(Newspapers of Ohio)

Painesville, Geauga County

Painesville Republican
1836-1841 Articles

The Old Grand River Bridge, Painesville, Ohio

Dec 01 '36   |   Jan 12 '37   |   Jan 19 '37   |   Feb 02 '37   |   Feb 09 '37
Feb 16 '37   |   Feb 23 '37   |   Mar 02 '37   |   Mar 23 '37   |   Apr 06 '37
May 25 '37   |  Jun 15 '37   |  Jul 06 '37   |   Jul 20 '37   |   Nov 30 '37
Jan 04 '38   |  Feb 15 '38   |   Feb 22 '38   |   Mar 01 '38   |   May 31 '38
Aug 16 '38   |   Oct 11 '38   |   Nov 22 '38   |   Feb 14 '39   |  Feb 28 '39

Articles Index   |   Painesville Telegraph   |   Early Ohio Papers   |   Chardon Spectator


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, December 1, 1836.                               No. 3.

GROSS DISTORTION AND ABUSE. -- We find the following article in the last Painesville Telegraph, credited to the Buffalo Whig. We copy it into our paper for the purpose of showing what base means are resorted to, in order to prejudice the minds of the people against Mr. Van Buren.

"HUMBUG FOREVER! -- At the election in October last, the majority given for Van Buren by the Mormons in Kirtland township, Geauga County, Ohio, was 133. The reasons assigned for this vote of the Mormons was, that they had been promised by an agent of Van Buren, that if he was elected, they should have their lands in Jackson county, Missouri, from which they had been driven by the citizens there, restored to them. At the recent election in this town, Van's majority was 208: being an increase of 147. -- From this we should infer that the former promise had been clinched!

"But bandinage aside, what a horrible state our party politics does it betray, when the man seeking the highest post in the nation will stoop to court the support of the miserable dupes of the "Golden Bible" imposture? It would seem from this, that there is no "humbug," however gross and disreputable, that will not be seized upon by the satellites of "the party" forever, to perpetuate power in his hands. Is he worthy of the support of intelligent American freemen, who will thus minister to the delusions of misled men, for the sake of their votes?"

Now let us examine this foul piece of calumny. In the first place, we could inquire, who it was "that assigned" the reasons for the vote given in Kirtland, to be "a promise made by an agent of Van Buren," that, if elected -- they (the Mormons) should have their lands restored to them." -- Secondly, if such reasons have been assigned by any one, who was the "agent of Van Buren," by whom such a promise was made? And lastly, if such a promise were made, what evidence have we that Mr. Van Buren ever authorized such a promise? Not a particle. And we hesitate not to say, that the whole is a base fabrication -- a malignant slander, which no man who has the least regard to condor, or common honesty would write, publish, or republish.

Does the Editor of the Telegraph, in giving currency to such calumnies, expect to avoid exposure? Has he been so long in the habit of gulling his readers with falsehood, that he imagines that they are ready to receive for truth, whatever he may see fit to copy into his paper, how gross and vile so ever it may be? If so, we apprehend he will find himself mistaken. The time has been when he could do so with impunity, but we are happy to have it in our power to cut short those days. And we now call upon him to furnish his readers the evidence in support of the statements contained in the article which he has published as truth. If he neglects to do so, we shall conclude that he cannot do it, and nothing but a retraction of the slander will entitle him to the confidence of the public.

It may, perhaps, be urged in extenuation of the offence, that the Editor of the Telegraph, only copied the article from a kindred print. But we hold that no editor is justified in copying from another paper, what he has no reason to believe to be true, but more especially such as is designed to injure the character of even an opponent, in matters of religion or politics.

So far as the charge concerns the democratic voters in Kirtland, whom the writer is pleased to call "miserable dupes," we are authorized to say, that it is wholly without foundation. It is true the Mormons hold lands in Missouri -- and it is equally true that they have in their possession a legal and undisputed title to it. Nor do they need or ask any aid from Mr. Van Buren or any other person in authority, except the judicial tribunals of our country, to enable them to enjoy their rights.

The Mormons, it is true, entertain religious opinions peculiar to themselves, and differing from any other sect at this day, in our country. But does not our constitution guarantee the right to every one the enjoyment of freedom of opinion? Is any man or set of men to be stigmatized for expressing his or their own opinions? Is such a course in accordance with Republican principles? No man of candor will pretend it.

With the correctness of incorrectness of the opinions of the Mormons we have nothing to do. But we hold to free toleration of religious and political sentiments, and feel bound to oppose any and every attempt to abridge the equal rights of the people, and especially so, when such attempts are made by one who wields a press, for the double purpose of calumniating the democratic candidate for the presidency, and at the same time stigmatize a particular religious sect. And we call upon every man who wishes to enjoy the right to his own opinions, without molestation, to set his face against any encroachment upon this inestimable privilege.

Note: The referenced article from the Painesville Telegraph was apparently published in that paper near the end of November 1836. This particular article has yet to be located in that paper.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, January 12, 1837.                               No. 9.

Our subscribers in Kirtland are informed that their papers will be left at the Printing Office of O. Cowdery & Co. instead of the Post Office. This arrangement, it is hoped, will meet the approbation of all concerned, as they will be enabled to get their papers every Thursday. Should any, however, prefer to have their papers left at the Post Office, they will signify the same to Mr. Carrel, who will make known their wishes to us.

Note 1: The "Mr. Carrel" here mentioned was, no doubt, the same Mr. J. M. Carrel, who was listed as being a member of Kirtland's Democratic "Township Committee" in the Republican of Mar. 2, 1837. This James M. Carrell was also the foreman of Oliver Cowdery's printing office, located on the second floor of the Mormon Church office building, behind the Temple in Kirtland. As Mr. Carrell's name does not appear in any Church records, it is possible that he never joined the Mormons.

Note 2: Following the publication of the second edition of the Book of Mormon by the printing firm of O. Cowdery & Co., Oliver Cowdery retired as editor of the LDS Messenger and Advocate and sold his share in the Church's printing business to Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. This happened on about Feb. 3, 1837, less than a month after the appearance of the Painesville Republican's notice. At about this same time, Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith, and Hyrum Smith left Kirtland and traveled to Monroe Michigan, where they were successful in buying a controlling interest in the faltering Bank of Monroe by Feb. 10th.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, January 19, 1837.                               No. 10.

ANTI-BANKING COMPANY. -- A company has been formed in Kirtland, in this county, by the Mormons, or "latter day saints," as they call themselves, with a capital stock of no less than four millions of dollars. The company style themselves the "Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company." -- Under this title they have issued their notes which, for a week or two past, have circulated among us as money or bills of exchange, but they do not, as yet obtain a general currency. Not being received at the Bank in this place, those who are doing business with the bank, will not of course, take them. -- Besides, a law of this state passed February 22, 1816, "to prohibit the issuing and circulating of unauthorized Bank Paper," published in the Telegraph last week, if now in force, might subject persons who give these bills a circulation, to some trouble. It is doubted however, by good judges, whether the law to which we have alluded, is now in force, or if in force, whether it is not unconstitutional, and therefore not binding upon the people. That the law is an outrage upon equal rights no man can [doubt] who has a drop of Republican blood in his veins. It is true, that succeeding legislatures have been in the habit of granting bank charters, with exclusive privileges, and the people have submitted to such [enactments], but we have long been of opinion, that such acts virtually authorised any [one] man or set of men who might be[so] desposed, to do business on the [same] principles and under the same regulations. For no Legislative body in these states, has a constitutional right to grant privileges to one set of men in regard to the use of money, and prohibit the enjoyment of like privileges by others. We do not say that the Legislature has not the right to regulate banking business in this state, but such regulations should be general, extending to all who are disposed to comply with them. If any other doctrine than this were to be established, where would it end? If the Legislature has the right to say to one man or set of men, you may count your specie and put it into a vault and then you may issue notes to three times the amount, as bank paper -- and say to others who have a like amount of specie, if you issue notes or bills as bank paper to any amount, you shall be subject to an indictment; As well might the Legislature pass a law, declaring that no man or a set of men, shall be allowed to invest money in a church unless it be for the benefit of a particular sect who may have obtained an act of incorporation, and who hold to a certain creed. In either case, it would be a culpable abridgement of those equal rights which are guaranteed to every citizen, by the constitution, and a manifest violation of those republican principles on which our government is founded.

With respect to the ability of the Kirtland society to redeem their bills, we know a thing further than what report says. It is said they have a large amount of specie on hand and have the means of obtaining much more, if necessary. If these facts be so, its circulation in some shape would be beneficial to community, and sensibly relieve the pressure in the market so much complained of.

If however the Kirtland society wish to have their paper obtain a circulation, we think it would be well for them to obtain and publish the legal opinion of some [able] jurists as to the validity of the act of 23d February 1816, and also inform the public thro' the public prints, and over the signature of some number of individuals in whom the public would place confidence, of the amount of specie which they have on hand, showing their ability to redeem their bills

For the purpose of affording all the light on the subject in our power we give the following proceedings of the society, which we copy from the Cleveland Daily Advertiser.


At a special meeting of the Kirtland Safety Society, two thirds of the members being present, S. Rigdon was called to the Chair, and W. Parish chosen Secretary.

The house was called to order, and the object of the meeting explained, by the chairman; which was:

1st. To amend the old constitution, which was adopted by the society, on the 2d day of November, 1836, which was, on action by the unanimous vote of the meeting annulled.

2nd. To adopt Articles of Agreement by which the Kirtland Safety Society are to be governed.

After much discussion and investigation, the following Preamble and Articles of agreement were adopted, by the unanimous vote of the meeting.

We, the undersigned subscribers, for the promotion of our temporal [interests], and for the better management of our different occupations, which consist in agriculture, and mechanical arts, and merchandising, do hereby form ourselves into a firm or company for the before mentioned objects, by the name of the "Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company, and for the proper management of said firm, we individually and jointly enter into and adopt the following Articles of Agreement.

Art. 1st. The capital stock of said society or firm shall not be less than four millions of dollars to be divided into shares of fifty dollars each; and may be increased to any amount, at the discretion of the Directors.

Art. 2d. The management of said company shall be under the superintendence of thirty two Directors, to be chosen annually by, and from among the members of the same; each member being entitled to one vote for each share, which he, she, or they may hold in said company; and said votes may be given by proxy, or in PROPRIA PERSONA.

Art. 3d. It shall be the duty of said Directors, when chosen, to elect from their number, a President and Cashier. It shall be the further duty of said Directors to meet in the upper room of the office of said company, on the first Mondays of November and May of each year, at 9 o'clock, A. M. to inspect the books of said company and transact such other business as may be deemed necessary.

Art. 4th. It shall be the duty of said Directors to choose from among their number, seven men, who shall meet in the upper room of said office, on Tuesday of each week, at 4 o'clock, P. M. to inquire into and assist in all matters pertaining to said company.

Art. 5th. Each Director shall receive from the company one dollar per day for his services when called together at the annual and semi annual meetings. The President and Cashier, and the seven, the committee of the Directors, shall receive a compensation for their services as shall be agreed by the directors at their semi-annual meetings.

Art. 6th. The first election of Directors, as set forth in the second article, shall take place at the meeting of the members to adopt this agreement, who shall hold their office until the first Monday of November, 1837, unless removed by death or misdemeanor, and until others are duly elected. Every annual election of Directors shall take place on the first Monday of November, of each year. It shall be the duty of the President and Cashier of said company, to receive the votes of the members by ballot, and declare the election.

Art. 7th. The books of the company shall be always open for the inspection of the members.

Art. 8th. It shall be the duty of the Directors of the company, to declare a dividend once in six months; which dividend shall be apportioned among the members, according to the installments by them paid in.

Art. 9th. All persons subscribing stock in said firm, shall pay their first installment at the time of subscribing; and other installments from time to time, as shall be required by the Directors.

Art. 10th. The Directors shall give thirty days notice in some public paper, printed in this county, previous to an installment being paid in. All subscribers residing out of the State, shall be required to pay in half the amount of their subscriptions at the time of subscribing, and the remainder, or such part thereof, as shall be required at any time by the Directors, after thirty days notice.

Art. 11th. The Cashier shall be empowered to call special meetings of the Directors, whenever he shall deem it necessary; separate and aside from the annual and semi annual meetings.

Art. 12th. Two thirds of the Directors shall form a quorum to act at the semi-annual meetings, and any number of the seven, the committee of the Directors, with the President & Cashier, or either of them, may form a quorum to transact business at the weekly meetings; and in case none of the seven are present at the weekly meetings, the President and Cashier must transact the business.

Art. 13th. The Directors shall have power to enact such by laws as they may deem necessary, from time to time, providing they do not infringe upon these Articles of Agreement.

Art. 14th. All notes given by said Society, shall be signed by the President and Cashier thereof, and we the individual members of said firm, hereby hold ourselves bound for the redemption of all such notes.

Art 15th. The notes given for the benefit of said society, shall be given to the Cashier, in the following form:

"Ninety days after date, we jointly and severally promise to pay A. B. or order dollars and cents, value received." A record of which shall be made in the books at the time, of the amount, and by whom given, and when due -- and deposited with the files and papers of said society.

Art. 16th. Any article in this agreement may be altered at any time, annulled, added unto or expunged, by the vote of two-thirds of the members of said society; except the fourteenth article, that shall remain unaltered during the existence of said company. For the true and faithful fulfilment of the above covenant and agreement, we individually bind ourselves to each other under the penal sum of one hundred thousand dollars. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and date first written above.

Note: Up until this point Horace Steele, the editor of the Republican, seems to have maintained a firm support for his fellow Democrats in Kirtland. However, that alliance was beginning to come under some strain by the Mormons' seeming inability to pay their debts and redeem their new currency. Evidently the saintly bankers made some attempt, at about this time, to enable certain customers to swap their nearly worthless Kirtland Safety Society paper for slightly more passable Bank of Monroe notes, but even that measure was a temporary and half-hearted one. The Republican continued to offer some journalistic sympathy to the Mormon side of various difficulties for the next several months, but that partisan friendliness began to wane after the banking failure lightened the pockets of local Saints and Gentiles alike, no matter their political affiliation.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, February 2, 1837.                               No. 12.


Reports injurious to this institution are again in circulation. We are informed that Mr. J. V. Ayer, of Buffalo, and other gentlemen, have made arrangements for the purchase of its entire stock and charter. The stock is to be enlarged, in accordance with the charter, to $500,000. Bills of the bank are received at the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, and also at the Bank of Cleveland.
                           Cleveland Daily Gazette, Jan. 30.

Note 1: As early as Aug. 18, 1836 the Monroe Times began publishing notices defending the reputation of the Bank of Monroe and assuring its readers of the bank's stability. However, it is supposed that from the second half of 1836 the bank was experiencing serious financial difficulties. The bank (then under the control of the Kirtland Mormons) finally closed its doors for good on (or very shortly after) Mar. 13, 1837.

Note 2: For an ongoing journalistic examination of the suspect activities associated with the operation of the Bank of Monroe, see the editorial columns of the New York Herald between 1835 and 1837.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, February 9, 1837.                               No. 13.


An article appeared in the Painesville Telegraph of the 27th ult., under this head, and over the signature of "Servantes," in which this anonymous scribbler, pretends to give a history of the recent banking operations of the "Kirtland Safety Society," and its origin. He states that their "prophet & leader had a revelation from God pointing out the modus operandi, of this great swindling machine." -- He then asks, "will the community believe this? or will the Mormons or their political associates and apologists for every outrage upon common sense, deny this fact? If so, I pledge myself to establish the fact in a court of justice whenever an opportunity offers, and that too by Mormon witnesses." Now to say nothing about the slang in respect to "their political associates and apologists," if the writer of that article will give to the public his own proper name, we assure him that we are authorized to say, that the principal part of his statements will be proved to be absolutely false. And we call upon him to let the public know who he is, so that the people may know what reliance is to be placed upon his word. If we do not greatly misjudge, he will be found to be a lawyer, who is not only interested in some other bank, but laboring under a very strong political bias. -- We therefore say, out Mr. SERVANTES, from behind your covert, and show yourself. Your objects of slander and persecution will then have an opportunity to meet you on fair ground, and hold you and your communication up to the world in your true light.

From the Monroe Times,


-- It is a matter of deep regret that the base and wholly unfounded reports against the charter and condition of this institution are still kept afloat. They are sheer slanders, propagated by unworthy competition, or ignoble malice; and are daily and uniformly exposed and contradicted by the practical fact, that the bank ever has, and still does, punctually and readily redeem its bills; and its business operations all prove its positive soundness and responsibility. More hereafter.

Note 1: The Jan. 27, 1837 article by "Servantes" has not yet been located in the files of the Painesville Telegraph. A second letter by the same anonymous writer appeared in the Telegraph on Mar. 31, 1837. It is likely that the writer was a Geauga County Federalist or Whig who had political ties with people like Grandison Newell of Mentor.

Note 2: The piece from the Monroe Times apparently appeared in that paper's issue of Feb. 2, 1837.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, February 16, 1837.                               No. 14.

For the Republican.

I understand, Mr. Editor, that suits have been instigated against the "Mormons," to recover the penalty attached to unauthorized banking, by a law of 1816. The leading counsel in these causes, I suppose, is he who flourishes in the Telegraph over the signature of Servantes. It seems that Mr. Servantes is resolved that the "Mormons" will not only pay the forfeiture of their rashness in presuming to exercise banking powers, but that the public mind shall be forestalled, and biased so as to preclude the possibility of their having a fair and impartial hearing. Doubtless Servantes takes no steps in the matter without the sanction of higher names than his, which can act as arbitor or counsel, or as occasion requires, It would be more in accordance with our notions of justice, and the duties of the office which Servantes holds, that even the Mormons should have a fair and impartial hearing before condemnation. -- The law of 1816, under which these suits are instituted, has long since become obsolete and inoperative. In the year 1824, the legislature appointed by joint resolution, a committee to revise generally the laws of the State. That committee, in their sound discretion, adopted such laws as were suited to the genius and spirit of the age, and rejected such as were not; but which were made upon the spur of the occasion without much reflection or deliberation.

The law of '16 against private banking, was of the latter description -- it was rejected by the committee and was not republished by the legislature; but instead, a general law regulating banks and bankers was passed, containing amongst other provisions, a section making all notes, bonds, &c. issued by unauthorized banking companies null and void, without, however, annexing any penalty. If the legislature of '24 that revised the laws, and that enacted the law just referred to, regarded the law of '16 as in force, they must have been very unwise to burden the statute book with another law containing some of the identical provisions of the law of 1816. Such a supposition is at war with the history of all legislation. -- It is the duty of the legislature (and has hitherto been their practice) to promulgate or publish their laws. It then (and not before) becomes the duty of any citizen to obey the laws. We must suppose the legislature regarded the law of 1816 as not in force, and hence they did not publish it with their revised code; unless indeed we suppose the intended purposely to adopt the policy of the Athenian tyrant Draco, who, the more easily to ensnare his people, wrote his laws in small characters and hung them up high in the market places, that they might not read them. If the legislature makes their decrees and lock[s] them up in their own bosoms, or in the archives of the State, and then punish the people for not obeying laws they never saw or heard of, they are greater tyrants than ever disgraced the age of a Nero or Calagula.

What man of common information thinks of looking beyond the statute books which is published and distributed by authority of the legislature, for a rule of civil conduct? And who expects to be punished as a criminal for not conforming to laws of which he has never heard. The administration of criminal justice is a matter of the highest importance to a people proud of and boasting of their liberties, and in proportion to its importance, (says a great lawyer) should be the care and attention of the legislature, in properly forming and enforcing it. It should be founded on principles that are permanent, uniform and universal, and always conformable to the dictates of truth and justice, the feelings of humanity and the indelible rights of mankind. If this law be still in force there has been on the part of those high in office, a great dereliction of duty, and probably Mr. Servantes would come in for a share of the odium.

The act of '36 makes it the duty of the president judge of the courts of Common Pleas to give it in special charge to the grand jury, and yet I would ask Mr. Servantes if he has ever heard of its being so given since his career at the bar? or whether he himself as guardian of the peoples rights has ever called the attention of the grand jury to the law in question?

If he has not, is he not justly chargeable with neglect of duty? Probably Servantes thinks the right of banking and shaving the public at the rate of two and four per cent a month should be exclusively confined to himself and his royal associates; at least Mr. "Mormon" in person exercising the awful calling of "shoemaker," should not be permitted to meddle with any such high matters.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, February 23, 1837.                               No. 15.

From the Monroe Times.


We regret that the propagation of a new error should render any further remarks in relation to this Institution necessary; but such is the fact. The Cleveland Daily Gazette of the 13th inst. remarking upon the condition of this Bank, among other things says -- "When a run is made upon it, they avail themselves of a provision of the charter, giving sixty days to redeem," This is incorrect, for though true it is that the charter contains such a provision, it is also true that the Bank has never availed itself of that provision, and has never refused or declined to redeem its bills on demand.

From the same.


With much satisfaction we announce to the public, that the stock of this institution, having changed hands is about to be increased to $500,000.

Mr. HARLESTON having sold his entire interest in the Bank, is succeeded in his capacity of Cashier, by B. J. HATHAWAY, Esq., a gentleman possessing character and accomplishments which render him peculiarly qualified for the station so ably and acceptably filled by so worthy a predecessor.

At a meeting of the Stockholders and Board of Directors of the Bank of Monroe, held at their Banking House, this day, GEORGE B. HARLESTON, Esq., resigned his situation of Cashier and Director of the Institution, and O. Cowdery, Esq., was appointed a Director and Vice President by the Board for the remainder of the year. BAILEY J. HATHAWAY, Esq. was appointed Cashier.

By order of the Board:
             BAILEY J. HATHAWAY, Cashier.
Monroe, Feb. 10, 1837.

Note 1: These two notices were taken from the Monroe Times issue of Feb. 16, 1837. See the notes appended to the Monroe Times articles for more information on the bank and its purchase by the Mormon leadership

Note 2: The Bank of Monroe (located in the SE corner of Michigan Territory) was the chartered financial institution nearest the Cleveland that was not was not regulated by the State of Ohio. Its bank notes were, as late as 1837, redeemable at the bank of Cleveland and another Cleveland institution, the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie. The Monroe firm seems to have operated, to some extent, after the fashion of the notorious "offshore banks" of a later generation -- offering useful services to Ohioans, without entailing the scrutinizing oversight of the Legislature in Columbus. The Bank of Monroe was founded in 1827, with a Board of Directors which originally included John Anderson, Josiah Wendell, Robert Clarke, Oliver Johnson, Charles J. Lanman, Dan B. Miller, and Harry Conant. An early president of the bank was Daniel S. Bacon, later the father-in-law of George Armstrong Custer. As late as 1835 the president (or vice president) was I. Q. Adams. The Cleveland Daily Gazette, of Jan. 30, 1837 announced that "Mr. J. V. Ayer, of Buffalo" as well as certain "other gentlemen" had arranged for "the purchase of its entire stock and charter." The announcement was printed just four days after Michigan received statehood. Under the new state government banking regulations would change and in some respects the usefulness of the old charter might be eventually be impaired. On the other hand, that charter's useful provision, allowing the bank to suspend the redemption of its notes for up to 60 days at a time, might not be allowed to subsequently state-chartered banks. Apparently Mr. Ayer, late in 1836, had contacted all the remaining stockholders in the bank and secured their agreement to sell the institution. Probably this entailed little more than gaining the agreement of chief share-holder George B. Harleston. Harleston was also the Mayor of Monroe.

Note 3: The bank's original capital stock was valued at $100,000, an amount its charter allowed to be subsequently increased up to $500,000. This monetary limit was reached on Feb. 10, 1837, under its re-capitalization following the Mormon buy-out of shares held by George B. Harleston. Apparently Mr. J. V. Ayer of Buffalo acted as Harleston's agent, in liquidating his interest in the failing firm. According to Milton V. Backman, Jr., in the period following this stock sale, "members of the Church" held "a controlling interest" in the Bank of Monroe. Quite possibly this "controlling interest" was a near total ownership, purchased with funds derived from Kirtland Safety Society capital or with KSS bank notes. Bailey J. Hathaway may have been brought into the new ownership and management as its token non-Mormon, with little or no investment of his own funds. At the very least, the Mormons borrowed $22,000 from the Bank of Monroe at this time, offering in exchange the dubious security of "notes" of "the Kirtland Safety Society" (see Marvin S. Hill, et al., "The Kirtland Economy Revisited," BYU Studies 17:4, Summer 1977, footnote 133). These bank notes Joseph Smith probably attempted to exchange for specie or nationally circulated currency while passing through Cleveland in mid-February. While such a raising of hard currency would not nullify the prosecution of illegal banking activities hanging over his head back in Geauga county, the demonstrated ability of the KSS to redeem its notes (up to $22,000 at least) in "real money" might prove helpful in many ways, including his upcoming defense in court.

Note 4: Captain Bailey Hathway, Sr. (1771-aft. 1830) is listed in the 1830 Census as living in Hudson, Columbia, NY. In 1831 Bailey Hathway, Sr. granted land by deed to his son, Bailey J. Hathway, in Ontario county, NY. The older Hathway was the brother of Prudence Hathaway Durfee (1766-1849) (Mrs. Lemuel Durfee) of Palmyra, NY and of Sally Hathaway Comstock (1781-1862) (Mrs. Joseph Comstock) of Manchester, NY. The former was a near neighbor to Martin Harris and the latter was a near neighbor to Joseph Smith, Sr. in 1820. There were other Hathaways living in Joseph Smith's neighborhood. The earliest Mormon baptisms took place in a mill pond on Hathaway Brook (once called Crooked Brook), the stream that runs beside Stafford Road south of Palmyra. An Ebenezer Hathway lived in Manchester, Ontario, NY in 1830. He may have been a member of the same Hathaway family who owned land near the Smith family. If Bailey J. Hathway was living in the Palmyra area in about 1830, he did not remain there very long. A few months later Bailey J. Hathway was temporarily in the Cleveland area, and on Feb. 17, 1831 he married Trifenia Abbott in Cuyahoga county. Bailey was probably a bank clerk by profession. He is listed in 1835 and 1850 New York City directories as a "clerk." Hathaway's presence in Monroe, Michigan at the beginning of 1837 may be partly explained by the residence of his widowed aunt, Sally Hathaway Comstock, in the Monroe area, not many years after her husband's 1821 death. She died a few miles west of Monroe, in Lenawee county, in 1862.

Note 5: After the closure of the Monroe Bank in March of 1837, Bailey J. Hathaway apparently left Monroe and moved back to New York. A person by that name is listed in the 1840 Census as living in Aurelius twp., Cayuga co., NY, about ten miles east of the Peter Whitmer, Sr. farm site. The 1840 residence of Bailey J. Hathaway in eastern Cayuga, near the home of Ebenezer Hathaway Jr. (1757-1844), the husband of Mehitabel Cowdery (1763-1829), suggests a possible (though distant) relationship between these two branches of the Hathaway family. Both Mehitabel and her husband died in Summer Hill, Cayuga county. This was across Cayuga Lake, about 30 miles SE of the Peter Whitmer, Sr. farm in Fayette, Seneca county. The Hathway family was living in the Summer Hill area at least as early as 1826. Although these Hathaways were only distantly related to the Hathaways of Ontario and Wayne counties, it is likely that Oliver Cowdery knew both branches of the family as early as 1826, if not before that.

Note 6: Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith, and Oliver Cowdery apparently traveled together from Kirtland to Monroe during the first week in February. All three (in company with Bailey J. Hathaway) no doubt attended the meeting of the Bank of Monroe's Board of Directors on the 10th. It appears possible that Hyrum Smith briefly took over the duties of bank President -- see the resignation letter tendered by "H. Smith," published in the Monroe Times of Mar. 2, 1837. By the 19th the Smiths were back in Kirtland. Cowdery lingered in Monroe, signing all the bank notes authorized under the bank's recapitalization. Extant notes bearing his and Hathaway's signatures were pre-dated back as far as September 1836, probably in order to insure their acceptance at the Cleveland banks. Bank of Monroe notes later circulated temporarily in Geauga county -- at a steep discount.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, March 2, 1837.                               No. 16.


The Democratic voters of KIRTLAND, are requested to meet at the [r--] School House, on the Flats, on Saturday, 4th of March next, at one o'clock, P. M. to make arrangements for the Town election in April, and to transact such other business as may be brought before them. A general attendance is solicited.


Township Committee
February 25, 1837.

Note: In the April 1837 Kirtland Township election, Simeon Wright and Caleb E. Cummings (both non-Mormons) were elected Town Trustees. In the same Election Oliver Cowdery was made a Kirtland Justice of the Peace. James M. Carrell was the foreman of Oliver Cowdery's printing office in Kirtland. He attempted to establish his own newspaper in Geauga county early in 1837 but failed. His abbreviated name is sometimes confused with that of John Corrill. The original typecript for this item is indistinct -- it perhaps says that the meeting has to be held in the "red school house."

Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, March 23, 1837.                               No. 19.

BANK  OF  MONROE. -- To give the people in this vicinity a correct understanding of the true situation of this institution, we have copied from the Monroe Times, the following statement, together with an article in that paper, purporting to be from "ONE WHO KNOWS." The Editor, who has heretofore repeatedly spoken in favor of the bank, is silent on the subject

From the Monroe Times.


Mr. Editor: -- The Bank of Monroe has, at last, availed itself of a provision in its charter, and suspended payment for sixty days. It is known, that there has been a constant pressure, for several months, on the Institution, urged on by false reports and cunning shavers. Much excitement prevailing, it is only necessary to caution the holders of the bills not [to] throw them away, but be assured the Bank will not go down!
                         ONE WHO KNOWS.

Note: The anonymous subscriber to this notice may well have been Oliver Cowdery himself. The above text does not reproduce the March 14, 1837 notarized financial statement of Oliver Cowdery and Bailey J. Hathaway, printed along with the notice in the Monroe Times of Mar. 16, 1837. That statement shows the bank's books to be in balance with assets of $191,330.76 (only $1,026 of which was in specie) and an equal amount in debits. Cowdery closed down the Monroe in mid-March and returned to Kirtland (where he was elected Justice of the Peace in April and assumed his new office in May). No record remains as to whether or not Cowdery and the Mormon stockholders of the Monroe bank made any effort to call in and redeem all of its bank notes then in circulation. Within a few months Cowdery was charged with "counterfeiting" by a special High Council in Far West. He subsequently left the Mormon Church.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, April 6, 1837.                               No. 21.

For the Republican.


Sir -- I perceive by an article in the last Telegraph, signed "Servantes," that you are very honorably claimed as a relative of that gentleman. This must be very gratifying to your feelings, and I think you one of the more fortunate men on earth to be connected with so great a family. Let us examine a little into the exaltation, and see what a beautiful picture it presents to the public. Let us for a moment, dwell upon the character of your dear nephew, "Servantes." The inexhaustable wit -- the continual flow of humor -- the keen satire, and the inimitable irony we find in his compositions, make us almost fancy we are reading the works of the celebrated author whose name he has assumed. And, sir, these are not the only qualifications of your beloved nephew! -- No, sir, if he pleases, he can be profound and logical -- the power of perceiving in an instant, the various bearings and relations of a question, enables him at once to analyse the most intricate subject, and to draw conclusions upon promises once laid, as certain as the continuation of time! -- Yes, and he can be sublime too -- the lofty flights of his imagination s carry him to the heights of Parnassus, where he associates with fabled gods of Poetry; he drinks deep of the inspiration of Apollo, and truly fancies the nearer things of earth below, to be but spoils of his already victorious career. Oh! he is a wonderful youth, and you, whom he honors with the title "uncle Steal," may well feel proud of such a connexion. I think, however, 'twas unfortunate in him to have chosen to mispel your name, though we know that people are too apt to write as they are inclined to practice, and they generally spell names as best suits their tastes. It is presumed that the name, as "Servantes" spells it, is particularly applicable to his family, for report says, that "Servantes" has a brother famous for his editorial qualifications, who once suffered materially for having an inclination to steal, and at the same time, not having ingenuity enough to keep it concealed. Be that as it may, sir, he now unquestionably stands as a man but little inferior to the famous "Servantes." 'Tis true, his advantages have been great -- few of his profession have enjoyed equal ones, and after having been furnished a seat in one of the houses at Columbus, for the space of three years, 'tis not surprising that he should come out well prepared, and highly qualified for a Whig editor of the town of Painesville. I hope you will not take offence at the liberty I take in speaking of your occupation; the truth is, I always love to congratulate my friends upon their good fortune.

Note: The writer of this sarcastic piece plays upon the name of the Republican's editor (Mr. Steel) and upon the fact that the publisher-editor of the Telegraph (Asahel Howe) once was caught "stealing" from the U. S. Mail and sentenced to three years' labor in the Columbus Work House. The anti-Mormon "Servantes," an occasional contributor to the Telegraph may have been James H. Paine, or, perhaps, some relative of Asahel Howe.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, May 25, 1837.                               No. 28.

Oliver Cowdery, late printer at Kirtland, has been elected a Justice of the Peace in that place, without opposition. He is a leading member of the Mormon faith.

Note 1: First Counselor in the Mormon Presidency, F. G. Williams, was made Justice of the Peace in Kirtland township in June of 1836, becoming the first Latter Day Saint to hold an important political office in the place. His election was perhaps something of a political compromise, reflecting both the growing Mormon voting power in the township, as well as Williams' vocal support for the local Democratic party. Williams replaced dedicated anti-Mormon and member of Sidney Rigdon's former Campbellite congregation at Mentor, Josiah Jones. With the disappearance of Jones from the Kirtland political scene in 1836, only Arial Hanson was left as a Gentile Justice of the Peace in Kirtland. F. G. Williams himself remained in office until his resignation on Sept. 25, 1837.

Note 2: Arial Hanson's term of office expired on June 18 and Cowdery was apparently chosen in the April election to take his place as Justice of the Peace. The result was that Kirtland had two Mormon magistrates, neither of whom was by then a particularly loyal supporter of Joseph Smith. Cowdery would later receive the admonition of a special High Council at Far West, for allowing his affairs as a lawyer and a petty judge to outweigh his responsibilities to the Church in Kirtland. An equally severe condemnation of Cowdery as a magistrate may be found in the June 1838 open letter addressed to him and his associates and signed by Sidney Rigdon and 84 loyal Mormons at Far West. In that document Rigdon says: "The saints in Kirtland having elected Oliver Cowdery to be a justice of the peace, he used the power of that office to take their most sacred rights from them, and that contrary to law...." (25th Congress, Senate Document 189 p. 7). Perhaps Cowdery's most disloyal act, while serving as a magistrate in Kirtland, was his ruling that Kirtland Safety Society bank notes were not "lawful tender," (Oliver Cowdery Docket Book, Huntington Library, p. 16, entry for June 17, 1837). And, in addition to all of this inconstant comportment, Lucy Mack Smith twice accuses Cowdery of having mistreated her husband, in a legal sense, during his term as a magistrate (Joseph Smith the Prophet pp. 211-216). Mother Smith's intimation that Cowdery was still a magistrate when she and her husband were expelled from Kirtland, at the beginning of 1838, is a slight inaccuracy. While "Esquire Cowdery" may have indeed been practicing law at that point, he had resigned his Justice of the Peace position in August of 1837.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, June 15, 1837.                               No. 31.


It is known to most of my readers, that a large society of christians who style themselves "Latter day Saints," or Mormons, reside in Kirtland in this county, about nine miles from this place, & that Joseph Smith jr. the founder of the sect, also resides there, as president of the society. Several weeks ago, a report was put in circulation in this neighborhood, that through the instigation of Mr. [Joseph] Smith jr., two men had made an attempt to take the life of one Grandison Newell, who resides in that neighborhood, and who is well known to be a violent enemy to them and opposed to them in religious and political matters. This hostility was generally known to exist and naturally gave credence to the rumor. At length, a warrant was issued by Justice Flint of this place, on the application of Newell, to apprehend Smith -- but he was not to be found. Several individuals in our village, formed themselves into a gang, and under the name of a committee, repaired to Kirtland and made a formal demand of the leading members of the Mormon Society, that Smith should be delivered up, but being assured that he was actually absent, and that on his return he should be forthcoming, this self-constituted committee returned to their homes. A short time elapsed and, contrary to the prognostications of his enemies, Mr. Smith returned, and was arrested without difficulty, and brought before Mr. Justice Flint, together with a multitude of witnesses. The case was called -- and continued from Tuesday till Saturday, at the request upon prosecutor, to afford time for him to procure evidence, and the respondent with some forty or fifty witnesses returned home. Saturday arrived, the accused appeared, and the trial was had in the methodist chapel, before a large collection of people who had assembled in expectation of hearing a disclosure of the murderous projects of the modern prophet.

At the commencement of the trial, of purposes too apparent [to be mistaken], a certain distinguished General, who, by the way has heretofore been a leader of the federal party in this county, seated himself between the counsel for the respondent and the [witness stand], and at the elbow of Mr. Newell, and although often requested to vary his position, he obstinately (not to say in decorously) refused, but volunteered his valuable services as a prompter and a secret assistant counsel for his friend Newell, by suggesting upon a slip of paper, certain questions of an insulting nature, to be put to the witness, and occasionally, throwing out such remarks as he thought best calculated to give tone to the proceedings, favorable to the prosecutor.

I attended the trial and took down the evidence, but was much surprised to find that no testimony appeared, on which, any reliance could be placed, that went in the least degree to criminate the respondent, but rather to raise him in the estimation of men of candor. But the Justice of the Peace who had been selected to try the question, decided otherwise, and Mr. Smith was held to bail in the sum of $500, to appear at the Court of Common Pleas, at the next term, which commenced the Monday following, being last week. The trial again came on before the County Court, on Friday last, and resulted in the entire acquital of Joseph Smith jr., of the charges alledged against him. This is said to be the thirteenth prosecution which has been instituted against Joseph Smith jr. for crime, since he became a Mormon, and notwithstanding the prejudice against him, he has never, in a single instance been convicted, on a final trial. This fact shows on the one hand, that a spirit of persecution has existed, and on the other hand it certainly furnishes some evidence that he has for some reason, been falsely accused, and that, he is indeed and in truth better than some of his accusers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, July 6, 1837.                               No. 34.

THE  MORMON  PERSECUTOR. -- Mr. Grandison Newell, who recently preferred a complaint against Joseph Smith jr., charging him with a conspiracy to take his life, comes out in the last Telegraph, over his own name, and undertakes to impeach the character of the President Judge, because the said judge did not see fit to enable him to carry out his projected plan of persecution. Mr. N. after stating his grievance, goes on and gives a garbled statement of the testimony, and then winds up by declaring that the course pursued by the judge, in coming to a decision, "was unphilosophical."

Now who is this Mr. Newell -- and what is he, that he should thus assail the character of judge Humphrey, and call in question the correctness of his decision? Is he a man learned in the law? or rather is he not a man who has for years been doing all he could to injure his neighbors, merely because they do not think and act as he does in religious and political matters?

Let us look at the very case alluded to in the Telegraph and bring to view some facts in relation to it. Mr. Newell resides in Mentor, about seven miles from Painesville and within two miles of the Mormon settlement, where Joseph Smith jr., resides. In preferring his complaint against Smith -- why did he depart from the common practice, and drag Mr. Smith and his witnesses through his own town a distance of nine miles from home, to Painesville, when there are two Justices of the Peace in Mentor, where he resides? Was it done to harrass Mr. Smith and subject him to a greater bill of expense in defending himself? or was it because he could not find one sufficiently subservient to his views, without coming to this place? The complainant, respondent and the witnesses on both sides were most if not all residents in and near Kirtland -- who, contrary to the usual practice in legal proceedings, were compelled to travel nine miles to attend the trial before Mr. Justice Flint, although there is a Justice of the Peace within two miles of Mr. Newell's residence, in his own Town. I ask again, why was Mr. Flint selected to sit in judgement in this case? Those who know the circumstances have reason to say, in answer to these questions, that it was done, first, the more to harrass the mormons -- secondly, that it was desireable to have it before a man whose civil and political associations promised a result favorable to the complainant's views -- and thirdly, that it was designed to have a political bearing, and the better to effect this object, one who has hitherto been one of the principal leaders of the opposition, was stationed in a conspicious position during the trial for that purpose.

Note 1: For more on the 1836 Mormon plot to murder Grandison Newell, see Scott G. Kenney's on-line article: "Did Joseph Plot to Murder Grandison Newell?" Firmage and Mangrum identify "judge Humphrey" as being "Van R. Humphrey, president of the Court of Common Pleas in Geauga County" (Zion in the Courts, p.57). Humphrey became the Presiding Judge of Geauga County in 1837 and served six years in that position of trust. His party affiliation is not known, but possibly he was a Democrat, since the Republican's Democratic editor, Horace Steele undertook the task of defending Humphrey's judicial honor in this editorial. "Mr. Justice Flint" of the article was perhaps Talcott Flint, an old settler of Painesville township. Justice of the Peace Flint was apparently a Whig, as were Asahel Howe and M. G. Lewis at the Painesville Telegraph. Max H. Parkin also identifies Grandison Newell as "a Whig" ("Kirtland, a Stronghold for the Kingdom," in McKiernan and Edwards, The Restoration Movement, pp. 82-83.)

Note 2: Editor Steele carefully avoided making any mention of Grandison Newell's prosecution of Joseph Smith, Jr. until the outcome of the June 9, 1837 trial at Chardon was known. With Smith's acquittal by Judge Humphrey at Chardon, Steele could profitably stroke the ruffled feathers of the Mormon faithful at Kirtland with his article of June 15th and this follow-up three weeks later. Steele had no desire to rehash the incriminating testimony offered against Smith at his pre-trial hearing and the State of Ohio vs Joseph Smith replay at Chardon. The Kirtland Mormons were bloc-voting Democrats and some of Steele's few partisan allies in mostly Whig Geauga county. Steele's main point of argument is directed at Newell for having engineered Smith's pre-trail hearing to be held at Painesville rather than Mentor. Even Steele does not consider a hearing before a Kirtland Justice of the Peace (Oliver Cowdery and F. G. Williams were in office there at the end of April) a reasonable option, but he leaves unanswered his own question about the viability of a hearing before a Mentor magistrate. Mentor was on the fringes of the Democratic pocket of voters in and around Kirtland township, so possibly Steele is correct in assuming that Newell would have encountered a less friendly magistrate there. Given the seriousness of the testimony then offered against Smith in court, Steele's assessment of Newell as carrying forward nothing more than a " plan of persecution" rings a bit hollow.

Note 3: According to Robert Kent Fielding, even after Grandison Newell prevailed against Smith and Rigdon courts in another case (charging the two will illegal banking practices) "Sidney Rigdon kept the issue alive by entering a ten thousand dollar libel suit against Newell for "certain false, scandalous and defamatory words written, printed and published by Newell." ("The Growth of the Mormon Church in Kirtland, Ohio," p. 254). It would seem that Rigdon, like the editor of the Republican, was quite unhappy with what Newell was saying in the local newspapers in 1837.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. I.                               Thursday, July 20, 1837.                               No. 36.

"GIVE  THE  DEVIL  HIS  DUE." -- The Cleveland Daily Advertiser, the Ohio State Journal, and several other papers, have given their readers a word of "caution," relative to the doings of the Mormons, in regard to Banking operations, which they say they learn from the "Painesville papers," without designating what paper. The caution, which was perhaps well enough, was not published in the Painesville Republican, but originated in the Painesville Telegraph and should have been definitely credited to that paper, and let them have all the honor and credit of the caution.

Note: With this short notice editor Horace Steele began to distance himself and his newspaper from the Kirtland Mormons. By Feb. 14, 1839 he was calling the sect a "deluded class of fanatics." Steele's pull back of support was probably at first just part of a "watch and see" posture he assumed, as he and his fellow the Geauga county Democrats observed the Mormon bank collapse and the LDS leadership openly split into two contesting factions. Presumably Steele's political instincts told him to stand ready to support Joseph Smith once again in the public press, providing Smith could salvage his own leader's role and some fragment of the dwindling Kirtland economy. In the meanwhile, Steele's probable contact persons among the Latter Day Saints would have been F. G. Williams and Oliver Cowdery, neither of whom showed any signs of being able to deliver a Mormon bloc-vote for the Democrats in the next election. With the further deterioration of Mormon Kirtland, over the next several months, the Democratic stronghold there was lost. Steele eventually abandoned the Republican altogether, some months after the national Whig victory of late 1840.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 3.                    Thursday, Nov. 30, 1837.                    Whole No. 55.

SHOCKING CALAMITY. -- A log cabin was burnt in Mentor, on Saturday last, and a Mr. Brass, a revolutionary pensioner, perished in the flames. He was the only occupant of the cabin, which was nearly reduced to ashes when the fire was discovered, at about 4 o'clock in the morning. It is not known how the fire took, nor have we been informed whether the situation in which the remains of the sufferer were found, furnished any means of knowing whether he had left his bed, or made any attempt to escape. We are told that he has a son living a few miles distant -- who had in vain urged the old gentleman to reside with him.

Note: D. Philastus Hurlbut, then living in Mentor, was suspected in the probable murder of Garrett Brass in Nov. 1837. Reportedly Hurlbut left town the night of Brass's death and was apprehended on the road to Cleveland with some of Brass's possessions in his wagon. Hurlbut escaped detention in Ohio, but was soon after detected by Mr. Brass's daughter in Monroe, Michigan. In 1885 four deponents provided testimony on the Brass murder, some of which implicated D. P. Hurlbut in the grisly event. Mrs. J. D. Barber recalled that Hurlbut was caught after the murder, with several of Brass's personal items in his possession, including some chains. Mormon Elder Benjamin Winchester perhaps heard of this, for he said in 1840 that Hurlbut "took to stealing for a livelihood, was detected in stealing a log chain, fled the country to escape justice..."


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 8.                    Thursday, Jan. 4, 1838.                    Whole No. 61

JARED Carter is hereby notified that the October Term of the Court of Common Pleas held in and for the County of Geauga, and State of Ohio; A. D. Eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, Chauncey Calkins, of the Township of Kirtland, in said County, filed in said court, a Bill in Chancery, against the said Jared Carter. The object and prayer of which Bill is to foreclose a mortgage given by the said Jared Carter, to the said Chauncey Calkins, bearing date on the first day of October, A. D., Eighteen-hundred and thirty-six, and subject the Land to said Mortgage mentioned and described to the payment of the sum of six hundred dollars, and the interest on same from the date of said mortgage, by which said sum the said Jared Carter acknowledges himself indebted to the said Chauncey Calkins, in the condition of said Mortgage deed. Said Land is situated in the township of Kirtland, being number nine in the ninth Range of Townships of the Connecticut Western Reserve, in the State of Ohio, and is known by being part of Lot Number three, and is bounded as follows, to wit: Beginning at a stake in the centre of the Road 19 rods and 8 links east of the South West corner of said Lot No. 3; thence North 35 rods and 22 links, thence West 19 rods & 8 links; thence North 40 rods and 10 links to the N. W. corner of said Lot No. 3; thence 89 rods East on the North line of said lot, 61 rods and 11 links; thence South 76 rods and 11 links; thence west 42 rods and 12 links, to the place of beginning, enclosing 25 acres of Land; prayer that the above described Land be sold, and the proceeds thereof applied to the satisfaction of said principal and interest. -- And the said Jared Carter is further notified, that unless he appears and pleads answers, or demurs to the said Bill within sixty days after the next Term of said Court, the said Chauncey Calkins at the next term after the expiration of said sixty days will apply to said court to take the matters of the Bill as confessed and to decree thereon accordingly.
Solicitor for Compl't.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 14-15.                    Thursday, Feb. 15, 1838.                    Whole No. 67.

MORMONISM. -- We insert the following communication on the principles of justice -- and the same principles will require of us to open our columns to a reply, should any be offered with the author's name thereto attached. It is not, however, our wish, nor shall we consent to devote our paper to the discussion of religious or irrelegious subjects. In this respect as in all others, we occupy independent ground, and have no desire to interfere with any man's religious creed, so long as he does not infringe upon the rights of others.

KIRTLAND, Feb. 5, 1838.     


SIR: -- I have taken the liberty to send you a synopsis of some of the leading features of the characters of Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sydney Rigdon, who are styled leaders of the Mormon Church, and if you are disposed, and think it would be of service to the public, you are at liberty to publish it. I have for several years past been a member of the Church of Latter day Saints, commonly called Mormon, belonging to the quorum of seventy High Priests, and an intimate acquaintance of Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sydney Rigdon, the modern Prophets, and have had an opportunity of ascertaining to as great an extent, perhaps the real characters of these men, as any other individual. I have been Smith's private Secretary, called to fill this high and responsible station by revelation which I wrote myself as it dropped from the lips of the Prophet, and although contrary to my natural inclinations, I submitted to it, fearing to disobey or treat lightly the commands of the Almighty. I have kept his Journal, and, like Baram [sic, Baruch?], the ancient scribe, have had the honor of writing the History of one of the Prophets. -- I have attended him in the private Councils, in the secret chambers and in public exhibition. -- I have performed a pilgrimage with him, (not to Mecca,) but to Missouri, a distance of 1000 miles, for the redemption of Zion, in company with about two hundred others, called the camp of Israel. When we arrived in Clay County adjoining Jackson County, Mo., in which Zion was located by revelation, and from which our brethren had been driven, we were informed through the Prophet that God had revealed to us that we need not cross over and fight as we had expected, but that God had accepted our sacrifice as he did that of Abraham, ours being equal to his when he offered up his Son. Therefore, we were sealed up unto eternal life in the name of Jesus Christ, as a reward for our suffering and obedience. I have set by his side and penned down the translation of the Egyptian Hieroglyphicks as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration of Heaven. I have listened to him with feelings of no ordinary kind, when he declared that the audible voice of God, instructed him to establish a Banking-Anti Banking institution, which like Aaron's rod should swallow up all other Banks (the Bank of Monroe excepted,) and grow and flourish and spread from the rivers to the ends of the earth, and survive when all others should be laid in ruins. I have been astonished to hear him declare that we had 60,000 Dollars in specie in our vaults, and $600,000 at our command, when we had not to exceed $6,000 and could not command any more; also that we had but about ten thousand Dollars of our bills in circulation, when he, as Cashier of the institution, knew that there was at least $150,000. Knowing their extreme poverty when they commenced this speculation, I have been not a little surprised to hear them assert that they were worth from three to four hundred thousand Dollars Cash, and in less than ninety days after, became insolvent without any change in their business affairs. But such has been the audacity of these boasting blasphemers, that they have assumed the authority to curse, or to bless, to damn, or to save, not only this Church but this entire generation, and that they hold their destinies in this world and that which is to come. And such has been their influence over this Church in this place, that they have filched the monies from their pockets and obtained their earthly substance for the purpose of establishing a Bank and various wild speculations, in order that they might aggrandize themselves and families, until they have reduced their followers to wretchedness and want. For the year past their lives have been one continued scene of lying, deception, and fraud, and that too, in the name of God. But this I can account for in my own mind, having a knowledge of their private characters and sentiments, I believe them to be confirmed Infidels, who have not the fear of God before their eyes, notwithstanding their high pretensions to holiness, and frequent correspondence with the Angels of Heaven, and the revelations of Jesus Christ by the power of the Holy Ghost. What avails the claims of such men to holiness of heart, when their examples do violence to the system of morality, to say nothing about religion? What more favorable idea, can one entertain who has heard them say that man has no more agency than a wheelbarrow, and consequently is not accountable, and in the final end of all things no such principle will exist as sin. This language, independent of many abominations that might be named, such as the Prophet's fighting four pitched battles at fisticuff, within four years, one with his own natural brother, one with his brother-in-law, one with Ezra Thair, and one with a Baptist priest, speaks volumes. -- Their management in this place has reduced society to a complete wreck. The recent outrage committed here, viz. the burning of the Printing establishment, I have no doubt was nothing more, nor less than carrying into effect Smith and Rigdon's last revelation that they had before they took their leave of this place between two days -- in fact the lying, fighting, stealing, running away, &c., that has carried on among us are only reducing their theory to practice, and in some instances they have not only taught the theory, but have set the example themselves. And I am fully convinced that their precepts and examples, both in public and in private, are calculated to corrupt the morals of their votaries and cast a shade over their characters, which like the twilight of evening will soon settle into the gloom of midnight darkness; and had it not been arrested in its mad career, would have transmitted to succeeding generations, a system of hereditary tyranny, and spiritual despotism, unparalleled in the annals of the christian Church, the Church of Rome not excepted. But they have fled in the night; "they love darkness rather than light because their deeds are evil; the wicked flee when no man pursuth." -- the printing establishment, book bindery, &c., was formerly the property of Smith and Rigdon; it had been sold the day previous to its being set on fire, by virtue of two executions obtained against them of one thousand dollars each, for issuing banking paper contrary to law. The establishment had fallen into the hands of those who have of late remonstrated against the wickedness of the above-named individuals; and had it not been sacrificed upon the altar of reckless fanaticism, it would no doubt at this time have been speaking the truth, as an atonement for an ill-spent life; a well grounded conviction of this fact was evidently one reason why Smith and Rigdon obtained a revelation to abscond; and that the press must not at all hazards be suffered to be put in requisition against them; also that God would destroy this place by fire, for its wickedness against his Prophets, and that his servants are swift messengers of destruction, by whose hands he avenges himself upon his enemies; this accounts for the outrage. This is but a preface to the catalogue of their iniquities that might be enumerated. But the most astonishing thing after all is, that men of common sense and common abilities, should be so completely blinded as to dispense entirely with the evidence of their senses, and tamely submit to be led by such men, and to contenance such glaring inconsistencies; and at the same time to be made to believe, that they had God for their author, and the happiness and well being of mankind for their end and aim. But the magic charm is broken at last; superstition and bigotry have begun to lose their influence and unclench their iron grasp from this devoted people who have "been led like lambs to the slaughter, and as a sheep is dumb before her shearers," so have we not dared to open our mouths. However justice seems to be in pursuit of the workers of iniquity; and sooner or later will overtake them: they will reap a just and sure retribution for their folly. This then is the conclusion of the whole matter; they lie by revelation, swindle by revelation, cheat and defraud by revelation, run away by revelation, and if they do not mend their ways, I fear that they will at last be damned by revelation.
                                                M. [sic, W.] PARRISH.

This is to certify that we are personally acquainted with said Parish, Smith and Rigdon, and that the above is a statement of facts according to our best recollections.

LUKE JOHNSON, } two of the twelve
JOHN BOYNTON, }     Apostles.
SYLVESTER SMITH, } formerly presidents
LEONARD RICH.      }   of the Seventies.

Note 1: Smith and Rigdon's office building (containing the Elders Journal printing shop) burned to the ground in the early hours of Jan. 16, 1838, less than four days after its former owners fled Kirtland forever. Smith and Rigdon had lost possession of the Church's media office on Jan. 14, within hours after their hasty departure. The establishment was sold at a sheriff's sale, and, (according to Kennedy's Early Days of Mormonism, p. 170), the purchaser was "one of the Reformers or seceders from Smith." While some sources attribute this purchase to Grandison Newell, the likely beneficiary would have been Warren A. Cowdery, a printer and former editor in that very office. Kennedy also says that the Mormons then remaining in Kirtland were accused of having set the fire "in the hope that the blaze would extend to the temple, which they did not wish to see left in the hands of their enemies." The printing establishment (then located immediately west of the Temple) was a total loss; the Temple itself, however, was merely "scorched" on its exterior.

Note 2: Warren Parrish apparently never did give up his claims that Smith's loyalists had burned the printing company. As late as 1842 he says: "their printing-office fell into our hands, which, if they had not consumed by fire, would soon have been speaking the truth..." (July 31, 1842 letter to John C. Bennett, published in his History of the Saints, pp. 46-48), (cf. Parrish's letter to a Campbellite friend, published on Oct. 1, 1838). Parrish's suspicions were confirmed by Joseph Smith loyalist, Benjamin F. Johnson, who years later confessed: "The split in the Church was now so great... that they claimed the Temple, printing office, and everything regarded as church property... The printing office and material which our enemies thought to use to bolster up a church organization opposed to the Prophet was set on fire by Brother Lyman R. Sherman and destroyed." (Autobiography of Benjamin F. Johnson, pp. 29 -30; p. 22 in 1997 reprint). Johnson's confession of the crime having been committed by his brother-in-law is rendered believable by the fact that Sherman was a devoted and trusted follower of Smith. Johnson remained in the Kirtland-Mentor area until mid-1838; Sherman presumably departed with him. The story of the fearful Smith followers burning the newspaper building became a staple of anti-Mormon accounts. Daniel P. Kidder quotes a Kirtland source as saying: "...Smith and Rigdon were fined one thousand dollars each. Their printing establishment, with a large quantity of books and paper, was taken and sold to pay the judgment. On the same night the whole was consumed with fire. set by the Mormons." (Mormonism and the Mormons, 1842, pp. 127-128).

Note 3: If he did order the setting of the fire, Joseph Smith never admitted it. He seems to have very early placed the blame upon Warren Parrish (or at least upon members of Parrish's Kirtland band). In a letter to his loyalists, dated "Far West, Mar. 29, 1838," Smith says: "We have heard of the destruction of the printing office, which we presume to believe must have been occasioned by the Parrish party, or more properly the aristocrats or anarchists..." (LDS History of the Church, Vol. 3, p.10). In his first editorial printed in the resurrected Church newspaper, Smith adds these details: "Perhaps it might be thought by some necessary that we should say something about the affairs of Kirtland, the burning of the printing office here &c. But it is now as in former days. In former days the destroyers of the Saints' property were of the baser sort of mankind, even so it is now. And as the Saints in former days considered a formal notice of them, beneath both their character and standing, so do the Saints in like manner now. Only say as they did, "That gang of the baser sort burned and wasted our property to the utmost of their power" regarding of law, justice, or humanity, and were upheld in their wickedness..." (Elders' Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3 July, 1838). Similar charges were made at the time by Joseph's uncle: "The office of the printing press, which had been attached to the judgment held by Newell, was sold at auction to a dissenter... the "black legs" who bought it were highly pleased, drank a quantity of strong drink and then, because of carelessness or in some way unknown, the office caught fire and burned with everything in it, including copies of The Book of Mormon." (John Smith to Don Carlos Smith, January 15, 1838, as paraphrased and quoted in Donna Hill's Joseph Smith, the First Mormon p. 216).

Note 4: LDS historian Milton V. Backman, Jr. is convinced that the Kirtland "dissenters" burned the print shop: "Actions to force Latter-day Saints to follow their leaders westward followed a common pattern. Dissenters tried to seize Church property. They tried to gain possession of the Kirtland Temple and the church office building which had been constructed next to the temple, which included a school, printing shop and church offices. When they failed to secure title to these properties, the enemy tried to burn the buildings. Although arsonists burned the building adjacent to the Kirtland Temple and tried to destroy it, the stone meeting house was saved by prompt action of the community" ("Flight from Kirtland" in Regional Studies in LDS History Series: Ohio pp. 348-350.) In his earlier history of the Mormons in Kirtland, Backman is just as adamant in his views: "Members and non-members blamed each other for destroying the printing office. Since the Saints had sold the [printing office] property the day before the fire, apostates accused them of burning the building, an accusation that was vehemently denied. The Mormons had been forced to auction the property because of charges of indebtedness brought against the Presidency by Grandison Newell. The Saints insisted that the building had been taken from them unjustly, that their enemies knew they could not retain title to the property, and that their enemies had wanted to stop Mormon publications." (The Heavens Resound pp. 349-350). Backman's logic (as well as the logic of those whom he cites) is rather unclear. The reformers (the religious party then largely in control of Kirtland) had gained possession of the printing office and were reportedly ready to issue publications of their own from that press. Why they might wish to burn their own property and thwart their own publishing plans remains an unanswered question.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 15.                    Thursday, Feb. 22, 1838.                    Whole No. 68.

(Apparently the copy for this date was added to that already prepared for Feb. 15th and the entire contents were issued to the public on Feb. 22nd, but bearing the masthead date of Feb. 15, 1837. See that number for any text cited for Feb. 22.)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 16.                    Thursday, March 1, 1838.                    Whole No. 68.

We have received a communication in reply to that of W. Parish, which appeared in our last, relative to the Mormon affairs, but we cannot admit it in its present shape. We will give the author our reason for refusal, if he will call upon us. With some alterations, it can be made worthy of an insertion.

ERRATA.-- In the communication of Mr. Parish we published last week, several typographical errors occurred. The first name of Mr. Parish should have been "W. Parish." instead of M. Parrish; "John F. Boynton," instead of John Boynton.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 29.                    Thursday, May 31, 1838.                    Whole No. 81.

                          For the Republican.


The citizens of Kirtland have twice within a few short months, been visited by the destructive element of fire; evidently the act of some incendiary, who, reckless of all consequences, deliberately set fire to the Methodist meeting house on the night of the 22d -- exposing the lives and property of many individuals who live in the immediate vicinity. There is no doubt, it was a cool deliberate act. The reckless villain took the precaution to cut the well rope & carry the bucket from the well nearest to the fire, and hide it; the bolt from the pump of another well near by, was also taken, so that had the fire been discovered soon after it was kindled, but a scanty supply of water, could have been procured to extinguish it without going a great distance.

The recent heavy rain, that had fallen, together with the remarkable stillness of the night, probably prevented the destruction of any other building. The atmosphere was hardly ruffled with a breeze, and the blaze ascended to a great height while masses of fire and burning shingles, resembling stars of different magnitudes filled the concave of heaven, as far as the eye could reach.

The darkness of midnight, the terrific glare of a tremendous blaze of fire, reflecting light upon the objects that immediately surrounded, together with the appalling thought that it was the work of human hands, who thus jeopardized the lives and property of his fellow beings, make the countenance of many sad and their hearts to sink within them.

An attempt was also made on the same evening, and probably by the same person or persons, to fire the stone temple. A small bundle of straw, a few shavings, and a brand or coal enclosed, was found tied up with a string, and standing upon the seat which runs from the wall slips on the south aisle to the singers' slips in the south east corner. The bundle was evidently introduced through the window, by breaking a pane of glass, & was found in the morning, the lower end resting upon the seat aforesaid, and the upper against the wall and the panel work which separates the slingers slips from the area below. A few straws only were burned which came in immediate contact with the brand; but to all appearance the fire never kindled into a blaze, and happily no damage was done.

A reward of between 3 and 4 hundred dollars has already been offered for the apprehension and conviction of the reckless villain.

If suspicion rests upon any one, it is only suspicion, and no conclusive evidence of guilt. It is hoped that the love of gain, or the compunctions of conscience will yet prevail and the fiend or fiends in human shape be bro't to condign punishment. It is also hoped that our friends abroad, notwithstanding wickedness abounds here and offences do come, will consider that the majority of our population deeply deplore and deprecate them. We feel a consciousness that we have and will continue to do our duty to ferret out the offenders, and we claim an entire exemption from all blame, while through us offences do not come.
         W. A. COWDERY,
In behalf of the citizens of Kirtland.
Kirtland, May 26, 1838.

Note 1: Warren A. Cowdery's letter was more than just an expression of civic concern voiced by a leading resident of Kirtland after the permanent departure of Joseph Smith. According to the "Kirtland Township Record Book," Cowdery was elected a Justice of the Peace there in 1838.

Note 2: As the Methodist chapel was located a considerable distance north of the Kirtland Temple, it doubtful that the burning of that building would have caused sparks sufficiently damaging enough to have blown over onto the Temple and set that stone building afire. A more reasonable explanation for the arson at the Methodist church is that it was intended as a diversion, whereby Kirtland's Gentile population would have been too occupied in saving that structure from the flames to help rescue a burning Mormon temple.

Note 3: While some later ascribed the attempted burning of the Kirtland Temple to anti-Mormon "persecution," it should be recalled that the Church government and many of the leading loyal Mormons had already departed Kirtland for new homes in Missouri by this time. According to Marvin S. Hill, "Warren Parrish and others in Kirtland had organized a new Church of Christ... they soon gained control over considerable church property, including the temple and printing office..." (Quest for Refuge, p.62). Long before May 22, 1838 the Kirtland Temple was already in the hands of the latter day reformers, who were subjected to far less "persecution" from local non-Mormons than were Smith's "lick skillets" (loyal followers). The Cleveland Herald and Gazette of Jan. 25th stated: "The 'Reformers' are in possession of the Temple, and have excluded the Smith and Rigdon party."

Note 4: Mr. Cowdery was careful not to point the finger of "suspicion" at any one person or party in his account. However, as he was then operating in cooperation with Warren Parrish, it may be assumed that Cowdery shared Parrish's opinion, as voiced on Feb. 5, 1838 (i. e. that Smith and Rigdon felt that their former temple, like their former printing press, "must not at all hazards be suffered to be put in requisition against them.")


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 40.                    Thursday, Aug. 16, 1838.                    Whole No. 92.


For two weeks past we have neglected to call the attention of the public to the advertisement in our paper, of Mr. SLATER, by which it will appear that he has leased the "Temple" erected in Kirtland by the Mormons, for a term of years, which is to be converted into a "Temple of Science," called the "Western Reserve Teachers' Seminary." ...

Note 1: The advertisement mentioned in this article ran in the paper between Aug. 2 and Sept. 13, 1838. It was signed by school officials Nelson Slater and Rev. Truman Coe. Slater had, on or about July 25, leased the building for five years from its Mormon owners, in order to offer a two-year course in teacher education. Horace Steele, editor of the had printed essentially the same information as was in the ad as a handbill for Slater on July 25. Although Slater announced a coming five-year occupation of the upper stories of the temple, he moved his school out of the building before the completion of the first two-year course.

Note 2: According to biographer Phillip R. Legg, Oliver Cowdery had moved back to the Kirtland area by about this time, where he served as secretary of the "Western Reserve Teacher's Seminary and Kirtland Institute. Cowdery also apparently taught some of the classes for Slater's school during its first term (Oliver Cowdery...p. 142). Oliver's brother's Lyman and Warren were both then living in Kirtland at this time and probably provided Oliver a place to stay. The Painesville Republican of Sept. 27, 1838 lists "Lyman Cowdery, Oliver Harmon, and Oliver Granger" as being members of the Kirtland "Vigilance Committee." All three were early Mormons but also opponents of Joseph Smith. Since the Joseph Smith loyalists had been using the Kirtland Temple for Elder's Quorum meetings through Aug. 1838, this lease to Slater may have marked their temporary withdrawal from the Kirtland scene. Oliver's brother Warren and father William were among the latter day "reformers" who were then attempting to secure greater control over the practically abandoned Temple.

Note 3: Although the Western Reserve Teachers' Seminary was promoted by Nelson Slater, its actual founder was Dr. Asa D. Lord, a Presbyterian educator from St. Lawrence county, New York. Lord later served at the supervisor of Marcellus F. Cowdery (Oliver Cowdery's nephew) in the same establishment. As late as 1849 the school was still located in Kirtland.

Western Reserve Teachers' Seminary flyer, c. Aug., 1838


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. II. No. 48.                    Thursday, Oct. 11, 1839.                    Whole No. 100.

From the New York Evening Post.

THE MORMONITES. -- The St. Louis Republican of September, 19th has this extract of a letter from a respectable gentleman of Lexington, in the neighborhood of the Mormon settlement, Missouri:

"Great excitement prevails the other side of the river against the Mormons -- they are all up in arms and have, we understand, this morning had some fighting, which resulted in the killing of a few on both sides. The citizens of Ray County sent a wagon load of arms and ammunition, to the citizens of Daviess for the purpose of defending themselves. On their way out they were captured by a company of Mormons, and taken to Far West. A committee has this morning arrived from the other side asking for men to assist them in the protection of their property."

There was a report circulating along the Missouri river that the Mormonites had fortified their town named Far West, and were determined to hold out. They were stated to be about one hundred strong and well supplied with arms and ammunition.

The Mormonites, it is said, are to be reinforced from Canada. The Booneville Emigrant of September 1th [sic] says:

"We have just conversed with General Wilson, of Howard county, who states that on last Saturday he saw a letter dated on the 7th inst. from a committee of gentlemen in Daviess county, calling on them to raise a force and come to their assistance, and aid them in expelling the Mormons from the county. That the citizens of Daviess had removed their families, and were making preparations for warlike operation; that the Mormons were in a state of open rebellion against the laws, and war between them and the citizens were inevitable; that the people of Daviess had come to the fixed determination of commencing the attack on Saturday last."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. III. No. 2.                    Thursday, Nov. 22, 1838.                    Whole No. 166.



By a slip from the St. Louis Gazette, dated Nov. 1, we are put in possession of the following painful intelligence"

From the Missourian and Republican, as well as our own private advices, we are satisfied that the very worst anticipations in regard to the Mormon difficulties have been realized. A letter to the Governor from an officer in Davies County, makes the following statements:

On the 15th inst. the Mormons were collected in Far West, for the purpose of driving what they termed the mob from Davies. They have plundered, robbed and burned every house in Gallatin, (our county seat,) among the rest our Post Office. They have driven almost every individual from the county, who are now flying before them with their families -- many of which have been forced out without their ordinary clothing; their wives and little children wading in many instances through the snow, even without their shoes. When the miserable families are thus forced from their homes, they plunder and burn their houses. This, they are making universal throughout the county. They have burned for me two houses. Our County Treasurer's Office has also been burned.

The amount of property stolen or destroyed at this time, is not less than $20,000, and the work is still going on."

The following is from the Missourian, printed at Fayette, under date of the 27th ult:

The simultaneous tolling of the bells aroused us from our pillows last night to hear the rehearsal of the most barbarous atrocities. The following letters which were read before the meeting, which speedily assembled in the Court House, embody the principal facts, as succinctly perhaps, as any language which we could substitute -- and we hence submit them without farther comment than that the authors are gentlemen of the first respectability. The meeting last night adjourned to meet again at 9 this morning, for the purpose of organizing and marching this evening or to-morrow.

SNOWDEN'S, Oct. 25, 1838.        

Col. Jones, Sir -- News has just reached us here that the Mormons have attacked and cut to pieces Capt. Bogard's company of 50 men, except three or four who had escaped. They say the Mormon force is 200 or 400. Richmond is threatened to night. If you can spare, I wish you to detail two or three companies of troops, and repair to Richmond will all speed.

Yours in haste,                    
                Aid to General Parks.

CARROLTON, Oct. 25, 1838.        

Gentlemen: News of an appalling nature has just reached us. Capt. Bogard, who was ordered with his company to guard the frontier of Ray county, was attacked and cut to pieces by immense numbers. -- They were overpowered by 3 or 400 Mormons, while they were guarding their own frontier. But five minutes ago, three reports of a cannon were heard in the direction of Richmond. Firing has been heard in various directions, and there is no doubt but that these infatuated villains have attacked Richmond.

The news of their burning and pillage has already reached you. They have indubitably captured the cannon, and taken many prisoners -- probably killed many. Daviess county is a scene of desolation. Ray is probably so ere this time; and their next movement will be at this place. It is already threatened.

Be up and doing. Bring all the men you can, and let us check them in their course of destruction and devastation. They are moving on with great strides to the climax of anarchy, civil war, and desolation. Wolf and Baker will explain all. I have just received orders, by express, from Gen. Brig. Parks, to raise 150 mounted men. Fifty have volunteered, and the remainder I will obtain in a day or two.

Stir the people up in Howard and Chariton. Send all the braces you can with Wolf, and we can meet and check them in their mad career.
                      Yours in haste,
                          WM. CLAUDE JONES.

      To Congrave Jackson and others.

==> We learn that the Governor has ordered out 3,000 mounted men.

Since the above was in hand, we have received the St. Louis Republican of the 1st inst., which says:
"We have conversed with several intelligent individuals from the vicinity of the Mormon disturbances, and whilst we have found it difficult to arrive with any certainty at the truth concerning many things, we are well assured that the hostility is more deeply seated than has generally been supposed, and we feel assured that bloodshed and devastation only will terminate the struggle. -- Every account from that quarter shows an existing state of agitation in the public mind truly alarming. Every stranger is watching with jealousy, and every man compelled to take sides for or against the Mormons. In truth, there appears to be but little division on the part of the citizens, in their opposition. We are told that the two men who laid out the town of De Witt, and, as a matter of speculation, invited the Mormons to buy lots in it, have been given leave to pass through the country three times, after which they are informed that a return there will be dangerous. They have already removed their goods into another county.

So deep and all pervading is the opposition to the Mormons, and so many respectable men have engaged in the attempt to expel them, that we feel satisfied the public are not truly informed of the objections which exist against the Mormons or the circumstances which render them so obnoxious. We hope shortly to be able to develope something more of the causes of this unhappy state of affairs than have yet come to the knowledge of the public."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. III. No. 14.                    Thursday, Feb. 14, 1839.                    Whole No. 118.

THE MORMONS. -- A letter from S. Rigdon, one of the Mormon chiefs confined in the jail at Liberty, Missouri, gives the following affecting picture of the persecutions of this deluded class of fanatics:

"The sufferings, the calamities, the woe and wretchedness of the Mormons is, at this time unknown to the public generally, and not only since the Governor's order, but before. For a length of time before the Governor's order, the Mormons had been scourged by a company of mobbers, who were constantly wasting their property -- gathering together and threatening them and their property with destruction and extermination. The mob which collected in Daviess, immediately subsequent to the election, commenced a general destruction of Mormon property and destroyed before the authorities could disperse it, -- or, rather, before they did disperse it, one hundred head of cattle; and of this number, was the last cow that some poor families possessed. And, while Generals Atchison, Donaphan, and Park were there, the mob boasted that they lived on Mormon beef and Mormon corn. The mob amounted to four or five hundred; and you may judge of the destruction that must have been made of the property of a poor people, who had, but a short time before come into the country. It was the cause of much suffering and distress among the Mormons.

When the mobbers were dispersed at Daviess, they went directly to Carroll county and commenced an attack on the Mormons there, where they obtained a cannon for that purpose. A body of seventy families was closely invested; consisted of men, women and children; living in wagons and tents, not having had time to build houses. A great many sickened and died for want of attention. In this wretched situation they were driven from Dewitt. The same evening, a lady who was sick, died in consequence of moving her, and was buried by the way side, without a coffin,; thus was a family of children, left without a mother. A multitude of children died, because their parents could not take proper care of them. -- Application was made to the Governor for assistance, but he utterly refused to give the least aid."

Note: This open letter was apparently written by Sidney Rigdon sometime between Nov. 30, 1838, when he was first confined at Liberty Jail, and Feb. 5, 1839, when he managed to escape. The wording sounds as if it may have been derived from his Jan. 25th plea for a writ of habeas corpus, presented before the Clay County Court. The same text was published in the Rochester Daily Democrat of Feb. 9, 1839.


Devoted  to  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Manufactures,  Literature,  Mechanic  Arts,  and  Current  News.

Vol. III. No. 16.                    Thursday, Feb., 28, 1839.                    Whole No. 120.

Died in Kirtland, Ohio Feb. 12, 1839, Mr. Asahel Hollister, aged 76 years, formerly from Glastonbury, Conn., a revolutionary pensioner. Mr. Hollister made an early profession of religion, and joined the M. E. Church with which he remained for nearly twenty years, but left them and joined the Latter Day Saints (Mormons) about six years since, and died in the full faith of that doctrine. He has left a large and respectable circle of relatives and friends to mourn the loss of one who was a pattern of piety and Christian benevolence.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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