingdom, (of Israel) and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the Lord. For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth."

Could any scattering be more complete?

We are directly told that the Lord will bring His sons (Ephraim still being his first-born) from afar and his daughters from the ends of the earth. It is further said that He will gather his Israel -- not from the north alone -- but from the north and from the south, from the east and from the west, and bring them to Zion; and that He (the Lord) will gather them from all countries (not America nor the Polar regions alone, but all countries) in which he had scattered them; among other places from the coasts of the earth. How apt a description is this last sentence of the lands from which the great bulk of modern Israel have been gathered. From the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, from the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas, they have come to Zion by tens of thousands.

President Brigham Young stated in the discourse, quoted in a previous chapter that ninety-nine out of every hundred of the Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ were of the blood of Israel. The people whom he was addressing were men of various nationalities, but by far the greater portion of them were descendents of those races that in the fourth and succeeding centuries of the Christian era, swarmed in myriads out of that mother of nations, Scandinavia, and filled central and western Europe with a new civilization, the people, in fact, who overthrew the great Roman Empire and laid the foundation of the majority of the nations of modern Europe. It was to the descendants of the Goths, the Danes the Jutes, the Angles, the Saxons, the Normans, the Franks, that he was talking, and in our next chapter we shall bring forward some of the historical arguments used by Gentile writers to prove the Israelitish descent of these races more particularly of that dominant one known to-day as the Anglo-Saxon. We do not this, because we think the word of God's servants requires proving by Gentile evidence, but because it is a satisfaction to many minds not only to know that a thing is so, but to be able to give a reason, or advance an argument to demonstrate why it is so.


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 41.                                      October 14, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 641-44]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




As the question "hat became of the ten tribes?" still remains to the world an unanswered historical enigma so also is the question unanswered "whence originated origined the vast hosts of so called barbarians who, descending from the frigid regions of Scandinavia filled Europe with new races, new laws, new ideas, new languages, and new institutions!" Some have traced a connection between the loss of the one people and the advent of the other, and one author of repute -- Mr. Searon Turner -- extensively quoted in this connection, claims that the original home of the Anglo-Saxons was in the very country where Israel is historically lost, and further states that these people commenced their migration therefrom about the same time as the tribes of Jacob must have taken their journey northward.

Mr. Turner, in his valuable history of the Anglo-Saxons, whilst discussing the Teutonic descent of many of the nations of modern Europe, says:

"It is peculiarly interesting to us because from its branches, not only our own immediate ancestors but also those of the most celebrated nations of modern Europe have unquestionably descended. The Anglo-Saxons, Lowland Scotch, Normans, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Germans, Dutch, Belgians, Lombards and Franks have all sprung from that great fountain of the human race which we have distinguished by the terms Scythian, German or Gothic. The first appearance of the Scythian tribes [in] Europe may be placed according to Strabo and Homer about the eighth, or according to Herodotus, in the seventh century before the christian era... (under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 42.                                      October 21, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 661-63]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




it would be almost impossible to enumerate the multitude of likenessesthat have been found by authors predisposed in that direction, between the habits, manners, customs, personal appearance, etc., of the israelites and Anglo-Saxons. To give even a cursory glance at these identifications would occupy more space than we feel would be desirable. We will simply mention a few that have been advanced by various writers and then proceed to a short consideration of their laws. It may be observed however that some of their identifications are very remarkable, whilst others in our opinion are puerile, and would be advanced by none but zealots. Great similarity has been claimed between the form of the Jewish and Saxon heads and the great beauty of both races has been advanced as a proof of common ancestry. The style of dress of the early northern European nations has also been claimed to be distinctively Israelitish. The care with which both people kept their records or chronicles has also been largely commented upon. One author claims connection between the two in the manner that they mustered their forces in battle and their love of distinctive or tribal banners... (under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 44.                                      November 4, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 686-87]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.


Among the Anglo-Saxons the theory of their constitution seems to have been that every ten men or heads of families, should chose one from among them to act for them in the council of their little community, consisting generally of ten such compartments or wards. Ten of these wards formed a tything or parish. And ten of these tythings formed a hundred, the elders of which thus chosen were supposed to meet for the management of matters belonging to the ten tythings in general; whilst each tything took charge of the affairs that especially belonged to itself. The country which was still more extensive corresponded to the tribe in Israel. The word, county, or compte, seems to be derived from the Hebrew word signifying, to rise up, to stand -- and refers to the rod or ensign. of the tribe to which they congregated themselves, in the larger assemblies of the people * * * The nation of Israel we have seen, were, at an earlier period of their history given proper rules for their association, such as were equally adapted for a small society or for a large one. The people were given to have a mutual oversight of each other in tens; each ten had one who represented and acted for them. See 1st chap. Deuteronomy... (under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto the Prophets...
The Lord God has spoken, but who can but prophesy?" --

No. 45.                                      November 11, 1878.                                      Vol. XL.

[pp. 705-07]



"Israel shall blossom and the bud fill the world with fruit," -- Isaiah.




Before proceeding further we wish to remark, that we trust no one will imagine from reading these chapters, that we believe that the literal descendants of Abraham will be the only ones saved in the kingdom of God. To the contrary we are fully aware that God has made of one blood all the nations of the earth and realize that all men of every clime and age may be partakers of the priceless blessings resulting to fallen humanity from the glorious sacrifice on Calvary. We also firmly believe that within the scope of the Gospel covenant are provisions, and ways and means, by which the obedient of all races become the recognized children of Abraham, and heirs by adoption to all the God-given promises to that patriarch. John the Baptist told the degenerate Jews of his day who were boasting of their Abrahamic descent, that of the very stones in the roadway, if it so pleased him, God could raise up children unto Abraham. All we claim for Israel, no more no less, is is the fulfilment of God's covenant with the father of the faithful which covenant. modern revelation lays before us in the following language:

"My name is Jehovah, and I know the end from the beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee (Abraham) and I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee above measure, and make thy name great among all nations, and thou shalt be a blessing unto thy seed after thee, that in their hands they shall bear this ministry and priesthood unto all nations and I will bless them through thy name for as many as receive this gospel shall be called after thy name and shall be accounted thy seed and shall rise up and bless thee as their father and I will bless them that bless thee and curse them that curse thee and in thee that is in thy priesthood and in thy seed (that is thy priesthood) for I give unto thee a promise that this right shall continue in thee and in thy seed after thee (that is to say, the literal seed, or the seed of the body) shall all the families of the earth be blessed, even with the blessings of the Gospel, which are the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal." (Book of Abraham.)

From this we learn that it has been covenanted by the Eternal One, that Abraham's seed shall hear the message and ministry of God's grace to all nations, and that through him and his seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed, with the blessings of the Gospel which, through obedience, brings salvation and eternal lives, also that as many as receive the Gospel shall be called after his (Abraham's) name, shall be accounted his seed and shall rise up and bless him as their father.

This last mentioned portion of the covenant was well understood by the Jews and acted upon by them, even though they had cringed from obedience to the fullness of the Gospel, and were living under a lesser law of bondage and carnal commandments. The manner in which the Israelites received and treated proselytes is certainly not one of the least interesting features of their polity and history, and may here be glanced at without wandering far from the question underconsideration.

There appears to have been two classes of proselytes recognized amongst the ancient Jews. The first, known as Proselytes of Righteousness, or Proselytes of the Covenant, became perfect Israelites and according to the Talmud were admitted to the household of Abraham by circumcision and baptism. The other class were termed Proselytes of the Gate ("the stranger that is within thy gate.") It is said converts of this class were not bound by circumcision and the other special laws of the Mosaic code. It was enough for such to observe the precepts against idolatry, blasphemy, bloodshed, uncleanness, and theft, and of obedience also to that precept against eating "flesh with the blood thereof." Of this latter class were converts who embraced Judaism for other than the purest motives; for instance for the sake of a lover, a husband, or a wife, to court favor and promotion, or in dread of some calamity or threatened judgment. Such converts were regarded by the Jews of old very much in the same manner as their counterparts are regarded among the Latter-day Saints. Again the Jews sometimes spread their faith with the same weapons as those with which they had defended it. The Idumeans, after aften their conquest by John Hyrcanus, had the alternative of death, exile, or circumcision offered to them. They chose the latter. The Iturians were converted (?) in the same way by Aristobolus. In the days of Jesus, when the light of truth shone but dimly in the Jewish creed, and the voices of the degenerate Jews had been grafted on those of the profligate heathen, the Savior cried "Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land lard to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves. (Matt. xxiii. 13).

There is one factor that tended greatly to the diffusion of Israelitish blood, that we have scarcely noticed, as it relates far more largely to Judah than to Ephraim. We refer to those who remained settled in foreign countries after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity, and during the period of the second temple. At the beginning of the Christian era the dispersed were divided into three great preat sections, the Babylonian the Syrian, and the Egyptian. From Babylon the Jews spread through Persia, Media and Parthia. The Greek conquests in Asia extended the limits of this dispersion. Large settlements of the children of Judah were established in Cyprus and on the western coast of Asia Minor. These latter, to a very unfortunate extent, adopted the Greek language and Greek ideas in Africa Alexander and Ptolemy I, established large colonies of Jews at Alexandria, not far from which place a temple was erected to Jehovah after the order of that at Jerusalem. From Alexandria the Jews spread out over the coasts of northern and eastern Africa. How greatly the Jews had become scattered in the time of Christ, may be judged from the devout men who came up to worship and keep the passover at Jerusalem, and who listened to the preaching of Peter on the day of Pentecost. They are stated to have been Parthians, Medes, Elamites, Persians, dwellers in Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, Cyrene (Tripoli), Cretes, Arabians, Romans, Jews and proselytes.

There is also another view of the subject which we are not prepared to enlarge upon in this article, but which bears the weight of abundant proof. It is, that the Latter-day Saints have been, and are to-day, filling the work that it has been oft foretold Ephraim and his fellows should do. Then, if we are doing the work, and claim that we are they who should do it, and it being impossible to invalidate our assumption, is not our claim worthy of thoughtful consideration and average respect. God has declared that he will make of his latter-day Israel a nation of kings and priests. In former dispensations (except that lesser authority among the Jews given to the house of Aaron,) the priesthood was conferred upon the few, it was an honor of the highest kind but in the dispensation of the fullness of times, the whole people are to be a race of kings and priests, and not less honorable because of the multitude. To our mind this is a great proof that people will be of Ephraim. There is a cause for all God's promises -- there is one for this. In the order of the higher law, the priesthood belongs to the first-born. Ephraim is God's adopted first-born in all the races of mankind, therefore by right of that adoption, they are a nation of priests -- priests of God after the order of Melchisedek, under Jesus our Redeemer, the Savior of the world.

To conclude, we believe that there is scarcely a people or nation under heaven in which is not to be found some of the blood of Abraham, leavening with the promised seed all the families of the earth. And this chosen generation will, by right of kindred, administer to all people the word of God, and as saviors will they stand upon Mount Zion, drawing all men unto the great Savior of our race who will stand in their midst, on the right hand of the Father, crowned and exalted as King of kings and Lord of lords, the great Apostle and High Priest of our salvation. Truly the Lord is fulfilling his promises, Israel has blossomed and budded and filled the earth with fruit, but in the great future he will do it yet more abundantly and gloriously.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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