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Benjamin Winchester - Philadelphia LDS

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PInq Nov 29 '65  |   DEB Dec 15 '65  |   PInq Dec 23 '65  |   PInq Dec 28 '65  |   DEB Jan 13 '66  |   DEB Jan 19 '66  |   PInq Apr 28 '66  |   DEB May 30 '66
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DEB Jul 09 '67  |   EvTel Jul 11 '67  |   DEB Jul 13 '67  |   DEB Jul 16 '67  |   DEB Jul 17 '67  |   DEB Jul 24 '67  |   DEB Aug 02 '67  |   DEB Aug 03 '67
DEB Aug 12 '67  |   DEB Aug 20 '67
DEB Jan 23 '68  |   DEB Feb 27 '68  |   DEB Jun 29 '68  |   DEB Jul 27 '68  |   DEB Aug 06 '68  |   DEB Aug 12 '68  |   AmPr Sep 03 '68  |   DEB Sep 10 '68
DEB Sep 18 '68  |   DEB Oct 03 '68  |   AmPr Oct 08 '68  |   DEB Oct 30 '68  |   DEB Nov 06 '68  |   DEB Nov 28 '68  |   DEB Dec 30 '68  |   DEB Jan 21 '69
DEB Jan 22 '69  |   DEB Jan 28 '69  |   DEB Mar 15 '69  |   DEB Jun 07 '69  |   PPost Jul 09 '69  |   PInq Jul 15 '69  |   EvTel Aug 27 '69  |   PPost Oct 28 '69
PPost Nov 01 '69
EvTel Mar 16 '70  |   PRec Aug 17 '70  |   PInq Aug 24 '70  |   PRec Sep 19 '70  |   NAmr Sep 28 '76  |   NAmr Mar 28 '77  |   PInq Sep 03 '77
PInq Aug 12 '85  |   NAmr Aug 11 '87  |   NAmr Mar 24 '92  |   PInq Dec 01 '95  |   PInq Jul 03 '99

PInq Sep 13 '01  |   PInq Sep 13 '08  |   PInq Mar 12 '13

Articles Index   |   misc PA papers   |   Adams Co. papers   |   PA Quaker papers


Vol. XX.                           Philadelphia,  Monday, January 5, 1846.                           No. 88.

THE MORMONS. --The Sangamo (Illinois) Journal repeats the statement of the New York Tribune's correspondent respecting the Mormons. The coin counterfeited by them consisted principally of imitations of Mexican dollars and American half dollars and dimes, skillfully executed. The quantity issued is said to be immense, $1500 having been paid out at a mill owned by a Mormon in one week for wheat. Three qualities of the spurious money were manufactured, which was sold for 75, 50 and 25 cents for the dollar. That for which the highest price was asked, is said to be so perfect as to escape the most rigid scrutiny of the eye -- the outer coat being of pure silver, and the alloy so completely covered as to prevent detection in any other way than by cutting.

Note 1: The first paragraph the Dec. 25, 1845 Sangamo Journal article reads thusly: "During the last week, twelve bills of indictment, for counterfeiting Mexican dollars, and American half dollars and dimes, were found by the Grand Jury and presented to the United Slates Circuit Court, in session in this city [Springfield], against different persons in and nbout Nauvoo, embracing some of the Holy Twelve, and other prominent Mormons, and other persons in league wilh them. From incidental remarks made by some of the witnesses in private conversation (not before the Jury), -- we are led to believe that a large amount of counterfeit coin of the above description, is, and has been for a long time past, circulating in the Western country -- as the facilities for its manufacture are said to have been quite unequalled. The manner in which the money was put into circulation, was stated. -- At one mill, 1500 dollars of this specie were paid out for wheat in one week. Whenever a land sale was about to lake place, waggons were sent off with the coin, into the land District where such sale was to take place, and no difficulty occurred in exchanging off the counterfeit coin for paper. It was said that the Mormons had three presses for counterfeiting the coin named, and that Joe Smith worked most industriously at the business. In fact, Joe used to boast of his mint. A short time previous to his death, in speaking of the power of his establishment to imitate the coin above named, he was repeatedly heard to say, that it would beat the mint, and seemed with others of his confidential advisers, to exult at their ability to manufacture "land office money" -- that being the term by which the better quality of their issues were distinguished..."

Note 2: W. R. von Wymetal published this undocumented story in his 1886 book: "My parents lived for a time at what was called 'Joseph Smith's Tavern,' in Plymouth, thirty-three miles from Nauvoo, and fifteen miles from Carthage. We children played hide and seek, one day, as we often did. We came, by chance, to an upper room, which Apostle Bill Smith, Joseph's brother, used as a bedroom when he was at the 'tavern.' While running about and trying to hide, we suddenly came upon a long, heavy sack, which we opened and found full of coined money silver and gold. At least, it looked so. We were very happy to become so rich. We little girls put lots of money in our small aprons... Father gave us a severe rebuke... [and] put it back in the sack and buried the sack: He said he would wait till Bill Smith and his comrades would ask him for the money. A few days after, Apostle Bill came to the 'tavern,' and with him came Zinc [sic - Jenk?] Salisbury and Luke Clayborn, both brothers-in-law of Bill. They searched for the money, and, not finding it, invited my father to go coon-hunting with them. My father divined that they wanted to punish him for the disappearance of the money, so he said to them: 'Why don't you tell me, honestly, that you wanted your money?' And so saying he showed them where he had buried the treasure. They took it, and threatened my father that they would kill him if he talked to anybody about it. There was great excitement in the country about this bogus money, and it finally became so intense that the authorities had to interfere. The officers found the machinery, with which the money was made, in Plymouth. Whenever Joseph Smith owed money he paid with this kind of coin."


Vol. III.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, January 7, 1846.                             No. 51.


Indictments against the Principal men.

A correspondent of the New York Tribune, writing from Springfield, Ill., says: --

"The Grand Jury of the United States District Court, now in session here, have for the past week been investigating the state of affairs at Nauvoo. The result is, they have found twelve indictments (mostly against the head men of the Mormon Church,) for counterfeiting the coin of the United States. Among the number indicted are Brigham Young, President of "The Twelve," and Orson Pratt, a prominent leader.

"I learn that the developments are most startling. It appears that counterfeiting has been the principal part of the business there for some years, and that it has been carried on by the heads of the church. The amount of counterfeited has been immense, and the execution has been so nice, as in most cases to prevent its being detected. The prophet, Joe Smith, used to work at the business with his own hands.

"Other disclosures were made in relation to robberies and murders, which have never before been made public, but will be in due time.

"Although these indictments have been found, yet no arrests will be made for reasons which will duly appear, and whether creditable or not to our Executive, the public will judge."

Such stories as these against the Mormons must be received with many grains of allowance for the prejudice and ill feeling existing against them on account of their religion. It is scarcely probable that the prophet Joe should be concerned in counterfeiting coin for a number of years, and the fact not known till some two years after his death.


The Ill. Register contains a letter from Major Warren, who is at Carthage, protecting the Mormons in their departure for the country beyond the Rocky Mountains. The letter is addressed to Governor Ford, and is dated Feb. 12.

"I had an interview with Brigham Young; his wagons were loaded and on the eve od departure for the far West. The Twelve, and they say four thousand, will leave immediately. One hundred wagons I counted on the opposite side of the river in two encampments, and they have six ferry boats running constantly; they expect to get all over and take up the line of march about to-morrow morning. The police have been withdrawn from the city, and my detachment of four men were treated with the greatest respect, and an evident desire manifested to assist us and court our friendship. President Young expressed himself as under great obligation to you and the troops under my command, and desired me to say to you he declared that the indictments against him had been procured by perjury, and that it was your action alone which permitted him and the Mormons to leave the country.

"The temple took fire while I was over the river, and had it not been discovered, five minutes more and it could not have been saved; the fire was in the roof, a large portion of which was destroyed.

"I think it quite likely that I shall be kept busily engaged for some time to prevent thieving, but shall have no collision or difficulty with the Mormons.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XX.                           Philadelphia,  Tuesday, January 13, 1846.                           No. 95.

THE MORMONS. --The Jacksonville Journal says the Governor of Illinois has refused to permit the State militia to execute the warrants against the Twelve Elders, for counterfeiting U. S. coin, until demanded by the President of the United States. A writer in the St. Louis Reporter asserts that the Elders have been guilty of high treason against the United States, in entering into a league with the Indian tribes against this government, at the suggestion of English agents now in Nauvoo, and that thelr project of emigrating to California or Oregon was suggested by the British Government, to which they have bound themselves. He says there is abundant evidence to warrant the arrest and examination of The Twelve on a charge of high treason as well as counterfeiting. Instead of decreasing, it would appear that excitement is on the increase at the City of the Saints. As a great many families are divided upon the subject of going to Oregon, the Lord has endowed them (they say) with the privilege of casting off their legitimate wives, and taking others to themselves. Crime has experienced little or no abatement.

Note 1: In its published proclamation of Jan. 20, 1846, (printed in the nominally dated Times and Seasons of Jan. 15th) the Council of the City of Nauvoo issued this statement: "We venture to say that our brethren have made no counterfeit money. And if any miller has received fifteen hundred dollars base coin in a week, from us, let him testify. If any land agent of ihe General Government has received wagon loads of base coin from us in payment for lands, let him say so. Or if he has received any at all from us, let him tell it...."

Note 2: On the other hand, in late 1845 Apostle Orson Hyde tacitly admitted the counterfeiting of U. S. coin at Nauvoo, and placed the blame upon Elder Sidney Rigdon's followers: "On Sunday, the 1st of September last, Mr. Rigdon delivered his last public sermon... His own language was: '...I will collect a mighty army, and this army is to be composed of saints, worldlings, blacklegs, counterfeiters, bogus makers, but they will be all honorable men, and lovers of liberty. -- With these, I will fight the battles of the Lord... If I do not do this; the Lord never spake by mortal.' Sidney need not deny this; for some five thousand men, women, and children heard him. I also heard him; and he said much more also of the very same stripe: but I suppose he would not like to hear it repeated. The great majority of the people here thought that if such kind of characters were to compose his army, they did not care to enlist. But since the scum of Rigdonism has floated off from this place, taking with it the filth of our population, we hear no more complaint about bogus makers, or counterfeit money..."


Vol. XX.                           Philadelphia,  Thursday, January 22, 1846.                           No. 103.

MORMON INTELLIGENCE. -- The Warsaw Signal of the 7th instant has the following Mormon intelligence:

For the last two or three weeks we have heard various rumors of growing disaffection amongst the great body of the Saints towards the magnates of the Holy City. It has now become apparent that a large and powerful party is organizing in Nauvoo, composed of all the various factions which have from time to time been cut off from the church, in opposition to the Holy Twelve.

This party is daily gaining adherents. The causes of disaffection are various. Some are opposed to the Oregon expedition, and favor Bill Smith's plan of scattering throughout the country -- others desire to remain-others are weary of the tyranny and grasping proceedings of the Twelve, who have stripped them of their property, under pretext that it was needed for the use of the church -- and others are incensed because of the late abrogation of the marriage contract, and the free scope given by authority of the church to the sensual propensities of the people.

Last week we stated that the Saints were receiving their endowment, which consisted in a total abrogation of the marriage contract. Later information confirms, to the fullest extent, this statement. The doctrine is that to those who have received their endowment, all old things are done away and everything has become new. This is taken literally, and applied to marriages and all other contracts.

A new Prophet has arisen in Wisconsin, who it is said, is making considerable inroads into the church at Nauvoo. He has found a new set of plates, which he is translating, and which, according to his own showing, prove incontestibly, that the is the rightful successor to the Prophet Joe. Many of the Nauvoo Saints seem to believe in his mission. The new Prophet opposes the emigration to Oregon.

THE MORMONS. --The Warsaw Signal of the 11th, says that the Mormons "have been crossing the river in a perfect army." About 700 had encamped on Sugar Creek, Iowa. It is supposed that one or two thousand have already started. Major Warren has issued an address to the people of Hancock, enjoining upon them a strict observance of the compromise and encouraging the Mormons to protect themselves, if need be, by powder and ball.

Note: The Baltimore Sun of Jan. 23rd reprinted substantially the same "Mormon intelligence" report from Warsaw, and included these additional lines: "Bill Smith and Elder Adams were in Cincinnati, at the last dates, lecturing on the corruptions and practices of the Mormon church. Several thefts have been committed by the Mormons lately, in the neighborhood of Nauvoo. A Mormon wheat merchant, (i. e. wheat thief), was apprenenaea last week, says the Warsaw Signal of the 31st ult., at Appanoose, and is now safely quartered in the Stone House at Carthage. He had stolen several loads before being detected."


Vol. VII.                          Philadelphia, Monday, January 26, 1846.                          No. 2124.

A MORMON ABDUCTION. -- A Detroit paper says that the daughter of a respectable citizen of Southfield, Oakland county, has been inveigled away by the Mormons, and attempted to be conveyed out of the State, to Nauvoo and thence to California. The father has sued out a writ of Habeas corpus for the arrest of the principal offenders.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, March 4, 1846.                             No. 7.


A new prophet, named Strang, at Voree, Wisconsin, has been acknowledged by one portion of the Mormons as the head of the church. The Mormons are flocking to Vofee in great numbers. It is to be the gathering place of this strange people, except the Twelve and their adherents, now on their way to California, over the Rocky Mountains. James J. Strang is a lawyer of considerable eminence in the West,'and owns an immense tract of land, the eapifal of which is Voree. He is the person, it is said, who went with the Mormons out of Missouri, at the time of their disturbances, planned the Temple at Nauvoo, and wrote the bulletins of Smith, the prophet. This portion of the Mormons will probably settle in Wisconsin. The greater part will go over the Rocky Mountains.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's express Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, March 4, 1846.                             No. ?

THE MORMON REMOVAL. --The Warsaw Signal, of the 18th ult., in speaking of the emigrating Mormons, says: --

The Twelve, who had left the city the week before, on account of a rumor that the Deputy U. S. Marshall was on his way to the city, having ascertained that the rumor was false, have all returned. -- The Saints, however, were still crossing the river, notwithstanding the snow had fallen on Saturday, to the depth of six inches. There have already crossed, about three hundred wagons, and about fifteen hundred persons, most of whom are encamped on Sugar Creek, about seven miles back from the river. So soon as they are ready for the march, the Twelve (all except Page) will join them. -- Page has revolted from the government of his brethren, and declares them usurpers. He is opposed to emigrating, and insists that there is no authority for the present movement. -- The Strangites in Nauvoo are taking advantage of the unsettled state of the Mormons, to create dissensions amongst them. They have now a pamphlet in press at Keokuk, the object of which is to turn the tide of emigration towards Wisconsin. These efforts, together with those of apostle Page, are likely to create considerable division. The Mormons who start in the advance party, are said to be well loaded with provisions, They also take a number of cattle along, on which they can subsist so soon as grass is up. Their course, it is said, will be directly up the Des Moines, in the Indian country, and from thence to the Missouri.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                              Philadelphia, Friday, April 24, 1846.                             No. ?

Interesting Intelligence from Nauvoo,
the Holy City of the Mormons.

We have received the first and second numbers of the Hancock Eagle, a Democratic paper, published in the Holy City of the Mormons. It is edited with considerable ability, and furnishes much matter that is interesting to us in the east. We make the following extracts from that paper of the 10th inst: --

The tide of emigration appears to be setting in stronger and stronger towards California -- the valley of the Sacremento. A party from Pennsylvania, excellently well equipped, passed through our city yesterday for Independence, Mo. We hear of small companies having started from various parts of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. Those from this city are chiefly young men, and we have become acquainted with a good many of the same stamp from other sections of the country.

Monday, Feb. 24 -- Rode twelve miles down the river -- weather intensely cold -- puzzled to account for the conduct of a man sitting on the ice (through which he had cut a hole) busily engaged in washing a pair of naked feet -- fantastic trick -- asked him to explain -- said he had been cheated out of $300 by some men in the town below and was washing the dust (or mud) off his feet in testimony against the place.

A daily communication is established, by steamboats with St. Louis, and the roads throughout the country can be travelled at all seasons.

THE TROOPS. -- We see it stated that the troops under the command of Major Warren, are to be withdrawn from the country on the 1st of June.

We understand that a German company is now on the way hither, who will form a settlement in the country.

"Galena blue pills" is another name for bullets in this region.

The authorities have announced the temple as completed, and that it will be dedicated on the 1st of May. The services of the dedication will continue for three days in succession, commencing on each day at 11 o'clock, A. M.

Some of the "new citizens" already begin to talk of re-christening Nauvoo by some other name. Under its new auspices, the city will probably be re-chartered -- perhaps by the next Legislature.

All the Mormon publications have been discontinued. The Neighbor ceased to exist some months ago, and we hear that the workmen are now engaged upon the last number of the Times and Seasons, which is printed merely to complete the closing volume. If these papers are ever issued again, we suppose they will hail from California.

THE MANSION HOUSE. -- This is the only respectable hotel in this city, and the constant influx of strangers keeps it well filled. Mrs. Smith is still the hostess, and is indefatigable in her exertions to accommodate travellers. The Mansion has been rented by a gentleman from the State of New York, who is expected here in a few weeks to assume the charge of it. -- Mrs. S., who is wealthy, will retire to her private residence, on the banks of the river, and devote her time to the education of her children.

Strangers arrive at Nauvoo by every boat, in considerable numbers, and are purchasing liberally.

Mr. Furniss, one of the new merchants, has purchased the "Seventie's Hall," with a view to its occupation by a Presbyterian congregation.

The river was gradually rising, and there was on the 9th inst., a fair stage of water in the channel above.

A BENIGHTED REGION. -- The bibacious traveller who visits Nauvoo thirsty, will be forcibly struck with one feature in its economy, which may be set down as characteristic of Mormon ignorance. From the centre to the circumference of the city, (so far as we can ascertain by experiment,) a glass of ardent spirits cannot b e purchased at any price. Indeed, we have seen but one drunken man since our arrival -- a speculator in spavined horses, who carried a "pocket pistol." Temperance societies are non est inventus, as they are without a basis upon which to carry on business. The hotels do not keep bars, and "groceries" are not to be seen; we therefore, advise those who propose visiting us, and with whom "steam" is life, to bring their own fixins along with them -- for here, juleps, slings, and coblers are obsolete ideas. It does not appear that there exists any penal enactment against the sale of liquor, or that it would be difficult to procure a license; but as "doggeries" have been discountenanced by men of influence, others are satisfied to dispense with the luxury.

At the rate which new order of beings are gathering here, it is fair to presume that this barbarous state of things will not long continue, as it is supposed that the emigrants now concentrating upon Nauvoo, will bring with them a 'touch of civilization.'

As yet we have neither exchanges, lunches, restaurants, billiard-rooms nor nine-pin alleys. A pack of cards cannot be had for love or money; Gamblers had, therefore, better stand back awhile, until these necessary adjuncts to polished society are introduced.

Nauvoo is behind the age, sure enough!

A Whig paper gives an exceedingly amusing account of "a man hunt," which came off in that county, a few days since. It appears that the sportsmen started up a Mormon, who, after being chased down precipices, through quagmires and into sloughs, at the imminent hazard of his life, finally succeeded in making his escape, by swimming into the current of the Mississippi, (then running with ice) and floating off under the lee of a boat. It seems that a person living on the Rapids, said that he lost some cattle, and suspected certain Mormons, who lived in a hollow hard by. When "the boys" came over, the captain requested them to ride up into the Mormon settlement, and they, wide awake for sport, done as requested. The narrative goes on to inform us, that "the boys" soon started up their timid game, and having singled out an animal gave chase in gallant style. After a beautiful "run" the chase escaped as before stated.

THE "CAMP OF ISRAEL." -- This is the "title and address," which has been adopted by the company of Mormons now on their way Westward. A mail carrier arrived here on Monday last, from the Camp, and reported the pioneer party, or head of the column, as having crossed the tributaries of the Chariton river, over 150 miles distant. By this time, they are probably on the banks of the Missouri. Thus far, every thing has gone favorably, with the exception of the breaking down of a few overladen wagons. The party is in good health and spirits -- no dissentions exist, and the 'Grand Caravan' moves on slowly, but steadily and peacefully. Their progress has been materially retarded by the want of fodder for their live stock -- the grass not having fairly started, reduced them to the necessity of laboring for the farmers on the route, to supply the deficiency. They travel in detached companies, from five to ten miles apart, and, in point of order, resemble a military expedition. We visited the Camp before it broke up, on the opposite side of the river, and, with other strangers, were highly interested in the romantic and exciting display: of border enterprise. It bore the appearance of a moveable town, the wagons and tents being arranged on either side of large streams, and public squares left for the cattle. Our visit was made during the intensely cold weather of February, and notwithstanding the tents were blocked up by snow drifts, and their occupants subjected to the rigor of a hyperborean tempest, the scene presented a cheerful and animated aspect.

It is the intention of at least some of the companies that leave this spring, to halt in the valley of the Sweetwater River, and put in a crop for the subsistence of themselves and others who may follow. Numbers are now on their way from the Eastern States to join the expedition.

Several strangers have arrived at Nauvoo for the purpose of joining the Mormon expedition, although not Mormons themselves. They assign as a reason for this move, that it will be safe to travel with a strong force.

The archives and trappings of the Mormon church have all been removed, and are now on the way to California. In effect, both the church militant and triumphant has ceased to exist in Illinois. The "Twelve" (the soul of the Institution,) have gone; and with them, the acting spirit of Mormonism. Those who are left behind, appear like stray sheep.

A grand Mormon conference is now in session at the Temple, the object of which is to wind up the affairs of the church in that region. The trustees are authorised to lease the temple to any religious society or literary institution for a long term of years.

Prospective Improvement. -- The agent of an Eastern Company has arrived at Nauvoo, for the purpose of selecting a scite for the erection of manufactories. By throwing out a wing-dam into the Mississippi, and cutting a short canal, water powers can be obtained here sufficient to drive all the machinery in the State. A fall of 2 1/2 to 3 feet can be had, with an inexhaustible supply of water at all seasons. The Mormons had a projection on foot to accomplish this, through the aid of an English Company; and if they had not been molested, would have commenced operations this spring. A fund of 150,000 sterling had been already subscribed, which was to have been expended in the erection of factories, the purchase of farms in the vicinity, and in bridging the Mississippi. An engineer, who has examined the locality, says that there is not a spot on the river that will bear a favorable comparison with Nauvoo, in point of eligibility for the establishing of a great manufacturing interest. The idea is not chimerical, that this city will, in time, become the Lowell of the West.

There is not a tobacconist in the "Holy City," or any where near it, and it is thought that a good one might be able to do a fair business there, even if he had to depend upon strangers and those who have but recently moved in.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, April 29, 1846.                             No. 15.


The Hancock Eagle of the 3d inst. contains the following intelligence: -- "As far we can learn, all is tranquil in this country -- the result in some degree, of the precautions adopted by Major Warren. The "orders" issued a few weeks ago appear to have had a salutary effect. The changes that are taking place here, go on quietly and in a proper spirit. We perceive that efforts are being made in a certain quarter, to depreciate the value of real estate here, and discourage strangers from investing. This disposition to throw obstacles in the way of making sales (to say nothing of its dishonesty) is, at this particular time, reprehensible in the highest degree. Every Mormon who can dispose of his home -- even at a ruinious sacrifice -- is anxious to leave, and these attempts to detract from the value of property is calculated to retard and defeat the consummation of a measure earnestly desired by all parties There is not a point on the river where comfortable residences and improved lands can be had on terms as low as they are offered here. As for Nauvoo itself, it is bound to remain an inhabited city. Its local advantages, as a trading and manufacturing town, render an investment here at present prices, safe and sure This fact we shall demonstrate hereafter. Extensive preparations are making for the departure of the next Mormon detachment. Thev will probably get off in about three weeks, and will muster in considerable force. The draft upon travelling vehicles has been so great, that they are now scarce and in high demand. Most of the artificers in wood and iron are busily engaged in tinkering up wagons for emigrating outfits. The company now on the march are working their way westward by degrees. Their unwieldly numbers and overladen conveyances operate as a material drawback upon their progress, in addition to which, they are compelled to halt every few miles and work tor the fanners on the route, in order to procure fodder for their live stock. The grass not having fairly started, entails upon them the necessity of providing a substitute, for which they pay in labor. They are in good spirits, and work together harmoniously. No discord exists in the camp and thus far all has gone favorably. The masons will resume operations on the Nauvoo House in a few weeks, and hasten that magnificent structure to a speedy completion. When finished, it will surpass any edifice of the kind in the State, for beauty of location, architectural design and extent of accommodations."

We learn from the Nauvoo Eagle (Anti-Mormon) that all the Mormon publications have been discontinued. The archive and trappings of the church have been removed and are now on the way to California. The Church (says the Eagle) has ceased to exist; the "Twelve" have gone, and with them the acting spirit of Mormonism. Camp of Israel is the name which the advance company of Mormons have assumed. The latest accounts from them state that they had reached the head-waters of the Chariton. They were travelling slow, and their stock was much reduced from want of food.The trustees of the temple offer to lease it to any religious society, or literary institution.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's express Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, April 29, 1846.                             No. ?

JAMES J . STRANG: -- This is the gentleman who claims to be the rightful successor of the immaculate Jo Smith, and proves the claim by a letter under Jo's own hand, acknowledging him to be the Holy successor. This letter is said to be genuine, being in Jo's handwriting, and post marked at Nauvoo and Chicago. He owns an immense tract of land at the to-be Holy City of Voree, in Wisconsin. Great numbers of Mormons from all parts of the country, particularly from Nauvoo, are going thither, and a few years will see Voree what Nauvoo is now.

The people of Northern Illinois have determined that all the Mormons, of every clique shall leave the State, there are now three principal cliques of Mormons 1st. the 'Twelve-ites,' who are moving off somewhere to the west, with the most corrupt portion of the church, now called the 'Camp of Israel!' 2. The 'Rigdonites,' who are locating their 'Zion' near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. They acknowledge Sidney Rigdon, Esq., as their leader and prophet. They include in their number, it is said, many excellent men, and estimable citizens, who left the Twelveites in consequence of their 'spiritual wife doctrine' and other abominations. 3. The 'Voree Mormons,' who acknowledge James J. Strang, Esq., as their prophet and Imperial Primate, and who consider the beautiful 'City of Voree' as the El Dorado of their hopes. This portion of the church is evidently the most orderly and law-abiding, and includes most of the talent and virtue of that people. They are rapidly increasing in numbers, and most of the churches out of Nauvoo have declared for 'Strang and Voree;' and 'Voree, Wisconsin.' is to be the 'great gathering place,' of the sincere and virtuous portion of the "Latter Day Saints." The 'Voree Herald,' is their reveille on the watch-tower of Zion to wake up the slumbering world. It is said that the 'Smith family' have given in their adhesion to the new and talented prophet, Strang, and will go up to Wisconsin.

THE MORMONS. -- The old settlers of Henderson county, in Illinois, were to hold a county meeting on the 18th inst., to take into consideration the propriety of suffering the Mormons to settle in that county. It appears that large numbers of this people have, within the past year been leaving Hancock county, and settling in Henderson. The people have taken alarm lest the scenes of Hancock might be re-enacted in their county.

MORMON INCENDIARIES. -- Several Mormon preachers have removed their families to the "Cross Timbers," and then returned to the Creek Nation, and are endeavoring to excite the Indians of that tribe against the citizens of Missouri. Such conduct should be met with the severest punishment. The Creek Agent will inquire into the facts.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 6, 1846.                             No. 16.

Trouble  among  the  Mormons.

From intimations in Western papers it is probable that there will be another disturbance between some of the citizens of Illinois and the Mormons remaining in the State. The Governor either has or is about to disband the troops who have been protecting the peace of Hancock county until the Mormons had removed, and we now see calls for public meetings of the citizens appearing in the newspapers. The following notice we find in the Quincy Whig:
"Anti-Mormon Meeting! -- As the troops are about to disband in Hancock county, by order of the Governor, a meeting of the citizens of Adams county will be held al the Court-house in Quincy on Thursday evening, at half past 7 o'clock, to consider the subject of the removal of the Mormons from this State.
Quincy, Ill., April 21,1846."           
A large portion of the Mormons evince an unwillingness to move -- in fact, extreme poverty prevents them -- and the old citizens of Hancock are already preparing to compel their departure. The Quincy Whig says:
"We understand that Gov. Ford is determined that the Mormons shall comply with the agreement entered into by that people with the State authorities last fall, viz: as soon as water run and grass grew this spring the Mormons were to leave the state. That has arrived, and the Mormons are given to the first of May to fulfil their agreement. If after that time the Mormons still remain in the State, the Governor will not be accountable for the outrages that may be the consequence."
This is a villainous intimation. It is not enough that the Governor lends his authority to the illegal acts by which these people were driven from the State, but he is to be exonerated from all censure if now that their numbers are greatly reduced by emigration, the few who remain are to be the victims of a lawless mob. This is a shameful state of things.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 13, 1846.                             No. 17.

THE MORMONS. -- The Nauvoo Eagle contains the proceedings of a meeting of citizens, who have recently purchased property in Nauvoo and the surrounding country. A preamble and resolutions were adopted to secure further time for the removal of Ihe Mormons, as it was impossible for them to leave at the time designated. The resolutions set forth that a large body of the Mormons had already gone, that their Church organization has been broken up, and that the "Twelve," with the leading men, have also left, while those who yet remain are using the most strenuous efforts to remove. A disposition is manifested in Hancock and the adjoining counties, to drive the remaining Mormons out of the State.

We gather the following items of local intelligence at Nauvoo from the Hancock Eagle of the 24th ultimo.
Dedication. -- From all accounts the dedication of the Temple, which comes off on the first day of May, is to be a grand and imposing ceremony, and will wind up the religious festivals of the Mormons in this State. Those who have any curiosity to witness their religious services, will have a last opportunity of so doing on this occasion. In addition to the sacred rites to be performed at the Temple, there will be a kind of a fair held in the adjoining grove, for the disposal of all manner of household articles, preparatory to removal. Immediately after the closing of the religious rites, the great camp now forming on the opposite side of the river will move off.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, May 15, 1846.                                No. 43.

From California, -- Captain Fremont and his party are now in California. In February he visited the U. S. Consul in Monterey. While there the Prefecto wrote to Mr. Larkin to inquire what business Captain Fremont could have here. He was informed, to find out the most practicable route to the Pacific, and that his party were not United States soldiers. This latter supposition had caused much excitement. Reports have reached as, that the "Mormons" have found another leaf of their Bible, that gives them California as the promised land, and that the Holy Temple and City in Missouri [sic - Illinois?] are for sale.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 27, 1846.                             No. 19.

Late from Nauvoo --
More Persecution against the Mormons.

Late from Nauvoo -- More Persecution against the Mormons.

We learn from an extra of the Hancock (Illinois) Eagle of the 12th, that great fears were entertained in that quarter of further violence at the hands of the mob of Anti-Mormons. The notorious Williams, he who was accused of the murder of the Smiths, has called on his followers to expel the Mormons at once. In view of this state of things, [Maj. Warren has issued] a proclamation warning the people of Hancock county against any act of aggression, and expressing the determination to protect the Mormons at all hazards. Maj. W. thinks that they will all be removed, if left unmolested, in a few weeks. It appears that ten thousand Mormonshave already left the State, and that the rest are following as fast as possible, and yet a disposition is manifested to attack them. A Mormon of near sixty years of age, had been taken from his horse and severely scourged, and attempts were made to muster military companies to harass the Mormons. The firmness and promptness of Major Warren, we hope, may strike terror to the outlaws and preserve peace.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                              Philadelphia, Friday, May 29, 1846.                             No. 25.

THE MORMONS. -- The St. Louis Republican says, that the number of Mormons who left Nauvoo during the week ending the 14th inst., may be set down at thirteen hundred and fifty souls. The number of "new settlers" is estimated at two hundred heads of families. Three-fourths of the improved property on the "flat," has changed hands; on the hill, the proportion of sales is not so great. Very few farms remain unsold. The Hancock Eagle makes the total number of teamsnow on the opposite side of the river about fourteen hundred. They are designed to accommodate from seven to eight thousand persons. Some of them have pushed forward to the Des Moines river, and some are encamped on Sugar creek, but the slopes of the hills and the prairie opposite Nauvoo, are still dotted with clusters of tents and wagons. The Eagle thinks that twelve thousand have left the State, and that in a few weeks, it may be announced that "the Mormons have left the State."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, May 29, 1846.                                No. 55.

FOR CALIFORNIA. -- The St. Louis Republican has the following letter, dated
Indian Country, 20 miles West of Independence, Mo.                
May 10, 1846.                
The company bound for California is composed of as much intelligence and respectability, certainly, as ever wended their way to a new country, and the integrals are representatives from almost every State in the Union. I was just visited by a gentleman and lady each, who came from the widely separated States of Louisiana and Pennsylvania. We have, also, clergymen, lawyers, physicians, painters, and mechanics of every trade, including some jolly printers.

We will wait here for all the emigrants to come up, when we will organize, and begin in earnest our long journey, which will probably be accomplished by Monday evening, so as to admit of our final departure on Tuesday morning.

The emigrants are provided with every comfort necessary for a six months' trip, and the mode of travel is in light wagons, universally drawn by oxen, and usually about three yoke to a wagon.

It is impossible inform any thing like an accurate idea of our number, but it is very large -- far more than I had dared to hope; I can now count from my present humble seat, over one hundred wagons, and estimating each wagon to contain five souls, we have at this encampment at least five hundred persons -- all bound for California. The number, I think, cannot fall short of one thousand.

The Oregon fever has abated, and I think the number cannot be large that will strive for a place in the debateable land.

I have just received a letter from Colonel Kearney, at Fort Leavenworth, to whom I sent an express to know something of the Mormons, who are crossing the Missouri river in great numbers at St. Joseph. He informs me that at least two thousand have actually passed, and that others are daily crossing. He represents them as well provided with all needful munitions of war, including a train of artillery but thinks that they have no hortile intentions towards us, unless it be to Governor Boggs, whom he desires me to caution to be on the alert.

I design to treat them with proper courtesy, but if they will not receive our passing friendship, why they must take their own course, but they cannot bully this crowd without paying a price that even a Mormon will not relish. But I do not expect any trouble whatever with them, and it is, therefore in bad teste to comment about it.

My mess consists of Messrs. Edwin Bryant, late editor of the Louisville Courier, who is preparing to write a book, and a good one may be expected; and also sons of John I. Jacob and Doctor Ewing, of Louisville; and, as the Yankees say, two helps.

PENNSYLVANIA MORMONS FOR CALIFORNIA. -- Several families of Mormons, numbering between forty and fifty persons, arrived at St. Louis last week on board the steamboat Denizen. They are from Chester and Schuylkill counties, Pennsylvania, and go to Nauvoo for the purpose of joining the companies that are going from that point. They appear of the better sort of people, intelligent looking, and, from all appearances, are posessed of some property.

Note: A more complete reprint of the Missouri Republican article appeared in the New York Herald of May 28th, accompanied by a follow-up letter dated May 11th.


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, June 3, 1846.                             No. 20.

The  Mormons.

The St. Louis Republican of the 16th inst. has the following information of the attempt of the lawless, to over awe the authorities stationed to protect the Mormons while preparing for their departure:

We learn from a gentleman direct from Nauvoo, that Major Warren's proclamation of Tuesday, the 12th inst., to the citizens of Hancock county, was, as we supposed, issued upon the proceedings of the meeting held on Saturday, the 9th, at Pontoosuc. That, on the day following, the Major received two letters, we presume anonymous, from Carthage, advising him and his command, to leave the city of Nauvoo by the 15th -- yesterday -- or that, in the event of a non-compliance, it might be worse with him. In other words, if we understand the purport of the letter correctly, it was a plain intimation of a disposition to second the proceedings of the Pontoosuc meeting; enter the city on the 15th, and drive out and destroy the property of all the Mormons who remained. We understand that Major Warren was preparing to meet the emergency, and our knowledge of the man justifies the belief that he will not swerve from his position or purpose, for any slight opposition.

Note: The New-York Daily Tribune of May 27th reprints this same news item, and adds the remainder of the Republican's article: "We are told that the order for the removal of O. P. Rockwell from the Quincy jail to Carthage, where the Court is to meet next week, has been countermanded, and the probability is that the Court will not be held. -- Strang, the successor of Joe Smith, as is claimed by his followers, and the High Priest at Voree, Wisconsin, gives the following advice to his followers who are yet about Nauvoo and in that vicinity. This man Strang, from what we have been able to learn of his movements and purposes, has more means and ability than any other man who has yet aspired to the supremacy of the Church. His previous experience and individual means give us reason to expect that he will also be eminently successful, but the proposition to move to some place West of the Rocky Mountains has an uncertainty and an air of romance about it that carries with the proposition of the Council of Twelve the great mass. They seem not to know or care for the trials and privations which await them.

TO THE SAINTS IN HANCOCK COUNTY. -- Beloved Brethren: As many inquiries have been made of me, by letter and otherwise, what you ought to do in your present perils, especially in regard to disposing of your lands there, and gathering to Voree, I hsve thought proper to address this public epistle to you all. Where you have doubtful and uncertain titles to your lands it is advisable that to avoid litigation and violence you sell them at what they will fetch; and that you prefer to sell on the same terms to the adverse claimant, rather than any other person, because that will leave peace behind you, as well as bring it with you. Where your titles are good, continually offer the lands for sale at prices decidedly moderate, until you get a bargain; but don't give away your lands. If you cannot sell at all, rent your lands on the best terms you can; so that they are taken care of, and you have means to come to Voree. If you have not the means to come to Voree, but can move part way, take the Mississippi route; seek employ in the mineral country; or the Illinois route and seek employ on the Illinois and Michigan canal, and among the farmers, till you can gather with your brethren. -- But if you cannot in any honest way get the means of leaving Hancock county, go to work there, like industrious, peaceable citizens. Come as soon as you are able; but, until then, neither fight nor run. If men put torches to your houses don't run from them. Non-resistance is a stronger defence than all the artillery on earth. If your enemies smite you on one cheek, turn to them the other. -- In selling lands you may consider good cattle and horses, fit for immediate service, as good as cash at six months. All kinds of property is good at its value at Voree, except guns and watches. We are too poor to purchase watches, and too peaceable to need guns, and neither will buy land or unbelievers. Nearly all kinds of personal property which you may have on hand will bear transportation to this place. -- Voree, April, 1846.   JAMES J. STRANG."


Vol. XXI.                        Philadelphia,  Saturday, June 6, 1846.                        No. 81.

The  Mormon  Movements.

The Hancock Eagle of the 22d is filled nearly with notices of the Mormon movements, and the disorderly doings of those opposed to them. Major Warren seems disposed to act with vigor against the Anti-Mormons, and has checked the anticipated outbreak.

The Eagle says: --

"We are satisfied from documentary proof, as well as the evidence of our own senses, that an attempt to sack and burn this city (Nauvoo) has been staved off by Major Warreb, and we believe that there are not ten men in the State of Illinois who would have taken his place and risked the consequences."

The 15th of May, the day that violence was anticipated, passed off quietly. The Antis could not get up a meeting respectable in numbers and abandoned their designs. The fact is, the Anti-Mormon party has separated into two distinct sections, and the views of one section is diametrically opposed to those of the other. All the respectable members of the party are averse to violence and appear satisfied with present prospects. The mobocrats, who number about one tenth of the whole, are for a row and a fight, either with or without justification.

Judge Crane, formerly of Henderson county, who has purchased Mormon property and moved into Hancock, was formally notified by the mob to "clear out." The Judge and his son came into town a few days ago for arms, and the probability is that he will not relinquish his property without a contest.

Rockwell (who was brought from Quincy,) was arraigned on Wednesday and took a change of venue to Jo Davies' county. He will be tried at the next term in Galena.

Major Warren is on duty at Carthage with part of his command. Sheriff Pitman, of Adams county, has Rockwell in charge, and will return with him to Quincy immediately.

A large majority of the Mormons have already left the State, and those who still remain are husbanding their resources and working hard in order to procure an outfit.

Much of the Mormon property has been improved by an expenditure of great labor and considerable sums of money, and as they have been compelled to sacrifice it for less than one third its real value and throw away the result of years of industry, it may be supposed that the parting is not without reluctance. All have resolved to leave, however, and those who are yet amongst us but await the transfer of property to get away The poor will have to rely upon the means to be derived from the sale of church estates, and collections from abroad. It is to be presumed that in due time facilities will be provided, and the people ot Illinois may rest assured that they will all leave with the utmost despatch, as opportunities are a affrded them for so doing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, June 17, 1846.                             No. 22.

Important Rumor -- Collision between
Mormon and California Emigrants.

The officers of the Radnor, which steamboat arrived at St. Louis on the 2d, from the Missouri river, reports that a messenger arrived at Kansas, from the plains, while they lay there, who stated that a collision had taken place between the party of Mormons, now einigraiiiig to California, and Gov. Boggs' party journeying to the same destination. In the encounter, Boggs and several of his company were killed. The last intelligence we had from the plains spoke of a threat which had been made against the California emigrants by the Mormons, and that in consequence Boggs was about to return to Missouri. This may have given rise to the report of a collision. A few days will bring us more particulars, if the messenger's story be true. The settlers at Kansas were arming to go out to the assistance of the emigrants. There was an old grudge against Gov. Boggs on account of his conduct toward the Mormons while in Missouri. The story of the collision we think is very doubtful.

Note: The above report was probably copied from a St. Louis newspaper published between June 5th and 7th (see online transcriptions, pages 548-550 in: Dale L Morgan's Overland in 1846: Diaries and Letters of the California-Oregon Trail, Vol. 2)


Vol. XIII.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, June 18, 1846.                                 No. ?

THE MORMONS -- EMIGRATION, &c. -- We extract the following paragraphs from the Hancock Eagle, of the 4th inst., published at Nauvoo, Illinois: --

The limited number of Mormons in this county, continue their preparations for departure. One hundred and forty-six teams have crossed the river at this place since the date of last week's report by the troops, and a large number have been ferried over at Fort Madison. Many are leaving in steamboats, and as far as we can judge by observation, the number of Mormons who depart by this con-veyance, about equals that of the new settlers who arrive. We perceive that most of those who now cross the river with their teams push directly forward for their destination. -- With two or three exceptions the camps on the Iowa side have disappeared, and we understand that the road to the Des Moines river is literally thronged with waggons and cattle. At the rate they now move, it will take them near a year to reach the Pacific.

THE TEMPLE. -- Negotiations have been resumed for the sale of this magnificent edifice, and from the tenor of the correspondence that has taken place, we should not be surprised to hear, in a few weeks, that a bargain has been concluded. The Mormons are determined to part with it, and desire that bids may be sent in without delay.

NAUVOO SEMINARY. -- We understand that some of our most enterprising new citizens design forming themself into a company, with a capital of 1000 dollars, for the purpose of securing the Arsenal, with a view to its conversion into a seminary. The building is admirably adapted to the purpose, and its location is upon the most beautiful site that could be selected. It is proposed to create a joint stock company with shares of $10, and it is believed that the measure can be consummated without difficulty.

The Eagle says: -- If we are not very much deceived by appearances, we think we may now safely congratulate the people of Illinois upon a restoration of tranquility, and the prospect of permanent peace in Hancock county. The evils which led to the warefare are rapidly disappearing, and there seems no good reason to doubt but that in a short time all causes of strife will have been entirely removed. A peaceful and bloodless termination of the differences which have so long distract-ed this section of the State, is to be desired by every good citizen; and from all that we can see or hear, this is likely to be the result.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, June 24, 1846.                             No. 23.


The Hancock Eagle announces the restoration of tranquillity to that neighborhood. Maj. Warren's troops left for Quincy last week, to be mustered into the U. S. service. New settlers are fast arriving at Nauvoo, and the city of the Mormons will soon be filled with an industrious and christian population. The Mormons are anxious to sell the temple immediately, and the Eagle expresses the opinion that a sale of it will be concluded in a few days. There are a number of thieves in the neighborhood, will continue their depredations, in the absence of an efficient police. The new settlers have held a meeting for the purpose of organizing an adequate police, and for starling schools. The Eagle says:

The limited number of Mormons left in this county continue their preparations for departure. One hundred and forty-six teams have crossed the river at this place since the date of last week's report by the troops, and a large number have been ferried over at Fort Madison.

Many are leaving in steamboats, and as far as we can judge by observation, the number of Mormons who depart by this conveyance about equals that of the new settlers who arrive.

We perceive that most of those who now cross the river with their teams, push directly forward for their destination.

With two or three exceptions, the camps on the Iowa side have disappeared, and we understand that the road to the Des Moines river is literally thronged with wagons and cattle.

At the rate they now move, it will take them near a year to reach the Pacific.

If the Mormons do not starve upon the way-side before they reach Mexico, they will come off better than we anticipate. The last accounts from the "Camp of Israel," represent their condition as anything but comfortable. Provisions were becoming scarce, and an additional supply could not be procured. A small portion of their whole number only have as yet crossed the Missouri river.

SUFFERING MORMONS. -- Numerous parties of the poorer portion of the Mormons were, at last dates, encamped along the Mississippi, in a most destitute and suffering condition. They had been unable to gain the main body of their sect, and turned back, subsisting on roots. These bands are so abject that they no longer excite indignation; in many instances their wants have been liberally relieved.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Thursday, June 25, 1846.                          No. 2254.


The history of the Mormon delusion from its origin up to the present period, is most discreditable able to the country, It is humiliating that so absurd an imposture could have found in the American character, material for its operations; and that the grossness of its impious mummery, and the guilt of its abominable practices, were insufficient to check its progress, The insanity and guilt of Mormonism appear to have but one equal -- and that is anti-Mormonism. If the Mormons have mocked at religion, outraged law and discarded all sense of morality or even of decency in their daily and avowed practices; their foes have managed to emulate, with singular ardour, their example. Upon the pretext that Mormons are hostes humani generis, they hunt them down like wolves. The constitutional rights of that most unfortunate body of citizens, the more unfortunate because so lamentably misguided, are set at naught. A convention is held, and the people, with all the formal solemnity of legal right, deree that another body of the people, amounting to many thousands, possessing equal rights, shall be stripped of their property and driven from the land. This decree, itself a crime against the laws of the land, is respected by the government, and obeyed by the victims. The Mormons prepare for flight; and the government sends a body of troops to carry out peacefully the judgment of the robber convention. Modern times have no parallel for such a movement. A numerous, wealthy and powerful people expatriated by force, on account of their religion; -- and this in a land of religious liberty and laws! The State is bound to protect the Mormons; if the State cannot, the General Government is pledged to do it; and not a drop of American blood but must, if necessary, be poured forth to maintain that first and most vital principleof American constitutional liberty. The persecuted wretches, with heavy hearts, submit. What can they do but submit? The parties that used them while their votes were necessary, discard them. The rights which the constitution secures them are revoked by a popular convention; and not a citizen is found, in or out of office, who dares to rebuke the outrage. The emigration of this whole people -- the abandonment of their land, their homes, and their temple -- and their march with their women and children into a howling wilderness, to seek refuge from American religious liberty -- will not be forgotten. History will record it, and many a cheek wilI crimson with patriotic blush when the tale of wrong and outrage is hereafter retraced. The pure and pious men who drove them out, appropriated their land, houses and property: but they are not yet content. By the late intelligence, it seems that the poor remnant of the Mormons who had been unable to share the flight of the mass of the people, are to be driven forth or massacred; their temple to be razed to the ground, and all trace of their existence to be obliltrated. And such, unquestionably, will be the result. Were these the outrages of an ordinary riot, while we might condemn them with emphasis, we would not regard them as leaving a stain upon the nation. But the movement has been made by a formal convention, which, rising above the constitution, adopted a revolutionary remedy for a real or alleged evil; and that revolutionary remedy, though a violation of the National as well as State Constitution, has been, in effeet, adopted, and carried out by the State government. Now whither may not a precedent so fearful, a wrong so mad and guilty, lead us! What are American rights? What does religious liberty mean? The poor, benighted and guilty multitudes of the Moloch Mormon are driven forth today: whom to-morrow? The truly just will do no evil that good may come; the truly free will will imvade no right to reach a wrong.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Friday, June 26, 1846.                          No. 2255.

Later from Nauvoo.

An extract from the Nauvoo paper, dated Sunday, 14th inst., contains further particulars respecting the lawless proceedings in Hancock county. The company of Old Citizens were embodied in a force of about 400 strong with a view to enforce the removal of the Mormons. The New Citizens of Nauvoo, including a considerable number of Germans, have taken up arms, and have a force of about 600 men prepared to resist the anti-Mormons. The anti-Mormons were embodied at Golden's Point, four miles from Nauvoo. Apprehensions of a battle were entertained.

The new settlers who resist the proceedings of the anti-Mormons are by them denounced as Jack Mormons, and are charged with encouraging them to remain in the country; but the New Citizens declare that they take up arms to defend themselves and their property. Warrents have been issued for the apprehension the anti-Mormon party, and this will probably add fuel to the flame. The people in Nauvoo apprehend an attempt to burn theTemple, and express a determiuation to resist it. Great and violent excitement prevails.

A postscript at 3 o'clock on Sunday states that the party menacing Nauvoo had dispersed with the avowed intention of assembling in strong force at Carthage.

The great odium that attaches to Backenstos and other active Jack-Mormons, is a principal cause of the violence that prevails among a portion of the people. If they should succeed in [remainder of clipping illegible]

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                             Philadelphia, Monday, June 29, 1846.                          No. 81.

Mormon  Affairs.

An extra from the office of the Hancock Eagle, dated the 15th inst., contains an address of a "Committee of Public Safety," appointed at a meeting of the new citizens of Nauvoo, to the people of Illinois, in relation to the state of affairs in Hancock County. The address is couched in a firm but respectful language, and, while it ascribes no improper motives to a portion of those who are engaged in the crusade against the Mormons, it thinks there are others with objects in view which are neither humane, just or patriotic. The address introduces the affidavit of Thomas Moffett, Jr., to show that he was forced to take part with the Anti-Mormons in their excesses, in order to save himself from being compelled to leave the State, or else be killed. It is also charged that many others have been compelled to adopt the same course, from the apprehension of being stigmatized and driven from their homes. It is said that the Mormons are departing as fast as they can be ferried over the river, and faster than is consistent with their means of subsistence or their safety. Hundreds of [families] are now on the prairies, houseless and unprovided with the necessaries of life, or means upon which to rely for a week's journey. The address expresses a willingness and an anxiety to see the Mormons removed, and this will be done as soon as it possibly can, consistent with the dictates of humanity. They declare that the number of Mormons yet among them is inconsiderable, when compared with the number who have gone, and that they have the power and the will to remove them as soon as they manifest a disinclination to remove themselves. This they have not yet done. Having stated at much length the reason for their actions, they declare:

That inasmuch as our own interests are interwoven with the safety of all the property in the city, we are determined that not one stone of any public edifice shall be illegally or wantonly removed as long as we have an arm to prevent it, and (as it has been openly and publicly asserted at different times and in various places,) the city of Nauvoo is doomed to be burnt down and laid desolate, we are resolved to fall with it. The armed force which has been arrayed within five or six miles of the city, adjourned yesterday with the declared intention of appealing to the "nine surrounding counties" for reinforcements, and if the assertion of no inconsiderable portion of them can be believed, we are at this moment in danger of an invasion, having for its avowed object the destruction of the city.

Ithis emergency the new citizens, in council assembled, now appeal to the friends of order throughout the State, and have instructed a committee to visit the nine counties which were represented in the Cartnage convention last fall, to lay betore the citizens thereof a true statement of the case, and solicit their cooperation, with us in our endeavors to restore tranquillity. We have declined, absolutely, to negotiate with any body of armed men assembled without the sanction of law, and only claim a right, in common with other honorable citizens, of managing our own local affairs, and of an exemption from the dangers of illegal violence.

In conclusion, we beg leave to caution the people against the misrepresentations which have been circulated for the purpose of exciting a prejudice against the city and its new inhabitants. The charge that a portion of the new citizens are endeavoring to prevent, or have persuaued any of the Mormons from leaving is untrue.

It is equally untrue that any of the Mormons who have left, are returning to the city. They are still leaving as fast as the ferries can transport them across the river, and have manifested no intention whatever of re-establishing themselves in Naavoo. Such reports are probably raised for the purpose of adding to the excitement, and it is to be hoped that the people will not suffer themselves to be imposed upon by similar fictions.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, July 1, 1846.                             No. 24.

The War Against the Mormons.

The following from the Warsaw Signal Extra, brings down the proceedings of the Anti-Mormons to Sunday night, 16th inst.

Sunday, 12 o'clock, M. -- We are again called on to announce that the county of Hancock is the theatre of war. Two opposite and hostile forces are now in arms, and unless a third party intervenes a collision is inevitable.

On Friday last a large number of citizens assembled at Carthage, armed, and after a conference with a committee of the new citizens resolved to march within four miles of Nauvoo, encamp, and negotiate further on the propriety of entering the city. Accordingly, yesterday, a large force was put in motion and rendezvoused at Golden's Point, five miles South of Nauvoo. Here they were met by a committee of new citizens, and sundry propositions were made and discussed.

The committee of the new citizens returned to Nauvoo last night, and made a report; but in the meantime, Backenstos, who had been absent, arrived in the city, and by the aid of the remaining Mormons, overturned all amicable arrangements, and hooted at the committee and the proposition submitted by them. He declared he would "take the field and put down the mob." Accordingly he enrolled a posse, which, to the best accounts, is about 500 strong, many of the new settlers of Nauvoo being forced into the ranks, and a large number of Mormons who were encamped on the other side of the river having returned to assist in driving the Anti-Mormons from the field. This state of facts having been ascertained at the camp, at Golden's Point, a counsel was called, and it having been ascertained that the men were supplied with but about five rounds of cartridges and one day's provision, it was resolved to retreat to Carthage, increase their supplies, collect the artillery in the neighborhood, reinforce their men, and march again for the accomplishment of their object. The Anties did not anticipate any resistance at the time the expedition was started, and, hence, did not make adequate preparations to meet an emergency, such as arose after arriving at Golden's Point.

The anti-Mormon forces number about 400, and reinforcements are hourly arriving. The Mormons are gaining recruits from the opposite side ot the river, and will number probably number 600 to 800 by the time the Anties can take the field again.

Citizens of the surrounding counties, we present to you the facts as they are, and we now ask of you to redeem the pledges made by you through your delegates in the Carthage Convention last October. A mere attempt to make a display for effect has been resisted by the Mormons, and they are still so strong in Hancock that it will be difficult to overcome them in their strong hold without the aid of our neighbors. If the Anti-Mormons fail now, all is lost! Will you assist us now while the crisis is imminent -- or will you suffer this horde of villains and cutthroats again to gain the ascendant in Hancock?

The rendezvous is at Carthage, and to that point every anti-Mormon in this and surrounding counties should repair instanter, taking with him a good supply of provisions and ammunition.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, July 8, 1846.                             No. 25.

THE MORMONS IN IOWA. -- The Mormons, it appears, are not to be exempt from persecution until they flee into California. We see by the St. Louis Reporter, that on the 8th instant a public meeting was to be held in Davies' County, in that State, for the purpose of sending a suitable delegation to the Mormon encampment in Iowa, immediately north of that county, to ascertain the designs of the Mormons. The Mormon leaders, it is said, have put 1200 acres of land at that point under cultivation, and they are regarded as hostile in their feelings and purposes. This, we suppose, is the branch of that people who refused to emigrate to California.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Saturday, July 18, 1846.                          No. 2273.

ORIGIN OF MORMONISM. -- The Albany Evening Journal gives the following account of Joe Smith's early operations.

Joe Smith, previous to his becoming a Prophet, was a "Loafer." He resided near the village of Palmyra, spent most of his time in bar-rooms, and seemed only anxious to live along from "hand to mouth," without work. He was then remarkable for nothing in particular, but indolence, and scheming on a small scale. In 1824 or 1825, he went a vagabonding off into Western Pennsylvania, where, nobody knows how, he got possession of the manuscript of a half-deranged clergyman, with which he returned to Palmyra, where he pretended that he was directed in a dream to a particular spot in the woods, to possess himself of an oracular slate, or, as he called it, a "Golden Bible." From this inspired slate, which he used to place in his hat, he first read to the "gaping few" new and strange revelations: and finally, he produced the "Book of Mormon," as the creed and faith of the people of whom he was designed by Providence to be the Prophet and Ruler. The Book of Mormon is a copy of the manuscript which Smith obtained near Pittsburgh.

A wealthy Farmer, by the name of Harris, was his first believing convert. Harris mortgaged his Farm to raise the money required for the temporal support of the Prophet, and printing of the Book of Mormon. The Prophet and his convert, (Smith and Harris,) came to Rochester and offered us the honor of being their printer. But as we were only in the newspaper line, we contented ourselves with reading a chapter of what seemed such wretched and incoherent stupidity, that we wondered how "Joe" had contrived to make the first fool with it. But he went on, making not only fools, but knaves, in America and Europe, for more than twenty years, and until his career was abruptly cut short by men who became themselves violators of the laws they were called to vindicate.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                              Philadelphia, Thursday, July 23, 1846.                             No. ?

LATE FROM THE MORMON CAMP. -- Intelligence from the Mormon Camp at Council Bluffs, to the 26th ult., has been received by the Hancock, Ill., Eagle. It says: -- The number of teams attached to the Mormon expedition, now encamped at, and in the neighborhood of, Council Bluffs, for the purpose of recruiting themselves and their cattle, is about 3,700, and it is estimated that each team will average at least three persons, and perhaps four. The whole number of souls now on the road may be set down in round numbers at 12,000. From two to three thousand have disappeared from Nauvoo in various directions. About 800 or less still remain in Illinois, which number comprises the entire Mormon population that once flourished in Hancock county.

Four United States Military officers had arrived at one of the encampments, for the purpose of enlisting 500 Mormons for the Santa Fe campaign. They were referred to Head-quarters at Council Bluffs, for which place they immediately set out. It was supposed that the force would be enrolled without delay. If so, it will furnish Col. Kearney with a regiment of well-disciplined soldiers, who are already prepared to march.

The health of the travelling Mormons was good, considering the exposure to which they have been subjected. They are carrying on a small trade in provisions with the settlers in the Platte country, with whom they mingle on the most friendly terms.

Note: The Public Ledger of July 24th reprinted essentially the same information from the Eagle article, including this additional line: "In their palmy days they probably numbered between fifteen and sixteen thousand souls, most of whom are now scattered upon the prairies, bound for the Pacific slope of the American continent."


Vol. XXI.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, July 31, 1846.                              No. 109.

THE SANTA FE ARMY. -- The number of men under General. Kearney, for Santa Fe, is 1657. Two companies of dragoons under Captains Summer and Cook, followed very shortly after his departure from Fort Leavenworth, increading his force two hundred more. This number will be further increased by the addition of the Mormon infantry, some three or four hund ed of whom were to leave the Mormon camp, under Captain Allen, United States Army, to attach themselves to General Kearney's command. It is now understood that Gen. Kearney will halt at Bent's Fort, for the purpose of recruiting his men, and to await the arrival of Col. Price's regiment, 1,000 strong. When united, his whole force will be about 3,200 men, a force sufficient, under ordinary circumstances, to resist any army which may be sent to meet him, and quite equal lo the conquest of New Mexico, if no reinforcements are sent into that department from other districts. The following extracts from a letter dated Cottonwood Creek, July 10, contain much general information with regard to the movementd of the expedition:
We are now at Cottonwood Creek, about two hundred and ten miles from Fort Leavenworth. We are lying in camp to-day, as we have had showers since last evening, and our horses require resting, as their backs are somewhat scalded. This has, therefore, been a day of overhauling, in the interval between the showers -- putting guns in order, shoeing horses, baking, &c. I cannot tell the distance to the crossing of the Arkansas from this place, but suppose it to be about 200 miles, which would leave a still 330 miles to Bent's Fort.

Major Clark came up last night, in good health and condition, bringing us some vary acceptable letters from the fort.

Col. Kearney is still with us -- or rather still has us with him. Nothing could exceed the confidence which every man seems to have in him. As a military man, we find him just strict enuaxk to keep us all in good order, but not in the least oppressive. He is, however, fond of rapid marching, and keeps us to it very steadily. Yesterday, for example, we made about thirty miles, and expect to make twenty-five to-morrow. These distances will not seem great to persons unaccustomed to military movementsl but we find by experience that twenty miles a day is a good distance to move a camp. There is a great deal to be done -- packing, loading the wagons, getting the horses ready -- unloading, pitching tents, liking care of the horses, cooking, &c. &c.

We think that service in the artillery must be more laborious than in dragoon companies. The artillery battalion moves in good order, and presents quitee a formidable appearance. When all our camp gets in motion in the forenoon, our wagons, straggling horsemen, and the companies spread over four or five miles of the prairie, we find it a great convenience to scatter along, as it leaves us all a better choice of the road, and keeps us clear of the dust.

It is reported in camp to-day that Major Clark brought along Col. Kearney's promotion as Brigadier General, but I do not know whether the report is correct, though such a promotion has been expected by others than the Colonel for some time. It is also reported that our destination is the Pacific Ocean, but this can hardly be possible -- we want to take New Mexico first.

Ws have no news from Capt. Moore, and do not know whether he overtook that Mexican ammunition or not. Col. Doniphan's volunteer regiment tis now all ahead, and will report to Capt, Moore, U. S. dragoons, or wail for Col. Kearney, if we do not overtake him. Some of the companies which started first must be nearly a the Arkansas by this time.

So far we have heard nothing of the state of again in New Mexico, but expect to hear from Captain Moore very soon. We give ourselves very little concern about what is ahead of us, as we think we are strong enough to do pretty much as we please. If we can only find a way to enter the country. If we get anything like a fair chance in the mountain passes, we expect to enter the Province of New Mexico, whether the Mexican are agreed or not.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, August 1, 1846.                              No. 110.

Interesting from the Mormons --
Enlisting for the War -- the U. S. Government Protecting them.

The Hancock Eagle confirms the report of the enlistment of five hundred Mormons as volunteers under Gen. Kearney. They are to be volunteers for twelve months -- will be marched to California, receiving pay and allowances during the above time, and at its expiration will be discharged and allowed to retain as their private property the guns and accoutrements to be furnished to them.

In consideration of their having placed this force at the disposal of Gen. Kearney, the Government pledges itself that protection shall be given to the emigrating Mormons, and grants them the use of "any of the Indian lands they may think proper to select," until they are ready to cross the mountains.

The Mormons, in accordance with this arrangement, have made choice of Grand Island, up the Platte river, a large tract which has a salt spring upon it. There they will winter and collect the entire Mormon population of the West, preparatory to a movement upon California in the spring. This will probably enable that unfortunate and persecuted people to leave the country without any further annoyance. Nauvoo is, however, still the scene of disturbances between the new citizens and the "Regulators." The former keep themselves armed to resist the outlaws who disturb them. Out of 16,000 Mormons at Nauvoo, 15,000 have left the State.

Circular to the Mormons. -- Mormons: I have come among you, instructed by Col. S. W. Kearney, of the U. S. Army, now commanding the "Army of the West," to visit the Mormon camp and to accept the services, for twelve months, of four or five companies of the Mormon men who may be willing to serve their country for that period in our present war with Mexico. This force to unite with the "Army of the West," at Santa Fe and be marched thence to California, where they will be discharged. They will receive pay and rations and other allowances such as other volunteers or regular soldiers receive, from the day they shall be mustered into the service, and will be entitled to all the comforts and benefits of regular soldiers of the army, and when discharged, as contemplated, at California, they will be given, gratis, their arms and accoutrements with which they will be fully equipped at Fort Leavenworth.

Thus is offered to the Mormon people now -- this year -- an opportunity of sending a portion of their young and intelligent men to the ultimate destination of their whole people, and entirely at the expense of the United States -- and this advance party can thus pave the way, and look out the land, for their brethren to come after them.

The pay of a private volunteer is seven dollars per month, and the allowance for clothing is the cost price of clothing of a regular soldier.

Those of the Mormons who are desirous of serving their country, on the conditions here enumerated, are requested to meet me without delay at their principal camp, at the Council Bluffs, whither I am now going to consult with their principal men, and to receive and organize the force contemplated to be raised.

I will receive all healthy, able men, of from 18 to 45 years of age.
J. Allen, Capt. 1st Dragoons.               
Camp of the Mormons at Mt. Pisgah.               
June 26, 1846.               
N. B. -- I hope to complete the organization of this battalion within six days after reaching Council Bluffs, or within nine days from this time, (June 26.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 5, 1846.                             No. 29.


Interesting from the Mormons -- Enlisting for the War --
the U. S. Government Protecting them.

The Hancock Eagle confirms the report of the enlistment of five hundred Mormons as volunteers under Gen. Kearney. They are to be volunteers for twelve months -- will be marched to California, receiving pay and allowances during the above time, and at its expiration will be discharged and allowed to retain as their private property the guns and accoutrements to be furnished to them.

In consideration of their having placed this force at the disposal of Gen. Kearney, the Government pledges itself that protection shall be given to the emigrating Mormons, and grants them the use of "any of the Indian lands they may think proper to select," until they are ready to cross the mountains.

The Mormons, in accordance with this arrangement, have made choice of Grand Island, up the Platte river, a large tract which has a salt spring upon it. There they will winter and collect the entire Mormon population of the West, preparatory to a movement upon California in the spring. This will probably enable that unfortunate and persecuted people to leave the country without any further annoyance. Nauvoo is, however, still the scene of disturbances between the new citizens and the "Regulators." The former keep themselves armed to resist the outlaws who disturb them. Out of 16,000 Mormons at Nauvoo, 15,000 have left the State.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Monday, August 10, 1846.                            No. 117.


Mr. Semple, now in California, writes an interesting letter, dated April 10th, to the St. Louis Reporter. Speaking of the practicability of the Pacific Railroad, he says: "First, then, the road from Independence to the foot of the California mountains, across the Rocky and Calumet mountains, is about as good a road as that from St. Charles to Columbia, (Boon’s Lick road,) and might, with a little work, be made a good deal better. Out of the 2250 miles from Independence, there is but about 100 of bad road.

"I send you a copy of Castro's proclamation, which will show you now Capt. Fremont has been treated. Fremont left his party on the other side ol the mountains, and crossed with a few men, and called on the Governor for permission to bring them in, which was granted; but when the company arrived, the Captain was ordered out of the country forthwith. He remained to purchase supplies. Then the proclamation was issued and the Spaniards embodied. Fremont wrote to our Consul at Monterey for advices, and he, (Mr. Larkin,) a full blooded Spaniard in feeling, advised him to leave, which he did; seeing that he must fight the whole force of California, without the countenance of the Consul, whose advise was dictated by his private interests merely, and not by the honor of his country. There are few Americans here but what would be glad to hear of his removal from office. We were all in hopes that Fremont would remain until attacked by the commandant, which would have been the signal for an united action of the foreigners to form a new government. We were all waiting for the word to rally round the 'stripes and stars,' and, under them, declare California free from the Mexicans, and qualified to live under laws of their own making.

"It is reported that the Mormons are coming in large numbers. The Governor has sent a special messenger to Mexico with a request and earnest appeal for forces to stop the emigrants from entering the country. My own opinion is, from what I can learn, that Castro will make an effort to cut off the foreigners now in the country, in the course of the next month, which will be after the departure of the party for the States and the one for Oregon. We shall be weaker than we ever will be again; but we have no fear of the result even then. Several Americans, who have become citizens of California, have been imprisoned and had their property confiscated for their refusal to turn out against Fremont. The only trouble we have now is the want of one man who has sufficient influence to unite the foreigners."

Note: Some other contenporary newspapers provided their readers with more complete reprints of the St. Louis Reporter article. One item in particular that should have been retained in the Philadelphia paper's reprint, is this deleted paragraph: -- "(Copy of Proclamation, translated by Capt. Sutter.) Head Quarters, San Juan. -- March 8th, 1846. -- The citizen Jose Castro, Litutenant-Col. of the Meiican Army and Commander-in-chief of the department of the Californias: -- Fellow-Citizens: A band of robbers commanded by a Captain of the United States Army, J. C. Fremont, have, without respect to the laws and authorities of this department, daringly introduced themselves into the country, and disobeying the orders, both of your Commander-in-chief and the Prefect of the District by whom he was commanded to march, forthwith, out of the limits of our country; and without answering their letter, he remains encamped at the Natividad, from which he sallies forth, committing depredations and making scandalous skirmishes. In the name of our native country, I write you to place yourself under my immediate orders, at Head-Quarters, where we will prepare to lance the ulcer, which should it not be done, would destroy our independence and liberty, for which you ought always to sacrifice yourselves, as will your friend and fellow citizen. (Signed) JOSE CASTRO."


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 12, 1846.                             No. 30.


FROM NAUVOO. -- Order again reigns at Nauvoo. The prisoners on both sides have been released. There has been no more house-burning or lynching, but hundreds of acres of fine crops remain unharvested, and will be almost entirely lost to the owners. They were all round searching for field hands, and offered very high prices.

ANOTHER PROPHET. -- Numerous persons are preparing to emigrate from Sweden to North America, under the guidance of Erich Janson, a fanatic, who has set himself up as a prophet, and who has thousands of followers. The fate of the Mormons is evidence enough that such sects of fanatics cannot long endure in this country.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 19, 1846.                             No. 31.


The Hancock Eagle comes to us in, mourning for the death of us editor, Dr. Wm. E. Matlack. Dr. Matlack was born in Philadelphia, descended from a highly respectable and wealthy Quaker family. He graduated at Princeton College, N. J. The Eagle gives an account of the escape of the citizens kidnapped by the Anti-Mormons, and a detail of their sufferings. It strongly denounces the outrages which have been allowed in that State, and says the new citizens are determined to prosecute all engaged in them. Writs are now in the hands of the officers, and many others are preparing to bring to justice every one who has engaged in the crimes. The conduct of the government is thus alluded to.
"New settlers who have come here and purchased Mormon property, have been whipped with ox goads, and robbed of their property, and when they call upon the Governor of the State to see the majesty of the law enforced, he merely replies, 'Boys! fight it out!'

The influence which this conduct of the Executive has had upon more than one section of the State, can be traced as at the bottom of most of the late outrages which have disgraced Illinois. The public voice has speken throughout the Union in regard to these things; and we have no doubt that the sober second thoughts of his Excellency has, ere this, regretted the facetiousness with which he has overlooked his sworn duty, as pointed out to him by the laws and constitution of his country,"

NAUVOO PRISONERS.. -- The Chicago Journal states that on the 24th ult. nine prisoners were taken from Nauvoo to Quincy, charged with being engaged in the riots against the Mormons. The individuals were held to bail for their appearance at the Hancock Court, in various sums, from $100 to $1,300.

Note: Mr. Matlack died July 28, 1846 -- shortly thereafter the paper was sold to Samuel Sloiurn and its name changed changed to the "New Citizen," edited by the local "sharpster," Isaac Galland (who had united very briefly with the Mormons when they first came to Hancock County).


Vol. XXI.                              Philadelphia, Thursday, August 20, 1846.                           No. 126.

LATER FROM FORT LEAVENWORTH. -- The St. Louis Republican has advices from Fort Leavenworth to the 9th inst.

Lieut. Col. Allen, of the U. S. Army, in command of the 500 Mormon volunteers, was still at the Fort. A very considerable degree of hostility, we understand, existed between the volunteers and this Mormon corps, aggravated not a little by the fact that the Mormon battalion had in their camp a number of woman. Lieut. Col. Allen and his command were to take up the line of march on Wednesday. They are said to be a fine set of men, and will in a short time be disciplined.

A duel was fought at the Fort between two privates of the company from Platte county, in which one of the parties was mortally wounded, and died on Sunday.

Note: Some other newspapers retained this appended line in the Missouri Republican's report: "Still later accounts from Fort Leavenworth are up to the 11th inst. About one thousand more Mormons had arrived at the fort, in hopes of being mustered into the United States service...."


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 26, 1846.                             No. 32.

FROM NAUVOO. -- At a meeting of Anti-Mormons in Hancock county, lately, resolutions were passed to expel the last remnant of the Mormons from Illinois, and a serious outbreak was daily expected.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                        Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 2, 1846.                        No. 137.



Baltimore, Sept. 1, 8 o'clock, P. M.               
...By the Western mail we have an announcement that the Anti-Mormons had sent to Nauvoo on the 16th ult., threatening that they would burn the city and the temple, and drive out the Mormons and new citizens also, unless the latter assisted them/ Two thousand men were under arms, and bloodshed was daily expected....

CAN'T GET IT CERTIFIED TO. -- William Smith, patriarch, Lucy Smith, "mother in Israel," and all the rest of the Smith family, certify that they do not believe Jo Smith appointed Strang, the Voree imposter, to be a Mormon prophet.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 2, 1846.                         No. 33.

Further Outrages Anticipated.

There is every prospect of further difficulties (says the St. Louis Republican) between the Mormons and Anti-Mormons in Hancock county. The Anties are reported to be organizing a large party in the vicinity of Green Plains, about six miles back of Warsaw. They have also taken out writs for a number of Mormons who are in and about Nauvoo. The attempt to serve these writs will, we suppose, be the signal for attack. The large Mormon vote cast in Nauvoo at the last election has convinced the Anti-Mormons that there are more Mormons in and about Nauvoo than was previously represented. These they will endeavor to drive out of the country. The Mormons, or rather the citizens of Nauvoo, are anticipating an attack, and are organizing the citizens into armed companies and preparing for resistance. The time in which the Mormons stipulated to leave the State having expired, and there being but few, if any, leaving at this time, the matter will soon be brought to an issue. The political demagogue, (Mr. Dement, the United States land officer at Dixon,) who induced the Mormons to take part in the last election, after they had resolved in their church meeting not to cast another vote in the State, should be held responsible for much that may follow. If they had not voted, the belief would have continued that the greater portion of them were gone; and it would not have added another evidence of their duplicity and falsehood, that they are ever ready to act at the bidding of interested politicians.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                       Philadelphia, Thursday, September 3, 1846.                       No. 138.

FROM COUNCIL BLUFF AND FORT LEAVENWORTH -- The steamboat Balloon arrived at St. Louis on the 22d inst. from Council Bluff.

Another large body of Mormons, estimated at from four to six thousand in number, had arrived at Council Bluff, and were encamped there and in that vicinity. A part of them were to proceed to Bellview, but the most of them expected to pass the winter at the Bluffs and in the Indian purchase, on the opposite side of the river, where they have extensive tracts under cultivation. They say that they have sufficient provisions to last them for fifteen months, but will have to provide clothing and other articles necessary to their comfort during their journey, before they leave the settlements.

The Balloon was at Fort Leavenworth on the 18th. Col. Price, with his regiment, and Lieut. Willock, and his extra battalion, had left the Fort the day before, leaving two companies which were to set out on the evening of the 18th.

J. J. STRANG, THE MORMON PROPHET -- We stated in a paragraph from another paper, yesterday, that Wm. Smith, Lucy Smith and the rest of the Smith family, would not certify that Joe Smith had appointed J. J. Strang to be a Mormon prophet. Mr. Strang, who is in this city at present, called upon us and exhibited a number of testimonials, going to prove that the Smith family do certify to that fact. The following letter from Wm. Smith corroborates the other testimonials. --

CITY OF VOREE. }              
WISCONSIN, July 29, A. D. 1846. }              
        To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints --
Beloved Brethren -- Inheriting, as I do, the office of Patriarch by literal descent from my progenitors, and having been ordained thereunto, by the first Presidency. and being thereby fully invested with the patriarchal authority, I deem it necessary at this time to address you a few lines for the confirmation of your faith in the great work of the last days. As to the claims of Brother James J. Strang, as the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Prophet, Seer, and Revelator, I entertain no doubt whatever, as his appointment by my brother Joseph, and his confirmation by angelic administration, is in strict accordance with the law of God by revelation; for so Jehovah hath revealed it unto me, and I therefore, as your spiritual Father, bear witness to you all of the truth of these declarations; and as God has revealed to me his appointment of Brother Strang to said station, and the investing him with all keys and powers of the priesthood, I rejoice that I am able to confirm your faith, for God is now working gloriously for Zion. Come up, brethren, to Voree, the great gathering place appointed of God, here the people will have peace, and our Heavenly Father will here give us great prosperity. The people are remarkably friendly, and treat us with great kindness. Brethren, put your shoulders once more to the wheel, and let us show ourselves approved of God by acts of righteousness.   Your brother,
WM. SMITH, Patriarch of the Church.          

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                      Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 16, 1846.                      No. 2324.

THE NAUVOO TROUBLES. -- The following letter speaks for itself. Introducing it, the New York Courier & Enquirer says it "is from a newspaper published in the State of Missouri, one of these United States -- and relates to transactions in and actions of another of these United States. Citizens (the Mormons) who have committed no legal offence, but who are to be hunted out by an exasperated populace acting on their own authority and at their own expense -- as the letter has it -- very much too, at the expense of law, justice and right."

Steamer Ocean Wave,           
September 3d, 1846.           
Gentlemen: -- I send you by the return of the Ocean Wave, a sketch of the present aspect of the Mormon war.

The Anti-Mormons are encamped twelve miles from Nauvoo, 1200 men, and increasing daily; 200 have volunteered. Mr Bremen arrived in Nauvoo from Springfield, with orders from the Governor to bring Mr. Parker forthwith before his excellency.

For what purpose is not exactly known. The report says Parker never had any authority to quell the disturbance in the county, as he has assumed to do. It is said the Governor informed him that he must do so if at all, upon his own authority, and that if volunteers were raised, he, Parker, must do it at his own expense.

The Amies were awaiting the arrival of their agent, Mr Wagoner, from St. Louis, with the cannons. As soon as he returns it is proposed to storm the Holy city, and plough the ground where it stands. -- I have only time to add, as the boat is leaving, that it is hoped they will have one fight, and kill about five hundred of each side. By the next boat you may expect to hear of blood and thunder.
Yours truly,                         IOWA.

Note: The "Iowa" letter was first published in the St. Louis Union, of Sept. 7th.


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Monday, September 21, 1846.                          No. 2328.

FROM CALIFORNIA. -- Messrs Sublette and Reddick arrived at St. Louis on the evening of the 10th from California, via Bent's fort. The American gives the following facts from them.

They left Pueblos de los Angelos the last of May, with 80 horses and mules, for Santa Fe. They bring no news of Col. Fremont of so late a date as that we have before published. They met Davis' company on the 8th July, 18 miles west of Green river, with 18 wagons. On the 10th, they met a liutenant of the navy, an express from the Government to our fleet on the Pacific, between Sandy and Sweet Water creeks.

Gov. Boggs was met about 300 miles from the junction of the road from Oregon and California. Mr. Sublette advised them to take the north route by Great Salt Lake. On the 16th July, after leaving Willow Springs, Mr. Sublette met a party of Souix, about 10 miles in the rear of the emigrants. They pretended to be hunting the Crow and Snake Indians, but their real design was probably to plunder the emigrants. About 10 o'clock Sublette's party was attacked by about thirty Sioux. Mr. S. saw by their hostile movements that they would attempt to seize his horses, and started his horses off -- the Indians fired at him several times without any harm. He finally changed his course to avoid a large rarty, and escaped them. Three days afterward he met Bonney from Ohio, who had been robbed of his horses and provisions. He came to Fort Laramie with them. About 70 miles before reaching the Fort, they met a company of Mormons with 9 wagons. They were determined to stop on the Arkansas, where they were prepared to encamp.

In passing from Fort Laramie to Fort Bent, Mr. S. met 50 lodges of Sioux, who said they were determined to stop all the passes but one, so that the Americans should not pass over their country. Mr. S. knew one of the Indians, and they let him pass peaceably. They reached Fort Bent on the 17th of August. There were none of Gen. Kearney's army at the Fort, except a few sick; they had all left for Santa Fe. Lieut. Simpson was in command at the Fort. Several provision wagons had arrived, and they met two companies a short distance from the Fort. They also met trains of wagons all along the route home. At Pawnee Fork, they met two companies of Col. Price's Regiment, and the Colonel, at Cotton Wood Fork. The battalion of Mormons was 15 miles from Council Grove. Mr. S. was 22 days in reaching St. Louis, after leaving Bent's Fort. He states that the Governor of California is in favor of the immigration of Americans, but that Gen. Castro is opposed to it. The usual quantity of rain has fallen this year. .

A BATTLE BETWEEN THE ANTI-MORMONS AND PEOPLE OF NAUVOO. -- The St. Louis Reublican of the 12th. inst., has the following intelligence:

By the steamer Ocean Wave, which arrived here yesterday morning, we learn that a messenger arrived at Warsaw about 11 o'clock on Friday evening, a few minutes before she left, who stated that a battle had taken place about 3 o'clock that afternoon near Nauvoo, which lasted two hours, and in which from twelve to fifteen men were killed and wounded. The particulars, so far as could be ascertained are, that on Friday, the Nauvooites hearing that the Anti-Mormons were on the march to their city, marched out to the number of from three to five hundred, and posted themselves at the distance of about one mile east of the Temple, having an open plain in front, and an extensive corn field in the rear, their Iine being formed near and parallel with the fence. Here they waited the approach of the Antis, who arrrived about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, said to be eight hundred in number, with five or six pieces of cannon. The latter were posted on an eminence, and opened their fire on the Mormons, but at too great a distance to be effective. Soon after, the action was continued with small arms, and lasted until 5 o'clock, when the Antis either retreated or withdrew. Their loss is stated to be from eight to fifteen killed, but that is uncertain, and the Nauvooites had one man killed, and two woundedl the latter had no cannon. It was expected that the battle would be resumed the same evening, or on the following morning.

Note: The "Iowa" letter was first published in the St. Louis Union, of Sept. 7th.


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 23, 1846.                         No. 36.

Formation, and Rejection by the Anti-Mormons,
of Articles of Compromise -- Their Encampment
Three Miles from Nauvoo -- Resignation of Gen.
Singleton -- Col. Brockman in Command.

The last accounts from Hancock county represent that the anticipated battle between the Mormons and Anti-Mormons had not yet taken place. The agreement entered into by Gen. Singleton and others on behalf of the Anti-Mormons was rejected. Gen. Singleton withdrew from all connection with the Anti-Mormons on the rejection of the compromise, and Col. Brockman, of Brown county, was elected to take the command. Before Col. Brockman consented to assume this station, he required a sacred pledge from the officers and men who elected him that in case they were permitted to march into Nauvoo without opposition, no injury should be done to person or property.

The Anties have pledged themselves to commit no violence in Nauvoo if they are permitted to enter it without opposition. The Mormons may consent to let them march in and execute the writs they hold, if they can find the persons they are against. Unless some such conditions are agreed to by the Mormons, the alternative will be a fight. Gov. Ford sends Major Flood, of Quincy, to supersede Major Parker, with power to call out the militia of the State, if necessary, to quell the disturbances.

From Twelve to Fifteen Killed -- Great
Excitement, &c., &c.

By the St Louis Republican of the 11th inst, we learn that a battle took place between the Mormons and the anti-Mormons, on the 11th.

It appears that the anties, (who had encamped the day previous within about three miles of the City of Nauvoo,) on the morning of the 11th took up their line of march for the city.

On ascertaining the movements of their foes, the Mormons beat to quarters, mustered between three and five hundred men, and went forth to meet their adversaries,

The antagonistic parties met about one mile east of the Temple, when a battle commenced.

The "Saints" and the "Gentiles" fired upon each other for two hours, but the distance was so great that their leaden missiles were materially deprived of their death-dealing properties

Having somewhat appeased their wrath, the belligerents drew off, each party returning to its original position in the morning.

The Mormons in this affair had one man killed and two badly wounded.

The anties, numbering upwards of eight hundred, returned to camp, with a loss of from eight to fifteen killed. The excitement was very great in the vicinity, and it was generally supposed that the battle would be resumed, either that evening or the next morning.

Another battle at Nauvoo --
The Anti-Mormons again forced to Retreat.

The St. Louis papers received by the Western mail bring the particulars of another battle between the contending rustics at Nauvoo. The Nauvooites, since the previous action, had erected an entrenchment, and mounted six cannon upon it. The Anties, on approaching to the attack, fired two 6 pound balls into the camp and then proposed a parley, but the Nauvooites refused, saying that the time for talking had passed.

The battle then re-commenced wilh artillery, continuing for nearly an hour, and closing with musketry. The attacking party were then driven off at every point, and they finally retreated. The Nauvoo leader, Anderson, and his son, were killed, with two others. The anties acknowledge but six wounded -- one mortally.

Another battle was hourly expected. Great suffering existed at Nauvoo on account of the scarcity of provisions. Ammunition was also scarce.

The account of the first battle has been greatly exaggerated. It now appears that but two men were wounded and none killed

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's express Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 23, 1846.                       No. ?

BATTLE AT NAUVOO -- FROM TWELVE TO FIFTEEN KILLED! -- From the St. Louis Republican of the 14th inst., we learn that a battle took place between the Mormons and the anti-Mormons, on the 11th inst. The anties had encamped the day previous within three miles of Nauvoo, and on the morning of the 11th they took up their line of march for the city. On ascertaining the movements of their foes, the Mormons beat to quarters, mustered between three and five hundred men, and went forth to meet their adversaries. The antagonistic parties met about one mile East of the Temple, when a battle commenced. -- The "Saints" and the "Gentiles" fired upon each other for two hours, but the distance was so great that their leaden missiles were materially deprived of their death-dealing properties. Having somewhat appeased their wrath, the belligerents drew off; each party returning to its original position in the morning. The Mormons, in this affair, had one man killed and two badly wounded. The anties, numbering upwards of eight hundred, returned to camp with a loss of from eight to fifteen killed. The excitement was very great in the vicinity, and it was generally supposed that the battle would be resumed, either that evening or the next morning.

MORMON TROUBLES. -- The St. Louis Era of the 12th inst., says: -- A small Mormon trouble has occurred near Keokuk. Some arms and ammunition were taken for the Mormons to use in killing the anti-Mormons, and stored in a warehouse at Keokuk. Here they were seized by the anti-Mormons, and a band of Mormons came from Montrose to get them, but could not find them. On their departure they met three or four citizens near the town, and used violent threats and menacing actions to compel them to disclose where the arms had been taken to, and used other indignities towards them. The citizens of Keokuk then turned out and gave chase to the Mormons, but could not catch them. Such occurrences will make the feud between the Mormons and anti-Mormons as inveterate in Iowa as it is in Illinois. All experience proves that a separate religious political hierarchy, such as the Mormons, cannot peaceably remain in any part of our country.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Monday, September 28, 1846.                          No. 2334.

From the St. Louis Republican Extra, of Sep. 19.

Surrender of the Mormons --
The Anties in Nauvoo -- Quiet Restored.

The steamboat Alvarado arrived this morning from Keokuk. She brings a letter from our correspondent, written as the boat was starting, yesterday. The Anti·Mormons are, it wilI be seen, in possession of Nauvoo, without further violence upon persons or property. We learn, in addition, that the proscribed people were quitting Nauvoo as fast as possible. The steamer Osprey was to take as many as she could carry, up the river, and others will probably come to St. Louis. The people of Iowa are not weI! disposed toward them, and it is not probable that many will find a resting place in that Territory.

Correspondence of the Republican.

Steamer Alvarado,           
Friday, September 18, 1846.           
The Mormon war is at last ended. On Wednesday evening, the Quincy Committee prevailed on the Mormons to surrender; and yesterday, at three o'clock, the Anties marched into and took possession of the city of Nauvoo. The Mormons stipulated to leave forthwith, or as fast as they can possibly get away, except a committee of five, who are to remain to dispose of the property yet belonging to the community. No property has been, or is to be destroyed -- although a strong disposition existed, with many of the Anties, to destroy the Temple. They fear it will be a beacon light to lure the Mormons back. By refraining from violent measures the Anties have saved themselves from a great deal of reproach.

A gentleman who left Nauvoo yesterday, at two o'clock, said the Mormons were leaving as fast as they could get away. Yesterday was a happy day for the citizens of Hancock county, as peace is now permanently restored to it. I was not able, before I left, to get a copy of the articles of surrender agreed upon, but have given you the substance of the treaty.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                      Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 30, 1846.                      No. 2336.

THE NAUVOO MORMONS. -- The St. Louis Republican of the 23d inst. says: -- "Every boat from Keokuk is crowded with Mormons, who have left Nauvoo in compliance with the stipulations of the late treaty. Some of them are in a destitute condition, and demand the sympathy of the public. We learn that many persons have embarked on steamboats going up the river, probably with a view of attaching themselves to the church of Voree, in Wisconsin.

THE MORMONS. -- A party of traders arrived at St. Louis on the 21st, give this account of the Mormons: --

At the Ponkas village, the most western post of the Mormons was found, under Elder Miller. There were several large encampments of these people in the vicinity, preparing to pass the winter. -- This body had ascended the Platte river to Pawnee Island, but finding that they could not cross so well in that direction, they made arrangements with the Ponkas to settle for the winter on their land. They are represented as having an abundance of provisions, and as being satisfied with their condition and prospects. From this village, coming down, they continued to meet small parties of the Mormons, on both sides of the river, until they reached Black Snake Hills, and a large number are wintering at Council Bluffs, and in the Indian purchase on the opposite side of the river.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 30, 1846.                         No. 37.

(From the St. Louis Organ Extra, 19th inst.


The City Deliveted into the Hands of the Anti-Mormons.

From the officers and passengers of the Alvarado, we gather the following particulars:

Steamboat Alvarado arrived at the landing this morning from Keokuck. She brings down a large number of Mormons, who have abandoned the Holy City after all the troubles and difficulties.

After much skirmishing and several persons being killed during Sunday, and the three days following, on Thursday the Anti-Mormons entered the city in a very large body, and all completely armed.

A parley was held, which resulted in a demand that the Mormons and all in the city engaged in the troubles, should leave Nauvoo within five days, and at once deliver their persons, arms, ammunition, and the city itself, into the hands of the Anti-Mormons.

This was at last complied with, but whether from fear, inclination, or a mere desire to avoid bloodshed, we have not yet learned. The Anti-Mormons then took possession of every thing, and, of course, in contradiction of the late orders of the Governor of Illinois, and contrary to law. Immediately the Mormons began to leave the city. A large number started on the Alvarado, and many on the Potosi.

On the opposite shore we understand that the people or authorities of Iowa had interfered to prevent those lerivirtg from entering that Tertrtory. They must consequently come to this city, and from here scatter abroad.

We also learn that the Temple will be allowed to remain unharmed, but we much doubt this, and should not be surprised if the next arrival brought news of the destruction of this beautiful building, as well as the dwelling of Emma Smith.

It is but right to state, however, that thus far no violence has been done either to the people or to the building or property; and we sincerely trust that we may not be compelled to chronicle any news to the contrary.

Many families of women and children had been sent over the river without shelter or food, some of them sick. The ferry boat was kept constanlly running. Mrs. Smith herself crossed over and begged quarters on board of the steamboat Monona, which was lying up there. She was crowded full of women and children from Nauvoo. Other boats were taking those that wish to go up the river without charge. Nothing less than the expulsion of the Mormons from the State would satisfy the citizens of the counly. Whatever the citizens of the county possess, is at the disposal of the camp; it is contributed without money and without price. Wheat is sent to the mill from all parts of the county to supply the the camp with bread. A baker here with several hands had devoted himself exclusively to their service for three weeks; a butcher at Carthage has done the same. There are from one hundred to one hundred and fifty wagons and teams all the time at, or employed for the camp; and last, though not least, nearly, if not quite, a thousand men constantly on duty. Besides the dire consequences attending upon such a state of things, I estimate that it costs, to maintain such a force, one thousand dollars per day.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, October 7, 1846.                         No. 12.

THE MORMONS. One of the journals, professing to be "Democratic," in some remarks upon the expulsion of the Mormons from their homes, says, "At Council Bluffs, much dissatisfaction prevails among the old settlers, on account of their appearance, but as the Mormons are by far the most numerous, they conceive it most prudent to say but little, and to bear with inconveniences and insults with Christian fortitude."

Again it says, "The fanaticism and delusion that keep them together are truly deplorable. A set of impostor priests and false guides are leading them on to much suffering and misery, and many of them even to the loss of health and life. The proper course for them would be to repudiate the priests and pretenders, who are the cause of their misfortunes, and then separate, and each one set for himself, and have nothing further to do with that fanatical association. Public sentiment in Western Missouri will never allow them to settle in that region of country."

This is a specimen of the deceptive nonsense almost daily issued by ignorant pretenders, some to "Democracy" and some to "Conservativatism." We have no respect for the "Democracy," or "Conservativatism," or any other set of pretensions, which justify the most enormous outrages upon all human rights. These people, whom we admit to be ignorant and deluded fanatics, but not therefore the less entitled to all the natural and constitutional rights of American citizens, have been murdered, robbed, driven from their homes, by a ferocious mob, acting in defiance of all lawful authority. Why? Because "public sentiment," the sentiment of a greedy mob, coveted their property; and to excuse this foray, this plundering expedition, equal in atrocity to any of the Scottish marauders or the Buccaniers, the robbers assail their victims with every species of calumny. Plunder is the object, and calumny the pretext.

This journal mentions the dissatisfaction of the people at Council Buffs, where a remnant of these persecuted Mormons have gone, and the "Christian fortitude" with which they bear inconveniences and insults from the "fanatics." Christian fortitude! And the people of Council Bluffs too would assail these poor fugitives with fire and sword; but not being strong enough, they bear with Christian fortitude their reluctant abstinence from murder, robbery and devastation! Sweet, pretty Christians! We are in no hurry to suppose that a body of helpless fugitives to the wilderness, chased from their homes like wild beasts for their religious opinions, would be in any haste to inflict "inconveniences and insults" upon the "old settlers." They have been crushed too often by the heavy hand of the mob, to be very aggressive.

This journal says that they are deluded by impostor priests, the cause of all their miseries, and that their best course is separation from the fanatical association. We admit that they are deplorably deluded by impostor priests, but affirm that they are outrageously persecuted by impostor priests. The lawless violence of which they have been the victims, has been mainly stimulated by a set of ranting, roaring, bigoted, persecuting field and house preachers, resolved against all interference with their own trade. The new States are overrun by these wolves in sheep's clothing from every persecuting sect; and their howl against these poor fanatics is like the howl, proceeding from similar threats, which raised fire-brands against Churches in several cities of the Union. The authors of their miseries are far less the victims of their own impostors, than of the impostors around them, and the mobs which they excite. And dispersion is their only remedy! This is disgracefully true, for bigoted priests and greedy and ferocious mobs will not let them live together. Had they been let alone, they would have dispersed long since, for their delusion is too absurd to be fed by anything less than persecution, the most nutritious aliment of all fanaticisms.

And "public sentiment" will not permit them to reside in Western Missouri! And if they choose to reside there or any where, upon lands which they pay for, and obey the laws, what right has "public sentiment" to object? And who are "public sentiment?" Any mob who assail the rights of their neighbors. We are quite sick of these arrogant assumptions of despotic authority by mobs of ruffians. We know no "public sentiment" but the people at the polls, the legislature in session, the judiciary in their court-houses, and the executive in lawful action. "Public sentiment" would be much safer, if "public sentiment" were more frequently visited with the gallows and the State prison.

Note: See also the Ledger of Oct. 9th, for a follow-up article on this subject.


Vol. XXII.                             Philadelphia, Friday, October 9, 1846.                             No. 14.

(Correspondence of the Public Ledger.)


I was highly pleased with your remarks in relation to the expulsion of the Mormons, and for this reason will give you some information in relation to the Mormon Camp, and speak of things at Council Bluffs, as they have been referred to in the article. I have just returned from Council Bluffs, and feel myself fully prepared to give you a correct statement of the situation of the situation of the Mormons. I left Washington June 9th, and came to this city, and on the 11th of June started, company with a gentleman of this city, for the general camp of the Mormons, at Council Bluffs. We separated at St. Louis, he going direct to Fort Leavenworth, up the Missouri, and thence to Council Bluffs; I went up the Mississippi the river, and stopped at Nauvoo, the Mormon city, where I stopped two or three days. The location of Nauvoo is delightful; the temple may be seen for nearly fifteen or twenty miles on the river. Nauvoo is situated on a great bend of the river, and you are about the same distance from it for several miles as you pass. The temple is still the property of the Mormons, although they have offered to sell it for much less than it cost; it is built of white hewn stone. I think it is 128 feet long, and 88 wide. It is finished outside, and the first and upper stories inside; the basement and middle stories are not completely finished. In the basement story is a baptismal fount, resting upon twelve oxen, hewn from granite stone, with iron horns. The fount is built of stone, with stone steps to it; this, together with the whole work of the temple, is of the best order. There are many good houses in Nauvoo, some built of brick and some of stone, while there are some that are very poor. The Nauvoo House, (so called,) a building intended for a public house, is a good piece of work, although not completed, also belongs to the Mormons, which they wish to sell, together with many other houses, which the Mormons were compelled to leave last winter unsold. I found but few Mormons in Nauvoo, and the most of them were making every preparation to leave, but their extreme poverty compelled them to stay until they could get fitted out.

I got a horse and saddle and started for their camp on the 30th of June. I rode alone on the road which the camp passed. I passed wagons every day; they were perfectly civil. They have planted and sowed at a place called Garden Grove, on the east fork of the Grand River, 160 miles from Nauvoo. They have also a crop at a place they call Mount Pisgah, 200 miles from Nauvoo, at which place I arrived the eve of the fifth day, very much fatigued. After a little rest, I started for Council Bluffs, a distance of 120 miles beyond Mount Pisgah. I think we counted 1100 wagons between these two places. On my arrival I had the pleasure of meeting my friend, and also Col. James Allen, of the United States army, sent there to receive into the service of the United States a battalion of Mormons, under the direction of Gen. Kearney. I remained at Council Bluffs about four weeks. I will here give you an account of the place and its inhabitants. At this place, besides Mormons, there are but four or five white men, viz: Mr. Mitchell, the sub-Indian agent, Mr. Sarpee, a merchant; also, two other merchants, whose names I don't recollect. There am also living here a few Indians and half breeds. This constitute the people which the public journals please to call old settlers, stating that they are dissatisfied, which I pronounce a palpable falsehood, (intentional or unintentional.) In the first place, I have in my possession a duplicate of Mr. Mitchell, declaring that it is for the apparent good of both parties for the Mormons to stop there, and also a writing from ten of the chiefs and braves of the Potawatamies, obtained by Col. Allen, permitting them to stop and cultivate as much as they pleased, not interfering with their fields. And as to the merchants, every person who is not stupid must know that they would like to have them remain, and of this I will say that one of the merchants expressed to me his liking for the Mormons, and started the day I did for a large stock of goods at St. Louis. I presume they (the Mormons) have purchased at that place not less than five thousand dollars' worth of goods. Of these matters I am fully acquainted. As to the insults which they (the old settlers) have to bear with Christian fortitude, when I was them I heard not the least complaint; I received the kindest treatment from all, and saw the twelve every day, and as far as I could judge, things were moving on peacefully and quietly.

I was as disappointed in finding them so cheerful and happy. A whole city in this land of freedom and equal rights driven out upon the prairies and into the wilderness, on account of their religion, is wicked and brings a stain upon the government not easy to be blotted out. They number from fifteen to twenty thousand; they have, as near as I can judge, from three to four thousand wagons; their wagons are covered and are drawn by oxen, generally from four to six oxen to a wagon, and generally two cows, which are sometimes yoked and driven in the team. Some have horses and carriages, and many have saddle horses and mules. There is a large drove of cattle and also sheep; their cattle are the best I ever saw. The main body of the camp will remain at Council Bluffs and its vicinity this winter. When I left, they were busily engaged in cutting grain for their cattle and building log houses for the winter. They have seat two or three hundred families over the mountains this fall; others have gone to Grand Island, on the Platte River, two hundred and sixty miles from Council Bluffs, where they will build a fort to preserve themselves, cattle, &c. from the Indians, and the first of May the whole camp will start for California, besides a great many more that intend to go and join them. They are generally provided with as much as year's provision, and are not starving to death, as the papers declare. Those who have been driven out of Nauvoo, recently, must suffer, unless they find friends. On my return home I stopped one day in Nauvoo, but was glad to get away, for the mob was expected in every hour; but I saw no reason why they should be disturbed. I have hastily written you this letter, thinking it might please you to know the true facts of the case. I have a letter addressed to me from Col. Allen, and should I get time I will give you a copy of it, all of which you are at liberty to use as you please.
J. C. L.                        
Of Petersborough, New Hampshire.                        

Note 1: The original report mentioning "much dissatisfaction" prevailing in Council Bluffs' among "the old settlers" (due to the arrival of the Mormon emigrants), was published in the St. Louis New Era of Sept. 21, 1846. The relevant section of that article reads: "they [Mormons] have sent far ahead into the wilderness, and in the direction they intend to pursue, a number of their party to prepare a crop against their coming. At Council Bluffs much dissatisfaction prevails amongst the old settlers, on account of their appearance, but as the Mormons are by far the most numerous, they conceive it most prudent to say but little, and to bear with inconveniences and insults with Christian fortitude.... Should they linger about the Bluffs till the removal of the Indians, it is more than probable an attempt will be made... to concentrate their forces and to take possession of the beautiful country known as the Pottawattamie lands.... The fanaticism and delusion that keeps them together is truly deplorable."

Note 2: The New Era article was reprinted in several other newspapers, including the New York Morning Courier of Sept. 29th, the New-York Weekly Tribune of Sept. 29th and Niles' National Register of Oct. 24th. It seems unlikely that the steamboat passengers from the Bluffs, who were interviewed upon their arrival at St. Louis, knew enough about the situation in the Mormon camp to offer informed comments. Probably some of the few "old settlers" in that place welcomed the arrival of the Mormons, while others, "with Christian fortitude," merely tolerated their presence, expecting the emigrants to eventually move on to California.


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, October 14, 1846.                             No. 39.

NEWS FROM NAUVOO -- By the last advices from Nauvoo, we learn that the Temple had not yet been sold. The Anties having every thing now in their own way, of course will act accordingly. The Mormons in the vicinity are represented as being in a most pitiable condition.

Note: This issue of the Dollar reprinted the Public Ledger's editorial remarks of Oct. 7th -- an example of the close ties between the two newspapers (which shared the same Philadelphia address and for a while may have been printed on the same press).


Vol. XXII.                            Philadelphia, Thursday, October 22, 1846.                            No. 25.

From  Santa Fe.

We find the following intelligence from Gen. Kearney's Army, in the St. Louis Republican of the 13th instant:

From Santa Fe -- Dr. Craig, of Kentucky, left Santa Fe on the 6th September. Dr. C. brought in a mail, and despatches from General Kearney to the Government, which he mailed at Independence.

Gen. Kearney, with about 1000 men, left Santa Fe on the 3d, for the Rio Abajo, or the settlements below on the Rio Grande.... Upon the arrival of Capt. Price's regiment and the battalion of Mormons, Gen Kearney would set out for California. It was understood that the expedition would be divided into three parties, and would pursue different routes, until they arrived near the Pacific coast. Monterey is to be the termination of the expedition, a distance by the nearest route, of about twelve hundred miles. A very large portion of the country over which either expedition must travel is represented as barren and destitute of game and of subsistence for horses.

Dr. Craig met the advance of Colonel Price's regiment leaving the Cimarone river. Col. P. had been sick, but he was much better. He was two days' march in the rear of the advance of the regiment, and from ten to fifteen days' march from Santa Fe. The advance of the Mormon battalion was met at Cimarone springs, and the remainder [were met] at Sand creek. They were some five days in the rear of Col. Price's regiment. Dr. C. met Col. Thompson, with a party of thirteen men and three wagons, at Rock Creek, pushing on by forced marches, to take command of the Mormon battalion....

GOVERNOR FORD'S LAST MESSAGE. -- Under date of October 2d, Gov. Thomas Ford, of Illinois, issued an executive document in the shape of a letter to Major B. Clifford, Jr., in answer to an application on behalf of the new citizens of Naavoo for protection. He says, "the world at large will acquit him of inefficiency," when all the circumstances are known. That he twice marched military forces to Nauvoo, but that every body was opposed to the Mormons. That the people would not come to his call when he wanted them. That it is a shameful thing to see two hundred innocent families cast out from their property and their homes. That he will move whenever the people choose to organize an armed force and send in notice to him that they are ready to sustain him in sustaining the laws. A correspondent of the St. Louis Union says, Nauvoo still remains entirely under anti-legal control -- every citizen who differs from the mob authorities, being branded as "Jack" or "Mormon," and necessarily compelled to keep his own counsel, or be expelled forthwith. Messrs. McAuley, Brattle, Williams, Higbee, &c., hold their daily "star chamber" tribunals within the Temple, judging all matters touching the loyalty of their subjects, and dispensing such rewards and punishments, as in their judgments seemeth fit -- such as ducking in the Mississippi, &c.

Note 1: In a more complete reprint of the Republican article, this line is found: "If the expedition to California should start by the 1st of October, it would, according to Fitzpatrick's opinion, not reach Monterey before the middle of February, making the trip in about 130 days."

Note 2: The news report regarding Governor Ford was reprinted in the Baltimore Sun of Oct. 23rd, and again by the Dollar Newspaper on Oct 28th. The three newspapers frequently shared such articles with one another, without any attribution.


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Friday, October 23, 1846.                          No. 2356.

STATE OF THINGS IN NAUVOO. -- We learn from Nauvoo that the Mormons have all left the city with the exception of some few, who are too sick to be removed. The anti-Mormons have still in the the city a guard, composed of about 46 men, commanded by Captain Case, who has associated with him Williams, McCally, Brattle and others, notorious for their opposition to the Mormons, and the new settlers who sympathise with them. It is said that under their authority, great outrages are committed against the new citizens; that all law is abrogated in Nauvoo, and every thing there is under the control of an organized mob. -- Springfield Journal.

Note: The above report was reprinted from the Sangamo Journal of Oct. 15th, which added: "This state of things there has been represented to the Governor who has just sent abroad his proclamation."


Vol. XXII.                            Philadelphia, Monday, October 26, 1846.                            No. 28.

MORE TROUBLERS IN EMBRYO. -- The people of Burlington, Iowa, are complaining that their city is overrun by the Mormon population, who have been driven from Nauvoo, and fears are entertained by the editor of the "Hawk-Eye" that some difficulties will grow out of their coming to that city.

Note 1: The issue of the Burlington Hawk-Eye here mentioned was that of Sept. 17th, which communicated the editor's concerns in an article under the heading of "The Mormon War." The Liberty Tribune of Oct. 3rd carried a passing reference to this interesting and informative editorial, but it appears to have gone unnoticed in most of the contemporary popular press.

Note 2: Among other things, the Hawk-Eye editor (James G. Edwards) had this to say: "In consequence of the opposition they meet with in Illinois, the Mormons are scattering themselves all over the Southern and South-western portions of Iowa. Lee county has more of them than it ever had before, and our own citizens in Des Moines are becoming alarmed at the numbers, who have taken up their quarters in this vicinity. Since the hostilities in Nauvoo took place one boat is said to have taken off about fifty Mormons from this place, who have gone to assist their brethren in Nauvoo. Their families are left behind and may soon be cast upon the County for support. If they were honest and industrious they might be a desirable acquisition to our population in many respects. But as no one will endorse for their good conduct, and as they come among us with a very bad name, it behooves our citizens to be on the watch and repudiate the selfishness of the Illinoians, which has sent such a population among us."


Vol. IV.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 4, 1846.                       No. 42.

AFFAIRS IN HANCOCK COUNTY. -- THE MORMONS. -- By a correspondence between Governor Ford, of Illinois, and some Anti-Mormons in and about Nauvoo, it appears that the portion of their force left in possession of the city, have at length exhibited their real character, and have proceeded to follow their trade, in promiscuous and actual robbery of the inhabitants. From the first we believed that a greater part of the thefts done in Hancock, and charged upon the Mormons, were the acts of shrewd rogues in the Anti-Mormon ranks, who, under cover of the prevailing excitement, stole from the peaceable and honest of both parties, and thus fed the flame of discord. The late acts of a part of the invading force only confirm our former belief.

The better portion of the Anti-Mormons, who looked upon the Mormons as a grievance which had to be removed in order to insure peace to the county, after accomplishing their dispersion, retired home; but the plundering portion, seeing all chance of robbing at an end when hostilities censed, elect themselves as a force to hold possession of the city, and, under cover of authority, rob not only the retreating Mormons, but all other citizens -- accompanying their theft by grosser outrage. This is the real state of affairs in Nauvoo, as represented to the Governor by Anti-Mormons, who now, in their turn, are crying out for aid from the State authorities. The poisoned chalice has soon returned to the lips of these violators of law.

There is not the least doubt that if the police officers of this and other cities on the Mississippi river were to visit Nauvoo, they would find in the ranks of the Anti-Mormon mob, now holding possession, a number of the thieves and felons who infest our cities and rivers. Gov. Ford appears to entertain some such belief, for in his proclamation calling together a force to punish and drive out the mob in Nauvoo, says:

"I do not know whether we shall be able to do any good. The only chance to put them down will be, that they will stand and fight; but it is to be feared that they will escape to Missouri or Iowa, and swear that they never were in arms against the State, as they have uniformly done on former occasions."

Or course, when driven out of Hancock county, they will go to some other and steal. -- St. Louis Reveille, Oct. 20.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 18, 1846.                       No. 44.


Gov. Ford and the Anti-Mormons.

We find in the St. Louis Republican of the 6th instant, the following letter from Governor Ford, written at Nauvoo on the 31st of October, from which we make the following extracts:
Nauvoo, Oct. 31,1846.                
Our little force arrived in this place on the 28th inst., since which time I have seen and conversed freely with all parties. About thirty of the new citizens who were driven away have returned, and are now in this place. None of the Mormons have come back, nor will they be encouraged to do so. The expelled citizens are men who own a good deal of property here, which was purchased last Spring and Summer, and they have signified to me that if they can be permitted to return to their homes that they will make no complaint of the injuries which they have received. They ask the arrest and punishment of no one, and are determined to go about their business, for the future, without attempting to molest those who expelled them, either by words or acts.

The other party, the anti-Mormons, insist that every thing is peaceable and quiet in the county, and that there is no use for a military force here; at the same time the leaders declare boldly that none of the new citizens who were expelled shall ever come back; or if they do, they shall be again expelled as soon as they do come back.

In the conference which I had with the anti-Mormons, yesterday, it was evident that they did not apprehend any danger from the new citizens. It is now a mere matter of feeling. The new citizens have been expelled by a revolutionary power, which, for a time, set aside government, and the leaders have a pride of opinion on the subject. They dislike to see their work undone, and their decrees reversed.

I have been personally, treated with great respect and kindness by the anti-Mormons in this county, and I believe firmly that the whole matter could be settled in a very short time if it were not for this pride of opinion on the part of leaders, and an evident disposition of politicians to keep up the anti-Mormon party for political purposes. I am satisfied that many persons are riding the anti-Mormon question as a mere hobby, and it it is such persons principally who keep alive these troubles. There was a meeting of the anti-Mormons here last night; but they could not get more than fifty or sixty persons to attend. Several persons attempted to make inflammatory speeches, but they could not work themselves up into a passion. They, however, passed resolutions to expel the new citizens who have returned, and appointed a Committee to wait on me and make their intentions known.

I have declined receiving committees, and shall not receive this one. Anarchy has existed so long that I fear it will be some time before all persons will fully comprehend their true relations to the State at large. It is my belief that a great majority of the people are sincerely desirous of returning to a state of peace and order, but the leaders desire this state of things only upon condition that their self-constituted authority shall not be interfered with by the State. I am determined, as Governor, to have nothing to do with any compromises between the parties; nor will I undertake to guarantee any arrangement that may be made. I have taken the ground that I represent the authority of government, and that alone.

No one has been arrested for former disturbances, because no one has obtained any warrant for that purpose. There are many persons here who might easily be arrested, if those who have been injured thought proper to make complaints against them. But as yet no such complaints have been made, and, I am led to believe, will not be.

It is thought by the expelled new citizens that arrests and prosecutions will not result in any good; they may serve to keep up the excitement and hatred of the parties, without resulting in the punishment of the guilty, or in obtaining satisfaction for the injured. Without such complaints should be made and pressed on me, I am disposed to an oblivion of all former transactions, and only look to future conduct, of which I will probably, if very outrageous, assume jurisdiction under military law.

I have no fear that any force can be raised which can successfully oppose me; but if such a thing should happen, I have the promise of any number of volunteers I may choose to call for; and if new disturbances shall be raised, those who may be the authors of it will find that the people do not look upon this matter as a Mormon War.
I am, most respectfully, Your obd’t servant,                                 THOMAS FORD.                
The same Republican gives the proceedings of the Anti-Mormon meeting whose Committee the Governor refused to receive. General Brockman "addressed the meeting, after which resolutions were adopted protesting against the Governor's armed force and against the Jack Mormons

Note: The Dollar Newspaper omitted several paragraphs in Gov. Ford's letter. A lengthier reprint of that letter was published in the New York Tribune of Nov. 21, 1846 See also the Sangamo Journal of Nov. 19, 1846, for a follow-up report.


Alexander's express Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 18, 1846.                       No. ?

AFFAIRS IN NAUVOO, ILLINOIS. -- A letter to the St. Louis, Mo., Daily Union, says: -- In my last letter I intimated that his Excellency, Gov. Ford, had called out the militia of the State, and that he intended to take effective measures to put a stop to the foul spirit of mobocracy which so long reigned in Hancock. He remained in Carthage during yesterday, and while there had an interview with the mob leader, Gen. Brockman, who gave his Excellency to understand they felt justified in all their proceedings, and were fully prepared to do the same again; that they were "freemen," and should do just as they thought fit under any circumstances; in fact, he put the Governor at defiance; told him the "boys were on hand" at any time and at any hour. To-day, October 28, his Excellency entered Nauvoo with about two hundred men, two pieces of cannon, and a numerous train of wagons, &c.; but the Governor's entree bore no comparison, in point of number, with that of Brockman. The same silent, desolate scene awaited the Governor, as the mobbers witnessed. There was no joy or pleasure depicted in the countenances of the people. There was ridicule from groups of those friendly to the mob, among whom Brockman was the most conspicuous, for the bold and daring front he carried. It being late in the evening, his Excellency has not addressed the citizens as was supposed he would; but, it is said, he intends to place a strong posse in the city until the Legislature meets in January, and in the meantime to take such steps as will tend to redeem some of the past errors. The crisis has now arrived, whether the laws are to be respected, or mob violence to be supreme. A few months will decide.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                          Philadelphia, Tuesday, November 23, 1846.                          No. 2365.



The St. Louis Republican has received letters with the information that an express had arrived at Fort Leavenworth, with intelligence, from Santa Fe to the 11th September. Gen. Kearney had returned from the South, after a very successful expedition.... On the return of Gen. Kearney, and up to the departure of the express, on the morning of the 17th of September, not a word had reached the camp of the movements of Col. Price's regiment, or of the march of the battalion of Mormons, supposed to be under the command of Capt. Allen. A trader who reached Santa Fe about the 16th, having left Independence the 12th of August, reported to Gen. Kearney that there were no troops on the road. The death of Capt. Allen, and the transfer of the command to Lieut. Smith, and subsequently to Capt. Thompson, was all unknown to Gen. Kearney. Acting under this information, or, rather, want of information, orders had been issued by Gen. Kearney for the U. S. Dragoons, about three hundred in number, under the command of Maj. Sumner, to hold themselves in readiness to proceed to Upper California on the 28th of the month -- the Mormon battalion to follow immediately upon.their arrival at Santa Fe....

The express met the Mormons under the command of Lieut. Smith, 1st Dragoons, with the ordnance, on the Cimarone. Col. Thompson, with a detachment of Dragoons, was met at Cottonwood; and Capt. Enos, Assistant Quartermaster, with Lieut. Dyer, of the Ordnance Separtment, at Council Grove.

Our correspondent says: By a return train of wagons from Bent's Fort, which arrived at Fort Leavenworth on the 14th, Dr. Sanderson (Surgeon to the Mormon batallion) writes from the Crossing of the Arkansas, that had not Lieut. Smith arrived in time to assume command, they never would have crossed the plains; that they were the most lazy and good-for-nothing set he had ever met with. A great many were sick, some one hundred and fifty at a time, owing mainly to their indolent and filthy habits -- none, however, had died....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, February 10, 1847.                           No. 4.


...Postscript from a letter from San Francisco, Aug. 10.

"The Mormons have all landed here; for the present about thirty go to Bodega to load the Brooklyn, where she takes in a cargo of sawed lumber for the Sandwich Islands. She sails for Bodega about 15th. There are 20,000 feet of lumber now there sawed."

Note: The same report also appeared in the Baltimore Sun of Aug. 10th. It originated in the Honolulu Friend of Oct. 1, 1846.


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, March 24, 1847.                           No. 10.


The Mormons last to leave Nauvoo -- a great portion of them being the destitute and sickly of the population -- are suffering dreadfully on the Pottawatamie lands, Iowa, one hundred and seventy-five miles west of Montrose. Many of them enlisted and have gone to New Mexico, but the rest are starving upon the prairie. A committee has arrived at St. Louis to solicit relief. As these wretched people were driven from comfortable homes by a lawless mob, without the least shadow of right, they have strong claims upon the sympathy of the humane, and we hope they will receive prompt relief. The husbands and brothers of many of the sufferers are now engaged in New Mexico fighting the battles of their country, an instance of patriotism that speaks nobly for their character, considering the bitter persecution and wrong they have endured in every State in which they have lived.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, June 9, 1847.                           No. 21.


The St. Louis Reveille of the 27th says: -- A gentleman from Burlington, Iowa, brings news of the return of two men who left that place some time since, with a company of Oregon emigrants, who report that they were forced to return by a band of Mormons, who left Nauvoo last fall. They report that one of the emigrants being sick, was forced to stop at Council Bluffs, that a number of his friends, including the two that have returned, remained with him, designing, as soon as he should [sufficiently] recover, to hasten forward and overtake their companions. After resuming the march, and being far beyond the white settlements, they were attacked by the Mormons, robbed, and all murdered except the two who bring the sad intelligence, and who barely escaped with their lives. Nothing is known of the fate of those in advance. Several of the persons murdered were taking out considerable sums of money, which was made known to the Mormons by a brace of worthies, now under guard at Burlington, who have acted as runners for the Mormons during the past winter.

NOT ALL QUIET AT NAUVOO YET. -- It is rumored that there are some fresh disturbances in Nauvoo, which led to a public meeting of the citizens, at which resolutions were passed requiring the Mormon leaders left there last fall, to leave the place within a given period. The alleged cause of complaint is said to be fraudulent sales of city property.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's pictorial Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 25, 1847.                       No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- An extra from the office of the California Star, published at Yerba Buena, contains an address "to the Saints in England and America," which is signed "S. Brannan, President." It proposes to give a brief view of the condition of the Mormons, since their advent in California. Mr. Brannan says they were six months in making their passage from New York to Yerba Buena, and that the colony enjoyed good health. -- About twenty males of their number have, he says, "gone after stray gods," and refuse to assist in providing for their brethren. -- The Mormons had commenced a settlement on the river San Joaquin, a large stream emptying into the Bay of San Francisco. -- Twenty of their number were up at New Hope, ploughing and putting in wheat and other crops, and making preparations for the spring. Gov. Boggs was in the country, and during an interview which Mr. Brannan had with him, he says he expressed much dissatisfaction with the country, and spoke strongly of returning back in the spring. On the arrival of the Mormons at Yerba Buena, a few of the passengers endeavored to make mischief and trouble, but their designs were frustrated. Four persons were excommunicated from the church during the passage, for their wicked and licentious conduct -- Elder E. W. Pell, Orrin Smith, A. T. Moses, and Mrs. Lucy Eager. Afterwards, on their arrival, Elisha Hyate, James Scott, and Isaac Addison, were excommunicated, and others deserved the same fate, but their attention was then more particularly called to temporal than to spiritual affairs. Provisions were high, owing to the arrival of so many emigrants, and the provisioning of the army and navy. He says that emigrants should come well supplied, which can be done only by coming by water. No intelligence had been received from the brethren at the Society Islands.

Note 1: Prior to the California Gold Rush, news from the Pacific coast was slow in reaching Philadelphia -- and that may account for the eight months' delay in the above mention of Elder Sam Brannan's published message. Among other things, Brannan said: "Governor Boggs is in this country, but without influence even among his own people that he emigrated with. And during an interview I had with him a few days since, he expressed much dissatisfaction with the country, and spoke strongly of returning back in the spring. He says nothing about the Mormons, whether through fear or policy I am not able to say...."

Note 2: The Philadelphia Dollar Newspaper of Aug. 18th ran essentially the same report, but offering fewer details regarding the Mormons in California.


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 15, 1847.                           No. 35.


The Mormons, who have two large settlements, one on each side of the river, 25 miles below Old Council Bluffs, are in a very prospering condition. They are about ten thousand strong, on each side of the river. The site which they have selected for their new city, and called Winter Quarters, is said to be still more beautiful than the site on which Nauvoo stands. The country, around cannot be excelled for beauty of scenery or richness of soil. The town of Winter Quarters contains six thousand inhabitants. They have about 8,000 acres of the most luxuriant corn, which, it is thought, will yield a bountiful harvest.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 10, 1847.                           No. 43.

THE NEW MORMON LOCATION. -- The Mormons have located their grand gathering place about half way between the Utah and Salt Lake, in California, on a stream which connects the two waters. The distance between the two lakes is about sixty miles -- a fertile valley extending the whole distance of several miles in breadth. There they have laid out a city and commenced making improvements. They are in the midst of the Blackfeet, Utah and Crow tribes of Indians, who are said to be peaceable, and favor this settlement.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, November 13, 1847.                           No. 36.


It having, on the most reliable evidence, come to the knowledge of several of our leading citizens, that there are thousands of our former fellow citizens, men, women and children, called Mormons, literally starving to death, or lingering in medicineless sickness, on or beyond the very outward Western borders of civilization, -- whither they have been impelled by force or circumstances, -- a meeting was held in Independence Hall, on Thursday evening, to devise some plan of sending speedy aid to the sufferers. -- Col. John Swift, the Mayor of the City, was called to the Chair, and Judge Kane, Josiah Randall, and other influential gentlemen, appointed Vice Presidents. Several representatives of the unhappy people were present, and touchingly recounted their distresses: after which, a preamble and resolutions were presented and adopted, and the Chairman authorized to appoint committees to solicit aid from the citizens, which we trust will be generously extended in the holy cause of Charity and Christian Sympathy to the suffering thousands.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                              Philadelphia, Wednesday, December 8, 1847.                           No. 47.


The Supreme J. Court, sitting at Boston, has decreed a divorce from the bonds of matrimony, between Hen. Cobb and his wife Augusta Cobb, on the application of the husband, who alleged that the wife had lived at Nauvoo as the "spiritual wife" of Brigham Young. Geo. J . Adams, known as Elder Adams, testified to the fact and the subject of a conversation with Mrs. Cobb, on which she avowed that persons had a right to live together in unlawful intercourse, and said it was right. The testimony of Mr. Adams was corroborated [by] a widow lady, who had been to Nauvoo, and while there had taken the first degree in the mysteries of the Mormon Church. The second degree gave the privilege of spiritual wive-hood. Mrs. Cobb took this degree, and urged the witness to take it, and spoke of her connection with Young. Mr. Adams said that Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormons, did not teach the doctrine of spiritual wives.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, April 22, 1848.                           No. 7.


The St. Louis Reveille of the 30th learns from traders just arrived from the falls of the Missouri, that the Mormons encamped at the Old Bluffs, were living in a comfortable condition, and generally seemed well provided for. A large body of the Mormons are to start for the Great Salt Lake in California on the 1st of May. Those not sufficiently provided for on the road will remain another season. There has been a good trade of robes at the forts; Buffalo have been plenty. The Indians had been generally quiet, but, as was stated by some of the Sioux, this latter tribe were preparing to attack the Pawnees treacherously. At a pretended Grand Council of the two tribes, the Pawnees were to be exterminated.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's pictorial Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 24, 1848.                           No. ?

The City of the Salt Lake.

Letters have been received in St. Louis, Mo., by persons connected With the Mormon colony at the city of the Salt Lake, dated in the latter part of December. They represent the situation of the colony as a comfortable one. They had not been molested by the Indians, many of whom were in the habit of visiting the city. An enclosed square, formed of continuous dwellings on each side, facing inwards, intended for defence, of the adobe material, had been erected, as well as other buildings for the colony, comprising some three thousand souls. Up to the time of writing only two deaths had occurred in the colony. Last fall they sowed about three thousand acres of wheat, and they intended, besides, to put in a spring crop of about six thousand acres more. If the crops should prove good, they will have grain to spare to the emigrants to California taking the Salt Lake route. They had erected two sawmills and a grist-mill, and were industriously employed. Seed potatoes were selling at ten dollars per bushel, peas fifty cents per pound, and other things at about the same rates.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, June 14, 1848.                       No. 22.



Passing up Merrimack street the other day, my attention was arrested by a loud earnest voice, apparently engaged in preaching, or rather "holding forth " in the building opposite. I was in the mood to welcome anything of a novel character, and following the sound I passed up a flight of steps leading to a long, narrow and somewhat shabby room, dignified by the appellation of Classic Hall.

Seating myself, I looked about me. There were from fifty to one hundred persons in the audience, in which nearly all classes of this heterogeneous community seemed pretty fairly represented, all listening with more or less attention to the speaker.

He was a young man, with a dark, enthusiastic complexion, black eyes and hair, with his collar thrown back, and his coat cuffs turned over, revealing a somewhat unique quantity of "fine linen," bending over his coarse board pulpit, and gesticulating with the vehemence of Hamlet's [player], "tearing his passion to rags." A band of mourning crape fluttered with the spasmodic action of his left arm, and an allusion to "our late beloved brother, Joseph Smith," sufficiently indicated the sect of the speaker. He was a Mormon -- a saint of the latter days.His theme was the power of faith. Although evidently unlearned and innocent enough of dealing in such "abominable matters, as a verb or a noun, which no christian ear can endure;" to have satisfied Jack Cade himself, there was a straight forward vehemence and intensive earnestness in this manner, which at once disarmed my criticism. He spoke of Adam in Paradise, as the lord of this lower world.

"For," said he, "water couldn't drown him, fire couldn't burn him, cold couldn't freeze him -- nothing could harm him, for he had all the elements under his feet. And what, my hearers, was the secret of this power? His faith in God; that was it. Well, the devil wanted this power. He behaved in a mean. ungentlemanly way, and deceived Eve, and lied to her, he did. And so Adam lost his faith. And all this power over the elements that Adam had, the devil got and has it now. He is the Prince and the power of the air, consequently he is master of the elements and lord of this world. He has filled it with unbelief, and robbed man of his birthright, and will do so until the hour of the power of darkness is ended, and the mighty angel comes down with the chain in his hand, to bind the old serpent and dragon.

Another speaker, a stout, black-browed "son of thunder," gave an interesting account of his experience. He had been one of the apostles of the Mormon Evangel, and had visited Europe. He had "but three cents in his pocket," when he reached England. He went to the high professors of all the sects, and they would not receive him; they pronounced him "damned already." He was reduced to great poverty and hunger; alone in a strange land with no one to bid him welcome. He was on the very verge of starvation. "Then," said he, "I knelt down and prayed in earnest faith, 'Lord give me this day my daily bread.' O, I tell ye, I pray'd with a good appetite; and I rose up and was moved to go to a house at hand. I knocked at the door, and when the owner came I said to him, 'I am a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, from America; I am starving, will you give me some food?' 'Why bless you, yes, said the man, 'sit down and eat as much as you please.' And I did sit down at this table, blessed be God; but, my dear hearers, he was not a professor; he was not a Christian, but one of Robert Owen's Infidels. The Lord reward him for his kindness!"

In listening to these modern prophets, I discovered, as I think, the great secret of their success in making converts. They speak to a common feeling; they minister to a universal want. They contrast strongly the miraculous power of the gospel of the apostolic time with the present state of our nominal Christianity. They ask for the signs of divine power, the faith overcoming all things, which opened the prison doors of the apostles, gave them power over the elements which rebuked disease and death itself, and made visible to all the presence of the living God. They ask for any declaration in the Scriptures that this miraculous power of faith was to be confined to the first professors of Christianity. They speak a language of hope and promise to weak, weary hearts, tossed and troubled, who have wandered from sect to sect, seeking in vain for the primal manifestations of the divine power.

Note 1: This article, by one of America's most famous poets, first appeared in America in the Dec. 4, 1847 issue of The Living Age. Whittier also wrote an article on the Mormons emigrating westward from Nauvoo, which was subsequently published in the Washington, D. C. Globe.

Note 2: The original text, as it appeared in the Sept. 4, 1847 issue of London's Howitt's Journal, included these final two paragraphs: "In the 'Narrative of an Eye-witness of the Mormon Massacre,' published in a Western paper, I was a good deal impressed by the writer's account of the departure of the prophet from 'the holy city' to deliver himself up to the state authorities at Warsaw. It was well understood, that in so doing, he was about to subject himself to extreme hazard. The whole country round about was swarming with armed men, eager to imbrue their hands in his blood. The city was in a fearful state of alarm and excitement. The great Nauvoo legion, with its two thousand strong of armed fanatics, was drawn up in the principal square. A word from the prophet would have converted that dark silent mass into desperate and unsparing defenders of their leader, and the holy places of their faith. Mounted on his favorite black horse, he rode through the glittering files, and with words of cheer and encouragement, exhorted them to obey the laws of the state, and give their enemies no excuse for persecution and outrage. 'Well,' said he, as he left them, 'they are good boys, if I never see them again.' Taking leave of his family, and his more intimate friends, he turned his horse, and rode up in front of the great temple, as if to take a final look at the proudest trophy of his power. After contemplating it for a while in silence, he put spurs to his horse, in company with his brother, who, it will be recollected, shared his fate in the prison, dashed away towards Warsaw, and the prairie horizon shut down between him and the city of the saints for the last time. -- Once in the world's history we were to have a Yankee prophet, and we have had him in Joe Smith. For good or for evil, he has left his track on the great pathway of life; or, to use the words of Home, 'knocked out for himself a window in the wall of the nineteenth century,' whence his rude, bold, good-humored face will peer out upon the generations to come. But the prophet has not trusted his fame merely to the keeping of the spiritual. He has incorporated himself with the enduring stone of the great Nauvoo temple, which, when completed, will be the most splendid and imposing architectural monument in the new world. With its huge walls of hewn stone -- its thirty gigantic pillars, loftier than those of Baalbec -- their massive caps carved into the likeness of enormous human faces, themselves resting upon crescent moons, with a giant profile of a face within the curve -- it stands upon the highest elevation of the most beautiful city site of the west, overlooking the 'Father of Waters;' -- a temple unique and wonderful as the faith of its builder, embodying in its singular and mysterious architecture, the Titan idea of the Pyramids, and the solemn and awe-inspiring thought which speaks from the Gothic piles of the middle ages."


Vol. XVIII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, July 15, 1848.                           No. 19.

For the Model American Courier.


Carthage, Illinois, June 11th, 1848.              
Mr. A. M’Makin:
     Sir -- Hancock county within the last 18 months (out of Nauvoo) has gone ahead faster in a commercial and local point of view than she had during six years previously. That the stagnation was mainly owing to the influence the Mormons exerted over the affairs of the county, every candid man must admit. Nevertheless this does not alter the established fact, that the manner in which they were forcibly expelled from the county and State, was contrary to all law, and in many instances a violation of the better principles of our nature, and has been the immediate cause of much misery, destruction, and suffering among the greater part of that deluded people. And I will here say that the position you have taken as the conductor of an independent journal relative to the affairs of our county, is, though seemingly bearing against its best interests, such as would have been expected under the circumstances from those who are bound in duty to the general welfare and prosperity of our common country, to discountenance and condemn mobocracy and violations of law in every form in which they present themselves.

The prospect in Western Illinois for an abundant harvest of every kind of grain (especially wheat) is excellent, indeed I have heard many of the farmers here say that they have never known it equalled since they have lived in the State. And a more desirable place for immigrants to settle and obtain an easy, cheap and comfortable living, cannot, I think, be found anywhere in the West. Our towns and villages are on the march of improvement; our own, and the town of Warsaw, situated on the river 18 miles west of this place, especially. These two places each contain about six hundred inhabitants, and your readers can form an estimate of their increase in population since their emancipation from Mormon thraldom, when in 1845-6, they contained little more than half that number. Nauvoo at present contains about 2000 inhabitants. There are now but 5 or 6 families in the city who avow themselves or are known to be Mormons; these are principally the agents of the churches, and their families, left to dispose of whatever property belonging to the Mormons remains unsold. The Temple, that gigantic relic of human folly and credulity, yet remains the property of the Church, though the Rev. Mr. Hayney, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is negotiating with the agents for its purchase. It is understood that if he succeeds in getting it, that it will be converted into a magnificent college to fit young men for the ministry in that denomination.

A liberal charter has been obtained for the construction of a Railroad around the lower Mississippi rapids on this side of the river, and books opened for the subscription of stock in Galena, Quincy, St. Louis, and other towns on the river. I believe that the principal part of the stock has already been subscribed, mostly by eastern capitalists.

This is a great and useful work, and when completed, will immensely benefit not only this county, but the public in general.   M. W. M.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Alexander's pictorial Messenger

Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 6, 1848.                           No. ?

Salt Lake of the Rocky Mountains.

On one of the southern spurs of the Rocky Mountains, there is a valley full of geological wonders and curiosities, and is at present surrounded with a romantic interest, as being the place where that strange people, the Mormons, have taken up their residence. It is well-known that a peculiar religion founded in the enthusiastic nature of a great number of men and women of all nations, separated the Mormons from all other people in the State of Illinois, where they once had a flourishing colony. It is also well-known that persecution on the one hand and bigoted religious feeling on the other, expelled the Mormons from the borders of our Republic. Taking up their march like the Israelites of old, they have become dwellers in a strange land. Wandering forth from the United States, they took up their line of march for the far, far West, and a portion of them have settled in a valley of California, in which there is a lake of salt water, so salt that it is impossible for a man to sink himself in it above his arm-pits, and after bathing there awhile and drying himself, he will be encrusted over. Into this lake there empties a fresh water river, cold and sparkling from the snowy mountains, and which the Mormons have named the Jordan, in the striking coincidence of that river flowing into the Dead Sea. There is no rain in that part of the world, and the land is watered by turning the cooling brooks from their "water courses," among the fields. They have no need of ice houses as they dwell only four miles from the region of snow, and the water does not get warm before it is dancing at their doors. There are also hot springs on the mountain, boiling hot continually, thus indicating subterranean fires which will one day banish the Mormon from that land by a far fiercer tempest than that enmity which drove them from our midst. The hot waters rush out in great volumes. The water has a sulphurous smell, but is of a clear blue color, and the people go there to bathe for various diseases. There are but few natural fruits in the valley, but the soil will bring forth an abundance by good cultivation, and there the strange Mormon may enjoy the fruit of his toil in peace, if he be peaceful himself. -- From this religious outcast Saxon race, there will spring a stock, which, in the course of two centuries, will be found to possess none of the characteristics of their forefathers. -- Religion and climate produce strange muta­tions in the physical and mental economy of men.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 27, 1848.                       No. 37.

ANOTHER MORMON WAR is threatened in Illinois. Two meetings have recently been held in Nauvoo, with a view of adopting measures to drive the remaining Mormons out. It is disgraceful to the character of the West that this persecuting spirit is still allowed to show itself.

Note: The original report, published in the Illinois State Journal, of Sept. 13th, read thusly: "Two meetings have been lately held in Nauvoo, for the purpose of making arrangements to drive the remaining Mormons out of Hancock county. We trust that no further attempts of this kind will be made. Our State has suffered enough in reputation already; and the anti-Mormons by such an act will not be sustained by the sympathies of the community." In another column the Journal editor added: "The editors of the Keokuk Dispatch (loco foco) propose to drive the Mormons out of Iowa, and if they resist, "to walk ocer the dead bodies of the slain." Those are the blood-thirsty men of the Dispatch..."


Vol. VI.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, October 18, 1848.                       No. 40.


Elder Ordon Hyde, the Chief of the Mormons, left St. Louis on the 3d inst. for Council Bluffs, and carries with him a printing press, types and materials for the establishment of a newspaper to be devoted to the support and propagation of the Mormon faith and doctrines.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, December 13, 1848.                       No. 48.


The following is a letter from Col. R. B. Mason, of the 1st U. S. Dragoons, and accom[anies the reports of the Secretary of War. It will be found replete with interest:

                                     Headquarters 10th Military Dept.,
                                                           Monterey, California, Aug. 17, 1848.

Sir -- I have the honor to inform you that, accompanied by Lieut. Wm. T. Sherman, 3d artillery, A. A. A. General, I started on the 12th of June last to make a tour through the northern part of California. My principal purpose, however, was to visit the newly discovered gold "placer" in the valley of the Sacramento.... We reached San Francisco on the 20th, and found that all, or nearly all, the male inhabitants had gone to the mines.... we resumed the journey by way of Bodega and Sonoma to Sutter's fort, where we arrived on the morning of the 2d of July....

At the urgent solicitation of many gentlemen, I delayed there to participate in the first public celebration of our national anniversary at that fort, but on the 5th resumed the journey, and proceeded twenty-five miles up the American fork to a point on it now known as the Lower Mines or Mormon Diggins...

Capt. Sutter, feeling the great want of lumber, contracted in September last with a Mr. Marshall to build a saw-mill... Mr. Marshall, to save labor, let the water directly into the race with a strong current, so as to wash it wider and deeper. He effected his purpose, and a large bed of mud and gravel was carried to the foot of the race. One day Mr. Marshall, as he was walking down the race to this deposite of mud, observed some glittering particles at the upper edge; he gathered a few, examined them, and became satisfied of their value... in a few weeks hundreds of men were drawn thither. At the time of my visit, but little more than three months after its first discovery, it was estimated that upwards of four thousand people were employed [in gold mining]...

The most moderate estimate I could obtain from men acquainted with the subject, was, that upwards of four thousand men were working in the gold district, of whom more than one-half were Indians; and that from $30,000 to $50,000 worth of gold, if not more, was daily obtained....

Gold is also believed to exist on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada; and when at the mines, I was informed by an intelligent Mormon that it had been found near the Great Salt Lake by some of his fraternity. Nearly all the Mormons are leaving California, to go to the Salt Lake; and this they surely would not do, unless they were sure of finding gold there in the same abundance as they now do on the Sacramento...

I enclose you herewith sketches of the country through which I passed, indicating the position of the mines and the topography of the country in the vicinity of those I visited.

Some of the specimens of gold accompanying this were presented for transmission to the Department.

I have the honor to be your most obedient servant,
                                                      R. B. MASON,
                                                      Col. 1st Dragoons, Comd'g.
Brigadier Geb. R. Jones,
Adj. Gen. U. S. A., Washington, D. C.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, December 16, 1848.                           No. 41.

Original Correspondence.

Destruction of "the Temple," &c.

Carthage, Illinois, Nov. 25, 1848.              
Mr. M’Makin -- Dear Sir: Finding, in looking over your truly "Model Courier," that communications are not so generally received from the West and North as from the the East and Southern parts of our glorious Union, -- and thinking that this is not because of the excess of patronage you receive from those quarters, -- I herewith send you a few items from our own beautiful Prairie State.

Hancock county is, and has been receiving for a year or two past, a larger portion of emigration, perhaps, than any other county in the State, -- notwithstanding the horrible name which the population has received abroad, in consequence of our Mormon difficulties. But we are forever freed from the contaminating influence of Mormonism. They have removed far out of the pale of our State, -- it is to be hoped never to return. In consequence of their removal, a large number of well tilled farms were left tenantless, which are now all taken up by immigrants from other States.

That splendid superstructure, that offspring of ignorance and credulity, the "Mormon Temple," was set on fire on the morning of the 9th ult. When first discovered, (about two o'clock in the morning), the fire had obtained such a hold on the building, as to render all efforts to extinguish it unavailing; and the inhabitants gathered around with mournful countenances to witness the destruction of the ornament of their town -- the most splendid building in the West. The glare of the flames -- the night being intensely dark -- was so great for miles around as to light up the once proud city of Nauvoo, -- the residence of the great impostor of modern times, "Joe Smith," -- with a light as brilliant as noonday. Who the depraved villain was that put the torch to this beautiful edifice is unknown; but the glory which he receives as the perpetrator of the detestable act is certainly far from being enviable. The last vestige of Mormonism is now swept from our county and State, -- the deluded followers of Smith have been driven out from their homes in civilized society, and, with their helpless families, have fled to the Western plains and forests -- many of them there to die -- to sacrifice all in behalf of their religion and creed.

It is surely a disgrace to the Nineteenth century, that men can, in this enlightened age and nation, be so utterly duped and blinded by impostors under the sacred garb of religion, as to sacrifice peace, honor, and social enjoyment, -- all those prerogatives of life which conspire to make it valuable, -- in their adherence to false and pernicious doctrines. Yet so it is.

The project of a railroad around the lower Mississippi rapids is temporarily abandoned. What has been the cause I have not learned, but presume it is because the requisite amount of stock to complete it could not be obtained. Here is an opening for some of your large Eastern capitalists to invest their funds, and would most certainly, if carried through, prove a profitable and useful work.

This year has proved to be a good one for the farmer in this section of our State. Crops of every kind have turned out well, and amply repaid the indus-trious husbandman for his labor in producing them. Send out, then, to our great and beautiful West, all your poor, though industrious class of people, who are unable to procure a comfortable livelihood where they are. We can supply them with fertile and productive lands cheap, out of which they can rear for themselves and posterity a good and substantial home.

Success to your great newspaper enterprise. May this year swell the Courier subscription to an hundred thousand, as its worth well deserves it should.

I send you a club from our village, to help make out the number.   M. W. McQ.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, February 17, 1849.                           No. 50.

Original Correspondence.


Mr. Whipple, one of the Mormon leaders, who has recently arrived in the States, thus explains the case in regard to the Mormon claim of a percentage on the gold found in California. The first discovery of gold, he says, was made by Mormons (discharged soldiers) in digging a mill race for Mr. Sutter. As the discovery was on his ground, he gave them the liberty of digging gold, on condition of paying him a certain percentage. This they agreed to do, but soon started off to explore for themselves, and having found some rich spots they demanded a per centage from new comers for digging in their ground, to which they claimed a right of discovery. This practice is general in the mines, and the Mormons, Mr. Whipple says, no more claim the whole of the mines than they claim the whole of California. No gold has been found in the region of the great Salt Lake where they are settled, nor anywhere east of the Sierra Nevada.


The great Salt Lake in the North Eastern part of California, in the neighborhood of which the Mormons have their settlement, is so salt that three barrels of water when evaporated leave one of solid crystals. This lake is without any visible outlet. A fresh water lake, south of the great Salt Lake, pours its waters into the latter through a stream called, by the Mormons, Jordan. In the waters of this are found mountain trout, but no fish live in the salt water. "These lakes," says the editor of the Pittsburgh Gazette, in noticing the arrival of Mr. E. Whipple, one of the leading Mormons, "we may state for the information of those who have not access to late maps, are situated on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, near the head waters of the River Platte, which runs into the Missouri, the Colorado, which empties into the Gulf of California, and the Columbia, which empties into the Pacific. The water of the Platte and the Colorado almost unite by means of the Sweet Water River, which heads west of the Rocky Mountain chain, and runs into the Platte through the famous South Pass. Between these Lakes and the California mountains, in which the Sacramento rises, is a vast valley or basin, supposed to consist principally of sandy plains, about 400 miles wide from east to west, and some 600 to 700 miles long from north to south. From this immense basin no egress for water has been discovered, the rivers losing themselves in the sand."

Note 1: The original source for the "Gold Diggers / Very Salt Lake" items was an article published in the Pittsburgh Daily Gazette of Feb. 2nd, entitled "California Gold -- The Mormons -- Salt Lake, &c.," in which the arrival of Elder "E. Whipple" was announced. According to the Pittsburgh Daily Morning Post, of Feb. 6th, Elder Whipple had passed through that city "a few days" before, carrying some samples of California gold with him. The Gazette journalists were interested in these samples, and started off that paper's report thusly: "Well, we have seen California Gold, felt it "hefted" it, as the Yankees say. It was brought to this city by Mr. E. Whipple, one of the leading men of the Mormon settlement in the neighborhood of the Great Salt Lake. The parcel we saw contained about one ounce. It is in a nearly pure state, being composed of scales of about [a tenth] of an inch in diameter. It was obtained from the valley of the Sacramento by some Mormons who arrived at the settlement before Mr. Whipple left."

Note 2: Edson Whipple (1805-1894) was baptized a Mormon at Philadelphia in 1840. He was among the earliest arrivals in Salt Lake Valley in 1847 and was a member of the LDS High Council, organized there later that same year. He left Great Salt Lake City on Oct. 13, 1848 and reached Fort Kearney, on the Missouri, about Nov. 29th. Passing through western Pennsylvania, at the end of January, Whipple met with Elder Benjamin Winchester. Winchester and Whipple had previously served as the Presiding Elder and First Counsellor, respectively, in the Mormon Philadelphia branch. Whipple reached the east coast in February and engaged in efforts on behalf of the "Mormon Battalion" volunteers at Washington, before beginning missionary labors in neighboring Maryland (where he organized a Mormon branch of 16 new members). On March 1st Whipple met with Wilfred Woodruff at Cambridgeport, Massachusetts and made arrangements to return with Woodruff to Utah Territory the following year. By June of 1849 he was back at his old residence of Philadelphia and from there sent a letter to Heber C. Kimball, saying "Circumstances are such that I still remain in Babylon although contrary to my feelings... this nation... in my humble opinion, [is] about ripe for destruction. It does appear that the Lord has withdrawn his spirit from them; and they are now left to themselves, and ready to slay each other."


Vol. LXVII.                        Philadelphia, Saturday, March 10, 1849.                        No. 16,566.

THE MORMON TEMPLE. -- By a letter received from our brother, P. W. Cook, who was one that left Council Bluff last spring for the Salt Lake, dated August 2d, written while encamped on the Sweet Water River, at the South Pass -- in sight of Fremont's Peak -- we gather some information which may not be uninteresting to our readers.

The new Mormon Temple at the Salt Lake is to be a splendid building. They enclosed a lot 17 miles long and 12 miles wide, with a mud wall 8 feet high and four feet thick. There are to be cities inside. They have discovered mountain rock that resembles Cornelian stone, which the writer says is beautiful for temples and pillars.

The size of the temple is not stated, but its highest point is to be 600 feet, and can be seen [eighteen?] miles either way. The party that went out last season lost many of their oxen, having died with what they called the "swell head." Many of the streams which they crossed were so strongly impregnated with alkali that they dare not let their cattle drink. On the shores of many of the lakes a crust is formed an inch and a half thick. They break up this crust, scrape off the dirt on the bottom and top, and find it pure saleratus. Strange as this may seem, it is nevertheless true, and the writer collected in a short time 75 pounds.

A mountain of pure rock salt has been discovered near the Mormon settlement. The Mormons have discovered a rich gold mine 150 miles southwest from the Salt Lake. The last end of the journey to the Salt Lake, say 200 miles, is attended with little fatigue. Nearly all the way the roads are as good as on any prairie in Michigan. The writer was living on the meat of bears, and antelope and buffaloes -- animals very numerous on the route. He recommends mule teams instead of oxen, and that cows be driven along for their milk, and for beef if necessary. -- Niles Republican.

Note: The two separate mineral discoveries mentioned by the brother of the Niles, Michigan Republican, in his letter, were later conflated by some careless copyists into reports of a "mountain of gold" having been lately discovered in Utah Territory. Unsubstantiated claims of rich gold discoveries being made in Utah continued to see print throughout 1849 and 1850. -- The Houston Democratic Register of Aug. 16, 1850 said: "We noticed some time since, a report published in the St. Louis papers, that valuable gold mines had been discovered near the Great Salt Lake in the Great Basin of Fremont, and the emigrants from Missouri were so elated with the news that many of them left their wagons and pushed on with pack mules, so eager were they to reach the newly found mines."


Vol. LXVII.                        Philadelphia, Saturday, March 31, 1849.                        No. 16,584.

MAILS TO THE PACIFIC. -- A post-office has been established at Salt lake Valley, in California, and Joseph L. Haywood, formerly of Quincy, Illinois, appointed postmaster. The contractor, Mr. Almon W. Babbitt, will deliver the mail six times a year, and forward all mail sent through by way of Kanesville, Iowa, to Oregon and California. The first mail will go through the first of April.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XL.                               Philadelphia, Saturday, April 14, 1849.                               No. 90.

Mormons  Murdered  by  Indians.

The Frontier Guardian, published at Kanesville, Iowa, has intelligence from the Salt Lake settlement to the 10th of October. It is stated that Daniel Browitt, Ezra H. Allen and Henderson Cox were murdered by the Indians, in the California Mountains, on the 27th of June last. They left the main company to search out a new road to cross the mountains. They were robbed of their goods and money to the amount of about $500. Some gold dust the Indians failed to find.

Note: Blaming the attack upon "Indians" seems rather presumptive. During the 1840s it would have been an unusual band of California Indians that might have taken their victims' money and also bothered to bury their remains. It also seems more likely that Indians would have retrieved their arrows, than left them at the scene of the crime. -- The report in the Guardian of Feb. 7th, reads thusly: "Daniel Browitt, Ezra Allen, and Henderson Cox were murdered by the Indians, as it was supposed, in the California mountains, on the 27th June Iast. They left the main company to search out a new road to cross the mountains. Judging from the distance they had travelled, they were murdered on the night of the second day after starting. When the main company came up on the 19th of July, they found three bodies in a sort of grave on the mountain side. Some dozen arrows were found about the spot. Their bodies had been pierced with arrows &c. They were robbed of goods and money to the amount about $500. A purse belonging to Mr. Allen was found near his grave containing 70 or 80 dollars in gold dust and 7 dollars in silver, which the Indians did not happen to find. -- Mr. Browitt was 2nd Sergent of company E, of the Mormon Battalion, and respected and beloved by all who knew him. Messrs. Allen and Cox also belonged to said Battalion."


Vol. LXVII.                          Philadelphia, Monday, June 11, 1849.                          No. 16,645.

The Party and the Principle.

It is very clear that, in some minds, there is more or less confusion of the ideas on two extremely different subjects of the free soil preinciple and the free soil party... The election of General Taylor, pledged to that constitutional neutrality, the right and duty of a President, which left the people of the United States to decide the issue, was a verdict on the side of liberty. The discovery of the gold of California -- an occurrence in all respects, as to character and consequences, worthy to be considered an extraordinary one -- attracting torrents of free emigration to that territory, whence they will spread to and overflow all the western portion of the continent from the Gila and Colorado -- nay, from the frontiers of San Luis and Jalisco, in Mexico -- to the northern bounds of Oregon -- has been a decree in favor of freedom of more force and virtue than any mere re-enactment of the Ordinance of '87 could have been. These events have secured the principle and settled the question forever -- secured the one and settled the other, too, without any danger, or possibility, of a sectional quarrel, such as the truest and best men have apprehended as the last fearful result of the Mexican war.

...Let us ask what now is to be the disposition of the vast extent of territory capable of being made the seat of civilization and human happiness? Of the only two Territories, Minesota and Oregon, which have been formally organized and endowed with governments, both are free and will make free States. California and New Mexico, as every one now believes, will be admitted as free States by Congress at the next session. The projected territory of Nebraska, with its proposed southern boundary on the fortieth parallel, or three and a half degrees north of the old Missouri Compromise -- will prove, sooner or later, a fifth free State. A sixth free State is already growing out of the Mormon settlements in the valley of Bear River and the Great Salt Lake, whose citizens are even now asking of the republic a Territorial government. This makes it certain that the Union will soon boast of no less than thirty-six free States; a number which it is certain cannot be equalled by the Slave States....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. LXVII.                          Philadelphia, Thursday, June 14, 1849.                          No. 16,648.


Recent advices from the Far West inform us that the Mormons, who have found their promised land and laid the corner-stone of their second temple on the banks of the Timpanogos, or Great Salt Lake, are already preparing to send a Delegate to Washington, and to ask Congress the advantages of a regular Territorial government.

This is a circumstance of interest in itself, as showing the extraordinary rapidity with which, in American hands and under the tramp of American feet, the desert suddenly blossoms into life and cultivation, but the fact has an additional and very grave importance, springing from the character of the settlers, and of the country in which they have founded their colony, which ought to give it the attention and careful consideration of the national authorities.

We know as yet but little as to the real state of things at the Salt Lake, the extent and progress of the settlements, and the number of Mormons now seated there. We are merely aware that they have been perfectly suiccessful in establishing their colony; that their lands are fertile and extensive, capable of supporting a considerable population, that their religious policy is one of concentration, aiming to bring all their people together into one chosen home; that they are already numerous enough to feel the want of a Territorial organization; and that it is within their power, -- within a year or two, perhaps, if they choose, -- to bring together such a population as will entitle them to demand admission into the Union as an independent, sovereign State.

In view of the case, this is a consummation more to be wished than dreaded. We are desireous that the Mormons should enjoy all the benefits and feel all the restraints of Territorial government as soon and as effectually as possible. The bridle should be upon the neck of the colt, that the grown steed may be accustomed to it. Considering the somewhat Ishmaelitish character of the Mormons -- fanatical and persecuted zealots, with whom it is a point of faith to shun and repel, as it is a point of feeling to hate the world -- and the nature and [position?] of the country they have seized upon, to make of it their Holy Land, it is clearly the interest, as it ought to be the duty, of the National Government, to extend the laws and authority of the United States over them without delay, -- to accustom them, from the first, to restraint and obedience, -- and, above all, to prevent their growing up in a state of quasi-independence, which might be productive of some serious difficulties, if not actual calamities, hereafter.

Between the 102 deg. of west longitude, where the wild sage land or proper prairie desert, begins, to the Sierra Nevada, the western limit of the great Saoshoco Desert, or Great Basin, as it is now properly called, is a distance of nineteen degrees of longitude, or about 1000 miles. The Salt Lake is situated nine degrees, or 475 miles, east of the Sierra, and ten degrees, or 525 miles, west of the fertile regions of the Mississippi Valley; or nearly midway between the two portions of the republic. It forms the Great Oasis of the western desert; and the various smaller oases, the different habitable regions of the mountain land around it, are so placed as to be dominated by it. In fact, the valley of the Salt Lake, [positioned] commanding the roads to Oregon and California, may be said to command nearly the whole country West of the Mississippi Valley. It cuts the continent in twain, and separates from the Union the growing States, beyond the Sierra, on the borders of the Pacific. It forms the nucleus of an Alpine state, which, once peopled with courageous rebels, might maintain its independence against the Federal Government, or the world, impregnable within its mountain barriers, behind the immense glacis of prairie desert. Such a State would, naturally, from its military position, extend its influence, eastward, over the Three Parks, and down, in fact, to Fort Laramie and St. Vrain and the regions at the foot of the Wind River Mountains and the upper valleys of Lewis's river, -- westward, over the entire Basin, with its various known and unknown reclaimable nooks, -- and southward, to the head waters of the Colorado and Rio Grande, the fertile lands of the Moquis and Zunis, and, in fact, all the Northern portion of New Mexico.

Such a hostile state must, of course, never be allowed to grow up in that wild but all important mountain country. There must be a State of the Union there, filled with patriotic and zealous citizens, with no thoughts or feelings but those of Americans. The Mormon settlement should, therefore, be fostered and cared for in every proper way by Government and Congress; which should expect the rapid progress of its Territorial division of the continent. The Mormon colony can never be brought under the jurisdiction of California, Oregon, or New Mexico. Nature forbids it, and the attempt to disregard the natural law can only lead to, and indeed compel, mischief. A Salt Lake State, which, under management by Government and Congress, might be made a barrier and cause eternal separation between the Pacific States and those of the Mississippi Valley, may be also made, and is necessary as, a bond of connexion, a firm link of interest and amity, between the dissevered portions. It is now certain that a people -- the Mormons, too -- will grow up in that commanding region in the heart of the Rocky Mountains. The question is whether that people is to be allowed to grow up with the feelings of Americans, or those of enemies and foreigners.

There is another circumstance connected with the subject of this Mormon settlement, to which we have not alluded, although it is worthy of serious consideration. Whatever the wishes, the objects, the supposed interests even, of this people, who have been the occasion of quarrels, leading to persecutions, in other places, it can scarcely be deemed politic to suffer this State to grow up as a Mormon one merely, with a Mormon constitution and laws, a Mormon government, and Mormon fanaticism, as a vital principle, overriding all the necessities and obligations of equal republican institutions. Fanaticism should be weakened by dilution. The interests of the country require that the government should encourage emigration of all kinds into the Salt Lake Valley as actively and rapidly as possible, so as to prevent the overwhelming preponderance of the one dangerous sect, and the unlimited increase of an unfortunate superstition.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. LXVII.                      Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 8, 1849.                      No. 16,693.

IN TOWN SURE. -- Wm. Smith, prophet, priest, president, etcetera, etcetra, &c., is in this very city, for we saw him yesterday for the first time for four years. He claims to be the president of the original Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. He is the brother of the once renowned Joseph Smith, (who, with his brother Hiram, were killed in the jail at Carthage, Illinois,) and says that he is the guardian of Joseph's children, and by right is the successor of Joseph in the Church. We learn that about half of the Mormons are against Mr. Smith's ruling over this late and singular people, and about half acknowledge his right. Smith is now building up a church in Covington, where they hold meetings every Sunday.

We further learn that the Mormons in California are many of them in favor of Wm. Smith, and that he intends to make his head-quarters there next year. Brigham Young is the Mormon leader in that country. A man named Strang is in the western part of the United States, and in the valley of the Cordilleras mountains is a man by the name of White [sic - Wight?], who has some fifteen hundred Mormons under his charge. They have a large settlement, extensive mills worth $10,000 to $20,000, with flocks and herds innumerable. These people are favorable to Smith; so his foothold is worth something in the gold diggins. We advise all the Mormons to adhere to Smith, for he understands the humbug of this new imposition better than any of the other leaders; and if there is any good in it, he has it, for he is the most honest appearing man that we have seen of the Mormon priesthood since we saw Hiram, his brother. -- Cincinnati Commercial

Note 1: The journalist no doubt writes tongue-in-cheek, in setting William Smith's honesty at such a high level. Notice that William and Hiram are here implicitly rated more highly for their latter day honesty than is the late Joseph the Seer!

Note 2: See the Dollar Newspaper of Aug. 15th for what appears to be a more complete version of this reprint.


Vol. VII.                          Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 15, 1849.                          No. 31.


The Cincinnati Commercial announces the arrival in that city of Wm. Smith, the Grand Prophet of the Mormons, and adds the following:

He claims to be the President of the original Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. He is the brother of the once renowned Jos. Smith, (who, with his brother Hiram, were killed in the jail, at Carthage, Illinois,) and says that he is the guardian of Joseph's children, and by right is the successor of Joseph in the Church. We learn that about half of the Mormons are against Mr. Smith's ruling over this late and singular people, and about half acknowledge his right. Smith is now building up a church in Covington, where they hold meetings every Sunday.

We further learn that the Mormons in California are many of them in favor of Wm. Smith, and that he intends to make his head-quarters there next year. Brigham Young is the Mormon leader in that country. A man named Strong [sic, Strang?] is in the western part of the United States, and in the valley of the Cordilleras mountains is a man by the name of White [sic, Wight?], who has some fifteen hundred Mormons under his charge. They have a large settlement, extensive mills worth $10,000 to $20,000, with flocks and herds innumerable. These people are favorable to Smith; as his foothold is worth something in the gold diggins. Some of these Mormons are real clever fellows, always poor, and always praying; but still they live in hopes of converting the world. That they are the most singular people on earth, no one will deny; and that they are destined to occupy a still greater page in our national history, will be developed, we think, when it is known what they have done and are doing in California and the Rocky Mountains.

Note 1: Less than a year after the above article appeared in the Cincinnati Commercial, the same paper published news of the defection of one of William Smith's highest ranking followers from the flock at Covington -- see this extraordinary report in the May 22, 1850 issue of the Commercial. See also William Smith's March, 1850 letter publicizing alleged Mormon "murders and robberies," under the leadership of Brigham Young.

Note 2: See the North American of Aug. 8th for another version of this reprint.


Vol. XXVIII.                         Philadelphia, Friday, October 5, 1849.                         No.10.

The  Mormon  City  of  Salt Lake.

A correspondent of the Pittsburg Gazette, writing from the Mormon City, on the Great Salt Lake, says it covers more ground than Pittsburg, and contains almost ten thousand Mormons.

The whole valley is occupied by the Mormons, who build their houses entirely of sun-dried bricks. They are building a church of stone, which is already one story high, and will be a fine building. They assemble every Sunday morning under a large shed. The society is governed by a president, the twelve, and the seventy. The president and the twelve, occupy the pulpit, and do all the preaching. I went this morning, when the bell rang, to church, where I saw a large assemblage, some dressed quite fashionably, and all clean and neat. A brass band first played a lively tune, and then the clerk rose and read several notices.

One man had lost a pocket book -- another had had his garden destroyed by cattle breaking into it. He then read off the names of persons to whom letters in the post office were addressed, and everal other items of that kind. He then announced that on next Tuesday they would have an anniversary feast, as it was the day of the month on which they arrived at their present snug quarters. He stated that the city would be roused early in the morning by the firing of cannon and the music of the brass band. A procession would then be formed, which would march out of town, and at two o'clock dinner would be served. The emigrants were all invited to attend.

They are very strict in the administration of justice. One of their number stole a pair of boots from an emigrant. He was sentenced to pay four times their value, fined $50, and was compelled to work fifty days on the public roads. One of the men was sentenced to death for borrowing some property from a neighbor and selling it; but finally, owing to the intercession of his family, his sentence was commuted to banishment. When they first arrived they were very much troubled by some Indians, who killed their cattle, and stole from them. They sent to remonstrate with them, and the Indians replied that their president was an old woman, and that they would not mind him. They then sent out a company of soldiers, and killed a few of them, since which time they have not been again annoyed.

Note: The original correspondence (from a certain John B. Chamberlain) was published in the Gazette of Sept. 28th and was dated July 22, 1849. That article ended with this paragraph, referring to Elder Almon W. Babbitt: "The mail carrier from this place will take to Missouri some 15,000 letters. He is a lawyer, and is going to Washington to get a territorial government established here."


Vol. XL.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, October 9, 1849.                               No. 90.

A  Mormon  State.

The St. Joseph Gazette understands that the Mormon settlements, in the Great Basin, will send a delegate to Congress in December, with the design of procuring the organization of a government in the Great Basin as a separate territory, with the view of its admission into the Union as a State. But a few years will elapse before there will be a population of 60,000 in the territory. The Frontier Guardian, the Mormon paper, adds that Dr. John M. Bernhisel, the delegate from Salt Lake city, with a petition for a territorial government, is now on his way to Washington.

Note: The St. Joseph Gazette article evidently mirrored this July 11, 1849 report in the Sangamo Journal: "It is understood that the Mormon settlements in the Great Basin will send a Delegate to Congress in December, with the design of procuring, if possible, the organizing of a government in the Great Basin as a separate territory, with the view of ultimately asking its admission into the Union as an Independent State. There are some five thousand Mormons now there, and it is expected that this number will be doubled the present season, and that the number will be constantly doubling tor several years, in arithmetical progression. If this should prove to be true, but a few years will elapse before there will be a population of 160,000 in the territory -- which number heretofore has been deemed sufficient for establishing a State Constitution and conferring the privileges of a member of the confederacy."


Vol. VII.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, October 17, 1849.                        No. 40.


While all eyes have been turned to Canada, Cuba and California, as the quarters whence new accessions to the number of States already in the Union have to be looked for, nobody has thought of finding a sister republic in the heart of the great interior basin of California, which is comparatively an unknown country, has been looked upon almost as a desert, and is occupied by Mormons as the only representatives of civilization. These people driven out of the United States by intolerable persecutions have gone into that desert wilderness and established a city and adopted a Government, elected a representative to Congress, and asks to be admitted into the Union.

It appears by a statement of the St. Louis Republican that the new State is quaintly styled the State of Deseret, which implies, according to the Mormon history and interpretation, the "Honey Bee," and is significant of Industry and the kindred virtues. A territorial convention drafted and adopted the constitution, which is essentially like those of the States of the Union.

Members of the legislature are required to be free white male citizens of the United States, and to take an oath to support the Constitution thereof. The first Senate is to consist of seventeen members, and the House of thirty-five members. In the Executive Department provision is made for the election of Governor, Lieut. Governor, &c. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and such inferior tribunals as the Legislature shall establish. A Chief Justice and two Associates compose the Supreme Court. The declaration of rights provides:

"That all men have a natural and inalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and the General Assembly shall make no Iaw respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or disturbing any person in his religious worship or sentiments -- provided he does not disturb the public peace nor obstruct others in their religious worship."

The Constitution was adopterd on the 10th of March last, and the General Assembly met on the 2d of July. Millard [sic] Snow was elected Speaker of the House; Alfred Carrington, Clerk; John D. Lee, Assistant Clerk; and George D. Grant, Sergeant-at-arms. The election of officers of the Government was held by the people on the first Monday of May, and Brigham Young, the leader of the Mormons, was elected Governor; Heber C. Kimball [sic] for Lieutenant Governor; Wm. [sic] Richards for Secretary of State; Wm. Clayton for Auditor of Public Accounts; Jos S. Heywood for Treasurer. Almon W. Babbitt was elected a delegate to Congress to represent the new territory.

On the 9th, the Legislature adjourned sine die. Before doing so, they adopted a memorial to Congress, in which they set forth the reasons which have induced them to organize a State Government, They cite the failure of Congress to provide a government for the territory acquired from Mexico, the abrogation of the Mexican law, the anarchy which has followed. "The revolver and the Bowie knife," they say, "have been the highest law of the land -- the strong have prevailed against the weak, while persons, property, character and religion have been unaided, and virtue unprotected." Finally, they represent that there is now a sufficient number of inhabitants residing within the State of Deseret to support a State Government, and to relieve the General Government from the expense of a Territotial Government, and they therefore ask that the Constitution accompanying this memorial be ratified, and that the State of Deseret be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the other States, or that such form of government may be given to them as may be deemed expedient; and that their delegate may be received, and their interests properly represented, in the Congress of the United States.

Not a word is said in the Constitution about slavery or the Wilmot proviso, such things not having entered into the imaginations of the law-givers as important for their welfare. The Constitution will be pressed upon Congress, and, if ratified, two new Senators and a Representative will soon appear in that body, from the State of Deseret -- a State which was without a settled inhabitant four years ago, and which is some twenty-five hundred miles from the seat of the Federal Government.

Graves on the Plains. -- A. W. Babbitt, Esq., elected to represent the new State provisional Government formed at Salt Lake by the Mormons, in Congress, informs the editors of the St. Louis Union, that the graves, with which, according to letters heretofore published, it has been represented, the whole route of the California emigrants was strewed, are, in most cases, only the graves of the surplus provisions, which, according to the usual custom of the mountaineers, have been buried. Dr. White, of St. Louis, buried his medicines in that way.

Note: It appears that the Dollar Newspaper quoted from the Baltimore Sun, of Oct. 10th, where the "Graves on the Plains" item was accompanied by an almost identical report on "Deseret" -- The original Republican article of Oct. 1, 1849 began with this preface: "State of Deseret. -- It has already been announced that the people residing in the valley of the Great Salt Lake had instituted for themselves a form of Government, which is to be submitted to Congress at its next session. The editors of the St. Louis Republican, who have been permitted to look at certified copies of the constitution thus established, and of the proceedings of the Legislature under it, and of the reasons which led to these movements, give the subjoined account of them..." -- The editorial remark of "already been announced" was meant to refer the reader to the Republican's article of Sept. 17th, which reprinted a passing reference to the "provisional Government, called the 'State of the Deseret,'" as first mentioned in the Frontier Guardian of Sept 5th.


Vol. XXIX.                     Philadelphia, Saturday, November 24, 1849.                       No. 1478.


For sale by Taylor, Canning & Co., Philadelphia.

In common with other distinguished men, Dan Rice, the noted clown, has friends and admirers who feel an interest in his fortunes. The following extract throws spme light upon the means taken by that arch impostor, Joe Smith, to keep up the delusion of his followers. In the course of his adventures, Dan Rice visits Nauvoo:


Nauvoo was then in its palmy days, and near 10,000 souls were held in spiritual subjection by the Prophet. Here Mr. Rice rightly calculated was an abundant field for his labors, arguing reasonably enough, that in a community where the transparent pretexts of Joe Smith were swallowed with avidity, his apparently superhuman accomplishment might make him "some pumpkins," particularly as the lucky thought occurred to him, that in juxtaposition with Joe himself, they would make a pretty strong team together.

Full of these views on arriving there, his first move was for a close confab with Joe Smith, who readily grasped at a chance for a new miracle, now that his old dodges had become somewhat stale, and his flock thirsting for some new manifestation of divine partiality. He easily yielded to Dan's terms for the co-partnership, which involved an equal distribution of the spoils which might arise from the connection, and which it was not hard to demonstrate to such an ingenious raiser of the wind as Joe, could be made something handsome. Our hero did not demure to the stipulation that the eclat should redound to the sole use and behoof of the Prophet. Joe was too old a bird to be caught with chaff, in entering into a compact without testing Dan's prowess in his back yard. Here his two horses were indeed unable to dislodge the Samson from a work bench; or to break with a sledge, the back door stone step, which, with the assistance of his wife, he managed to place on Dan as he extended himself on all fours backwards. The prophet was in ecstacies, by no means lessened by our hero's catching up the tongs, as he again entered the room, and after taking off his coat, bending it into a semi-circle across his naked arm. This last Dan thew in for effect, and Joe and his wife began to intercede for the safety of the rest of the furniture in the house, not doubting but that he could pull the building down about their heads. Here was a California mine for Joe, out of which he trusted to be able to replenish his exausted treasury, impose a tax in a less obnoxious form than direct contributions, and rivet his hold on the blind confidence of the public, in a manner that would thereafter make it blasphemy to question his direct communication with the Almighty.

In two hours, as might have been expected with two such able projectors, their plans were matured. It was noised about that the morrow would bring about a new and still more imposing evidence of the Prophet's divine endowments; that poor wayfarer had been guided by the spirit to go to him and say: "Behold your unworthy servant! the spirit admonished me at divers times and in sundry places to proceed to the Prophet of the faithful and submit myself to his guidance. -- Moreover, the spirit commands me to say: In me shall be fulfilled miracles, and whatsoever thou commandest thy servant to do, even to the performance of acts impossible to man, it shall be done!" The Prophet himself proclaimed from the foot of the Temple, which had already progressed above its foundations, that at 12 o'clock next day this emissary from the Almighty would appear as an humble instrument for the manifestation of divine power, to encourage the faithful in their labor on the Temple, and that all the city on such a memorable occasion, should contribute each 25 cents, (Dan here nudged Joe's elbow, saying, "Children half-price, tell 'em, Children half-price,") towards the construction of our Holy Palace. Children too, he added, after a little hesitation, might be imbued with a holy spirit, upon the contribution of 12 1/2 cents, by being present at these miracles.

Dense was the throng in front of the Temple as the hour approached. On his way up from the tavern, (Joe kept the only tavern in the place,) Dan observed that all the houses appeared disgorging their occupants, from which he argued a garvest that would mark a new era in his pecuniary affairs. The Prophet's Council, in this instance, prudently not let into the secret of the humbug, marked his mysterious preparations with anxiety. The ladies eyed him askance, and admired his manly and muscular appearance, wondering whether he had yet made his selection of the usual spiritual comforts just introduced by Joe. The thousands with mouths agape were prepared to see any improbable and unusual spectacle, even to the descent of Jehovah himself in a cloud or flame. A storm hovered portentiously over the horizon, as the mass proceeded in awe to deposit their quarters in the Baptismal Font, hewn out of solid stone, and guarded by the Prophet himself. This finished, as Dan and the Prophet stepped forth together, a deep silence prevailed, uninterrupted even by the cries of the children, who were there in hundreds, their deluded parents trusting that perchance they might brush the hem of Dan's garments.

An hundred willing workman, at the Prophet's command, brought forth a ladder, trestles, and a pair of dray horses which were in use in the construction of the Temple. Then followed the preparations the reader has often seen in similar cases in the Circus. The ladder being firmly fastened horizontally upon the trestles, and Dan extended at length, with his hands and feet adhering to the rounds, the horses were attached to a rope (which Joe had brought and coiled around his arm, to the no small wonder of the amazed crowd,) which in its turn was then adjusted to the shoulders and loins of this new proselyte to Mormonism. At the signal, the powerful horses extended their traces, and leaning in their collars made a noble effort to tear Dan from his fastenings, which it is hardly necessary to say they would have done, (not having the far of Joe Smith before their eyes,) had they not been compelled to pull at a disadvantage. Except that awe at this manifestation of the presence of the spirit constrained them, the whole mass would have fallen down and worshipped the Prophet who was supposed to have contributed this omnipotence to the young showman.

At another command, a score of hands were extended with alacrity to place a building stome upon Dan's breast, as he assumed the same backward position as in Joe's back yard, and a pair of stalwart mechanics soon broke the stone into fragments with their ponderous sledges, when shaking , as a horse when ridding himself of vexatious flies, our hero nimbly resumed his upright position, the rocks rolling from him on either side!

In another moment a bar of inch iron was brought from the smithy of the Temple and bent nearly double across the arm of the youthful giant, protected as it was by the knotted muscles, now contracted with the most rigid tension.

With the same expedition a string rope was detached from the hoisting tackle used on the Temple, one end secured around a vast pile of building stones, and the other to Mr. Rice, as he again extended himself on the nearest part of the ladder, still firmly resting on trestles. Rung by rung he slowly advanced in this hempen collar, until, reaching nearly the farthest end of the ladder, the rope could stretch no more, and parted like flax.

This was the cap chief to the day's wonders, and the infatuated crowd returned to their houses, to commune about these miracles, and glorify their Prophet, while Dan and Joe repaired to the sanctum of the latter in the hotel, where the receipts of the exhibition, (mysteriously diminished since deposited in the Font, he thought,) had been previously sent, where he received for his share six hundred dollars, not, however, without being obliged to threaten the Prophet with a little private exhibition of his miracles, for pretending to compute the half of $1,200 to be $500. The evidence of Dan's powers that day had been too palpable to permit Joe to persist long in such a dangerous mathematical error.

FRom this moment the Prophet perceived that Mr. Rice was a shining light that could not be dispensed with in his cabinet, especially as he found he could sing a capital song and crack jokes by the hour, (which no one enjoyed better than Joe,) and sermonize with a zeal and fervor that was calculated to bring hundreds into the fold of this great shepherd. At the same time they commenced a running account of the money and sentiments with each other, in which Dan indeed was imprudent enough to suffer himself to be the greatest creditor, with the ultimate hope, by some coup de main, to aspire to the same exalted position as was enjoyed by his able coadjutor, mindful as he had now become, of the unlimited control he could easily gain over this body of fanatics. Feigned revelations were daily made, in connection with occult practices that would have consigned him to the stake in the reign of New England witchcraft, in which Dan brought to bear an intimate knowledge of [chemistry] and of legerdamain, slight-of-hand and tact in controlling an audience, (the last by no means the least important,) acquired during his last year's show experience.

It was not long before Joe began to dread Dan's increasing influence, and thought it expedient to dispatch him on a pilgrimage in Iowa, to make proselytes to these convenient tenets, under the plausible pretext that no one else could undertake the task with eminent success, until in going through with his role of miracles at Montrose, after a sermon which made a powerful sensation, several St. Louis merchants, on their return from the East, where they had witnessed Mons. Paul, exposed the pretended Mormon's miracles. This so exasperated the humbugged crowd, that in the short space of time required for such things in that country. a quant. suff. of tar and feathers and a reasonably angular rail were prepared, and our hero's danger was most imminent. He was in hands he knew that felt no particular compunctions about administering such doses on account of his assumed clerical appearance. The multitude surrounded him too effectually to afford any prospect of success in an attempt at flight. He felt he could overpower a dozen of the strongest of them, but to be victorious here would be to sacrifice a hecatomb. His active mind, cool even during these intimidating proceedings, at once decided that tact and ingenuity only could save him -- he begged to be heard, not in extenuation, but to place himself rectus in curia. In the conflicting opinions, and the disturbances arising therefrom, while disputing whether or no to grant him this privilege, he was almost emboldened to undertake at one time to run the gauntlet of the whole troop -- confidence in himself, however, imbued him with courage to remain and trust to diplomacy. "Let me sing you a song," he shoured, "and afterwards do your pleasure with me." This tickled their fancy, "A song from the Mormon, -- a song from the Preacher," re-echoed on every side. Mounting to the top of of the tar barrel, so as to get a view of the whole crowd, (in the row he had been forced from his temporary pulpit,) and clearing his voice, he commenced improvising a comic song, narrating with such an irrestible hunor how he had humbugged the Mormons, and dwelling so pathetically upon his ridiculous situation, to each verse of which was a chorus set to a Mormon service music, that long before he hoped to succeed, the whole mass were joining him in the chorus, each having probably mentally decided to forgive him the music and the [rythem] were were probably not as meltifluous as the ex tempore songs with which he now regales his audience, but the more effective upon his rough auditory for being so unpolished and unfinished. An eye witness, now residing at Keokuk, describes the scene as most exciting, as each unconscious of the secret determination of his neighbor to save the late object of their vengeance, began to feel as much concern as Dan himself had lately done. Dan, however, could read their faces better, and had already discovered his safety in their plaudits, and ceased singing for a moment, to tell them if they would carry away that ugly rail, and barrel and basket of feathers, he would give them an ex tempore show. A jolly time they had of it, and parted mutually pleased with each other. This contre temps, happening so near Nauvoo, must of course reach Joe Smith's ears directly, so Dan hastened to him to ask a settlement, not only of money loaned to him, bur salary as a preacher at $50 per month, under the pretext of the splendid opening to make converts on the line of the States of Missouri and Iowa. He found Joe had been practicing divers expedients to regain his tottering sway as the only worker of miracles, one of which was to be put in effect the next morning at sun-rise, to wit: to walk upon the water for fifty yards, into the Mississippi. Little averse to a rupture now, he this time, with success, put his false computation into practice, and as Dan could not get him alone so as to take personal satisfaction, he was fain to express himself satisfied with the portion of his dues offered, determining eventually, however, to get even with him. Walking upon the water was in fact a plan of Dan's, suggested to be effected by the construction of a narrow raised gangway of planks, knee deep under the water, so as not to be detected, and he had no doubt that such was now the way in which Joe purposed to accomplish this new miracle. That night, (although early in the afternoon he was ferried over to Montrose, ostensibly on his mission to Missouri,) he returned stealthily, and groping with a skiff in the water, where the feat was to be performed, he found the gangway already laid, and took up two lengths of planks about half-way out, from which it may easily be supposed the Prophet was precipitated into the stream the next morning, to the great damage, not only of his life, but also of his reputation in miracles, about the same hour that Dan, who had taken the first boat down, landed at Quincy, a beautiful village about 60 miles below.

Note: The umpteenth telling of a "Joe Smith walking on the water" tale. However fanciful and improbable the above account may seem, it is likely that the young strong-man Daniel M. Rice (1823-1901) did visit Nauvoo, perform there, and meet Joseph Smith, not long before Rice initiated his circus clown act, upstream from the Mormon city, in Galena, Illinois, in 1844. There is no record, however, of his ever having been baptized a Mormon.


Vol. XXVIII.                         Philadelphia,  Tuesday, March 12, 1850.                         No.144.


The brother and successor of Joseph Smith has published the following letter:

"I am in possession of proofs to show that bands of Salt Lake Mormons, clothed and armed as Indians, and in perfect disguise, with their bodies and faces painted like Indians, have taken positions on the high road from Oregon and California, in order to plunder the companies of emigrants. Many murders and robberies have already been committed by these devils in human shape, which are all published to the world as if committed by Indians.

"The Mormon church on Salt Lake is under the government of a secret lodge. In this lodge Brigham Young has been crowned as king, and sits there upon a throne erected for him. (Signed,)
"WILLIAM SMITH."            

Smith has quarrelled with the Mormons, and left them. Hence, his statement is not entitled to much credit. If he has the proofs he should produce them at once.

Note: See also notes attached to a report published in the Pittsburgh Gazette of Nov. 17, 1857


Vol. VIII.                       Philadelphia, Wednesday, September 18, 1850.                  No. 36.


The geography of the Mormon Territory, and the present condition of that people, are eloquently described in a lecture recently delivered before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, by Thomas L. Kane, whose acquaintance with the character and history of the Mormons was formed by long association with them in the wilderness, while acting in an official capacity under the United States government. The whole pamphlet is eminently interesting, from the novelty of its facts, and the richness and beauty of its style; but we can make room only for the concluding pages:

I may not undertake to describe to you in a single lecture the Geography of Deseret, and its Great Basin. Descend from the mountains, where you have the scenery and climate of Switzerland, to seek the sky of your choice among the many climates of Italy, and you may find, welling out of the same hills, the Freezing Springs of Mexico and the Hot Springs of Iceland, both together coursing their way to the Salt Sea of Palestine in the plain below. The pages of Malte Bran provide me with a less truthful parallel to it, than those which describe the happy Valley of Rasselas or the Continent of Balnibarbi.

*    *    *    *    *    *

A severer trial than the visit of the cricket- locusts threatened Deseret in the discovery of the gold of California. It was due to a party of the Mormon battalion recruited on the Missouri who on their way home, found employment at New Helvetia. They were digging a mill-race there, and threw up the gold dust with their shovels, You all know the crazy fever that broke out as soon as this was announced, It infected every one through California. Where the gold was discovered at Sutter's and around, the standing grain was left uncut; whites, Indians and mustees, all set them to gathering gold, every other labor forsaken, as if the first comers could rob the casket of all that it contained. The disbanded soldiers came to the valley; they showed their poor companions pieces of the yellow treasure they had gained; and the cry was raised -- "To California -- To the Gold of Ophir, our brethren have discovered! To California!"

Some of you have perhaps come across the half ironic instructions of the heads of the Church, to the faithful outside the Valley:

"THE TRUE USE OF GOLD is for paving streets, covering houses, and making culinary dishes; and when the Saints shall have preached the Gospel, raised grain, and built up cities enough, the Lord will open up the way fir a supply of gold to the perfect satisfaction of his people. Until then, let them not be over anxious, for the treasures of the earth are in the Lord's storehouse, and he will open the doors thereof when and where he pleases." -- 11 Gen. Epistle, 14.

The enlightened virtue of their rules saved the people and the fortunes of Deseret. A few only went away -- end they were asked in kindness never to return. The rest remained to be healthy and happy, to "raise grain and build up cities."

The history of the Mormons has ever since been the unbroken record of the most wonderful prosperity. It has looked, as though the elements of fortune, obedient to a law of natural reaction, were struggling to compensate to them their undue share of suffering. They may be pardoned for deeming it miraculous.

*    *    *    *    *    *

The territory of the Mormons is unequaled as stock-raising country. The finest pastures of Lombardy are not more estimable than those on the east side of the Utah Lake and Jordan River. We find here the cereal economy, the Bunch grass. In May, when the other grasses push, this fine pant dries upon its stalk, and becomes a light yellow straw, full of flavor and nourishment. It continues thus, through what are the dry months of the climate, till January, and then starts with a vigorous growth, like that of our own winter wheat in April, which keeps on till the return of another May. Whether as straw or grass, the cattle fatten on it, the year round.

*    *    *    *    *    *

The Mormons have also been singularly happy in their Indian relations.

*    *    *    *    *    *

From the first, therefore, the Mormons have had little or nothing to do in Deseret, but attend to their mechanical and strictly agricultural pursuits. They have made several successful settlements; the farthest North, at what they term Brownsville, is about forty miles, and the farthest South, in a valley called the Sanpeech, 200 miles from that first formed. A duplicate of the Lake Tiberias or Genesareth, empties its waters into the innocent Dead Sea of Deseret, by a fine river, to which the Mormons have given the name -- it was impossible to give it any other -- of the Western Jordan.

It was on the right bank of this stream, at a choice spot upon a rich table land traversed by a great company of exhaustless streams falling from the highlands, that the Pioneer band of Mormons, coming out of the mountains in the night, pitched their first camp in the Valley, and consecrated the ground. Curiously enough, this very spot proved the most favorable site for their first settlement, and after exploring the whole country, they have founded on it their city of Hierusalem. Its houses are spread to command an much as possible the farms, which are laid out in Wards or Cantons, with a common fence to each Ward. The farms in wheat already cover a space greater than the District of Columbia, over all of which they have completed the canals, and other arrangements for beautiful irrigation, after the manner of the cultivators of the East. The houses are distributed over an area nearly as great as the city of New York.

They have little thought as yet of luxury in their public buildings. But they will soon have nearly completed a large common public store-house and granary, and a great sized public bath house. One of the many wonderful thermal springs of the valley, a white sulphur water of the temperature of 102 degrees Fahrenheit, with a head "the thickness of a man's body," they have already brought into the town for this purpose; and all have learned the habit of indulging in it. They have besides a yellow brick meeting-house, 100 feet by 60, in which they gather on Sundays and in the week-day evenings. But this is only a temporary structure. They have reserved a summit level in the heart of the city, for the site of a Temple far superior to that of Nauvoo, which, in the days of their future; wealth and power, is to be the landmark of the Basin and goal of future pilgrims.

They mean to seek no other resting-place. After pitching camps enough to exhaust many times over the chapter of names in 33d Numbers, they have at last come to their Promised Land, and, "behold, it is a good land and large, and flowing with milk and honey": and here again for them, as at Nauvoo, the forge smokes and the anvil rings, and whirring wheels go round; again has returned the merry sport of childhood, and the evening quiet of old age, and again dear house-pet flowers bloom in garden plots round happy homes.

It is to these homes, in the heart of our American Alps, like the holy people of the Grand Saint Bernard, they hold out their welcome to the passing traveler. Some of you have probably seen in the St. Louis papers the repeated votes of thanks to them of companies of emigrants to California. These are often reduced to great straights, after passing Fort Laramie, and turn aside to seek the Salt Lake Colony in pitiable plights of fatigue and destitution. The road, after leaving the Oregon trace, is one of increasing difficulty, and when the last mountain has been crossed, passes along the bottom of a deep canon, whose scenery is of an almost terrific gloom. It is a defile that I trust no Mormon Martin Hofer of this Western Tyrol will be called to consecrate to liberty with blood. At every turn the overhanging cliffs threaten to break down upon the little torrent river that has worn its way at their base. Indeed, the narrow ravine is so serrated by this stream, that the road crosses it from one side to the other something like forty times in the last five miles. At the end of the ravine the emigrant comes abruptly, out of the dark pass into the lighted valley on an even bench or terrace of its upper table land. No wonder if he loses his self-control here. A ravishing panoramic landscape opens out below him, blue and green, and gold and pearl; a great sea, with hilly islands, rivers, a lake, and broad sheets of grassy plain, all set, as peaks of perpetual snow are burnished by a dazzling sun. It is less these, however, than the foreground of old-country farms, with their stacks and thatchings and stock, and the central city, smoking from its chimneys and swarming with working inhabitants, that tries the men of fatigue-broken nerves. The "Californeys" scream, they sing, they give three cheers, and do not count them; a few have prayed; more swear, some fall on their faces and cry outright. News arrived a few days since from a poor township of ours, a journeyman saddler, that used to work up Market street beyond Broad, by name Gillian, who sought the valley, his cattle given out, and himself broken down and half heart-broken. The recluse Mormons fed and housed him and his party, and he made his way through to the gold-diggings with restored health and strength.

Several hundred immigrants, in more or less distress received gratuitous assistance last year from the Mormons.

Their community must go on thriving. They are to be the chief workers and contractors upon "Whitney's Railroad," or whatever scheme is to unite the Atlantic and Pacific by way of the South Pass; and their valley must be its central station. They have already raised a "Perpetual Fund" for "the final fulfillment of the covenant made by the Saints in the Temple at Nauvoo," which "is not to cease till all the poor are brought to the valley." All the poor still lingering behind will be brought there; so at an early period will the fifty thousand communicants, the Church already numbers in Great Britain, with all the other "increase among the Gentiles."

*    *    *    *    *    *

Large numbers are expected to arrive at this point from England during the present spring, on their way to the Salt Lake. They will repay their welcome; for every working person gained to the hive of their "Honey State" counts as added wealth. So far, the Mormons write in congratulation, that they have not among them "a single loafer, rich or poor, idle gentleman or lazy vagabond." They are no Communists; but their experience has taught them the gain of joint stock to capital, and combination to labor -- perhaps something more, for I remark they have recently made arrangements to "classify their mechanics," which is probably a step in the right direction. They will be successful manufacturers, for their vigorous land-locked industry cannot be tampered with by protection. They have no gold -- they have not hunted for it; but they have found wealth of other valuable minerals; rock salt enough to do the curing of the world -- "We'll salt the Union for you," they write, "if you can't preserve it in any other way" -- perhaps coal, excellent ores of iron everywhere. They are near enough, however to the California Sierra to be the chief quartermasters of its miners; and they will dig their own gold in their unlimited fields of admirably fertile land. I should only invite your incredulity, and the disgust of the Horticultural Society, by giving you certain measurements of mammoth beets, turnips, pumpkins, and garden vegetables, in my possession. In that country, where stock thrives care free, where a poor man's 32 potatoes saved can return him 18 bushels, and 2 1/2 bushels of wheat sown yield 350 bushels in a season; or where an average crop of wheat on irrigated lands is 50 bushels to the acre, the farmer's part is hardly to be despised. Certainly it will not be, under a continuance of the present prices -- current of the region -- wheat at $1 the bushel, and flour $12 the hundred, with a ready market.

The recent letters from Deseret interest me in one thing more. They are eloquent in describing the anniversary of the Pioneers' arrival in the Valley. It was the 24th of July, and they have ordained that that day shall be commemorated in future like our 21st of December, as their Fore-father's Day. The Noble Walker (Chief of the Utah Indians) attended as an invited guest, with two hundred of his best dressed mounted cavaliers, who stacked their guns and took up their places at the ceremonies and banquet, with the quiet precision of soldiers marching to mass. The Great Band was there too, that had helped their humble hymns through all the wanderings of the wilderness. Through the many trying marches of 1846, through the fierce winter ordeal that followed, and the long journey after over plain and mountain, it had gone unbroken, without the loss of any of its members. As they set out from England, and as they set out from Illinois, so they all come into the valley together, and together sounded the first glad notes of triumph when the Salt Lake City was founded. It was their right to lead the psalm of praise. Anthem, song and dance, all the innocent and thankful frolic of the day owed them its chief zest. "They never were in finer key." The people felt their sorrows ended. Far West, their old settlement in Missouri, and Nauvoo, with their wealth and ease, like "Pithom and Ramses, treasure cities built for Pharaoh," went awhile forgotten. Less than four years had restored them every comfort that they needed. Their entertainment, the contribution of all, I have no doubt was really sumptuous. It was spread on broad buffet tables about 1,400 feet in length, at which they took their seats by turns, while they kept them heaped with ornamental delicacies. "Butter of kine, and milk, with fat of lambs, with the fat of kidneys of wheat;" "and the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions and the garlic, and the remembered fish which we did eat in Egypt freely," they seem unable to dilate with too much pride upon the show it made.

"To behold the tables," says one, that I quote from literally, "To behold them filling the Bowery and all adjoining grounds, loaded with all the luxuries of the fields and gardens, and nearly all the varieties that any vegetable market in the world could produce, and to see the seats around these tables filled and refilled by a people who had been deprived of those luxuries the cruel hand of oppression, and freely offering seats to every stranger within their borders; and this, too, within the Valley of the Mountains, over a thousand miles from civilization, where, two years before, naught was to be found save the wild root of the prairie and the mountain cricket; was a theme of unbounded thanksgiving and praise to the Giver of all Good, as the dawning of a day when the Children of the Kingdom can sit under their own vines and fig trees, and inhabit their own houses, having none to make them afraid. May the time be hastened when the scattered Israel may partake of such like banquets "from the gardens of Joseph."

I should do wrong to conclude my lecture without declaring in succinct and definite terms, the opinions I have formed and entertain of the Mormon people. The libels of which they have been made the subject, make this a simple act of justice. Perhaps, too, my opinion, even with those who know me as you do, will better answer its end following after the narrative I have given.

I have spoken to you of a people whose industry bad made them rich, and gathered around them all the comforts, and not a few of the luxuries of refilled life; expelled by lawless force into the wilderness, seeking an untried home far away from the scene, which their previous life had endeared to them; moving onward, destitute, hunger-sickened, and sinking with disease; bearing along with them their wives and children, the aged, and the poor, and the decrepit; renewing daily on their march, the offices of devotion, the ties of family and friendship, and charity; sharing necessities, and braving dangers together; cheerful in the midst of want and trial, and persevering until they triumphed. I have told, or tried to tell you, of men, who, when menaced by famine, and in the midst of pestilence, with every energy taxed by the urgency of the hour, were building roads and bridges, laying out villages, and planting corn-fields, for the stranger who might come after them, their kinsmen only by a common humanity, and peradventure a common suffering -- of men, who have renewed their prosperity in the homes they have founded in the desert -- and who, in their new built city, wailed round by mountains like a fortress, are extending pious hospitalities to the destitute emigrants from our frontier lines -- of men who, far removed from the restraints of law, obeyed it from choice, or found in the recesses of their religion, something not inconsistent with human laws, but far more controlling; and who are now soliciting from the government of the United States, not indemnity -- for the appeal would be hopeless, and they know it -- not protection, for they now have no need of it -- but that identity of political institutions, and that community of laws with the rest of us, which was confessedly their birthright when they were driven beyond our borders.

I said I would give you the opinion I formed of the Mormons: you may deduce it for yourselves from these facts. But I will add that I have not yet heard the single charge against them as a community; against their habitual purity of life, their integrity of dealing, their toleration of religious differences in opinion, their regard for the laws, or their devotion to the constitutional government under which we live, that I do not from my own observation, or the testimony of others, know to be unfounded.

* "Letter of the Presidency," Great Salt Lake City, Oct. 19, 1849.

Note: Col. Kane's extensively lengthy speech on behalf of the Mormons was evidently not carried in full by very many American publications. The Dollar Newspaper probably obtained its truncated text from some other eastern journal, which, like the International Weekly Miscellany of July 8, 1850, found sufficient news matter in Kane's final paragraphs.


Vol. ?                              Philadelphia, Monday, November 17, 1851.                              No. ?


The last number of the Times and Transcript contains an interesting article relating to the Mormons in California, from which we glean a few particulars. They have formed a large settlement at San Bernardino, in the southeastern portion of the State, where they possess an excellent tract of land which they take great care in cultivating. They have projected a railroad from the Great Salt Lake to that point, and thence onward to San Diego -- a route considered entirely feasible. The Transcript says:

As the best means of informing our readers of the present state of things at San Bernardino, we copy the following description of a grand harvest festival, which was furnished for the Los Angels Star by a person who witnessed the interesting ceremonies:

Saturday, Sept. 4th, was devoted by this entire people as a Harvest Feast. Imagine a building 60 feet by 30, in which is usually held their public worship, schott'e and business assemblies, decorated with green shrubbery, formed in groups devices upon the walls, and in arches interwoven with clusters of grapes, heads of wheat, corn, squashes, cabbages, onions, beets, melons. &c. were tastefully arranged in various parts, within and at the entranoe. Over the stand was inscribed in large capitals: "HOLINESS TO THE LOUD," and beneath this in letters formed of evergreens, "Harvest Feast." Among the specimens of the bounties of nature was a stalk of Indian corn, 9 feet 9 inches to the first ear, 11 feet 4 indies to the second ear, and 16 feet to the top; four onions weighing 9 1/2 pounds; a cabbage weighing 40 pounds; a beet, without the top, weighing 9 1/2 pounds; with melons, squashes, etc., in proportion, specimens of which, I am told you will receive by the bearer of this letter.

In this miniature World's Fair, several hundred people of both sexes assembled at 10 A. M., in their best dresses, forming a beautiful representation of an American assembly of every age and condition, and this bright picture shaded in the background with a few specimens or representatives of the Spanish, Indian, and African races. A song of thanksgiving opened the services; then followed an able and appropriate prayer, by their leading man, Mr. Lyman. Then another gong, followed by a short speech from Mr. P. P. Pratt, approving of merry making, feasting, dancing, and other innocent amusements, provided the whole were conducted in peace, good will, and with thanksgiving and a lively remembrance of the Giver of all good things. The violins then commenced a good lively tune, while the centre of the room was cleared, and soon set with couples for the dance.

Messrs. Pratt, Lyman. Rich, Capt. Hunt, Bishop Crosby and others of the need and leading men, led off the dance. After this, old and young, married and single, grandsire and child, mingled in turn in the dance, each taking the floor as their numbers were called, and the others in turn looking on.

The dancing was adjourned at noon, and then came the dinner in the same room, piled on three tables, running the length of the room, and filled three several times, with every luxury which nature could provide or skill prepare. The fragments cleared away, the dance was again resumed, and lasted with little intermission, till 9 P. M.

Note: The above clipping has not yet been verified. The actual text evidently included more material and may have read somewhat differently.


Vol. XXXII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, October 9, 1852.                           No. ?


A Cincinnati correspondent, who gives the Mormons a regular going-over in his letter, for their doctrines and practice of polygamy, and whom we judge to be something of a Mormon himself, says, very much to the purpose: --

They announce that polygamy is a doctrine "sent forth as a Standard of Universal Restoration for the Tribes of Israel, and for all nations." They "seek to excuse themselves" in their abominations, because of the things which were written concerning some of the ancients. A specimen of this kind of sophistry is presented by Mr. Pratt in his communication, and yet this great Apostle professes to be a Mormon, and I have no doubt that many of your readers imagine that Brigham Young and all these Salt Lake apostles believe in the Book of Mormon and the original Mormonism, whereas they hace "departed from the faith," and "have turned the grace of God into lasciviousness." The Book of Mormon informs us of just such apostates as they are, who lived on this land in ancient times. It says: "Thus saith the Lord, this people begin to wax in iniquity; they understand not the Scriptures; for they seek to excuse themselves in committing whoredoms, because of the things which were written concerning David, and Solomon his son. Behold, David and Solomon truly had many wives and concubines, which thing was abominable before me, saith the Lord. *  *  *  There shall not any man among you have save it be one wife; and concubines he shall have none: For I, the Lord God, delighteth in the chastity of women. *  *  *  I will not suffer, saith the Lord of hosts, that the cries of the fair daughters of this people, which I have led out of the land of Jerusalem, shall come up unto me against the men of my people, saith the Lord of hosts; for they shall not lead away captive the daughters of my people, because of their tenderness, save I shall visit them with a sore curse, even unto destruction; for the shall not commit whoredoms, like unto them of old, saith the Lord of hosts."

Mr. Pratt accuses "Christendom" of having "petty prejudices, local superstitions, and narrow views" on the subject, but these quotations, and more that might be made, show that the Book of Mormon is more opposed to the Salt Lake "Standard of Universal Restoration" than Christendom is, for the Book of Mormon condemns ancient as well as modern polygamy. The Salt Lake apostles also excuse themselves by saying that Joseph Smith taught the spiritual wife doctrine, but this excuse is as weak as their excuse concerning the ancient kings and patriarchs. Joseph Smith repented of his connection with this doctrine, and said it was of the devil. He caused the revelations on that subject to be burned, and when he voluntarily came to Nauvoo and resigned himself into the arms of his enemies, he said that he was going to Carthage to die. At that time he also said, if it had not been for that accursed spiritual wife doctrine, he would not have come to that. By his conduct at that time he proved the sincerity of his repentance, and of his profession as a prophet. If Abraham and Jacob, by repentance, can attain salvation and exaltation, so can Joseph Smith.
                                                   ISAAC SHEEN.

It therefore seems that the Salt Lake Mormons, if Mr. Sheen be correct, and he quotes the words of the "Book of Mormon," are acting not only in opposition to common decency and morality, but to the explicit commands of their "own holy Book," and to the dying testimony of Joseph Smith, their founder. We shall be pleased to hear from any of our Mormon readers, how the doctrine of their Bible upon this subject, and the present Salt Lake practices, can be reconciled. If there are a majority of honest, pure-minded men and women among the people...

Note: This is Elder Isaac Sheen's first known published comments on Mormon iniquity, since he took Latter Day Saint "President" William Smith to task in the pages of various Cincinnati and Washington D. C. newspapers in 1850. No doubt Elder Sheen had even more to say, after the official announcement of Utah Mormon polygamy was published in the Sept. 14, 1852 issue of the Salt Lake City Deseret News, however, Sheen subsequent remarks on the topic have not yet been located for transcription. See also his second letter to the Post, in its issue of Aug. 13, 1853


Vol. XXII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, December 11, 1852.                           No. 41.


Every writer from the Great Salt Lake City confirms the report of the existence of polygamy among the Mormons. The following letter, bearing date Salt Lake City, July 26th, from a Wisconsin overland traveller, the Milwaukie News says, is addressed to the mother of the writer, and has been furnished for publication to that paper; --

"Brigham Young is the prophet, seer, revelator, and head of the church. He is assisted by two councillors, twelve apostles, and eighteen bishops. The Prophet and the Governor were present with some of his wives, who came and went in a large, elegant, open carriage. He has living with him in the city, in one house, sixteen wives and thirty children. Each wife, with her progeny, lives in her separate furnished apartment, and spins, sews, weaves, &c., &c. All this is true. I went over the premises with a view to entertain you for an hour, and I believe saw pretty much every thing. The person I board with has two wives. Dr. Richards, a councillor, has six, and all of them good-looking, healthy women. Thus you see polygamy is openly allowed and supported by these Mormons. A man having a right to as many wives as he can find and support, takes a fancy, goes to a justice, and swears he is able to support her, and the marriage comes off with due ceremony, and so it goes on, as he grows richer, without limit."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXXV.                             Philadelphia, Saturday, July 16, 1853.                             No. 98.

THE MORMONS AT SALT LAKE. -- From recent accounts of the progress of the Mormons at Salt Lake, it appears that they are like the Gentiles in other parts of the world, and exhibit a large amount of human nature in their internal dissensions, schisms, backbiting and struggles for individual power and supremacy. The general idea of their little saintly settlement in the wilderness beyond the Rocky mountains, is that they are a "band of brothers" and sisters -- closely knit in the bonds of fraternal affection, despising the follies and pomp of the world, and looking only to the spread of the true faith, and the extension of spiritual wifeism. We are sorry to say that this flattering picture is only the distant view of the heavenly scene, a nearer approach shows that there are persecutions for opinions' sake, bitter heart-burnings apostacy, and repudiation of the doctrine of polygamy, which the Prophet Joseph, surnamed Smith, introduced as one of the divine institutions. A writer, who has been among them says, a more discordant set of harmonies, than they, were never combined. A very short acquaintance with them, with some knowledge of their history, exhibits a very curious accumulation and loss of members constantly going on in the Mormon community. It seems to require about as much work to keep the converts after they are made, as to make them. Many of these new-born saints very soon lose the soda-water enthusiasm which is first experienced, and fall away; and many who have zeal enough to start on the great journey towards the modern Zion, cool off, and lodge, like drift wood, by the way. Each emigrating body tapers off something like the army of Peter the Hermit in the first great crusade. The Mormons have, in reality, more backsliders and apostates, and, for the length of time since their commencement, are divided into more sects than any religious denomination known.

From this picture, which we have no doubt is a true one, for the papers from the Great Salt Lake are full of the fulminations of the faithful against a backsliding crew, headed by one Gladden Bishop, who impiously and impudently assumes to be the Lord in his second coming, and also against other apostates to the faith, it would seem that the fanaticism under which the Mormon doctrine spread so rapidly, is in danger of running itself out for want of the persecutions which aided its growth so materially in the settled States. Without the outside pressure of persecution to hold it together, there is not sufficient adhesiveness in its internal constitution to keep the fabric from falling to pieces. Indeed, any society which adopts principles so repugnant to the general sentiments of the civilized world as those which form a part of the religious faith of the Mormons, must necessarily be restricted within a narrow circle of operations, and be of limited duration. Before the advancing footsteps of a better Christianity, and of more refined principles of morals and social existence, it must recede precisely as barbarism flies before civilization, and darkness before light.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXXV.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, July 20, 1853.                             No. 101.

THE MORMONS AT SALT LAKE. -- THE GLADDENITES. -- A correspondent of the New York Times is giving graphic pictures of Mormonism and Mormon dissensions. In a recent letter, he gives the substance of the speech of Elder Snow upon the heretics in the Mormon faith who are located at the Salt Lake, for it appears that the unbelievers are bold in the avowal of their unbelief and numerous enough to sustain themselves. He says --

Snow took up the Gladdenites, and hoped the Lord would curse and destroy them. He plainly told the audience, that whoever should be the executioners of divine justice in this case, and slay the Gladdenites, their wives and children, from the face of the earth, would receive a bright crown of glory. The injunction to assassinate the Gladdenites was open and undisguised, and repeated in a variety of forms, and, what is more to be lamented, was plainly responded to by the audience. It was a sphere of murder -- plain, palpable, frightful and sickening. The picture was one which, when once seen, can never be effaced from the mind. A preacher, in the pulpit, ferociously enjoining the murder of men, women and children, for a difference of opinion, and two thousand faces intently gazing upon him with fanatical approbation -- the regions of the damned could scarcely present a scene more truly diabolical. A Gentile emigrant present stood it as long as he could, but finally left the Tabernacle with compressed lips and clenched fist, and evidently under an uncontrollable paroxysm of indignant excitement. And this is Mormonism! These are the people who are eternally talking of Gentile persecution? Yes, they have been persecuted, as debauchees and felons usually are, but never on account of their religion. They have ever been a bubbling and seething cauldron of pollution, and can no more be tolerated in the bosom of civilized society than gangs of counterfeiters and thieves. You may ask if all Mormons are to come under this severe condemnation. I do not mean to be so understood. There are a great many weak and simple-minded people, who have no very definite and fixed belief, and glide along with the current, without any positive harm; there are others who are fanatical, and, of course, dangerous instruments in the hands of the rascals who control them; there are others, again, who are totally sick of Mormonism, but remain quiet until an opportunity occurs to escape.

Another speaker, Layman [sic], was less violent and more disguised, but quite as significant. He reminded the members of the Church of their “covenant obligators," and strongly urged that this was an occasion in which particular members were to perform the duties allotted to them. This was in reference to the "Danites," or "Brothers of Gideon" -- a band of organized, ruffians in the Mormon Church, whose business it is to execute the mandates of the Council, "right or wrong." That such a band once existed, I have abundant proof; that it now exists, I have no doubt.

Smith had appointed a meeting at his house for this same Sabbath, and, as the hour approached, a band of young men assembled around his door, and collected a quantity of stones ready for use; and as the Gladdenites came and entered the house, a long, six foot, scowling Danite, by the name of Cummings, in obedience to his "covenant obligations " took them by the collar and led them out, with threats of extermination. Of course, the meeting was broken up ; nor am I aware that any has since been held. After these things, it was generally supposed by the Gentiles that Smith would mysteriously disappear, as obnoxious men sometimes do here; but he has been on, his guard, and no catastrophe of the kind has yet taken place. In the meantime, conversions to Gladdenism are going on; and what is to be the end of it, I do not know; but that it is one of the ap-pointed means, under Providence, of ending the Mormon imposture, I am very willing to believe.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, August 13, 1853.                                No. ?

ALARMING PROSPECT. -- We have received a communication from a gentleman of Cincinnati, which contains alarming information that this country will soon be overrun by the Ten Tribes of Israel -- who have been missing for so long a period. He says that the Northern continent will soon be discovered -- which is located in the interior of the earth, the entrance to it being through the open sea at the North Pole. These Ten Tribes are hostile to the United States, because of our treatment of the Indians, who are descendants of Joseph the son of Jacob -- also because of the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri and Illinois -- and, further, because the President suffers Brigham Young, the "son of perdition," to hold the office of governor of Deseret, notwithstanding his abominable doctrine of Polygamy, which is, our correspondent asserts, alike in defiance of the Book of Mormon and of the Bible.

This is but a brief summary of our correspondent's article; it will do, however, for the present. When we hear of the arrival of the Ten Tribes off the coast of NewFoundland, we will hunt up the communication, and publish it at length. In the meantime, we are much obliged to our Cincinnati friend for letting us have the first news.

Note 1: The exact date of this article is uncertain -- it may have appeared in the Post of August 6th. The text is taken from the Aug. 18, 1853 issue of the Pennsylvania Freeman.

Note 2: See Elder Isaac Sheen's letter of Oct. 9, 1852 in the same newspaper. He again took up his hollow earth hobby-horse in the June 1, 1864 and Aug. 15, 1872 issues of the Plano Saints Herald, a publication which Sheen himself edited. For comments on the Mormon doctrine regarding this topic, see notes attached to the Cherokee Phoenix of July 9, 1831. See also the July 15, 1861 issue of the Cincinnati Commercial.


Vol. XXXIV.                       Philadelphia, Saturday, November 18, 1854.                       No. 1738.

THE MORMON POLYGAMY. -- The Richmond Enquirer, probably the most influential Democratic paper of the Southern States, arrays itself strongly against the admission of Utah, with her infamous practice of polygamy. The Enquirer says:

Utah cannot come into this confederacy with polygamy as a legal institution. Squatter sovereignty may affirm the right of the people of a Territory to "determine their own institutions;" but there is a sovereignty above the sovereignty of squatters. The sovereignty of reason, of religion, of civilization, the sovereignty of the collective will of the American people, forbids a fraternal association between a people who profess the pure morality of the religion of Jesus, and a people who live under the dominion of lust, and practice the licentious excesses of Oriental barbarism. Utah cannot approach the bridal altar of this Union, covered with the scars and polluted by the poison of foul diseases. She must purge herself of the presence of polygamy; she must come with the bloom of virgin innocence and strength.

There can be no fellowship between Mormon and Christian. They cannot exist under the same social system -- they cannot be partners in political power. Freedom of conscience is one thing, exemption from restraints of decency and morality quite another. The Constitution guarantees religious liberty, but gives no license to the excesses of concupiscence.

Mormonism is theocracy, and involves not only a social gradation and inequality, but an anti- republican alliance between Church and State. No country can be free in which polygamy prevails. Utah can demand its admission into the Union by no claim of reason or of right. The people will repel its embrace with universal and unconquerable aversion.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXIV.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, January 6, 1855.                           No. 44.


Some of the recent publications of the Mormon impostors warrant the remark that there is not to be found in all modern literature, anything so disgustingly obscene and blasphemous as the speeches of the elders that rule over Utah. In the last copies of the Deseret News, October 26, is found many columns of this stuff, which would be utterly beneath the notice of respectable people, but that our Government is held responsible by the world for the outrages committed in Utah. Orson Hyde is one of the elders. On the 8th of October he delivered an address in the Mormon Tabernacle, in which the low depravity of the sect is more openly evident than in any other published document we have seen which originated there.

We are informed that there is in our own city a few of the "disciples," who are attempting to promulgate their views. Our community has been exempt from their presence ever since the Courier routed them, by an exposition of their swindling practices, both in matters of business and religion. The true character of the system was then thoroughly and effectually exposed, and it may be that we shall again have occasion to take them in hand.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXXIV.                         Philadelphia, Saturday, March 17, 1855.                           No. 1755.


Mrs. E. W. Farnham has published in the Contra Costa, of Oakland, California, an appeal to her sex relative to Mormonism in general, and its odious custom of Polygamy in particular. The appeal occupies more space than we can at present afford to appropriate to the subject in our columns, Mrs. Farnham feels upon this subject as every noble and pure-minded woman, not corrupted by a false or vicious education, must feel. She says, in the conclusion of her address:

The women of Deseret are, as you would suppose, the most wretched and desperate community of women to be found in Christendom. The very few who are fortunate enough to escape, live in constant dread of the vengeance that may overtake them; yet they describe the city as a perfect Sodom, and the women as in a most pitiable condition. We can well imagine how hopeless and desperate their lives must be. Think of your own feelings, those of you who are wives and mothers recall the times when you have suffered months of anxiety, and days and nights of restlessness and pain, and when you felt that all the help and consolation your husband could give you, you needed and had a right to enjoy. How must such periods pass in the lives of our unfortunate sisters at Deseret? Their sensual husbands, rendered stolid by their animal lives, are rendered indifferent to their sufferirgs. Entertainment and reception await them elsewhere, and they coolly leave those whom a little attention and tenderness might console, to seek the society of those who will receive them more cheerfully. In the estimation of those lordly, self-lauding animals, it is honor enough for women to bear children to them as Saints of the Lord! She ought not to call on them for consolation or comfort. For themselves the largest freedom, and the fullest measure of enjoyment must be provided.

See the shallow and unchristian motives held out by these false preachers. They assure women who are already wives, and express repugnance at having their hearths and homes shared with others in that relation, that the first wife rules all the others! This might mitigate the wretchedness of a woman whose ambition was coarse and selfish enough to enjoy such power; but alas! for one in that condition, and alas! alas! for those whom she rules, -- would you like to be one of them?

If a person, man or woman, is suspected of disaffection towards the Church, they are watched. All communication with them is suspected by the authorities, and if they are detected in correspondence not laudatory of the Church, they are delivered over to the Tribe of Dan -- a secret organization, sworn to execute the counsels of the Church. If they are about to desert or apostatize, they are killed. If a Gentile marries a woman, and it is known that he contemplates bringing her away with him, he is removed by this band of fiends. If a single woman resists the fate that is forced upon her when she is chosen for some fourth or tenth wife, she soon finds herself in a condition of helplessness -- she is proscribed -- can get no employment -- no home, however worthy and industrious, and, in short, is soon made to feel that there is but one course open to her, and however distasteful -- however loathsome -- however abhorrent, she must walk in it or destroy herself.

Whatever your views may be, my sisters, never take the fatal step of committing yourself to this dreadful condition. Trust not their pictures of Salt Lake, however glowing they may be. Remember that once there, you are eight hundred miles from a white -- I had like to have said a Christian settlement -- under a tyranny as unscrupulous as that which used to sew its victims in a sack and fling them into the Bosphorus. Your own possessions and income will be tithed to arm this tyranny at all points for your efficient and perfect subjection. Can you imagine a broader insult, or greater outrage upon your whole nature, than the asking you voluntarily to place yourself in a position go detestable?

May the mercy of God save you from it; and so I bid you farewell.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXV.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, July 7, 1855.                           No. 19.


We have received (through T. B. Peterson, of this city,) a volume published by J. C. Derby, New York, which purports to be a narrative of many years' personal experience by "The Wife of a Mormon Elder, recently returned from Utah." -- The value of this work depends altogether upon the degree of authenticity which may be attached to it. If merely a work of fiction, it fails in the effect which a truthful revelation would accomplish. Some of the scenes depicted are of so brutal a character that we hesitate in giving them credence, bad as we have always been disposed to think of this sect of marauders, whose acts have well nigh filled the whole catalogue of crime. But that the females should be subject to the cruel outrages related in this volume, seems incredible, even after new favorites have made old ones loathsome to the masters whose debaucheries are a stain on humanity.

Even the story of wrong and outrage related in this volume by a returned Mormon wife, may not, however, be all fiction, if we are to judge by a letter, received since it was issued, from Salt Lake City, which states that as a party of U. S. officers were lately riding out, accompanied by some ladies, they were insulted by a body of young Mormons, and in the grossest manner. The writer adds: -- "As the officers wished to proceed lawfully, instead of putting a few bullets through the chief actors in this disgraceful affair, the case was represented to the Mayor. A mock trial was gone through; and though the conduct of the mob was in direct violation of the city ordinances, it was discovered that the individuals stood too high in the church to be punished. The case was dismissed, and the costs of the court, amounting to an almost fabulous sum, were thrown upon the plaintiffs. During the trial, the ladies, who were present as witnesses, were grossly insulted by a low fellow, a witness for the defence. The greatest excitement prevailed during the trial -- nearly two hundred armed Mormons being collected in and about the Mayor's office."

It may be feared that there is trouble ahead from the Mormons. They are every day gathering new strength, and manifesting fresh insolence. Gov. Young appears to possess all power, spiritual as well as temporal. The Courier some years since took effectual measures for placing these deluded people, and their profligate leaders, in a proper position before the country, and as a permanent result of our repeated and thorough exposure, we have the satisfaction of knowing that our own community has been well weeded from the nefarious pest. Pretty much all their increase of late years has been derived from the poor victims from various parts of Europe, where the emissaries of this imposture have been busily employed. The green fields of our American prairies have been pictured out as the perfect paradise for the poor slaves of toil and oppression. We trust the volume above referred to may be of service in opening the eyes of our government.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XLII.                             Philadelphia, Friday, October 17, 1856.                             No. 23.

OUR POLICY TOWARDS THE MORMONS. -- There are some who are not a little alarmed and indignant at the Mormons, and ready to make a war of extermination on them. For our part, we consider the treatment of these degraded fanatics the great problem of this age. There they lie, 80,000 strong, midway between St. Louis and California. If they behave as friends and fellow-citizens should, they are so situated that they cannot fail to be of the utmost value at their halfway station to California, a pier in the middle on which to rest the arches that may bridge over the dreary route to those golden regions. If, however, they are going to prove enemies, either owing to their own wickedness or any unjust or injurious treatment of them by others, they are so situated as to be the most formidable and dangerous foes we can possibly possess. On the high road to the most wealthy part of our territory, they are quite independent of all the rest of the world, and will soon only be exceeded in number by the grass-hoppers, that now appear as their fiercest enemies. They have in ordinary seasons, however, food and clothing, in fact they make everything within themselves. It is impossible for us to have any hold on them by cutting off their supplies. And yet they are so situated as to have every conceivable hold on us, for they can cut off every relay of travellers, or without appearing in the matter themselves, can complicate our relations with the Indians in such a manner as to render the route utterly impraticable for peaceful travellers.

This is what they are universally believed to be accomplishing at this moment. They have certainly supplied hostile Indians with the very powder with which they have shot the United States troops. Inaccessible to all ordinary attacks by the desert waste that surrounds them, they can easily procure information of the march of any body of troops against them, and cut them off or tempt the Indians to do it for them. It is therefore of the utmost importance that it should be distinctly ascertained in what manner we are go ing to treat them and they are going to treat us, and what will be the best method of befriending them if peaceable citizens, or destroying their power of harming us in case of war.

The one great anomaly in their institutions is polygamy, and the real question is how that is to be treated. Is this a matter on which they are to do as they please, because they choose to call it a part of their religion? Suppose they choose to consider it a part of their religion to have a king, or to steal the cattle of the "Gentiles." or to plunder travellers as they pass through, either under the guises of oppressive taxes, or by every Mormon having the liberty to cut the throat of a "Gentile." We might as reasonably permit Thugism as Mormonism, so far as the latter claims toleration on the ground of being a religion. Both are contrary to natural religion, and therefore contrary to the fundamental principles of all law, which rests, in this country especially, on that basis, and on that alone, for proof of justice and rectitude.

In Prof. Draper's great work on Human Physiology, just published, he has shown that, "considering the near equality of male or female births, we may truly assert that monogamy is the proper condition of our species, and that, apart from its social evils and criminality, polygamy is an un-natural state." This ought to be enough. But he also shows that the great superiority of European over Asiatic civilization is owing to the monogamous habit of the former, "which has tended to draw the family tie more firmly."

We all see at once, that if one man may have twenty wives, one woman will, in many cases, have twenty husbands, in fact all virtue will be lost, all family ties and training be set aside, children will not be educated or provided for by their parents, and society in Utah must relapse into a kind of barbarous monarchy in the central regions of our own country, subsisting chiefly upon depredations.

It may be said that any attempt to interfere will produce a war, not only with the Mormons, but with all the Indians whom they can league against us a war not alone against the United States troops, but against peaceful travellers, a war of horrid atrocity, only terminated by extermination. If a hostile kingdom were in danger of being openly established on our territory, between the Eastern States and California, if its leaders were recruiting all over Europe for the most ignorant and barbarous men as resources with which to augment their strength against us, we should soon decide to stop the evil, and disperse their strength before it became more formidable.

We do not say that this is the present condition of the Mormons. But it is one which may soon be brought about without wise and firm measures are immediately taken. If there could be proved to be a distinct determination, by force or fraud, to usurp the authority of the United States Government, an efficient, well supplied force, prepared to maintain itself independently and against all odds, would be at once necessary. But the great permanent reliance must be the opening of a railroad to the Pacific. This will enable the United States, whenever necessary, to pour in a sufficient body of troops to overpower all foes, Indian or Mormon, while it will be a blessing to those ignorant, but many of them well meaning men, by opening up to them civilization, and the intercourse of wiser and better men on a safe and independent footing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. LVI.                               Philadelphia, Friday, January 16, 1857.                               No. 14.


==> Mr. Josiah Quincy, Junior, of Boston, delivered quite an interesting address on the Mormons in New York, a night or two ago. The sect be said, claimed to be the only true church on earth. He gave a full account of Joe Smith, but he attributed the authorship of the Book of Mormon to the Rev. Solomon Spaulding, of Pittsburg, who in 1813, for the purpose of amusement, wrote, in the popular phraseology of the Scriptures, an imaginary history of the wanderings of the lost ten tribes of Israel. This manuscript work subsequently fell into the hands of Sidney Rigdon, subsequently an active co-operator with Joe Smith in the propagation of the Mormon doctrines. An extract from it described the water-proof barges "like unto a dish" in top, bottom, side and ends, with only a hole in the top and bottom, in which the voyage was made across the Pacific. The power of the Mormon religion lay in the priesthood. Joe Smith was the only Yankee who had attempted to do the prophet, and he had succeeded most admirably.

He deceived by his apparent openness. The lecturer then stated the details of an interview which he had with Joe Smith, at Nauvoo, in 1844. He was received in front of a tavern in the place by the landlord, Mayor, General, President and Prophet -- the civil, religious and military head of that community, Smith, in stating the causes of their expulsion from Missouri, said it was the jealousy of the people surrounding them of their growing prosperity though the gentile version of the matter was that the Mormons, professing to believe that the earth was the Lord's for the benefit of the Saints, often anticipated the realization of the millennium by taking immediate possession for themselves. Mob law turned against them and they were driven from the State. Ignorant, helpless, and stripped of all their possessions, the Mormons turned to their prophet and he proved equal to the occasion. Joe Smith bought the land at Nauvoo, and the rise of the land made the proprietors comparatively rich.

Mr. Quincy also gave a statement of facts which resulted in the murder of Joe Smith and his brother Hiram, at Carthage. Their exodus across the desert to Salt Lake was one of the strangest events since the journey of the Children of Israel through the wilderness. When gold was discovered in California, their prophet said that the true use of gold was to pave streets and to make culinary utensils, and when they had farms and fields enough they might go and dig as much as they needed. So they staid to clear up farms and build cities, although the land of gold was but just beyond the mountains. Like the Jesuits, they were really to start at three days notice for a seven years' journey, and their missionaries had made converts by tens of thousands in England, Wales, and the North of Europe. From these countries continual accessions were made to their numbers, and to prepare for them, they had vast stores of provisions set apart from the tithes. New towns were planted throughout the country in the expectation that they would soon be connected by farms.

The spiritual wife system, although not openly avowed at first, was now in full operation. Polygamy was considered perfectly honorable; it was held that no woman could reach heaven without a husband, and the masculine chances for heaven were increased in proportion to the number of wives. Bachelors might see in this one more proof of the universality of the law of compensation. -- But a recent sermon by Brigham Young had shown that there was a Woman's Rights Movement in Utah; he thought that would ere long overthrow the whole system of polygamy. And although the prophet now made all the nominations, he thought that he would soon find it necessary to nominate only the most available candidates. At present the Mormons were loud in their praises of the Union, but if ever they should be turned against us, it was not impossible that some Tamerlane or Genghis Khan might cross the Mississippi. The best way with their religion was to let it severely alone. No doubt Utah would soon be admitted into the Union as a State. Archimedes offered to move the world if he had but a place to stand. A religious teacher who could inspire his followers as Joseph Smith had done, had found for mind what Archimedes asked for matter, a place out of the world by which he could control all that was in it. He thought this faith could not be permanent unless its victims were persecuted. They could not fail soon to learn that polygamy was as destructive to the happiness of Utah as it was to the dignity of woman. He hoped that it was only a means of peopling this desert portion of the country. Even in that case the effects of these teachings could not be wholly lost.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. LVI.                           Philadelphia, Wednesday, January 21, 1857.                           No. 18.

The Condition of Utah -- Governor Young
and the National Authorities.


The condition of the territory of Utah must be regarded as remarkable in several respects. Although a portion of this Republic, and subject to the laws which govern other Territories, the authorities there, and particularly the Governor and Chief Elders or Priests, utterly condemn and defy the National Government. It is known that several attempts have been made under the present Administration, to supersede Brigham Young, but thus far in vain. He continues to officiate as Governor, and not only exercises all civil and political power, but he seems to have a thorough control over the consciences of the many thousands of infatuated dupes. Why the President of the United States has been unable to displace him and substitute another, we are at a loss to understand -- and it would be well perhaps, if an inquiry were instituted by Congress

This Mormon iniquity and imposition must be met sooner or later. Indeed the matter has already been too long dfelayed. The master spirits have been induced to believe that they are invincible -- and have been permitted to gather strength from year to year -- and thus, when at last the Government shall determine to act, the task may be found one of great difficulty, and calculated to involve bloodshed and loss of life. It is well known that the four years for which Brigham Young was appointed Governor, expired sometime since, but as he holds office until his successor is qualified, he is still Governor, the persons appointed to succeed him having failed to accept the office and be qualified. Why did they decline? Their reasons must have been given to the Executive, and it is but right that they should be made public. Why -- in short -- do the National Authorities shrink from the contest with Brigham Young? He has already become too formidable, and will a postponement of the issue mend the matter? If it would, there would be some propriety in the course, but inasmuch as the Mormons are every year increasing in numbers and in insolence, the difficulty is likely to deepen rather then diminish. We are glad to perceive the evil having become so fearful in England, and that so many converts having been made within a few years, that one or two intelligent writers have deemed it necessary to make appeals to the public, with the object of discouraging the missionaries, or at least opening the eyes of the credulous, who may feel disposed to participate in this infatuation. Thus Mr. Charles Mackey has written a volume, entitled The Mormons, and a correspondent of the Liverpool Albion is furnishing through the columns of that journal, a series of articles. He admits that the soil of Utah is eminently rich, and that its natural advantages are wonderful. If, he says, ever a land overflowed with milk and honey, it is this territory of the Mormons. It is watered, not only by a river which flows through its centre, but by innumerable springs of the purest water, that fall in purling streamlets from the snowy mountains, and are distributed in ditches through the Salt Lake City, and pass by the gardens and doors of every house.

We are told by an accomplished Philadelphian who passed some time in Utah, that the Territory is unequalled as a stock-raising country -- "that the finest pastures of Lombardy are not more estimable than those on the east side of the Utah Lake [and] Jordan River; that the numerous little dells and sheltered spots that are found in the mountains are excellent sheep walks; and that the wool grown upon them is of an unusually fine pile and soft texture. They raise the finest fruits of every description; they have but to dig, sow, and set, and the genial climate gives a bountiful increase. Thirty-two potatoes buried in the earth yield a return of eighteen bushels; and two bushels and a half of wheat produce 350 bushels in a season, being an average of fifty bushels to the acre. There are sulphur springs in which the Mormons bathe and invigorate their frames; they have rock salt sufficient to do the curing of the world; they find iron ore in every direction; the peculiarities of the soil and climate furnish facilities for raising cotton, sugar, and rice; their people comprise not only the farm laborer, and those familiar with the duties of a pastoral life, but the skilled artizan and ingenious mechanic, who carry on manufactures of every description. Thus, in the midst of those everlasting hills, where the solemn silence had hitherto been unbroken, except by the songs of birds and the music of the waters,
"The forge smokes, the anvil rings,
and the whirring wheel goes round."
But, alas! for the moral portion of the picture. The great curse of the system and the society is polygamy, and this, unless eradicated, must in the end blight and destroy. Polygamy was not introduced originally or suddenly, but it was brought about long after the alleged discovery of the Book of Mormon by Joe Smith, and was then advocated gradually and steadfastly. But it is now avowed boldly and openly, as will be seen from the following extract which we quote from the Millenial Star: --
Look at that great social movement in the Church -- Polygamy! In a year or two from its general proclamation, hundreds of thousands who naturally were as opposed to it as other people, now cherish it, delight in it, aye exult in it, and would lay down their lives rather than depart from the holy and divine institution. Five years ago there were few of its enemies who would not have predicted that the establishment of such an order must break up the "Mormon " Church. But, lo! that, with every other development of this work, has only made broader the basis of oneness and brotherhood between the Latter-day Saints and the ancient polygamic people of God.
Thus far there has been no outbreak among the wretched women who have given themselves up to this iniquity, but within a few months we have had strong symptoms of dissatisfaction and disorganization. Thus, the Deseret News, which is the organ of the Mormons. some time since published a sermon of Brigham Young, the Governor, in which this language occurs,
It is frequently happening that women say that they are unhappy. Men will say, 'My wife, though a most excellent woman, has not seen a happy day since I took my second wife;" "No, not a happy day for a year," says one; and another has not seen a happy day for five years. It is said that women are tied down and abused; that they are misused and have not the liberty they ought to have; that many of them are wading through a perfect flood of tears, because of the conduct of some men, together with their own folly. I wish my own women -- (his half-hundred) -- to understand that what I am going to say is for them as well as others, and I want those who are here to tell their sisters, and all the women of this community, and then write it back to the States, and do as you please with it. I am going to give you from this time to the 6th day of October next for reflection, that you may determine whether you wish to stay with your husbands or not, and then I am going to set every woman at liberty, and say to them, "Now, go your way, my women, with the rest; go your way." And my wives have got to do one of two things; either round up their shoulders to endure the afflictions of this world and lire for their religion, or they may leave, for I will not have them about me. I will go into heaven alone rather than have scratching and fighting around me. I will set all at liberty. "What, first wife, too?" Yes, I will liberate you all. I know what my women will say; they will say: "You can have as many women as you please, Brigham." But I want to go somewhere and do something to get rid of the whiners.
The sixth of October has gone by, and no liberations have taken place. Indeed, what could the miserable beings do, if they were liberated? They have no means of livelihood in Utah, and they could not travel across the desert that intervenes between that Territory and the civilized abodes of the Gentiles. -- Doubtless there are hundreds who have seen the error of their way, and would abandon the abominations of polygamy, if they could. But they are the worst of slaves; and so they must remain, while the civil and religious authority is exercised by one man, and the Mormon leaders are permitted to defy the National Government. Is it not possible to devise a remedy? Cannot something be done upon this subject at Washington? Nay -- is it not disgraceful that a Government like ours, should look on quietly, and see this moral canker festering in our midst?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XLIII.                             Philadelphia,  Tuesday, March 24, 1857.                             No. 1.

Gov. Geary in Washington --
Affairs in Utah, &c.

Washington, March 23. -- Gov. Geary having notifed the President of his arrival in Washington. was invited to call at the White House this afternoon, which he did, and was there introduced by the President to the Cabinet, and had with them a long conversation on the affairs of Kansas.

Dr. Bemheisel, delegate from Utah, denies the truth of the discreditable statements concerning that territory. He says they emanate from enemies who have ever been striving to foment difficulties between the Mormons and the General Government....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XLIII.                             Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 20, 1857.                             No. 50.

Washington Affairs --
The Governorship of Utah...

Washington, May 19. -- A member of the Cabint to-day received a telegraphic despatch from Major McCulloch, declining the Governorship of Utah. He however expects to reach this city in the course of ten days.

It is not true that Judge Drummond has been offered the appointment in case of the refusal of Major McCulloch; but this afternoon, a telegraphic despatch was sent to a western man -- whose name is officially concealed for the present tending it to him.

Recent information received in regard to the state of affairs in Utah has caused a change in the policy hereto contemplated by the Government. The condition of bthat Terrltory being such as to require vigorous measures, troops, in large numbers, will be sent thither, probably under the command of Gen. Harney.

The Administration is anxious to act at once in this important matter, especially in view of the late obstructions to the judiciary proceedings, and the accounts so frequently received, relative to oppressions by the Mormons of those who don't belong to their fraternity...

AFFAIRS IN UTAH -- THE U. S. COURTS BROKEN UP. -- If the letter-writers from Utah do not greatly exaggerate matters, the condition of affairs in Utah will require the speedy interference of the Federal Government, and a vigorous assertion of its authority over that territory. By letters from Salt Lake, of the date of March 6th, Ecclesiastical law appears to have entirely superseded the civil laws. Judge Stiles attempted, on the 9th of February, to hold the session of the U. S. District Court, but an armed force entered the Court-room, and, by intimidation, obliged the Judge to adjourn the Court sine di. The next day the Court was opened again for territorial business, under the control of Young and his satellites, who openly declared their purpose to drive out the Gentlies. The house of a man was torn down, because he had presumed to disobey orders, and refused to turn away some Gentiles whe were boarding with him. Attempts have been made to fire the dwellings of T. S. Williams, the Attorney, and Judge Stiles, the United States Judge, for the part they took in a suit against one of the Mormon leaders. Both have been cut off from the Church, and denounced as apostates, for trying to enforce the laws of the country. It was the wish of the Mormons to destroy the records of this case, that induced them to burn the books and papers of the United Stales Circuit Court. The United States officials, Gen. Burr, the Surveyor General, and Dr. Hart, the Indian agent, are now in a very dangerous position. Open threats of burning or tearing down their offices, and killing or maltreating them, are daily made; and in one of the Southern settlements, at a Sunday meeting, it was voted to raise a party to come and cut their throats. It is believed that the report of Brigham Young's flight from Utah is only a ruse to gain time and prevent the United States Government from sending Gen. Harney into that country, to bring these lawless ant polygamous beasts into subjection. It is contended that the Federal Government has no right to meddle with these people, on account af their religion. But the General Government has a right, and it is its duty, to make them respect the authority of the Federal laws, and punish them for their treason and other crimes, which seem justly chargeable to them. The territories are common property, and all religions have a right to exist there. But an ecclesiastical tyranny, under Brigham Young, banishes any other than the Morman faith. To talk of religion in connection with such licentious practices as the Mormons are guilty of, is a gross perversion of language.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, August 6, 1857.                                No. 5.



This has been announced as a work on Mormonism by "Elder Hyde" -- if any one should thence get the belief that its author is Orson Hyde, the well-known Mormon leader, he will be much mistaken. The author, as we learn from what he tells of himself, (which is not much,) is an Englishman, who, in September, 1848, was baptized into Mormonism... In February, 1854, he was initiated into the mysteries of the "Mormon endowment," and would have gone to California, but want of means prevented him. In April, 1856, he was sent as a Missionary to the Sandwich Islands, and had to leave his wife with her relatives in Salt Lake City, and on his voyage determined not only to renounce Mormonism, but lay his experience of it before the world. He was solemnly cut off from "The Church" in January, 1857, it being unanimously voted "that he be delivered over to Satan to be buffeted in the flesh." At the same time his family was not cut off, (Mrs. H. was probably well-looking,) but it was declared that she was set free from him. There seems no reason to doubt the truth of Mr. John Hyde's account of himself. It would appear, also, that he left Salt Lake City with a testimonial of good character. His experience in the Mormon ministry, the position which he attained, and his residence in Utah, amply qualify him for the authorship of a startling work on Mormons and Mormonism. His book contains several curious revelations, and some striking sketches of Mormon leaders. A large part of it is devoted to a discussion on the authenticity of the Book of Mormon and Theological and Moral Arraignment of the practice of Polygamy. The most racy portions of this book are those which relate to polygamy, but the subject is scarcely suited to the columns of a newspaper. The same cause makes us pass over the account of the mysteries of initiation. A long account of Brigham Young is given...

It is now stated that no opposition will be made by Brigham Young to the execution of the laws by the Federal officers. Brigham Young has not written a letter to the President, as was stated, but he sent him a Mormon newspaper, with an article, official of course, marked on the margin, in which Brigham's policy is set forth as entirely peaceful, and subordinate to the United States laws.

Note: The 1857 appearance of John W. Hyde's book had an indirect effect upon the development of the Spalding-Rigdon theory for Book of Mormon authorship. On page 278 of his anti-Mormon exposure, Hyde says: "Spalding wrote this MS. during the years 1810, 11, 12, in Ohio. In 1812, he left Ohio for Pittsburg, where he resided two years, and went thence to Amity, Pa., and died in 1816." Although those facts had been published previous to 1857, Hyde's story made for a popular book, which was widely read in America, following the publicity surrounding the Utah Expedition, the Mountain Meadows Massacre, etc. In 1867 it was rendered more or less out of date by the publication and widespread sales of Pomeroy Tucker's Origin, Rise, and Progress of Mormonism. On page 123 of the latter volume, Tucker states that Solomon Spalding, in the year "1816... removed to Amity, Washington County, N. Y., where he died in 1827." This mistaken report eventually reached the eyes of readers in Amity itself, who noticed the discrepency between Hyde's telling Spalding's biography, and the account provided by Tucker. The outcome of this literary discovery can be found in the columns of the Washington, Pennsylvania Reporter of May 13, 1868, and in subsequent articles.


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, August 7, 1857.                                No. 6.


The Boston Journal has a letter from a correspondent at Leavenworth, Kansas, giving an account of the arrival in that place of a party of one hundred Mormons, who had fled from the tyranny of Brigham Young and the degradations of Mormonism at Salt Lake.

Note: The original text of this early August, 1857 Boston Journal article reads thusly: "Leavenworth, (Kansas,) July 26, 1857. An emigrant train from Utah, consisting of fifteen large wagons and one hundred persons, has just arrived here. They left Great Salt Lake upwards of sixty days ago, and were compelled to travel slowly from the heavy loads brought through by their teams. The train is composed entirely of families; and its members propose to seek homes for themselves in Kansas. They left Utah on account of the tyranny and injustice of the Brigham Young oligarchy. They were all professors of the Mormon faith, but they have seen quite as much as they wish of its practical workings. --- I conversed with several intelligent persons in the train, including some natives of Massachusetts. They found it impossible for men of moderate means to prosper in Utah. In addition to the heavy taxes imposed on them, they were all compelled to devote the labors of every tenth day to the church. One of them stated that he had not spent a week in Salt Lake before he was compelled to pay tithes. --- There was a grand stampede from Utah at the time of their departure. Nearly a thousand people were just leaving the Territory. Four hundred of them started for Oregon in a single train, and several other trains left for the States. It was with great difficulty and some peril that they were able to make their escape. Violent threats were made to them, but their numbers were so large that no concerted measures of violence were adopted to restrain them. My informant states that there were thousands more; who would be glad to leave, but dared not make the attempt. Members of the church who have taken a certain degree called the "endowment" virtually forfeit their lives by endeavoring to leave. There is a determination, they say, that none who have taken that degree shall reach the States alive. --- They estimate the population of the Territory at forty thousand, and that of Salt Lake city at seven thousand. There are many people now restrained by fear who will gladly embrace the opportunity offered by the advent of the "Gentile" Governor and the troops to make their escape from the thraldom of the church. But there are thousands more who are so fanatically devoted to Brigham Young, and have so much faith in his divine mission, that they are ready to lay down their lives for him. These new comers confirm the previous reports that the Mormons are under thorough military discipline, and have been for a long time preparing for conflict with our troops. They have about thirty cannon at Salt Lake city, and in some other localities are well armed and ammunitioned. --- With the institution of polygamy these returning emigrants are so thoroughly disgusted that they have no language strong enough to express their abhorrence. They estimate the relative proportion of the sexes, through the Territory, as about three wives to every husband. --- When they left there were many complaints of a worm at the roots of the wheat, which was destroying the prospects of a crop. They fear that the suffering, almost actual starvation, which existed among many of the poor people last winter may be repeated next season, from the failure of the great staple, wheat. They hold the agricultural resources of Utah in very high estimation, but feel convinced that with its present population they will never be developed. With general irrigation (which is practicable, and is necessitated by the lack of rain) they believe Utah may be made one of the most prolific portions of the continent. --- After disposing of a valuable collection of buffalo and beaver furs which they brought through the emigrants propose to end their wanderings by seeking homes in Southern Kansas, under more just and genial institutions than those they have left behind. The men seem worn and jaded by their long journey; but the women and children look in excellent condition and spirits."


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Tuesday, August 11, 1857.                                No. 9.

U T A H.

The command of Gen. Harney, now on its way to Utah, will be watched with as much expectation and anxiety by the whole country as it will be waited for with interest by the Mormons themselves. Gov. Cumming will speedily follow, if not accompany the troops, along with the other newly-appointed civil representatives of the Government. After the arrival of the army and the Govcernor and suite, the mystery will be decided whether the whole populace of the Territory is bound hand and foot at the feet of the miserable pretender, whose rule has thus far disgraced our common humanity and our common country. Mr. Buchanan has acted in this matter with wise promptitude, and we have no doubt that success will attend his efforts. The Mormon question is one that reaches every heart. Those who care nothing about Kansas, or about a foreign war, or about our Indian difficulties, regard this Mormon question with feelings of angry and impatient solicitude, and he who shall be potent enough to bring order out of chaos and to release the victims of a delusion which has thus far baffled all the ingenuity of our public men, will entitle himself to undying gratitude. At all events, an efficient trial will now be had, and it is to be hoped that by the meeting of Congress it will be known either that this trial has been triumphant, or else that new measures and more stringent ones must be resorted to. In the latter event, the programme of Judge Douglas, in his Springfield speech, will be worthy of primary consideration. Should it be found impossible to eradicate Mormonism by bringing it under the authority of the United States and the rules of civilized life, to secure a fair trial by jury, to protect the lives of our citizens, and to put an end to the system of mysterious massacre that is a part of this Heaven-offending despotism, then it will be high time to decide whether the strong remedy of Judge Douglas shall not be applied, whether the act erecting Utah into a Territory shall not be repealed, and whether those now occupying the soil shall not be declared rebels to the laws and subjected to all the penalties for violating the Constitution and acts of Congress? When a statesman who has been so long identified with States' rights as Judge Douglas, conceives it to be necessary to suggest a remedy like this, the magnitude of the evil which he proposes to abolish may be estimated. But let us fervently hope that the initiatory steps of the President will be of themselves sufficient to tranquilize the public mind on the absorbing subject, and to bring the Mormons under something like subjection to decency and to law.

The Council Bluffs Nonpareil says that a company of returned Mormons are now encamped near that place, and that they intend to make the Bluffs their future home. They have tried the "land of promise," and found promises more plenty than deeds, or at least than good deeds. The fair and cheering promises made to them were all worse than broken, and they were subjected to restrictions more rigid than those of slavery. At the risk of their lives, they made good their escape.

Note: The Press evidently copied the Council Bluffs report from the New-York Daily Times of August 8th.


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, August 22, 1857.                                No. 19.

Brigham Young Preparing to
resist Gen. Harney, etc.

Washington, August 21. -- The Interior Department has received intelligence from reliable gentlemen, and fugitive Mormons, that Brigham Young is preparing to resist General Harney -- that he has relapsed into the grossest infidelity and atheism, and continues to hold up the Government of the United States to the supreme contempt of the Mormons.

Note: Some contemporary versions of this report added the following: "This seems a change from the position of a month ago, and the arrival of Harney with his force may make yet another. --- On the 21th ot August, General Scott was sent for by the War Department, for the purpose of reorganizing the military expedition recently dispatched to Utah. He, with General Jessup, decided that the Utah expedition should proceed to its destination. Dr. Forney, of Pennsylvania, had accepted the post of Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Utah. This completed the appointments for that Territory; The new Territorial officers will assemble at Fort Laramie and accompany the army."



Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, September 17, 1857.                             No. ?

(From the New York Times, of Sept. 12th.)


Arrival of Mormon Elders from Great Salt Lake City --
Four Thousand Mormon Immigrants on the Plains --
A Beautiful Harvest -- The Mormon Temple, &c.

Yesterday we had the pleasure of an interview with Elder Samuel W. Richards, of Utah, who arrived in this city on Thursday evening, after the remarkably short trip of twenty-eight days from Great Salt Lake City. Our dates from Utah by this arrival reach to the 13th of August. Elder Richards left Salt Lake City in company with four others. He was accompanied to this city by only one of the party. Elder George G. Snyder, with whom he is commissioned to visit the Latter-Day Saints in the Atlantic States and in Great Britain. The two Elders purpose remaining in town for a week or ten days, and will then sail for England.

The harvest in Utah this season has been remarkably abundant. All the crops have yielded in larger measure than for some years previously. The Saints were joyful at the cheerful prospects before them. Peace and plenty were with them, and their causes of complaint, according to the statements of Mr. Richards, must be exceedingly slight. Wheat, corn and potatoes, particularly, were full crops, and the harvesting had ended prosperously without adverse weather.

Business was reviving, as the result of a good crop, and mercantile pursuits bore a thrifty air of enterprise.

No alarm existed in Salt Lake City consequence of the march of the United States military forces towards Utah. Authentic or detailed particulars of the movements of the troops had not been received up to the period of the departure of this company; but rumors of the disposition of the Government had come to the ears of the Mormons with a sufficient degree of distinctness to cause them to appreciate the extent of the recent demonstrations. They expressed themselves unable to understand the motives of the Government in despatching a force against them; declared that they had intended no harm to anybody; disclaimed any intention of entering into a conflict, armed or otherwise, and simply asked "to be let alone." It was not apprehended that the troops would find any wrongs to redress, nor was it the Mormon purpose to place obstacles in the way of the performance of their duty. In other words, the most pacific intentions and incli-nations were expressed.

The only Federal officers remaining in Utah, were Drs. Hurt and Armstrong, Indian Agents. The course of Judge Drummond, since his return to the States, appears to have moved the Saints to severe animadversions; they discuss the Judge's antecedents with merciless severity.

The reports of the spread of discontent and disaffection among the Mormons in Salt Lake city are denied with great emphasis. Brigham Young, it appears, has met the rumor by an offer to send all the malcontents out of the Territory in good style, provided with first rate teams and teamsters, and with equipments for the journey over the Plains, provided the Federal Government will send to Utah, in equally good style, all the parties who wish to go there. Brother Brigham says he considers this a "fair offer."

Br. Brigham had returned in excellent health from his Northern trip. His visit was extended to the infant settlement of the Saints at Salmon river, where there are now some forty or fifty persons. This settlement was begun about a year ago. It is in a flourishing condition. The settlers went out from Salt Lake City. Brother Brigham has been holding up their hands and comforting them.

An immigration of four thousand persons was passed on the Plains by Elder Richards' party. This includes the entire immigration of this season. There were eight or ten distinct trains, each under the guidance of its own Elder. All were in good health, first rate spirits, and the parties looked forward to their arrival at Salt Lake with the pleasurable anticipations of people going home. Among them were English, Welch, Danes, Swedes and other nationalities; the Welsh, especially, being strongly represented. The immigrants were passed between Independence Rock and Fort Laramie, and so far as could be judged, the "hand cart" portion of the companies were having the best time -- a fact which will gladden the heart of Brother Brigham. Hand-cart travel over the Plains is one of his great hobbies.

Elder Richards' party also passed a portion of the United States troops between Fort Laramie and Fort Kearney. Mr. Richards came down the North side of the Platte. The troops passed up on the South side. The commanding officer was unknown, nor did Mr. Richards ascertain the exact number of the troops, but he presumed they were the greater portion of the force intended for service in Utah. A number of very heavy freight trains, with twenty-six to seventy-five wagons each, were also passed on the way.

The little party who accompanied Mr. Richards, although but five persons all told, experienced no difficulties with the Indians. They passed the Sioux nation in camp, and encountered several scattered bands of savages, but observed no hostile demonstrations.

Mr. Richards informs us that the work upon the new Mormon Temple in Salt Lake City is progressing favorably. The Saints have laid up the basement story of the edifice in excellent masonry. The work, however, has been delayed this season by the scarcity of workmen, who were in great demand in the harvest field. It is declared by the Saints that this Temple will be a model of architectural beauty -- quite surpassing in its beauties the first one in Nauvoo. Some years must still elapse before its completion, but the Saints are proud of it already.

Just previous to the departure of Elder Richards, there were rumors of Indian disturbances in the immediate vicinity of Salt Lake City. A few days before a company of emigrants, setting out for California, killed an Indian about forty miles from the city, and considerable trouble had been occasioned by the act. On the day Mr. Richards left, it was reported that the Indians were gathering in force to revenge themselves upon the Saints, and an immediate attack was apprehended. The Salt Lake people, however, were fully prepared, and a conflict would be necessarily attended with some serious consequences.

The present Mormon population of Utah is estimated by Elder Richards at 60,000. There have been some fluctuations in the population since the last census, but the arrivals have exceeded the departures. The total population of the Territory, Gentile and Mormon, is 80,000. At the next session of Congress a determined effort will be made by the Mormons for the admission of Utah as a State, and the necessary papers are already prepared.

President John Taylor, of New York, Elder Erastus Snow, and other prominent Mormons, arrived in Salt Lake City on the 8th of August.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia,  Friday, September 25, 1857.                             No. 48.

Additional  News  From  Utah.

Washington, Sept. 23. -- In addition to what is stated in my despatch, the Interior Department has received official information that on the 25th of May, a large Mormon colony took possession of the Valley of Deer Creek, one hundred miles west of Fort Laramie, and drove away a band of Souix Indians, whom the Indian agent, Mr. [Twiss], had settled there in April and induced to plant corn, and which region of country was assigned to them by the treaty of 1850.

The pretext under which these settlements are made, is under a contract with the Mormon Church to carry the mail from Independence to Great Salt Lake City. The number of Mormons who have settled in the valley of Deer Creek is about three hundred. They have plowed and planted two hundred acres of prairie, and are building houses for the accommodation of five hundred persons, and have collected large herds of cattle, horses, and mules. The agent adds: "I am powerless to control this matter. The Mormons obey no laws enacted by Congress."

Note: The above mention of Indian Agent Twiss's report barely summarizes the Mormon attempt at occupying Indian lands. The full letter of July 13, 1857 was published in the Washington Daily Union of Sept. 24, 1857, under the title "Settlements of the Mormons on the Upper Platte." In part, that original article says: "In a communication addressed to the Indian Office, dated April last, I called the attention of the Department to the settlements being made within the boundaries of this agency by the Mormon church, clearly in violation of law, although the pretext or pretence under which these settlements are made is under cover of a contract of the Mormon church to carry the mail from Independence, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City. -- On the 25th of May a large Mormon colony took possession of the valley of Deer Creek, 100 miles west of Fort Laramie, and drove away a band of Sioux Indians whom I had settled there in April and had induced to plant corn.... I am persuaded that the Mormon church intend, by this plea, thus partially developed, to monopolize all of the trade with the Indians whilst within or passing through, the Indian country... I am powerless to control this matter, for the Mormons obey no laws enacted by Congress. I would respectfully request that the President will be pleased to issue such order as, in his wisdom and judgment may seem best, in order to correct the evil complained of...."


Vol. 94.                             Philadelphia,  Thursday, October 1, 1857.                             No. 53.

The  Utah  Expedition --
Important from Utah...

Washington, September 30. -- A letter received today from Fort Kearney, dated September 5th, states that two companies of troops had arrived there that day, on the way to Salt Lake, and that the fifth and tenth regiments of infantry had reached Fort Laramie. Colonel Hoffman had seized five hundred kegs of powder in a Mormon train. Returning Californians informed the writer of the letter that the Mormons were making preparations for the fight, and did not conceal their hostile movements. Elder Kimball, in his sermon in the Tabernacle, at Salt Lake, said he could, with his wives, whip the twenty-five hundred troops, and do a good day's work on the farm in the afternoon. He further remarked that the provisions fot the army would reach the valley, but the troops would never enter Salt Lake City.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 94.                             Philadelphia,  Tuesday, November 17, 1857.                             No. 50.

(From the Sacramento Age.)

Mormon and Indian Alliance.

Yesterday we had an interview with a gentleman from Carson Valley who, from intimacy with Mormon families, has some knowledge of their future designs and plans of operation. If his conclusions be correct, not only the settlers east of the mountains, but even the people of this State will have reason to deprecate the exasperation of those American Bedouins. He says that the Mormons of Carson Valley and San Bernardino have sold their cattle and property for nearly nothing, and, at the bidding of their chief, have repaired to Salt Lake with the secret design of re-organizing, arming, equiping, returning murdering and plundering their Gentile neighbors. They declare that, for every saint slain by the United States troops, ten Gentile women shall make atonement; that they will first exterminate the troops from the east, then come west, and, in predatory bands, allied with Indians, they will ravage the border, rob, plunder and murder, until they shall have replentished the Lord's treasury, and revenged insults put upon his chosen people.

Of their ability to execute this threat, we have but little doubt. At the order of their leader and prophet, they can muster 15,000 men armed with the most effective instruments of destruction. They have many thousands of the finest horses, trained to camp-service; they have a foundry where cannon and shells are cast; a powder mill and a factory, where revolving rifles and pistols are manufactured; equal to those made at Hartford. They have every munition of war and necessary provision and means of transportation, within themselves, and even the women and children are instructed in the use of arms. Add to this their geographical position. To reach Salt Lake, from the east, it is necessary to pass through a canyon of twenty-five miles, under hills so steep and rocky that a dozen men could hurl down an avalanche of stones on an approaching caravan: and even in the event of several thousand troops reaching the valley, the beseiged, with their herds, would take to the mountains, and, reinforced by their savage allies, would, in turn, besiege their besiegers, until the invaders had starved out.

They have, it is said, 20,000 Indian allies, whom they are ready to furnish with arms and horses on an emergency. These Indians are partially instructed in the Mormon religion -- enough to make them superstitious in regard to the God of a superior race, yet modifying none of their ferocity. With allies like these and fighting for their homes, and, according to the belief of the ignorant, under the direct supervision of the God of Battles, and from the ramparts with which nature has surrounded them, it is easy to conceive what would be the fate of a few thousand troops, who travelled a thousand miles to fight their own countrymen, brave as themselves, as well armed, better used to field life, and stimulated by their love of home and family, and assured of victory by the revelations of their prophets.

(From the Alta California, 20th ult.)

Horrible Massacre of Emigrants --
Over One Hundred Persons Killed.

(read original report in Los Angeles paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, November 19, 1857.                           No. 95.




Brigham Young's Proclamation in Full.


WASHINGTON, NOV. 17. -- Col. Johnson's letter, together with Col. Alexander's, was received at the War Department to-day, confirming the destruction of the supply trains; also a letter and proclamation from Brigham Young, which I herewith send you, and Col. Alexander's reply. Col. Alexander was within thirty miles of Fort Bridger, which place is occupied by Mormon troops, when he received the following letter from Brigham Young, through the commander of the "Nauvoo Legion:"

"Great Salt Lake City, Sept. 29,1857.        
"To the Officers Commanding the Forces now invading Utah Territory:

"SIR: By reference to the act of Congress, passed Sept. 9, 1850, organizing the Territory of Utah, you will find the following:

"SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, that the executive power and authority in and over said Territory of Utah shall be vested in a Governor, who shail hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President of the United States. The Governor shall reside within said Territory, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof, &c., &c.

"I am still the Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory, no successor having been appointed and qualified, as provided by law, nor have I been removed by the President of the United States. By virtue of the authority thus vested in me, I have issued and forwarded to you a copy of my proclamation forbidding the entrance of armed forces into the Territory. This you have disregarded. I now further direct that you retire forthwith from the Territory, by the same route you entered. Should you deem this impracticable, and prefer to remain until spring in the vicinity of your present encampment, (Black Fork on Green River, you can do so in peace and unmolested, on condition that you deposit your arms and ammunition with Lewis Robinson, Quartermaster General of the Territory, and leave in the spring as soon as the condition of the roads will permit you to march; and should you fall short of provisions, they can be furnished you upon making proper application therefor.

"General D. H. Wells will forward this, and receive any communication you may have to make.
"Very respectfully,       
"Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs."

The following is the proclamation referred to by Brigham Young:


"CITIZENS OF UTAH -- We are invaded by a hostile force, who are evidently assailing us to accomplish our overthrow and destruction. For the last twenty- five years, we have trusted officials of the Government, from constables and justices to judges, governors, and presidents, only to be scorned, held in derision, insulted, and betrayed. Our houses have been plundered and then burned, our fields laid waste, our principal men butchered while under the pledged faith of the Government for their safety, and our families driven from their homes to find that shelter in the barren wilderness, and that protection among hostile savages, which were denied them in the boasted abodes of Christianity and civilization.

"The Constitution of our common country guaranties unto us all that we do now or have ever claimed. If the constitutional rights which pertain unto us as American citizens were extended to Utah according to the spirit and meaning thereof, and fairly and impartially administered, it is all that we could ask -- all that we have ever asked.

"Our opponents have availed themselves of prejudice existing against us, because of our religious faith, to send out a formidable host to accomplish our destruction. We have had no privilege nor opportunity of defending ourselves from the false, foul, and unjust aspersions against us before the nation. The Government has not condescended to cause an investigating committee or other persons to be sent to inquire into and ascertain the truth, as is customary in such cases. We know those aspersions to be false; but that avails us nothing. We are condemned urthuard, and forced to an issue with an armed mercenary mob; which has been sent against us at the instigation of anonymous letter-writers, ashamed to father the base, slanderous falsehoods which they have given to the public -- of corrupt officials, who have brought false accusations against us to screen themselves in their own infamy, and of hireling priests and howling editors, who prostitute the truth for filthy lucre's sake.

"The issue which has thus been forced upon us compels us to resort to the great first law of self- preservation, and stand in our own defence -- a right guarantied unto us by the genius of the institutions of our country, and upon which the Government is based. Our duty to ourselves, to our families, requires us not to tamely submit to be driven and slain without an attempt to preserve ourselves. Our duty to our country, our holy religion, our God, to freedom and liberty, requires that we should not quietly stand still and see those fetters forging around us which are calculated to enslave and bring us in subjection to an unlawful military despotism, such as can only emanate, in a country of constitutional law, from usurpation, tyranny, and oppression.

"Therefore, I, Brigham Young, Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Utah, in the name of the people of the United States, in the Territory of Utah, forbid,

"First -- All armed forces of every description from coming into this Territory, under any pretence whatever.

"Second -- That all the forces in said Territory hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice to repel any and all such invasions.

"Third -- Martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Territory from and after the publication of this publication; and no person shall be allowed to pass or repass into or through or from this Territory without a permit from the proper officer.

"Given under my hand and seal, at Great Salt Lake City, Territory of Utah, this fifteenth day of September, A, D. eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-second.
"BRIGHAM YOUNG."        

The following is Colonel Alexander's reply to Brigham Young:

October 2, 1857. }        
"BRIGHAM YOUNG, ESQ., Governor of Utah Territory:

"SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of September 29,1857, with two copies of a proclamation and one of the laws of Utah, and have given it an attentive consideration. I am at present the senior and commanding officer of the troops of the United States at this point, and I will submit your letter to the general commanding as soon as he arrives here. In the meantime, I have only to say that these troops are here by the order of the President of the United States, and their farther movements and operations will depend entirely upon orders issued by competent military authority,
               "Very respectfully,                F. B. ALEXANDER."

Among the documents is a letter from Col. Johnson, dated from the camp, on the three wings of the Sweet Water, addressed to Adjutant-General McDowell, New York, in which he confirms the burning of the contractor's trains by the Mormons. He says the Governor's escort is four days' march behind him, with two companies of dragoons. He knows no reason why Col. Alexander should attempt to reach Salt Lake by Bear river, excepting from the fear that the Mormons have burned the grass on the shorter route He adds: "If I could communicate with Col. Alexander I would direct him to take up a good position for the winter at Ham's Fork. The road is beset between this and Ham's Fork with companies of Mormons, so it is doubtful whether I shall be able to communicate with Col. Alexander."

It is supposed at the War Department that the troops are all in good condition, as nothing to the contrary is said in the despatches.

On the receipt of the above despatches a special meeting of the Cabinet was immediately called, but nothing has transpired with reference to their deliberations,

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, December 16, 1857.                         No. 117.

(By papers received by the Star of the West.)






The Sacramento Union, gives a narrative of C. G. Langdon, formerly connected with the United States surveyor's office in Utah. We extract the following:

I was engaged as a clerk in the United States surveyor's office, and witnessed the breaking-up of the United States Court, and, as the Mormons expressed it, the stampede of Uncle Sam's officers, I felt that the crisis had come, the blow had been struck, an insult flung in the face of our Government that could not be calmly borne. I have as yet been disappointed.

Brigham Young had publicly declared that no United States officers should again set their feet into the Valley, and I wished to know the extent of the preparations they were making. I visited the arsenal, found they had a fair display of artillery. I also visited their public and private workshops, saw them casting cannon-shot, and manufacturing grape and canister in great abundance, and some fifty men making Colt's dragoon-size revolvers. Much more information I obtained in regard to the alliance formed between the Mormons and Indians, their plan of attack upon the troops, etc., at least sufficient to make myself a mark to vent their fury upon, and hurl their darts of destruction at, viz. the Danites.

Accordingly, on the 25th day of July, when crossing the street, I was assailed by a party of ruffians, was knocked down and most shamefully beaten with clubs and stones. I was literally cut and bruised and mangled all over my head, face, breast, hands, and arms. I was taken home unconscious, and had it not been for some emigrants there who interposed, I should have been brutally murdered in the streets, and without the least possible chance to defend myself.

All was quiet until the night of the 27th of July; I was disturbed by loud rapping at the back door of the office, (I lived next door,) and also heard voices at ths front door; I heard Mr. Wilson raise the window above and ask what was wanted; he was ordered to come down and deliver himself up under arrest by the authority of Governor Brigham Young. He asked what charge they had against him; "Come down, and we'll d__n soon show you" was the reply.

The next heard was the door being broken open, and the voice of Mr. W. in expostulation with them; the entreaties of his wife, begging for them to spare her husband, mingled with their oaths and obscene expressions, rendered the scene perfectly heart-sickening. I lay almost powerless with the pain of my wounds and conflicting thoughts and emotions, until, suddenly, I was thoroughly aroused by hearing them beneath my window, at the back door. I told my wife not to make a noise, or even cry; she did not cry, but her last words were, "For God's sake, George, fly! Go -- go if you can -- I -- I -- cannot see you murdered! Oh, go! and I will do the best lean to detain them."

I had time to put on a pair of pantaloons and one stocking, when, without any ceremony, the door was burst open, aud a posse of midnight assassins entered below. I motioned to my wife to extinguish the light, which she did; they immediately made a rush for the stairs (expecting, no doubt, that I was preparing for fight, but I could not have killed a mouse then); I stopped and kissed my infant boy, perhaps for the last time on earth -- then barely had time to leap from the window, and in doing so I cut my foot very badly; it seemed the fates were against me; but, suddenly, the thought struck my mind that if I could possibly make my escape, I might probably be the means of saving Wilson, thinking they dare not execute their bloody purpose on one alone, as the other would be too formidable a witness against them; for I thought of my wife and my child; yes, I might yet live to rescue him from the blighting influence of their teachings -- from a life of poverty, ignorance and wretchedness. Thus, with renewed energy,I pursued my way through the corn fields and thickets, bare-footed and bare-headed, and nearly nude; but, at last, I found a friend who relieved me all that lay in his power, by giving me a pair of moccasins and an old hat. Thanks, my friend; may you never want relief.

I was hotly pursued several days. The next morning after I started for California I had the satisfaction of seeing seven of my pursuers, mounted and armed to the teeth, pass me within twenty yards, while I was secreted behind a sage bush; I could not refrain from a smile even then in my critical position, to see their knives and pistols lying to their belts, while I had not even a pen-knife.

I have not yet heard from Salt Lake, and do not know the fate of Wilson. If he escaped with life, it was by being compelled to take oath to support and fight for the Mormon cause. He has, however, sufficient philosophy to know that no such oath would have any force or obligation.

I entertain but little fears for the safety of my wife and child; the Mormons seldom molest or harm a woman, except to coerce her into measures that are sometimes very disagreeable. I rely entirely on the well-known fortitude and firmness of my knife, and do not think I shall be disappointed.

The Los Angeles Star publishes a deposition of Mr. Ellis Eames, in relation to the condition of affairs in Deseret and the late massacre:

We learned from Dr. Dunion, surgeon to Brigham Young's army, that they had taken a vote at Salt Lake City, that if the United States army found its way into Utah, they themselves would burn the city, towns, forts, &c., and lay every habitation in ashes. That they had already picked out secret places in the mountains, to "cache" their provisions, and make their future abode with the Indians. The Doctor stated that arrangements were already entered into that, provided the army should enter the settlements, every city, town, and village in the States of California, Missouri, and Iowa should be immediately burned; that they had men to do this who were not known to be Mormons! And that they would cut off all the emigrant trains, army stores, stock, &c.; that no man, woman, or child should hereafter cross the plains without being scalped! That they depended upon and expected the Indians to perform this infernal and cowardly part of their designs.

After I left the Mormons, I got along peaceably with the, Indians, who are not directly under Mormon influence. I staid at Painter Creek several days, within six miles of the scene of the late horrible massacre, where I joined the company of the United States mail to San Bernardino. While at Painter Creek, I saw some of the Mormons drawing some of the wagons belonging to persons who fell in the late massacre towards Cedar City; they did not explain to me anything of their business, or of their possession of the wagons; seemed very distant and indifferent in their communications. I asked no questions; I wished to avoid suspicion.

After leaving Painter Creek, and arriving at the field of blood, I discovered several bodies that were slain, in a state of nudity and a state of putrefaction. I saw about twenty wolves feasting upon the carcasses of the murdered. I noticed that the women and children were more generally eaten by the wild beasts than the men, Mr. Hunt and his companions often laughed, and made remarks derogatory to decency, and contrary to humanity, upon the persons of those who were there rotting, or had become the food of wild beasts. Although this terrible massacre occurred within six miles of Painter Creek settlement, and thirty from Cedar City, yet it appears that the Mormons are determined to suffer their carcasses to remain uncovered, for their bones to bleach upon the plains.

Brigham made a fiery specch in the "Bowery" at Salt Lake City, on the 13th of September, in which his policy is clearly set forth. We give the material portions:

It is a pretty bold stand for this people to take, to say that they will not be controlled by the corrupt administrators of our General Government. We will be controlled by them, if they will be controlled by the Constitution and laws, but they I will not. Many of them do not care any more about tho Constitution and the laws that they make, than they do about the laws of another nation. That class trample the rights of the people under their feet, while there are also many who would like to honor them. All we have ever asked for is our constitutional rights. We wish the laws of our Government honored, and we have ever honored them, but they are trampled under foot by administrators.

There cannot be a more damnable, dastardly order issued than was issued by tho Administration to this people while they were in an Indian country in 1846. Before we left Nauvoo, not less than two United States Senators came to receive a pledge from us that we would leave the United States, and then while we were doing our best to leave their borders, the poor, low, degraded curses sent a requisition for five hundred of our men to go and fight their battles! That was President Polk, and he is now weltering in hell with old Zachary Taylor, where the present administrators will soor be if they do not repent

Liars have reported that this people have committed treason, and upon their lies the President has ordered out troops to aid in officering this Territory, and if those officers are like many who have previously been sent here, and we have reason to believe that they are, or they would not come, then they know they are not wanted, they are poor, miserable blacklegs, broken-down political hacks, robbers and whoremongers, men that are not fit for civilized society, so they must dragoon them upon us for officers. I feel that I won't bear such cursed treatment, and that is enough to say, for we are just as free as the mountin air.

I had told you that if this people will live their religion, all will be well; and I have told you that if there is any man or woman that is not willing to destroy anything and everything of their propery that would be of use to an enemy if left, I wanted them to go out of the Territory, and I again say so to-day, for when the time comes to burn and lay waste our improvements, if any man undertakes to shield, his he will be sheared down, for "judgment will be laid to the line and righteousness to the plummet." Now the faint-hearted can go in peace, but should that time come, they must not interfere. Before I will suffer what I have in times gone by, there shall not be one building, nor one foot of lumber, nor a stick, nor a tree, nor a particle of grass and hay, that will burn, left in reach of our enemies. I have sworn, if driven to extremity, to utterly lay waste, in the name of Israel's God.

I am ware that you want to know what will be the result of the present movement against us. "Mormonsm" will take an almighty stride into influence and power, while our enemies will sink and become weaker and weaker and be no more, and I know it just as well now as I shall five years hence. The Lord Almighty wants a name and a character, and He will show our enemies that He is God, and that He has set his hand again to gather lsrael, and to try our faith and integrity. And He is saying, "Now, you my children, dare you take a step to promote righteousness in direct and open opposition to the popular feelings of all the wicked in your Government? If you do, I will fight your battles."

Our enemies had better count the cost, for if they continue the job they will want to let it out to sub-contractors before they get half through with it. If they persist in sending troops here, I want the people in the West and in the East to understand that it will not be safe for them to cross the plains.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Monday, February 1, 1858.                                No. 155.


The correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune sends to that paper some of the testimony taken in Chief Justice Eccles' Court in regard to the burning of the United States trains belonging to the Utah expedition. Several witnesses stated explicitly that the plundering parties were under command of Mormons whom they knew personally, and whose names are given, and they also say that these men told them that they were ordered by Brigham Young to burn the trains and cripple the army in every way possible.

A correspondent of the Missouri Republican writes that he was at Nauvoo, and conversed with Mr. Bitoman [sic], who is married to Joe Smith's widow. He says: "I sat at the table with the family, consisting of Mr. Bitoman and wife, and three sons of Joe Smith, the eldest about twenty-three or twenty-four, the second about twenty, the third a lad of some twelve or thirteen years. From Mr. Bitoman I learned that not one of the family believed in Mormonism, and that his wife -- formerly Mrs. Smith -- had always been opposed to them, as well as the boys. - Mrs. Bitoman is a masculine, intelligent-looking lady, of forty-five or forty-seven years. -- She is a native of New York.

Note: The above excerpt from the Republican leaves out several sentences found in the original report. For example: "I was told that Joe Smith prophesied some two years before the young lad was born, that a son was to be born to him, at or about a certain time; that at the time stated his wife did give birth to a son. At that time he also stated that his son's name would be David (not Joe), and that is the name of the lad, for I heard him answer to it. Joe also said that his mantle of greatness and prophecy would fall upon this son and lineal heir, David, who, he stated, would be as wise and powerful as David of old. The fact of the birth of this child, followed according to Joe's prophecy, strengthened the belief that had already so strong a hold upon his followers."


Vol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, March 19, 1858.                                No. 195.


Latest News from Camp Scott.

(From the St. Louis Republican of March 15th.)

Very unexpectedly, Mr. John Hartnett, Secretary of the Territory of Utah, arrived in this city Saturday night, from Camp Scott. He left that post on the 26th of January -- bringing us news from the army two or three weeks later than our direct advices.

At the time he left the entire command was in very comfortable condition, enjoying excellent health, and, considering all things, getting along pleasantly. Only four deaths had occurred since the arrival of the command, and but one officer, Lieut. Smith, United States infantry, was sick. They had plenty to eat, and by a judicious supply of different kinds of food, the scurvy was altogether avoided.

All intercourse between the Mormons of Salt Lake Valley and the troops at Camp Scott ceased after the first of January. It was, however, well established that the Mormons were actively employed in fortifying the most important passes leading to Salt Lake city, and that they intended to offer resistance to the advance of the army upon their city. It is admitted that the canons, fortified and in the possession of determined men, offer very great, if not insurmountable obstacles, to the march of the troops; and it was seriously discussed in camp whether the march upon Salt Lake city should not be made by another route, a hundred miles longer in distance, but presenting fewer obstructions, and those of no serious magnitude. This, it was supposed, would be done as soon as reinforcements, supplies, and particularly animals, could be obtained. Col. Johnston calculated upon receiving this aid by the latter part of May, or first of June. He had ordered the troops at Forts Laramie and Kearney to join him at the earliest possible period this spring, and they will move, it is understood, as soon as forage sufficient for the animals can be obtained.

It is satisfactory to know that the reports which represented that the Indians of that country were in the interest of, and would take sides with, the Mormons, are incorrect. A large party of the Utahs -- two hundred in number of the principal men -- had been in Camp Scott, were well received by the Superintendent, who distributed presents to them, and assurances of peaceful intentions towards the Americans were given. Such was the general tenor of the information obtained from the traders among them. The Cheyennes on the route also professed a desire to be at peace with our people, acknowledging that they had been whipped by them. The Indians were not, however, so peaceably inclined toward each other, and as large numbers of the Cheyennes, Pawnees, and Sioux were in close proximity to each other, near O'Fallon's Bluff, a fight was expected.

The coldest weather experienced at Camp Scott put the mercury 14 degrees below zero at sunrise, but the days were usually warm and dry, and as the camp is favorably located in a valley, and wood was plenty, there was not a great deal of suffering from this cause. At no time had the snow been more than five or six inches deep there. A theatre, under canvas, was one of the most popular sources of amusement for the troops, and it was well attended.

In his progress from Camp Scott, Mr. Hartnetfs party found scarcely any snow until they got to the South Pass. On the south side of that Pass, the snow was from one and a half to three and a half feet deep for thirty miles. The crust of the snow was sufficient to bear the weight of the men, but the pack mules suffered terribly, breaking through the crust, and frequently stumbling and falling down. From that point to Fort Laramie there was no snow, but the weather was exceedingly cold. On the second day out from Laramie, a general thaw commenced, and the road was muddy and full of water until they reached Fort Kearney. There the weather was warm and the road better. Grass may be expected at an earlier period than usual.

No mail had been received at Camp Scott since that of the 1st of October, which went out with Col. Cooke's command. A solitary copy of the Republican found its way into the camp from Fort Laramie, and was in great demand. The mail of November 1st was met at Green river, and would get into camp on the 30th of January; that of the 1st of January was met at the foot of the Rocky Ridge on the 20th February, where they had abandoned their wagons, with the intention of packing their animals through to the South Pass; the mail of the 1st February was met on the 21st, six miles beyond Ash Hollow; and the mail of March four days out from Achison. Those who have correspondence with Camp Scott can, from these figures, see what prospect there is of getting letters to and from that post. Mr Hartnett's party had fifteen mules with them, and their animals, when they could not find dry grass, had to subsist on cottonwood and willow twigs. Mr. H. was accompanied by Messrs. Livingston, John Kerr, R. Carter, Mr. Clark and Peter Rene. Messrs. Livingston and Kerr had in their possession the "express mail" from the army of Utah, which will be opened and distributed at Fort Leavenworth.

About, the time of their arrival at Fort Laramie, Mr. Garey, of the firm of Ward & Garey, suttlers and traders at the Fort, was killed by the explosion of a keg of gunpowder. He was in a wagon at the time, and his body was thrown to a great distance. The accident occurred some distance from the Fort, while he was out on a trading expedition.

The Territorial Government was in rather a passive state at Camp Scott, waiting the move-ments which would take the officers to the seat of Government at Great Salt Lake City. Col. Johnston was very popular with his command, comprising, with the volunteers, some two thousand, three hundred men, and the most friendly relations existed between him and the civil division of the camp.

Notwithstanding the culpable delay of Congress in providing means and money for the troops which have been ordered to the assistance of Col. Johnston, and which, it is admitted, should have been done, the Administration has not been unmindful of its duty in this emergency. In three or four weeks, at least 3,000 troops will be en route from Fort Leavenworth, and every effort will be made to reach Camp Scott in the time indicated by Col. Johnston. But wo be to Congress, if, from their neglect, that succor should fail, and this gallant army be cut off. It is known to be in the contemplation of the Mormons to attack Camp Scott, if a favorable opportunity is given them, before reinforcements can arrive

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, April 3, 1858.                                No. ?

LATER FROM UTAH. -- St. Louis, March 29. -- Six mountain men from Camp Scott had arrived at Leavenworth on foot with pack mules. They left the camp Jan. 26th, and encountered several severe snow storms. They think that the Mormons could easily overcome Col. Johnston's force if they wished.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, April 24, 1858.                                No. ?


There seems to be no reason to doubt that Col. Thomas L. Kane -- a brother of the late Dr. Kane -- left this city early in January, on a mission of peace. -- partly official -- to Salt Lake. Col. Kane will be remembered as the author of a pamphlet published some years ago, in which the Mormons were depicted as an honest and industrious, but maligned and persecuted people. If we remember aright, Col. Kane thought all the charges relative to "spiritual wifehood" and polygamy, mere fabrications.

As Col. Kane is said to have been received with open arms by the first Mormons he met in California, we trust he will be able to convince those deluded people of the necessity either of submitting to the moral code of the country, or else mating up their minds to emigrate to some other region. We have enough sins to answer for already, without allowing Polygamy to be disinterred from the grave where the good sense of the leasing nations of mankind has already laid it. One woman for one man is the great dictate of nature, as shown by the fact; that the numbers of men and women in the world are nearly equal -- and of all monopolies, a monopoly of the women by the wealthier classes of men, would seem to be the most odious and insufferable. Thus, putting aside all high and refined spiritual views of the question, the folly and viciousness of polygamy can be rendered apparent to the commonest understanding.

By no means perhaps can the virtue and happiness of any nation be more surely and lastingly promoted, than by such measures as tend to render every well-behaved man able to support a wife, and anxious to procure one. A man who marries a good wife has by that act added a new link between himself and the virtues -- to industry, to economy, to chastity, to temperance, and to the veneration of the Great Supreme. While as for woman, we read that she was specially created for marriage, as "a help meet for the man." But only one Eve was created for Adam -- not twenty -- and, as we have said, such remains the order of creation to this day, one woman for one man. Anything that transcends that, is not in accordance with the universal harmony that was ordained at the beginning, but is more or less intemperate, "earthly, sensual and devilish."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, May 1, 1858.                                No. ?

MORMON EMIGRATION. -- Quite a large Mormon emigration is now preparing to leave for Utah and their rebellious brethren of that Territory. They cross the Missouri river at Florence, N. T., there stopping a short time to recruit. They are started off in separate trains, under experienced frontier men as captains, accompanied by elders, on their toilsome journey of about 1,000 miles. This year the trains will be large, and move westward as early as the grass will admit of sustaining stock. Their route is what is known as the north of the Platte, an old Mormon trail, opened nearly ten years ago, by Orson Hyde and others.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, June 8, 1858.                               No. ?

{Correspondence of the Phila. Bulletin.}

Fort Leavenworth, K. T.           
May 28, 1858.                   
The troops continue moving from this fort towards Salt Lake City, and it is very evident that the Govemment has resolved to crush out the "relic of barberism" that pollutes the fair soil and clime of Utah. To-day, the fifth column, consisting of two companies of dragoons, one company of a artillery, and three companies of infantry, under the command of Col. Chas. A. May, left here for the seat of war, and an order from Gen. Harney, who has succeeded Gen. Persifor F. Smith, as commander of the expedition, directs the sixth column, composed of two companies of dragoons, two companies of cavalry, and some infantry, to start on the 4th of June. Fresh troops are arriving at the Fort almost every day, and they are being equipped for the march as speedily as possible, though the number leaving here are much less than the arrivals,

It is thought by many that the movement in Utah is a mere feint to attract public attention, while the administration is preparing for a blow at Mexico, under the guise of protection as laid down in Sam Houston's revolution. This may be correct, and will account for the President's anxiety to raise regular troops instead of volunters to carry out the Mormon war. I think, however, that if such were the case, they would not send such a man as Col. May away to Salt Lake, while his services were needed in a more important locality. The Col. may not go far, however, before orders to proceed to Mexico overtake him. Be this as it may, it is evident that Old Buck" is "spoiling for a fight," and intends to try his hand somewhere, Some are contemptible enough to insinuate that the old man, having lived so long without getting a wife, is envious of Brother Brigham's success among the ladies, and takes this mode of venting his rage.

That Young's career in Utah should he arrested, no one will deny: none will attempt to apologize for his crimes and those of his fanatical followers. The cause of morality demands the extermination of this nest of adulterers, and no further time should be wasted in attempts at compromise or windy discussion. It were useless to attempt their reformation -- the only missionaries that can make headway with them are such as wield the sabre and bear the musket. But this question arises in my mind: Are the men the United States are sending there fit champions of order and morality; and will the presence of a body of such men as compose the American army, be likely to bring about a healthier moral state of society than exists under the present Mormon rulers? To both parts of the question, I answer no, unless, indeed the old saw that "an old rogue makes the best jailor," will be verified. Company A, Second Dragoon recruits is a fair specimen of the missionaries that are to reform the Mormons, and the following extract from their morning report of May 26, will show what they are:

"Privates in confinement 49; charges -- stealing 11; drunkenness and disorderly conduct 23; gambling 7; attempt to rob 4; attempt to desert 3; attempt to murder 1. * * * Total 53." Are not these pretty creatures to send out on an errant connected with the moral state of our community? It is a melancholy fact that few, except the lowest dregs of society will enlist in the American army; while on the contrary it might be rendered the most respectable and polished body of soldiers on the globe, without one cent additional expense to the Government. I do not believe there is one private out of every hundred who is not an habitual drunkard, and in this, they have the countenance of Gen. Harney, who "goes in" for Free Whiskey, and admits many violations of military law to go unpunished, where the offender should feel the entire weight of the penalty, from circumstances peculiarly aggravating. My idea is this: Gen. Harney wants to be President. He thinks, by allowing his men to act rowdy with impunity, to obtain the reputation of being a kind-hearted officer -- a character very popular with the masses, and thus increase his prospects for election. But I hope that this ambition of his will be as effectually checked as his efforts to injure Col. Sumner, since he stoops to such low means to cajole and humor the mob. Though I say this, I disclaim any ill-feeling towards Gen. Harney, who has, no doubt, rendered some service of a secondary importance to the nation during his military career.

Rumors prevailed here a few days since that a collision had occurred between the Free State men and the Border Ruffians, but I have since heard it contradicted on good authority, and I hope I may say it is untrue. On the strength of the report, however, a company of the Second Dragoons were ordered under arms to be ready to march at a moment's warning. Thank Heaven they were not called out, as I cannot see how such men could do otherwise than affiliate with their brother ruffians on the Missouri border. May heaven save Kansas from ever needing the protection of Federal bayonets; and may the nation never be reduced to the necessity of having to rely on her regular soldiers for defence. I would rather, were fighting to be done, take five hundred volunteers (such men, for instance, as the Scott Legion of Philadelphia) into the field, than five times the number of regular soldiers. Were you at Fort Leavenworth one week, you would form the same opinion in the case that I have.
                      Yours, etc.,

Note: Leroy R. Hafen's 1958 Mormon Resistance reproduces this relevant extract from the "Diary of Captain John Wolcott Phelps, 4th US Light Artillery": -- "August 24, 1857: Many of the men are exceedingly stupid. They are such, the most of them, as would not be enlisted in the military service of the countries in Europe from which they came. Coming from the old and sophisticated society of the old world, and being naturally defective in intellect, they cannot possibly understand plain simple language and simple acts. Besides this, expecting unlimited freedom when they arrive in America, they are always suspicious that they are being robbed of their dues in this respect, and yield to authority grudgingly. It is impossible to understand them, or be understood by them. They will stand in helpless inactivity in face of a set of harness or a tent, as a piece of mechanism altogether too complicated to be understood or managed without due deliberation and a proper lapse of time. They would sell their best article of clothing for liquor, though they have reflection enough to know that they will suffer from bitter cold in consequence. -- Such are the men that I have had in an American Light Battery that require considerable education during the last seven years. Only one of my eight non-commissioned officers is American. The 10th Infantry does not seem to be much better off in this respect than I am. In fact, as the Mormons are chiefly foreigners, we exhibit to the sun the ridiculous spectacle of an army of foreigners led by American officers going to attack a set of foreigners on American soil. -- The few American soldiers who are found among these foreigners are generally the lowest of all Americans, and are frequently more worthless than the foreigners themselves. Once in a while, however, an American of sense finds his way into the ranks -- I have more now than I have had before for a long time -- and it is a real relief and even a luxury when in the execution of duty to come in contact with them. You find that at least you have a community of ideas with them, that they understand you, and accomplish more in an hour than could be accomplished by the stolid stupidity of the foreigner in the course of a day. Such Americans, however, when they find themselves in the service and discover that it is not so agreeable or tolerable as they had fancied it, think it no harm to desert – so low have American notions become..."


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, June 12, 1858.                                No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- The latest intelligence from Utah would seem to indicate that the Mormons had been "playing possum," as many of us supposed; and that it is very well too much credit was not given to the peaceful tenor of the recent advices. The fourth column of the Utah expedition, under Colonel Morrison, marched on the morning of the 31st. The fifth and sixth columns were in readiness to move, and it was understood that General Harney and staff would take the field about the 10th of June.

Letters from Nebraska Territory, state that companies of Mormon emigrants, composed nearly entirely of men, well armed, are even now constantly on their way to Utah. One account says that the number that will probably cross the plains this season, will be fully equal to the number of troops in the Utah army. If these accounts be correct, it is singular that the Government does not take some steps in the matter. To allow an enemy to be rein-forced, before your very eyes, argues a greater degree of magnanimity than of good policy.

-- Since writing the above, it is stated that the advices to the Government also contain a reference to the report that Gov. Cumming has been driven out of Salt Lake City -- though it is thought probable that the report is based simply upon a return of the Governor to Fort Scott; he having expressed an intention when he left (contrary to the advice of Gen. Johnson) to return in a couple of weeks.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, June 19, 1858.                                No. ?


At last we have official advices from Utah, denoting with almost absolute certainty that there is to be no war. The Mormon leaders, either yielding to what they perceive to be the necessity of the case, or persuaded by arguments of that weighty character which are so often found to be potent in so-called Christian communities, or with a keen eye to their own personal ease, comfort and safety, have advised their followers to abandon the thought of armed resistance, and adopt instead their old policy of emigration. From the tenor of the Governor s despatches, we should suppose that the whole population of Salt Lake City and Utah Territory, with a few exceptions, had either taken their course southward, or else were preparing to do so. But we hardly think it possible that such a can be the case. It is more probable that only the leaders and the more fanatical portion of the Mormon fraternity will emigrate, and that a large number of the more sensible and less zealous will either remain in their own homes, or else gradually return to them after a few months of absence. As to the fierce threats of burning every dwelling in case the troops should attempt to enter Salt Lake City, it does not seem consistent with any general exodus of the peopl -- while, if any large proportion of them should remain behind, it is scarcely probable that they will consume the roofs over their own and children's heads. As a few wild fanatics, however, if unobstructed, might succeed in doing a great deal of mischief with the aid of incendiary’s torch, the Governor probably will have an eye -- and a hand, if necessary -- upon those indulging in such menaces.

Whether the bulk of the Mormons leave Utah, or remain there, is a matter of but little consequence -- so that they resolve, in case of remaining, to submit to the laws, give up their polygamous habits and demean themselves generally as good and peaceful citizens. As a matter of choice, we should of course prefer that the more sensible portion would remain -- but only because we would rather see them act wisely than unwisely, and live happy than unhappy lives.

What portion of the habitable globe is next to be blessed with the presence of Brigham Young and his followers, is a point upon which much curiosity is naturally felt. If Sonora is their chosen place of refuge, do they go at the instance of the Mexican government -- granting that such a thing exists anxious to rear a barrier against further encroachments from the United States; or is Sonora to be merely a stopping place on their route to some island in the Pacific or Indian ocean? Probably a few weeks or months will determine this question. We trust they will take at last the advice so often freely given to them in these columns, and transfer their peculiar political, religious and social doctrines and institutions to some island of the sea, where they may test them at their pleasure, without interfering with the rights and institutions of others.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, June 26, 1858.                                No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- The accounts from Utah continue conflicting. The advices from the Army plainly state their disbelief in the peaceable intentions of the Mormons, and intimate that it is only the women and children who are being sent out of the way, in order that the "fighting men" may have a clear field to resist the troops. Gov. Cumming states, however, that he found the people of Salt Lake City almost entirely unprepared for efficient defence -- and that the stories of fortifications, &c., are groundless. The Administration appears to place greater reliance upon the Governor's statements, than upon those from the Army and the Contractors -- the latter parties being supposed to be bent upon having a fight if possible.

It is stated that arrangements had been made to burn Salt Lake City, at the time Gov. Cumming arrived there -- that large quantities of dry wood had been placed in many houses -- but that better councils ultimately prevailed. The migration southward also had commenced -- and the leading trains were 300 miles down the valley. The Governor's attempts to stop this Mormon exodus proved unavailing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                                   Philadelphia, Friday, July 9, 1858.                                   No. ?

{Correspondence of the Phila. Bulletin.}

June 25, 1858.                   
The sixth column of the forces for Utah left Fort Leavenworth on the 13th inst., after being several times under arms and ready for the march, and when about to move being ordered into camp again. The causes for these delays I do not know, but presume they were prompted by the wisdom of our great military commander, Major Emory, whose forte appears to be a "masterly inactivity." It consists of three companies of Cavalry, three companies of Infantry, and a company of the Second Dragoons, of which latter your correspondent is a member. We have been marching along at the rate of about twelve miles a day, and when it rains we lie idle in camp. You may imagine the great danger that threatens Salt Lake City, when I tell you, that though we are now fourteen days out, we are not yet ninety miles from Fort Leavenworth. I think, if we persevere, that we will arrive in Utah about the time my term of service expires, and that the young Philadelphians who enlisted to have a bout with the Mormons, will have to re-enlist to have their desires gratified. But to us this slow motion is glorious. We breathe the pure, fresh air of Kansas, that braces and invigorates the puny frames of city bred youths, and on fine nights we sleep with the clear canopy of heaven for our covering, and awake in the morning to shake off the dew and feel a heartiness and strength we never could experience in the cooped up streets of a city. 'Tis true we have none of the comforts of civilized life, but then we have few of its evils. I do not deny that we possess what the majority of those who enlist prize as the greatest boon of civilization plenty of intoxicating drink -- and it were useless to attempt to do so. Nearly every house that we have passed since we commenced the march, has had painted over the door in uncouth, straggling letters, that look as though the artist had been paid for his work in the beverage they announce, and received his recompence before the job was completed, the word Whiskey. Whether all the inhabitants of Kansas are dealers in "liquified strychnine" or not, I cannot say, but certainly I have encountered none who were not. As I see no customers, I presume the soldiers, teamsters, &c., who pass through the country, are the principal dependence of the dealers. Shakspeare says that "all the world's a stage," and a writer on Kansas might say that all the inhabitants of the Territory are rumsellers.

We have not yet met with anything of particular interest, and the only thing that enlivens the monotony of our life is the occasional flogging of a poor devil for some offence against military law, and the pursuit, generally fruitless, of a deserter who has grown tired of "the pomp and circumstance of glorious war" three buscuits and a piece of fat pork a day. I saw two poor fellows flogged a few days since. A stout bugler laid the lashes on, and at every blow the blood spurted until their backs were mangled masses of blood and lacerated flesh. The victims writhed beneath the infliction but the others looked on in calm, stoical indifference, though a very slight offence would render them liable to the same punishment. Yesterday, one of our company deserted, in a manner, the cool baldness of which was admirable. Orders had been given to allow no one to leave the camp; yet, in open day, he put on his sabre, shouldered his rifle, strapped his great coat and blanket on his back, and walked away in the presence of the Commander of our company, who was too much astonished at his daring to stop him, or give the necessary orders to his subordinates. He was pursued, but a few minutes walk from the camp was a woods in which he concealed himself, and thus escaped. Desertions are quite frequent. Of seventy-seven men who left Carlisle Barracks in our company on the 4th of May, only fifty-nine remain; and of these, three are captured deserters. Many of these deserters were ruthless rowdies, but some of them were the best men in the company. The cause of this I cannot satisfactorily explain, as our company Commander is a good man and kind to his soldiers. You cannot imagine how uncomfortable a soldier is when it rains, and he cannot lie out upon the prairie. Fifteen men, with their saddles, valises, great-coats, blankets, sabres, rifles, horse accoutrements, are huddled together into a small tent, into which you could not introduce a good sized double bed, and there they lie, disposed the best manner they can invent. Our saddles serve us as seats during the day, and pillows at night, and I am using mine now for a writing table, while a party of wild, reckless Dragoons are playing cards, smoking, swearing, and drinking whiskey on all sides of me. How would you like to write a leader for the Bulletin under such circumstances? But you must not suppose we have no fun, or are destitute of men who can appreciate humor. We have a theatre in our company, and last night we had "an original drama," of which the following will give you some idea. An American soldier is met by a cadaverous looking individual, surrounded by a band of dirty white men and dirtier Indians. The latter exclaims:
"These are the Mormons, brave and strong;
And, Yankee, I am Brigham Young."
Pointing triumphantly to his motIey followers, the Yankee replies:
"Come on, ye dogs, and don't be shy,
For I'll be darned if e'er I fly
As Fitz James did to Roderick Dhu,
So Brigham, I reply to you:
Although in all this prairie land
There is no rock 'gainst which to stand,
Come one, come all, this rock shall fly
From its firm base as soon as I."
And thus the play goes on, until Brigham is brought to the ground, and the Yankee stalks triumphantly to his tent. The bill announcing this play attached the character of Brigham to John H. Gould, R and that of the Yankee to Frank Clinton, both members of our company, and they "sustained the characters admirably," of course, (I was a "dead head") and were greated with applause that would have cheered the heart of an actor, who was not rich enough to buy the support of your Sunday papers and its crowd of backers. Gen. Harney passed us three days ago en route for the seat of war, and, I presume, is making rapid progress. He was accompanied by a pretty strong escort, and is said to have declared that he had orders to bring old Brigham to terms, or knock the city about his ears. For my part, I continue in the belief that the United States do not want to punish Young at all.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Philadelphia, Saturday, July 17, 1858.                               No. ?

{Correspondence of the Phila. Bulletin.}

July 2, 1858.                   
Slow as the sixth column has marched, since it left Fort Leavenworth, it came up to the fifth column, day before yesterday encamped at this place [Big Blue, Nebraska Territory], and here both columns lie, awaiting further orders, I believe. We are satisfied, however to remain here some time, as the country is the most glorious one can wish for. We are encamped on a level spot, amid tall grass, that makes a most excellent resting place; near us runs the Big Blue, the banks, of which are covered with trees, and clear, sparkling water bubbles from the solid rock at every few hundred yards, The prairie is not one dull, level plain, but hundreds of acres of tall grass, and stony patches of nearly the same extent, deep ravines and strips of woodland are interspersed, so that the New Hampshire man is reminded of his own granite State, where they shoot the corn between the stones with a gun, and the Pennsylvanian of the tall pines and sturdy oaks and pure air and water of his native Alleghenics, all amidst the roses and luxurious herbage of the Western plains. A soldier's life is far from being a pleasant one, taken in the whole, but then the joys of an encampment on a spot like this repays months of toil and privation.

Since we came here we have had plenty of food for excitement. The first night of our encampment Lieutenant Magruder, a young officer attached to our company, was shot and instantly killed by a resident of Palmetto, a little village about one mile from our camp. There are two different stories afloat in regard to this affair. One is that a settler had cheated a drunken soldier out of his blanket, and that Lieut. Magruder had made an effort to take it from the swindler. This so exasperated the man that he way-laid the officer on his return home, and shot him. This is the story of Magruder's friends. The other and by far the most likely one, is not nearly so credilable to the officer. If it be correct, as is generally believed among men in the camp, the man that killed him would have been justified even by a Philadelphia jury.

The day after his death his remains were interred with the military honors due to his rank. We dug him a grave upon the prairie, a rough board coffin was constructed, and he was carried to his grave in a commissary wagon drawn by four mules, the entire column joining in the procession. A pile of stones amid the tall grass marks his resting place, and soon that pile will be all that will remind us of a man who might have been of service to his country, but would not.

But death did not stop here. Scarcely had we buried him, when a wagon master belonging to our column shot a teamster, for some trivial offence. Major Emory issued an order for his arrest, but as that worthy is noted for his aversion to rapid movements, the wagon master was far beyond his reach when the authority to apprehend him was given. There are stories of other murders in circulation, but these are the only two that have taken place.

There is it rumor in camp to-day that the cavalry and infantry belonging to our cornmand are to be ordered back to Fort Leavenworth, and that the company of dragoons will proceed to Utah, where their regiment is stationed. How much truth there is in this report, or whether there is any at all, I cannot say, but I should not be surprised if it were correct. The circumstances of the Fifth Column lying here so long, looks as though nothing serious was intended against Utah, and that the affair was a sham, got up to cover some other purpose.

May not this concentration of forces here be for the purpose of having them near at hand in case they should be needed to crush out "abolitionism" in Kansas, without subjecting the government to the accusation of keeping a large armed force in that territory? To me it is explicable. The Mormons were in April last declared to be in open rebellion against the government of the United States by the Proclamation of the President; troops have been sent from the States to punish them, and the two largest columns have as yet got no further than the Big Blue, one hundred and twenty miles from Fort Leavenworth. This is certainly a very singular mode of enforcing the laws, and reminds one of the Chinese astonishment when the British did not fly at the sound of their gongs. If the President wishes to crush out rebellion in Utah, why does he not do it? If he wishes to let Brigham and his saints continue in their course, let him be a man and say so. One thing is quite certain, if the young men who compose our column are led by energetic officers and employed to enforce the laws, the rebellion in Utah, that sore upon our nation, will soon be removed, and Brigham and his men will serve as warnings to those who may hereafter feel disposed to resist our national authority.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, July 17, 1858.                                No. ?


We have been rather astonished of late, at seeing intimations in various quarters, that the settlement of the Mormon difficulty -- if it be settled, which is more than doubtful -- was the work of our fellow citizen, Col. Kane; and that his success as a volunteer ambassador, proved the folly of going to the expense of sending regular officials, with an army at their back, to coerce the rebellious "saints" into submission.

Now while we are willing to give all due credit to Col. Kane for his efforts to bring the Mormons to their senses, and trust that said -- efforts have had their reasonable effect, we cannot admit, without more proof than we have yet seen, that the real and potent negotiators in the matter were not the force of between two and three thousand men, who were only awaiting the arrival of their supplies to march to Salt Lake City, whether Brigham Young bade them welcome or not.

We apprehend that neither the eloquence of Gov. Cumming or of Col. Kane would have produced much effect -- "charmed they never so wisely" -- had it not been for the presence of Gen. Johnston and his command at Camp Scott. And therefore we are far from thinking the action unwise which ordered that force to Utah, or the money wasted which was necessary to meet the expenses of its march. Neither are we able to perceive the wisdom of the counsel which would arrest the onward progress of Gen. Johnston to Salt Lake City, and make of the whole proceeding a farce equal to that described in the old couplet --
"The King of France, with forty thousand men,
Marched up the hill -- and then marched down again!''
It was the general understanding of the country that the army was sent to Utah for the purpose of re-establishing the overthrown authority of the United States, and to uphold the decrees of the judicial power in any matter that might legally arise, touching the reprehensible practice of polygamy. The general feeling of the country, without regard to party lines, was understood to be with the Government in this matter. If the two ends alluded to are not accomplished, the expedition, in the general apprehension, will be a failure, and the millions it has cost be considered wasted. That this common-sense view of the matter is taken by the President and his constitutional advisers, we judge from a recent article in the Washington Union, the most important parts of which we here append: --
The march of the army into Utah was for the purpose of restoring the supremacy of the laws of the United States in that portion of the domain of the United States, and not for the purpose of making war upon the Mormons, or any other persons whatever, who, as good citizens, should obey the laws. So far, this object of the President has been accomplished without the shedding of a drop of blood, and it Is hoped and believed that it will be entirely accomplished without a single act of collision or violence to a single individual.

But the duty of maintaining and enforcing the execution of the laws being imperative upon the President, and his right and discretion to dispose of the army as he may deem best for this purpose in the territories of the Union being unrestricted, no individual or set of individuals has a right to resist or complain of any allocation which he may make of the troops of the United States in the territories, so long as at is done in the discreet execution of this duty, and without intentional oppression or violence to their inhabitants.  *  *  *

The formidable military power that he marched into Utah was the peace-maker -- the sole peace-maker, which calmed the noisy turbulence of the Mormon leaders, and impelled their. emigration from Salt Lake City. It may suit the purpose of partisan agitators to represent the hegira as a stipulation of Young with Col. Kane, upon a pledge that the army should remain immured in the bleak and barren fastnesses of the mountains where it was, but the pretence is too preposterous even for partisan credulity. No person in Utah, official or un-official, has, or ever has had, authority from the President to limit his constitutional power to dispose of the army wherever his duty to the laws and to the public service require; and we venture to affirm that this point has been expressly and zealously protected in all instructions that have been issued in regard to Utah.  *  *  *

If Col. Kane has made any pledge of the sort, it was wholly unauthorized and inadmissible. The mission of Col. Kane was purely personal and individual -- made at his own impulse and on his own responsibility. He was a personal acquaintance of the President, and possessed his esteem, and hence, we believe, took with him letters of introduction to officers of the army from Mr. Buchanan as from an individual.

But he went neither as agent of the President nor an officer of the Government; neither as secret agent nor as public officer; but simply on an individual, self-imposed mission, as a private citizen, philanthropist, well-wisher of the Mormons, or what you will. He took no message from the President, other than the President had publicly announced, in regard to the Mormons; and whatever assurances he may have given the Mormon leaders of the pacific intentions of the President, were such as were publicly advertised by the President in his official proclamation -- such as any other person from the States might have given the Mormons with equal confidence.

It is, therefore, the boldest pretension in the world to magnify any conferences that may have occurred between Col. Kane and Brigham Young into pledges, of the dignity of treaties, between great, equal and contending powers, in order to convert the march of an American army, upon American soil, under the orders of an American President, into an infamous and outrageous proceeding.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, July 24, 1858.                                No. ?


Letters to the War Department from the Peace Commissioners, state that the difficulties with the Mormons are at last settled. They write: --

"We are informed by the people and chief, men of the territory, that they will cheerfully yield obedience to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. They cheerfully consent that the civil officers of the Territory shall enter upon the discharge of their respective duties. They will make no resistance to the army of the United States in its march to the valley of Salt Lake or elsewhere. We have their assurance that no resistance will be made to the officers, civil or military, of the United States, in the exercise of their various functions in the Territory of Utah.

The people have abandoned all the settlements north of this, and all the families have left the city, only about fifteen hundred (?) persons remaining here to take charge of the property, and to burn it if the difficulties had not been settled. The people from this city and north of it have gone south to Provo, fifty miles south of this, and to points beyond. We will visit Provo and the settlements south in a day or two, and see and confer with the people, and inform them that the difficulties have been settled, and thus induce them to return to their homes.

We have written General Johnston by the messenger that will bear this, informing him of what had been done, and that he could march his army to the valley whenever he desired to do so. We intend to remain and visit the people and converse with them until Gen. Johnston's army arrives. We think it important that we remain until the army is located in the valley.

At the recommendation of the Commissioners, who said that some fears were still entertained by the Mormons in relation to the army, Gen. Johnston had published a proclamation assuring "those citizens of the Territory who apprehended from the army ill treatment, that no person whatever would be in anywise interfered with or molested in his person or rights, or in the peaceful pursuit of his avocation; and should protection be needed, that they would find the army always faithful to the obligations of duty, as ready now to assist and protect them as it was to oppose them while it was believed they were resisting the laws of their Government.''

We see nothing in the official letters, calculated to sustain the telegraphic announcement from St. Louis, that the Peace Commissioners had agreed that "all the houses in the city should be closed against both civil officers and strangers, excepting the Governor and his family; and that everybody else would be obliged to sleep in wagons or on the ground." If they have made any such arrangement, it is a very curious one. Of course neither the officers of the Territory, nor strangers, could expect to enter the houses of the inhabitants against their will -- but, if any of the inhabitants chose to entertain them, ''for a consideration,'' it would be absurd and tyrannical to say that they should not be allowed to do so. We take it for granted, however, that no such agreement was entered into -- because neither party had power to enforce its terms.

Now that the Mormons, in view of the opening of a Spring campaign, have come to their senses a little, we trust that affairs will be managed somewhat better than they have been heretofore. ''The snake is scotched not killed" -- by any manner of means. A military force, large enough to look down all opposition, should be kept permanently in Utah, until the Mormon portion of the population is largely outnumbered by the "gentiles." The "rod" of Brigham Young and his priesthood, so far as it is attempted to be used in civil matters, should be effectually broken. If the laws already in force are not sufficient, Congressional intervention should be sought -- either through Senator Douglas's plan of revoking the territorial organization, or some other -- and Polygamy effectually repressed, either by due course of law, or by the exodus of those having more than one wife from the territory, with all the "wives" that choose to go with them. We cannot pretend to make the Mormons give up their Polygamy, we can only say that they shall not introduce and legalize such an institution upon American soil. But doubtless all these considerations have occurred to the Administration, who will hardly allow a matter to drop from their hands half completed, which they have carried through so far with success. To do so, would simply be purchasing a little hollow peace now at the cost of leaving a serious root of bitterness to succeeding administrations. A great expense has been gone to by the country in sending an army to Utah -- let not the work have to be done over again, in some five or ten years.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                             Philadelphia, Saturday, August 23, 1858.                             No. 113.

From Utah -- Letter from a Dragoon.

{Correspondence of the Phila. Bulletin.}

Fort Kearney, July 21st, 1858. -- The Sixth Column arrived here to-day, at two o'clock, having accomplished the journey from Fort Leavenworth to this place, adistance of about two hundred and ninety miles, in thirty-nine days. This is an evidence of what Uncle Sam can do when he tries, and is a performance of which our military men may well be proud. For the purpose of crushing a rebellion, we actually marched, with good roadsand fair weather, something more than seven miles a day! and beaten the fifth column at that. The latter are camped in the rear of the Fort, and we are on the outside of it. To-morrow they march on, and we remain here until they are thirty-miles ahead, when we will follow.

Fort Kearney is situated on a gentle rise on the prairies, about two miles from the Platte River. It is an insignificant post, there being but two respectable buildings, and they would not accomodate three hundred men. These, with some tumble-down shanties, and a few such huts, constitute the "Fort." The country around is very pleasant, and the elevation on which the Fort is built, permits the fresh air of the prairie to fan unobstructed the sun-embrowned checks of the soldiers. Did I wish to be stationed at a post, I would choose Fort Kearney in preference to any I have seen yet.

There are four or five thousand Indians about the Fort, Pawnees and Cheyennes, awaiting the arrival of the Indian Agent, to give them the goods, &c., allowed to them by the Government. We passed through the Pawnee camp this morning, and had a fair opportunity of seeing the "Poor Indian." They are now returning the compliment, and about a hundred and fifty of them are running through our camp, exhibiting their skill at archery "for a consideration," begging, selling moccasins, &c., &c. The Pawnees are not calculated to give a very elevated idea of the Indian character. They are naked, except a cloth about the loins, and are most disgustingly dirty. They are inveterate beggars, continually asking for bread, meat, money, whiskey and old clothes. Of the first two we have scarcely enough for ourselves; of the third none at all; the majority of our men would part with their soul's salvation rather than their whiskey; and as for clothes, were we to part with those that are we would be in a worse condition than the Pawnees themselves are. So you will perceive that they do not make much of us. If these naked, half-starved wretches are specimens of the race who once owned this great continent, I see no cause to grieve, that they were dispossessed of it. They are, with all their filthiness, very vain, and as I write, some six or seven of them are looking on. Could they but read my remarks, would there not be dark frowns and angry mutterings?

On Saturday last, the three companies of cavalry that left Fort Leavenworth with the sixth column, marched in the direction of Fort Riley, the Indians in the neighborhood of that post having become somewhat troublesome. This, with some other changes, reduced the forces composing the column to two companies of infantry and a company of the second dragoons. With the cavalry went Major Emory, the distinguished and energetic officer of whom I have heretofore spoken, and we are now commanded by Brevet Major Gabriel H. Paul, Captain of Company I, Seventh Infantry, under whom, I hope, we will make somewhat more rapid progress towards Salt Lake. I was not in the least anxious to reach that place until we received intelligence of the restoration of tranquility, but now that there is no danger threatening us, I wish our marching was over. And I believe that, had Major Emory been aware of Brigham's intention to "knock under," he would have pushed on boldly towards the "seat of war." I do not, by any means, impeach the Major's bravery, but then, you know, "discretion is the better part of valor," and, as somebody says,
"He who bobs the bullets sent
May live to run for President."
Since Emory left us we have done better marching than formerly. On Monday we marched sixteen miles, twenty yesterday, and twelve to-day. This is light marching for mounted men, but I pitied the poor Infantry men as they toiled on through the sun over the hard ground, foot sore and dusty, carrying their heavy muskets on their shoulders. We walk some ourselves, but it is not more than enough to straighten our limbs after riding an hour or two. Our officers have to walk with us, and they will not do that more than absolutely necessary, as many a day we, too, would wish ourselves anything else than soldiers, as I often hear the Infantry express themselves on coming into camp. While their men trudge along on foot, the infantry officers ride in front of them and seem to expect them to keep pace with the horses. This they would have to do were it not for one honorable exception -- Lieutenant Bootes -- who always walks with his men, saying that it gives the men better spirits to see their officers marching with them. Lieutenant Bootes served as a private soldier in the Mexican war, and was commissioned for his bravery and good conduct.

Last night we camped on the Platte river, where it runs through a low level prairie. It is a wide, shallow stream, and the banks are very low, scarcely two feet high at the place where we camped. Although over half a mile wide, we did not see the river until we were within thirty yards of it, the land around being lower than the banks. A rise of two feet in the river would deluge the country for miles around. I enjoyed a bath in its waters. Although a mountain stream it is not cold, -- in fact, it is tepid, and you have no chilling sensations on plunging into it, even though you be drenched with sweat. I wish some of the poor devils who are employed in the task of "getting up" a daily paper could take a tour to Fort Kearney at this season of the year. It would cause them to dream of Paradise for months after their return to the dungeon walls of a newspaper office. You may imagine yourself "better off" than we are, but I would not exchange with you -- notwithstanding all the "glory" and "honor" of speaking to and for the people - if you were to offer me the Bulletin office "to boot."

Imagine, if you can in your dismal "sanctum," how glorious it is to be a
"Warrior taking his rest
With his martial cloak around him."
with no other covering save the star-spangled canopy of Heaven. And then how happy we are when we spring up at the first note of the reveille -- which sounds at three o'clock, A.M. -- put on our arms and fall in for roll call. Whew! the very thought must be exhilirating.

Now that the "war" is over, our company is to march on to Salt Lake City, where we will be quartered for the winter, the remainder of our regiment being there now. I presume we will have a "good time" in Mormondom good quarters, plenty to eat, and nothing to do except to attend to our horses and make love to the maidens of that far famed land. The latter, you know, is part of a soldier's duty.

As we are about entering the Indian country, I hope to be able to pick up some interesting items, and if we happen to have a skirmish with the redskins on the route, you may expect full particulars by the first express that leaves camp, unless an arrow or a bullet should bring to a sudden close the career of one of the many who went out to fight the Mormons (but didn't get a chance) in

P.S. 22d ult. While my letter was waiting for an express, an opportunity of seeing an Indian fight presented itself. The Pawnees were moving their camp to-day, and the Cheyennes taking advantage of the confusion attempted to stampede the ponies of the former. In so doing they killed two Pawnees' squaws, one of whom uttered a "death yell" that aroused here entire tribes, and soon the cry of vengeance resounded all around. I was in the Pawnee camp at the time, and the rapidity with which the warriors rushed in, seized their arms, and "dashed to the flag" was astonishing. In a few moments the whole tribe were upon the cowardly Cheyennes who yelled [defiance] and prepared for battle. I mounted my horse and rode to the battle field, just as the Pawnees darted upon their foes. The struggle lasted but a few moments when the Cheyennes broke and fled towards the Fort for protection. The exasperated Pawnees pursued them, and would have wrought summary vengeance upon the cowardly butchers of their women had not the troops interfered and put an end to the fight. The Cheyennes lost some eight or ten killed, and nearly an hundred wounded. Only one of the Pawnees was slain -- a brave young warrior, a son of the chief of the tribe. Our company were paraded in "order of battle," but we were not required to take a part in the proceedings. I had no idea that the miserable looking Pawnees were possessed of so much bravery and skill as they displayed on this occasion, and am inclined to pardon their vanity which appears so ridiculous when we see their every day appearance. The parties have [agreed] to remain neutral until they have returned to their own hunting grounds.

Gen. Harney arrived here to-day on his way back to civilization.

A Great Indian Battle -- Twenty-four Indians
Killed and Several Wounded.

{From the St. Joseph Journal, 16th.}

Early in the afternoon of Saturday, 14th inst., Conductor A. Burnes arrived in this city with the mail, direct from Utah. The mail left Salt Lake City on the 24th of July. The news is unimportant. All of the Mormons who were able had returned from Provo. A number were left who were too poor to get away. Brigham Young had shut himself up in his residence, and a strong Mormon guard was stationed around it both night and day. He was afraid of being assassinated by his own people.

It has been very seasonable in Utah. Small grain looked well. Vegetables were plenty, but sold at a very high price. Gen. Johnston is going to break uphis present encampment, remove a short distance and fix for winter quarters.

Col. Hoffman had not received his instructions, and was still at Fort Bridger when the mail passed. Some of Perry's trains were met crossing the mountains. The returning volunteers were overtaken and passed at Fort Bridger. Maj. Eastman's command was met at Sweetwater. Heavy rains had fallen between Cottonwood Springs and Fort Kearny.

Plum Creek was past fording, and it was with great difficulty that the mail party succeded in crossing.

A band of seven hundred Pawnee Indians who had been run from the hunting grounds by the Camanches, Cheyennes and Arappahoes, were seen on the Big Blue. The Pawnees had fought the three tribes a running fight of six days duration. The Pawnees in the engagement had four warriors, two squaws and one papoose killed, and several wounded, but they succeeded in killing fifteen Cheyennes and two Arappahoes and wounding several others. They came on with the mail as far as the Little Blue, where they encamped.

Large bands of buffalo were seen by the mail party, between Cottonwood Springs and Plum Creek. Mr. Fillmore, the correspondent of the New York Herald, Mr. Swiney, leader of the band for the 7th Infantry, Mr. Noe of Indianapolis, Ind., and Mr. Bunch, of Weston, Mo., came passengers.

Note: See the front page of the New-York Daily Times of Aug. 23rd for a report on the "Indian battle."


Vol. XII.                             Philadelphia, Saturday, September 4, 1858.                             No. ?

Letter from a Dragoon.

{Correspondence of the Phila. Bulletin.}

Ash Hollow, Nebraska Territory, Aug. 5. -- Since we have received definite news of the settlement of the mon difficulty, the Sixth column has moved at a greatly accelerated pace. We left Fort Kearney on the 24th ult., and since then have "made" from sixteen to twenty miles per day. On the second day out we met the Peace Commissioners returning, and they gave us the joyful intelligence that there was no fighting to be done. They were escorted by half a dozen dragoons, and had made the journey so far without meeting with any difficulty, the Indians being at this season of the year in the buffalo country, preparing for the necessities of Winter. I was near Major Paul when he received the news, and saw his eye kindle and his cheek glow with pleasure at the information; and I feel confident that there was not a single epauletted coat that did not at that moment cover a lighter heart than it had since the march commenced. I have always disclaimed making any charge of poltroony against our officers, and still do, -- attributing their actions entirely to that "rascally virtue" excessive prudence. But their joy was of short duration, for, like thunder from a cloudless sky, came the doleful news of Col. Steptoe's defeat by the Snake River Indians, and the semi-official statement of the New York Herald that "a large portion of the troops originally intended for Utah would be marched to the new scene of war." I am inclined to think that our present rapid marching is to get far enough ahead to prevent the express from overtaking us before it is too late to commence the campaign this Winter, and then "Peace Commissioners," money, blankets, trinkets, etc., may settle the matter before Summer sets in. Verily, Barnum's Museum and the White House at Washington were great humbugs in their day, but West Point and the Army Headquarters overshadow their glory entirely.

For the last few days we have been travelling through the country of the Sioux Indians. They are much superior to the stunted Pawnees, upon whom they look with sovereign contempt. The men are tall, erect, and well formed; the women are generally good looking, and they are all pretty flashily dressed. Soldier's clothes and feathers appear to command a premium, and many of our men disposed of old jackets and "tar-bucket" hats -- the old uniform pattern -- for buffalo robes, moccasins, and other articles of Indian manufacture, to their own benefit, and the pleasure of our copper-colored cousins. I visited a camp composed of about two hundred wigwams, and had quite a "talk" with some of the men who could speak English. They were cordial and friendly, and expressed great respect for Uncle Sam, and kindly feelings towards his soldiery. While in the midst of a social conversation, during which the red pipe passed freely around, I whiffing with the redskins, we were startled by a sudden uproar in another part of the camp. I recognized the voices of some of our company, and ran to see the cause of the disturbance. On reaching the scene of confusion, I found four dragoons beating an Indian, and about fifty of the Sioux endeavoring to pull them away. Calling up some of our men, who was sober enough to do what was fair, we separated the combatants, and then let the soldiers fight the Indian one at a time, and that night there were four as well thumped men in our camp as ever were met with after a bruising match in the prize-ring. The fair play showed to the red skin in this matter, so pleased our Indian brethren than we could scarce get away from them in time to answer our names at retreat or roll-call. The wigwams of the Sioux are well furnished, and everything is kept scrupulously neat and clean -- the accommodations and comforts being far superior to those Uncle Sam allows his soldiers, who labor so hard to protect his youthful Territories and unfledged States. Were they at the present time, to become troublesome, the United States would have a hard foe to handle, as they are all well armed, and skilled in the use of weapons, and their black eyes and firm lips tell of courage and determination. But they are peaceable, and if fairly treated will long remain so, though I think any attempt to infringe upon their rights would cause the war cry to ring from the Platte River to the Canada lines.

We have encamped upon the Platte river every night since we left Fort Kearney, and have generally met with good grass, so that our horses have fared very well. Wood, however, is very scarce, and we have been compelled to use "Buffalo chips" to cook our food. When we get into camp and pitch our tents, the order "Every man for Buffalo chips" is given, and away we go to collect that, to many of us, novel fuel. Some carry it in by armfuls, others take their blankets and fill them with it, while others again take a wagon, man it and drag it over the prairie till it is loaded, and then with cheers and yells, run it into camp. These "Buffalo chips" make excellent "fire-wood," and when we can obtain a little cedar or cottonwood to mix with them, they make a much warmer fire than the best hickory or oak of Pennsylvania. To be sure we cannot make "ash-cakes" of our flour, when we use this prairie firewood, but then we find it far superior to any other fuel for the purpose of baking "flap-jacks," so we put the best face on the matter we can, and declare that the former are "nowhere" when the latter are on hand. But when we can neither obtain wood or buffalo chips, you will think we are hard put to, and there you would be right. For two days we were thus situated, and had to subsist on hard bread, raw pork and river water, the latter the best of the three, and the only article of which we had as much as we wanted. But we must "get used" to hard times, and I presume before many of us are free again we will often have to follow this semi-starvation mode of living, or starve outright. However, we have taken our chance, and must await the revolution of the wheel, and though we may starve the glory remains -- to be reaped by lazy cadets and epauletted cowards.

A word for "Ash Hollow." Ash Hollow is one of the meanest, most contemptible pieces of work that Nature has attempted in this part of creation. If ugliness be picturesque, then Ash Hollow is picturesque, and vice versa. The hills of fine sand rise on the South bank of the Platte, and between them Ash Hollow lies. It is destitute of herbage or shrubbery, and as far as the eye can reach there is nothing but sand and water. The sand rises here and there in little hills, and when the wind blows it drives the light sand in every direction. There is nothing interesting in it everything is dull and lifeless. Yet here we must pass the night -- must spread our blankets upon the sand and take whatever comes. Uninteresting as it is, there is a shanty away up towards its western extremity where an enterprising individual sells tobacco, cigars and whiskey at astonishing prices, and by the way our boys rush up to his establishment, I judge he is doing a brisk business. But we have marched twenty-five miles to-day, and I am tired and sleepy, so, I think, I will close my letter, and leave it at the aforementioned shanty, as long before he wakes to-morrow morning, we will have started again for

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                                 Philadelphia, Tuesday, September 7, 1858.                                No. 32.

The  Utah  Territorial  Election.


(From the New York Daily Times.)

Great Salt Lake City, U. T.            
Saturday, Aug. 7, 1858.            
The election for Territorial and county officers, which was held throughout the Territory on Monday last, passed off, as far as we are able to learn, very quietly and peaceably.

In this city, although there was, for the first time since its foundation, votes cast in opposition to the nominees of the Church, yet it created no disturbance and but little excitement.

The Mormon leaders, perfectly satisfied that we could not carry the day, did not trouble themselves farther than to order all of their subjects to vote; in consequence of this order, however, the vote polled this year far exceeds that generally cast in the city.

The highest number of votes on the Union or "Gentile" ticket, for any one person, was 37. The highest number of votes cast was 1,056. Those on the Church ticket who received this vote being voted for also by the "Gentiles."

The following are the members of the Legislature elected in this county on Monday last, and the vost cast for each, as appears from the returns filed in the secretary's office:

John Taylor……………1053         Joseph A. Young…….1,019
Orson Hyde…………...1,056         H. B. Clawson…………1,019
Daniel Spencer………1,056         H. Hooper……………..1,014
A. P. Rockwood……...1,017         Edwin D. Woolley... 1,017
Hosea Stout…………...1,019         Alexander McRae….1,018
Jas. W. Cummings ….1,018         S. W. Richards…...... 1,019
Jesse C. Little 1,019

This election will, however, be contested at the next sitting of the county court, it having been conducted illegally in many respects. In the first place, there is no record on file in the secretary's office of the election of any justices of the peace in this precinct since 1852, and it does not appear in the archives of his office that any certificate of election has been given to a justice of the peace since that time. The law provides that the senior justice of the peace in each precinct shall be the judge of the election, and shall appoint a clerk, &c. The justice of the peace who served at the late election acted without authority, not having a certificate showing that he possessed any authority. Again, the judges of election, such as they were, did not watch or protect the ballot-box. At noon they were all absent, and their places filled by others not legally authorized to be there, one of whom was a candidate for the Legislature, and was elected upon the Church ticket. Thirteen Representatives were voted for and elected, although this precinct is only entitled to twelve. This was done in consequence of the law passed at the last session of the Legislature, attaching Green River county -- in which Fort Bridger is situated -- to Great Salt Lake county, and, of course, increasing the number of Representatives in the county thus formed. This law, however, has never been signed by Governor Cumming, who was at the time in the Territory, but was signed by Brigham. Its validity, therefore, though recognised by the Mormons, will not be recognised by the present Secretary of the Territory.

In consequence of this law, there were but few Mormon votes cast in Green River county. The residents of the county living at Fort Bridger and on Green river voted, however, for the officers to which they are entitled, and elected by a majority of over 100 the Democratic ticket, upon which. William J. Osborne, Esq., formerly of Kansas Territory, was their nominee for Representative in the Legislature. The official returns have not yet been received, so that we have not the exact number of votes polled. This secures us one Gentile Representative in the next Legislature, for, although the Mormons will contest his right to a seat, they cannot sustain themselves in their position.

A most interesting case of habeas corpus was tried during the past week before Chief Justice Eckles and Associate Justice Sinclair, of the Supreme Court of this Territory. It seems that about four years ago the wife of Mr. H. Polydore, a lawyer residing in Gloucestershire, England, joined the Mormons and ran away from him. Stealing their only child, a daughter, from the boarding-school at which she was placed, she brought her, in a company of Mormons, to this place.

The father, in the meantime, made every effort to discover the whereabouts of the mother and child, and a considerable time elapsed before he found out that they were here among the Mormons. Finding that his individual efforts would be unavailing in procuring the return of his child, he applied to Lord Malmesbury, the Minister of Foreign Affairs in England, for the aid of the Government in his behalf. An application was made, therefore, by the English Government, through Lord Napier, to Secretary Cass, for the assistance of our Government in the matter, who thereupon forwarded instructions to General Johnston, directing him to use every effort in his power to find the child and secure its restoration to the father. As soon as the civil authorities had become established here, the case was placed in the hands of the United States District Attorney, The child, who is only twelve years old was found with her aunt, who is the fourth wife of Samuel Richards, one of the twelve Apostles The mother of the girl had returned to the States.

Upon examination the court ordered that, the child should be restored to her father, and she will accordingly be sent on, as soon as a suitable escort can be found, to Lord Napier, at Washington.

The Hon. C. E. Sinclair, one of the Associate Justices of this Territory, arrived in the last mail from the States. It is with pleasure that we announce his arrival, for we have long looked for the arrival of the Judges who are necessary for the organization of the judicial branch of our Territorial Government.

We understand that Kirk Anderson, Esq., formerly connected with the editorial department of the Missouri Republican, is now on his way out here with a complete printing press, and everything requisite for the publication of a large newspaper in this city.

This has been more needed, perhaps, than anything else.

With a regular weekly communication to the States, a "Gentile" press, and an independent judiciary, we can wish for no other aid to effect the regeneration of this Territory than the influence of energetic, fearless ministers of the Gospel, and these we must have.

The Sixth Regiment of Infantry, in command of Col. Andrews, arrived at Fort Bridger during the past week. This regiment has come over the new road explored last summer by Lieut. Bryant, which, leaving the old road at the crossing of the South Fork of the Platte, passes through Bridgrer's Pass, and strikes the old road again at Fort Bridger. They report the road as a good one in regard to grass and water, but it will take a great deal of work to make it equal to the old one for travel. It is, however, some 75 or 80 miles shorter.

The Sixth has been ordered to proceed immediately to Fort Walla Walla, the seat of the Indian war in Oregon; they will not, consequently, enter the valley, but move from Bridger directly up the Oregon trail. Lieutenant-Colonel Canby, with two companies of the Tenth, and one company of dragoons, will relieve Col. Hoffman in the command of the post at Bridger. Several of the officers of the army now stationed here have procured leaves of absence.

Governor Cumming has rented the large, fine house of the late Secretary Babbitt. He boarded up to this time with Mr. Staines. A. B. C.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. LXVIII.                       Philadelphia, Tuesday, November 23, 1858.                       No. 125.

From  Fort  Leavenworth.

Correspondence of the St. Louis Democrat.

Fort Leavenworth, K. T., Nov. 12.            
Last night an escort composed of twelve troopers of K Company, Second Dragoons, arrived at this post. I saw the escort as well as the ladies and gentlemen whom they escorted in. But up to the time of writing this hasty letter, I have had no time to make any particular or minute enquiries, or to become thoroughly posted up in relation to their mission here. It is, however, currently reported I that this party has escorted Judge Eckles, of Utah, who is on his way to Washington city, and is accompained by a young lady of high standing in the English aristocracy. Reports says that this pretty young lady is the daughter of a Captain in the Queen's Life Guards, and having been spirited away by the Latter Day Saints, she was taken to Brigham Young's harem in Salt Lake City. Her whereabouts having been recently ascertained, the Queen of England sent a requisition for her to the President of the United States, who ordered Governor Cummins to send the young lady to Washington as soon as an opportunity should occur. Judge Eckles having business at Washington City, has brought her thus far. I give this item as I got it, upon no authority of what I deem reliable hearsay. I saw the young lady in question a few hours since. She is a fine specimen of English beauty. This escort also had in charge six fine young squaws -- pretty and sweet mountain flowers, plucked from their native bowers in all their natural beauty and freshness. I believe that these Indian maidens go to a female academy to receive the polish of civilization.

The troops at this post are all on the qui vive, on account of a telegraphic dispatch informing Major Sedgewick that an order from the War Department sending six companies of the First Cavalry to the frontier of Texas had been mailed to Col. Sumner. In anticipation of this order soon reaching us, the company officers have put their men to active preparation for the campaign.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                                 Philadelphia, Monday, January 17, 1859.                                No. 145.

Interesting  from  the  Mormon Country.

Utah, October 16,1858.              
To the Editor of The Press:
       Dear Colonel: In accordance with my promise, I herewith send you a short account of mat-ters and things in Utah.

I am on duty forty miles from the memorable City of Saints, at what is called Camp Floyd. The troops are resting on their arms. The Mormons are quiet and uncommunicative, meditating, it is said, some ultimate action. Meantime, some two hundred of them have left for the States, while as many more have tried to do the same, but failed for want of means. Several thousands evidently design to leave next summer; still many will remain, and their views and intentions, though studiously concealed from us, are closely watched. This is truly a strange people. There are about 25,000 souls in the Territory, comprising nearly as follows: 4,000 Americans, 5,000 Danes, 6,000 Scotch and Welsh, and 10,000 English. All of the leaders and office-holders are Americans!

The greater portion of the masses are ignorant, deluded, fanatical, and well-meaning, but follow their leaders. The leaders are very shrewd. The Mormon Church (the only church in existence here, because the only one allowed) owns nine-tenths of the Territory. The church owns mills, houses, lots, lands, roads, bridges -- in fact everything, while the twenty-five leaders and bishops own the church! Brigham Young lives in a palace, surpassing in magnificence anything you can imagine. His stable, built of stone and brick, would be a palace for me to live in. His horses would mount a dragoon company finely, and his gardens and yards surpass anything in our Eastern States. His whole establishment, occupying some two acres, is enclosed with a massive stone wall, twelve feet high, with parapets and embrasures, all made with appliances for defence. He seldom or ever comes out -- lately not at all. He treats the true Americans, the army, and the hardy ox-drivers who have crossed the Plains, with utter contempt, securing through his secret agents a history of all that is going on in our midst.

This Territory ought to be absorbed by those that surround it, and the laws administered by honest people. If this were done, the laboring, honest masses would remain, see their folly, repent it, and become good citizens, whilst the leaders would leave for parts unknown. The "Church charter" ought to be repealed at once, and finally a capable and efficient Governor ought to be sent here to govern the Territory, if it is to continue one. Until some of these changes are made, and a radical change effected in the minds, the temper, and the habits of this people, it is idle to think of withdrawing the troops from this place. Heretofore the few cases of excitement in our country, requiring the presence of the military, have been of but short duration. It is not so here. This is a long-planned, systematic plot, ramifying its agencies through a large portion of the world, under cover of religious truth, yet so managed as to draw into its machinery all enemies to republican government for the spoils and personal advancement. The intelligent portion of the army here are disgusted with the habits and customs observed here. Those who suppose that even the first step towards a settlement of difficulties has been taken are vastly deceived. The first step would have been taken had General Johnston marched into the City of the Saints last spring. But that was prevented by Governor Cumming, Mr. Kane, and the Peace Commissioners. They have postponed the play, or rather tragedy, but it will yet be enacted. We, not the Mormons, are suffering by the delay, for they have surrounded us by all the insidious appliances calculated to weaken us, and they may get tired of having us near them. A few copies of The Press strayed into our camp by the last mail, and you would have been pleased to have seen a knot of Pennsylvania boys surrounding each paper and listening with ager attention, as one of their number read the home news. I will drop you a line by the next mail. Yours, J. B. C.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, May 21, 1859.                                No. ?

A PROPOSITION FROM BRIGHAM YOUNG. -- It is said that Brigham Young has submitted a proposition to a company of capitalists to sell all his right, title and interest to Utah Territory, (don't know whether wives are included) for a reasonable sum of money, and to leave the Territory within a specified time. Some of the company are said to be in Washington, consulting with the Administration. The matter has been kept thus far a profound secret. They desire the aid of the Government in carrying out this praiseworthy undertaking, and it is highly probable that the Government will lend them all the aid in its power. If it cannot be effected in any other way, the subject will be laid before Congress at its meeting.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, June 10, 1859.                                No. 268.

Sixteen White Children Recovered
from the Indians.

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has received the following interesting letter from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Utah:

GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, May 4,1859.        
Sir: I have just returned from a very laborious and difficult trip through the southern portions of this Territory.

I have succeeded in recovering sixteen children, and have them now in my possession. It is said these are all that remain of probably one hundred and forty men, women, and children of the Mountain Meadow massacre in September, 1857.

In December last there was a small boy among the Navajos, near the Colorado, in Mexico territory, who it is supposed also belonged to this emigrant train. I will allude to this boy in another communication. I was positively assured by the settlers in the neighborhood where I got the children that I have all that were saved. I have good reason for believing that none of these children have lived among the Indians at all.

These children average from about three to nine and a half years old; are intellectual and good-looking; not one mean-looking child among them.

I have collected the following particulars in relation to these children:

1st, Calvin, now seven or eight years old; does not remember his name; says they (his family) lived at Horse Head, Johnston county, Arkansas. This boy had father, mother, and five brothers older than himself; killed brothers named Henry, James, William, and Larkin; and four sisters -- Nancy, Mary, and Martha; his father Joseph, and his mother Matilda. 2d and 3d, Ambrose Miram Taggit, now about seven years old, and Wm. Taggit, now about four years and a half old; the elder boy says they had father, mother, and two older brothers killed. He says they lived in Johnston county, and when thay left the States had a grandfather and grandmother living. 4th, Prudence Angeline, six years old; and, 5th, Annie; had father, mother, and two brothers, named James and John, all killed. 6th, a girl about four and a half years old; says her name is Frances Hawn or Kern. 7th, a boy, now about three years old. I have no account of this boy. Those with whom he lived called him William. 8th, Eliza W Huff, four years old. 9th, Sophronia or Mary Huff, about six years old. 10th, Charles Francher, seven or eight years old; and 11th, Annie, about three and a half years old; had sister. 12th, Betsey, about six years old; and 13th, Jane, about four years old; have no account of these. 14th, 15th, and 16th, Rebecca, Louisa, and Sarah Dunlap.

In conversation with these children, I learn that they resided in the same neighborhood; my impression is, principally in Johnston county, Arkansas.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. FORNEY,          
Superintendent of Indian Affairs.         

Note: See on-line Children of the Massacre texts for more on Dr. Jacob Forney and the rescued childen.


Vol. 90.                         Philadelphia, Monday, December 5, 1859.                        No. 25,307.


There are reports in circulation to the effect that the troops at Camp Floyd will, at no distant period, be removed from Utah, as the principal effect of their presence in the territory is to take money out of the chests of the sub-treasury, and put it into the pockets of the Mormons. At one time it was generally hoped that the presence of an efficient force in the vicinity of Salt Lake would, of itself, have a most salutary influence on the Mormons, and that the new Governor and federal officers, strengthened by the circumstance that the support of the military could at any time be afforded them at short notice, would be able to make the laws respected. But any expectation of this kind has been disappointed. We are forced to the conclusion that our troops have been sent on a useless errand. After all the danger and toil attending their march to Salt Lake, and the expense attending their stay there, they will probably be marched back again, without any result worth showing.

The indulgence extended by the federal government for so many years to the Mormon community has been reprobated by every right-thinking man in the community. The appointment of Brigham Young as Governor was one of those concessions to Mormon power that has produced an infinite deal of mischief. It encouraged these fanatics in an opinion of their importance and power, and led them to suppose that the government desired to conciliate them. They were emboldened by it to such a degree that they utterly disregarded their constitutional and federal relations, and went on in their career with rapidity, and for years with impunity. The present executive, at his accession, seemed to take measures of a vigorous kind against the Mormons, but what have they amounted to? Say who can. So far as we can perceive, the federal courts and officers in Utah are as little respected as ever they were. The most notorious criminals amongst the Mormons cannot be punished; the functions of the federal court in the territory are usurped by some of the Mormon territorial courts, which are used as instruments for punishing the Gentiles, as the Mormons term all who do not adhere to their own abominable doctrines.

Is the President in earnest in putting an end to the enormities of the Mormons?... The Mormon question is as unsettled now as it was on the day when the troops commenced their march westward, and the only result that can be showed for this splendid movement is a splendid failure to do anything of importance.

It is very true that in time, by the influx of new settlers into the territories, the Mormons may be outnumbered in their own land. But are the ilegal acts of these villains to be tolerated for a quarter of a century or more, until by natural causes their course is checked? Are citizens of the United States moving into the territory to be preyed on without redress by these lawless men? If it should prove to be the intention of the government to remove the troops, (we doubt the truth of the report to that effect,) the Mormons will again be left without any check, and will inevitably resume their tampering with the Indians, their assaults on emigrant trains, and the frequent acts of assassination by which they have distinguished themselves. The consciousness that the troops are in their vicinity has had the effect, the only good effect of their presence that we can see, to make them a little more cautious in their acts of violence. But they are just as ready as ever they were to indulge in such acts; the power of the community is not weakened nor its spirit broken. There is but one way in which this can be done, and the Mormons be satisfactorily dealt with, and that is by prompt legislation against their monstrous institutions, and an efficient administration of the law amongst them. Our government ought not to tolerate for a day the infamous system of polygamy that exists in Utah, to say nothing of other evils that flourish there. But the public may well despair of the present Administration doing anything really effective. The settlement must be left to an Administration acting on very different principles.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Friday, August 31, 1860.                         No. 27.

THE RETURN OF THE MORMONS. -- A rumor that the Mormons, under the lead of Joe Smith, Jr., are about to return and repossess themselves of Nauvoo, has created some excitement in Illinois, and a mass meeting at Carthage has resolved that it cannot be allowed. There is probably no truth in the rumor; when they move again the Mormons will depart out of this Gentile land.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, October 25, 1860.                             No. 9.

The Mormons. -- If we may rely upon the accounts that reach us from newspapers and correspondents in relation to Utah and the state of affairs among the Mormoris, Brigham Young has very little idea at the present time of leaving the valley of the Great Salt Lake with his followers. In fact, a revival of the old Mormon spirit seems to be going forward, which is likely to lead to a more firm establishment of the Saints in that region than ever before. The tabernacle which, for some time after the advent of the United States troops, remained closed, has recently been once more opened for public worship, and Brigham himself harangues the people two or three times every Sabbath. Missionaries are also being sent out to Europe and other countries, among whose number is the greatly celebrated Elder Orson Pratt.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 7, 1860.                         No. 84.

The  News.

We have details of Utah news to Oct. 12. Judge Kinney had arrived from the East, and was warmly welcomed by the Mormons, with whom he is a great favorite. The Mormon Conference commenced on Saturday, the 6th, and was in session two days and a half. During its progress Brigham Young, Heber O. Kimball, and Orson Hyde made speeches, indicative of the present Mormon feeling in regard to the people of the States and to the army, from which we infer that it is not a very amicable one. It was indicated at this Conference that the hand-cart system of emigration is to be given up. Young intends, in the spring, to send ox-teams with the missionaries to the States, which will return in the fall laden with merchandise and emigrants. The cash tithing paid into the Mormon Church for the years 1858-59, and to Oct. 1, 1860, amounted to $14, 552.09, of which amount about $4,500 was raised in Salt Lake City. It is the declared intention of Brigham Young to recommence the building of the Temple next spring.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, January 24, 1861.                             No. 22.

The Saints in High Glee. -- Official information just received from Utah represents the saints in high glee over the prospects of disunion and Mormon independence. Brigham Young proclaims to have prophesied the present condition of' things -- that the Lord would overthrow the despoilers and deliver his chosen people.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Philadelphia, Monday, February 4, 1861.                         No. 159.

The  News.

PACIFIC TELEGRAPH. -- A letter from Salt Lake says:

"Edwin Creighton, Esq., the agent of the Pacific Telegraph Company, has been in the city these last two weeks, but seems to be a little perplexed about determining the route of the lightning wires. He has naturally sought for interest in the enterprise, but has found little of the substantial in the form and shape of shares. Brigham is willing enough to put up the poles for the company, provided that the affair is all clear and above-board on the "rhino" question; but the chief has not forgotten that the community lost about $200,000 in fitting up stations and furnishing mules for the Eastern Express Company in 1857, and the Government very unceremoniously broke the contract, and the Mormons lost everything. The Telegraph Company probably count on some protection to the poles and wires from the presence of the United States troops on the route. Brigham would rather trust the Indians. But on this there is no use detailing plans, as Mr. Creighton throws out that the probabilities are in favor of the wires running through Santa Fe instead of Salt Lake City."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, May 16, 1861.                             No. 247.

English  Antagonism  to  Mormonism.

The English press exhibits great alarm at the progress of Mormonism in Great Britain, but particularly in Wales. The last received number of the Morning Star (one of the ablest of the London cheap newspapers) takes the subject up very seriously and expresses its horror at finding that "so hideous a delusion as Mormonism" is not dying out for want of material. It adds:

"But it seems it is not so. A paragraph we printed the other day tells us that the emigration of Mormonites from Great Britain, particularly from the southern districts of Wales, has, during the last ten weeks, been on a large scale. From this metropolis itself a party of upwards of fifty has just left for the Salt Lake, and many salt tears some of them are fated to shed before and after they get there. What seems more astonishing is, that these devotees of Joe Smith are said to embrace all classes. One gentleman, a Welshman, is stated to have contributed a thousand pounds to the emigration fund. Silly-minded people are to be met with in all ranks of life, and delusions are not confined to the ignorant alone; but for so gross and cruel a delusion as this to be received by any person with the least tincture of secular knowledge one could scarcely believe possible. Yet so it is. The bulk of the victims, however, are undoubtedly the ignorant -- we do not mean those ignorant merely of the Christian religion, but people who have grown up without having had an opportunity of learning more than is to be seen within their own horizon, and not always that the audacious theocracy on the borders of the Salt Lake finds its recruits chiefly in the most benighted agricultural districts, and in the dismal nooks and crannies of great cities, into which the light of intelligence no more penetrates than it illumines the moral mind in the southwest of England and in South Wales "

The Star declares that this fact is a reproach to England as a nation, "not that ample means for educating the whole population have not been provided, but that there is some obstructive and perverting influence in our political and social institutions which arrests the flow of light into those places where it is most needed." In fact, the agricultural classes in England and Wales are remarkably ignorant. It is different in Scotland, where every peasant receives a good plain education, and though the Irish peasantry are indifferently educated, not one of them has been induced to join the Mormons. It is probable that their religious belief has kept them back from such mingled wickedness and folly.

Putting aside any discussion, as utterly useless, upon the imposture of Mormonism fabricated by Smith and cunningly kept up by Brigham Young, it is singular that comparatively few reliable revelations concerning life at Salt Lake City have appeared, to put the weak-minded and credulous upon their guard. It is generally believed that the emigrants to Utah are robbed, cheated, and ill-used by Brigham Young and his leading associates, but few have been willing to confess how miserably duped they were.

Life in Utah is not the most pleasant. The journey to Salt Lake City is of itself a terrible affair. Utah is not exactly a land flowing with milk and honey. The Star says:

"Milk, it seems, is not sold, and is only to be had by families who keep cows. Such a thing as honey was never seen in the place. Wine is at an enormous price. There are no apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, nuts, gooseberries -- no oranges, lemons, or citrons. Sugar is at twenty pence per lb, and frequently within a couple of months after the arrival of the goods' teams, neither tea nor sugar, coffee nor pepper, nor rice is to be had. Articles which are not absolutely necessary, but which nevertheless contribute to the comfort of homes, cannot be had at any price at the Salt Lake. With respect to the purveying department in short, the exoteric saints must find the New Jerusalem an extremely undesirable place to live in; whatever fat there is in the land is mostly swallowed by Brigham Young; and his bishop-elders. The poor are worse off than in England, and that surely is saying a great deal. Workmen are paid in instalments of flour, potatoes, and meat, doled out to them in petty quantities."

In winter the condition of the poor is wretched in the extreme, for the cold is intense. The condition of woman in such a place is shockingly degraded; she is in the position of a slave, humbled, dispirited, filling the office neither of wife nor servant. The General Government of the community is thoroughly despotic, and the rulers have no compunction in executing the sentence of death for trifling offences. The saints in the country are continually singing a song, the burden of which is, "In Deseret we're free!" A part of the freedom consists in every one paying a tithe of his whele income to the priest-rulers. "And that isn't enough," said Brigham Young, on one occasion; "if you have a lot, or a share of a lot, upon which you raise anything, you must pay a tithing for that. But if I pay you a salary you have no right to work on the lot, not even after hours; for you are mine -- my slave as much as a nigger in the South is the property of his master."

People who read newspapers learn something about Utah and Mormonism. But such people are not at all disposed to go to Salt Lake City. The poor and the ignorant become the prey of the half-enthusiasts and whole-knaves, sent out from Utah to persuade them to emigrate thither. The British Government, with all its power, cannot prevent such emigration. Is it not possible, however, to send proper agents among the people most easily deluded, whe would show them how the case actually stands? As for this country, the continued toleration of Mormonism in Utah is far from creditable to us as a nation.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Philadelphia, Tuesday, May 21, 1861.                             No. 251.

Our Utah correspondent, writing from Salt Lake, under date of April 26, states that the fall of Fort Sumpter and the secession of Virginia had created intense interest among the "Saints." The news was read in the Tabernacle by Brigham Young, and the disciples were asked to believe that this was merely the prediction of Jo Smith about the breaking up of the American Union.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                             Philadelphia, Monday, December 2, 1861.                             No. 102.

ENGLISH PERIODICALS. -- ...the Illustrated London News of the 16th ult.... has engravings of four Amorican subjects, including portrait of Brigham Young and his residence at Great Salt Lake...

Note: An excerpt from the Nov. 16, 1861 Illustrated London News article reads thusly: "...'the President,' as the people call him, or 'Brother Brigham,' as he styles himself, has been the directing and influencing power. He has forbidden the establishment of beershops, and there is only one place in Salt Lake City where liquor in quantities can be obtained. Soon after sunset the streets are as quiet as Goldsmith’s Deserted Village, for the citizens remain in their homes, except when in the winter they attend the balls or theatrical entertainments, which are frequent, or exercise their voices in their musical parties. A traveller ignorant of their practice of polygamy would say from the appearance of things that a more industrious and better-conducted community is not to be found. They I consider polygamy, to the extent of having five wives at least, an essential of respectability; but the practice is by no means universal."


Vol. VI.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, April 3, 1862.                                 No. 31.

Missionary  Items.

Irreligion and Mormonism at the Sandwich Islands. -- Mr. Alexander, of the Sandwich Islands mission, wrote from Wailuku, December 23, that a large weekly newspaper, the Hoka Pakifika (Pacific Star) had lately sprung into existence, advocating the cause of infidelity and immorality. He adds:

"There is also a renewed stir in the ranks of the Mormons. The new apostle of their cause is a Captain Gibson, aided by a young man from Northhampton, Mass. It was suspected, for a while, that Gibson was leagued with some privateers; but the opinion is now gaining ground that he is indeed an agent of Brigham Young, and that the Mormons of Salt Lake meditate an attack upon the Islands, which they intend to seize and hold as a more pleasant home than Utah."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                                 Philadelphia, Tuesday, August 5, 1862.                                No. 6.

Speck  of  War  in  Utah.


(From the Omaha Nebraskan, July 24.)

It is currently reported in this city that the first Mormon trains from Salt Lake City this season, were stopped at Fort Laramie by the military authorities there, in pursuance of an order from the Government.

The reason for this sudden check to the Mormon emigration is said to be on account of tbe destruction of the mails, stage stations, robbing, and murdering of emigrants on the route between the fort and Salt Lake City, which have all along been attributed to the Indians; but the Government has been put in possession of intelligence which warrants the supposition that the authorities of Brigham Young have been instrumental in the commission of these acts of depredation. Among the reasons for this belief, on the part of the Government, is said to be that while emigrant trains for Oregon and California have been continually harassed on the route west of Fort Laramie, the Mormon trains have passed along undisturbed.

It is further said that Brigham Young has ordered every able-bodied man in the Territory -- the entire militia -- to muster immediately for drill and service; requiring the woman to take care of the crops. It is, no doubt, the intention of Brigham to despatch a large force to meet the coming emigration to Utah, and contest the right, by military power, of escorting his subjects to Utah. Should these rumors prove correct, we may expect to hear of a conflict in the West, between the Government troops and the military powers under Brigham Young.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           Philadelphia, Tuesday, November 25, 1862.                           No. ?

Letter  from  Salt  Lake.


Correspondence of the Missouri Republican.


Great Salt Lake City, Nov. 7,1862. -- Wire-working has at last been successful in drawing into the territory, and placing right over the city about a thousand volunteers from the Pacific coast. Proverbially, the citizens of Utah have an aversion to the presence of soldiers, and probably from the antagonism that impregnates everything in this generation, and predominates everywhere, are we indebted for the presence of Colonel Connor and his command within the encircling aegis of the Wahsatch Mountains. Had the Mormons petitioned for the establishment of the troops where they are, the encampment would have been located at least a hundred miles from where they were wanted. No doubt of it. We all go by contraries to-day, and, like the Irishman's pig, if our drivers only whisper that we are going to Cork, we are certain to set faces for Tipperary. A good story is told of Albert Sidney Johnston, when he marched through Echo with his troops, in 1858. To him, Cache Valley, one of the finest valleys in the mountains, was urgently recommended. The General couldn’t see it, and marched into Cedar Valley, than which a worse selection for an encampment could never have been made. Albert sat down in Cedar, and the citizens took possession of Cache.

The former is to-day little better than a vast dust-hole, the latter filled with flourishing settlements and comfortable homesteads. I am told the Mormons there stood largely in need of dry goods and a hundred other things, and showed determined repugnance to receiving everything of that kind; of course the army and the merchants who followed after were as determined to force upon the community the scorned favors, and after the first blushing, and "No, I thank you, "were over, the dry goods and the thousand etceteras changed hands, and made things exceedingly easy and agreeable. Some of the merchants got broke, used up, played out, and some of the faithful "fell from grace;" but as merchants will break, and some brothers and sisters will fall, these small affairs passed away; but the ameliorated condition of the territory remains visible and palpable everywhere.

I remember when the first intimation was made that Camp Floyd was to be broken up, that a story was put in circulation down East that trouble was expected with the Mormons, which story was at one time charged home upon the Mormons as their own ruse to keep the troops among them, and at another time charged as the ruse of the speculators to favor their own affairs. Where it sprung from is of no consequence, but as an illustration of how "pipes" are laid, and how "wires" are worked to fleece Uncle Sam, it Is here given, and would have been successful in keeping the troops here, spending millions of precious dollars, had not the necessities at the outbreak of the Rebellion called them away.

To-day we have the Third Infantry and Second Cavalry of California Volunteers encamped to the east of this city, and partly within the limits of the corporation; but for what purpose its honorable commander has failed to discover. The volunteers enlisted "for the war," but yielded to the call to "guard the mail line," and marched from the Pacific over that mail line, finding nothing to do. Fired with ambition to serve their country in its hour of trial, and disgusted with nothing to do, the troops, while encamped at Ruby Valley, three-fourths of the way here, combined their dollars and offered to relinquish their claims of seven months pay upon the Government, if they would only let them return to the Pacific, where they might, yet this fall, take the steamer down the Pacific, cross the Isthmus, and reach the Potomac for service, offering, at the same time, to contribute $25,000 toward their expenses; one private offered $5000 to this end. Colonel Connor, sustaining the honorable feeling of his command, telegraphed all this to Gen. Halleck, but apparently, wire-working prevailed, and the troops, by some one in authority, were ordered to camp near Salt Lake City. They are here building temporary barracks for the winter, but for what purpose, beyond enriching the people, no man with, brains knows.

Colonel Connor, judging of the utility of things by their necessity, feels unpleasantly that he and his command are consuming the precious dollars of the Treasury while his country is in need of those dollars elsewhere, and Governor Harding, in his speech welcoming the troops, and evidently feeling that the absurdity of things would evidently be saddled on some one, cleared his shoulders: -- "I confess," said his Excellency, "that I have been disappointed somewhat in your coming to this city. I have known nothing of the disposition that has been made of fou; and for the truth of this assertion I appeal to your commander, and to every individual with whom I have had communication on this subject."

General Hughes, of Atchison, the President of the Overland Stage Company, was here last week, and I know, from personal "intercourse with the General, that the Company will not again submit to the losses of stock and property in running the mail, if Government will not give them the protection needed this winter. General Highes is urgent for troops to the east of Bridger, but cannot procure them. Must the California troops, as efficient a body of men as ever offered service to the Government, be deprived of the honor they seek in the battle-field, for the purpose of feeding speculators or gratifying the folly of others?


Yesterday, the Telegraph Superintendents of the line East and West, made circuit connection direct through from New York to San Francisco, a distance of 4000 miles. Of that fact, however, we expect you would be fully apprised last evening. But for the war, the event would have been noticed with every demonstration of joy. It is the greatest feat of telegraphy. The fact is there, and yet seems beyond our powers of comprehen-sion. The citizens of New York communing with the citizens of San Francisco the same as if they stood face to face, with in arm's grasp of each other. Well might the operator on the Atlantic shore say to the operator on the Pacific shore, "I am glad to see you," "How's your health?" Instantaneously they felt each other, and the "click, click," of dots, dashes and spaces -- each like the photographic symbol representing its salutation, inquiry and response, was as instan-taneous as if the tongue had uttered and the ears heard. For the accomplishment of this great feat, at the present time, we are indebted to Sir. Creighton, of the Pacific Telegraph Line, and Mr. Gamble, of the California State Line. They have both been here for the past two weeks arranging for the security and efficiency of the lines during the coming winter, which I am pleased to be able to say, is exceedingly favorable.


We have had two days of the presence of California's representative, which, though not intend-ed by him made the neighborhood of Brother Townsend's Hotel as lively and gay as the surroundings of Barnum's door-step. The Mayor and City Council, hearing of Senator Latham's intended visit, calculated showing him all the honor they could; but the Senator very courteously declined the "hospitalities" of the city, as his stay was to be so very limited.

P. S. -- Miners are arriving nearly every day from the Grasshopper mines, where they have found the gold in promising abundance. Just as I am closing my letter I notice new arrivals. I must give an early letter on the subject.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                                 Philadelphia, Tuesday, January 27, 1863.                                No. 150.

MORMON THEATRE. -- The Mormon Saints have established a theatre at Salt Lake City, Brigham Young and President Kimball officiating at its opening. Songs, dances, the comedy of the "Honeymoon," and the farce of "Paddy Miles' Boy," made up the initiatory bill.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Philadelphia, Monday, February 9, 1863.                             No. 161.

The Mormons -- Speech of
Judge Cradlebaugh, of Nevada.

Washington, February 7. -- During the proceedings in the House to-day, Mr. Cradlebaugh, the delegate from Nevada Territory, not being able to obtain the floor, received permission to print his speech, of which the following is the substance:

Having resided for some time among the Mormons, and become acquainted with their ecclesiastical polity, their habits, and their crimes, he feltl that he would not be discharging his duty if he failed to impart such information as he acquired in regard to this people in our midst, who are building up, consolidating, and daringly carrying out a system subversive of the Constitution and laws, and fatal to morals and true religion. The remoteness of Utah from the settled regions of our country, and the absence of any general intercourse between the Mormons and the masses of our people, have served to keep the latter in almost complete ignorance of the character and designs of the former. That ignorance, pardonable at first, becomes criminal when the avenues to a full knowledge are open to us.

The said Mormonism is one of the monstrosities of the age in which we live. It seems to have been left for the model republic of the world, for the nineteenth century -- when the light of knowledge is more generally diffused than ever before, when in art, science and philosophy we have surpassed all that ages of the past can show -- to produce an idle, worthless vagabond of an impostor, who heralds forth a creed repulsive to every refined mind, opposed to every generous impulse of the human heart; a faith which commands a violation of the rights of hospitality, sanctifies falsehood, enforces the systematic degradation of women, not only permits, but orders, the commission of the vilest lusts, in the name of Almighty God himself, and teaches that it is a sacred duty to commit the crimes of theft and murder.

Mr. Cradlebaugh, having spoken of Mormon success, said that in less than the third of a century it girdles the globe. Its missionaries are planted in every place. You find them all over Europe, thick through England and Wales, traversing Asia and Africa, and braving the billows of the Southern oceans to seek proselytes; and, as if to crown its achievements, it establishes itself in the heart of one of the greatest and most powerful Governments of the world, establishes therein a theocratic government, overriding all other government, putting the laws at defiance, and now seeks to consummate and perpetuate itself by acquiring a State sovereignty, and by being placed on an equality with the other States of the Union.

Mr. Cradlebaugh then traced the history of Mormonism, their creed, etc., saying they teach the shedding of blood for remission of sins, or, in other words, that if a Mormon apostatizes, his throat shall be cut, and his blood poured out upon the ground for the remission of his sins. They also practice other revolting doctrines, such as are only carried out in polygamous countries, which is evidenced by a number of mutilated persons in their midst... They also teach that it is a duty to rob and steal from Gentiles.... So at variance is the practice of polygamy with all the instincts of humanity, that it has to be pressed upon the people with the greatest assiduity as a part of their religious duty. It is astonishing with what pertinacity through all their 'sermons and discourses,' it is justified and insisted on. Threats, entreaties, persuasions, and commands, are continually brought in play to enforce its cheerful observance. So revolting is it to the women, that to aid in its enforcement they are brutalized, their modesty destroyed by low, vile, vulgar expressions, such as he (Mr. C.) could not repeat, and would not ask the clerk to read in the hearing of the House. If, however, his conjugal friend, the Delegate from Utah, would undertake such task, he would most cheerfully furnish them for him. Certainly he ought not to hesitate. If they are proper to be repeated before large congregations of women and children in Salt Lake City, the representative of the Church ought not to be ashamed at reading them to this House. Will the Delegate from Utah read them? But their teachings, officially reported by themselves, give you a better idea of their estimation of woman than anything he could say. He then read from a few of their sermons on this subject, only observing that other passages inculcating similar doctrines, containing like threats, rebukes, and complaints, in nearly every sermon published in the Church organ. The church government established by the Mormons to carry into operation the teachings from which he had so copiously extracted, is one of the most complete despotisms on the face of the earth. The mind of one man permeates through the whole mass of the people, and subjects to its unrelenting tyranny the souls and bodies of all. It reigns supreme in Church and State, in morals, and even in the minutest domestic and social arrangements. Brigham's house is at once tabernacle, capital and harem; and Brigham himself is king, priest, lawgiver, and chief polygamist. Is treason hatched in Utah? Brigham is the head traitor. Are rebel troops mustered against the United States? Brigham is their commender-in-chief. Is a law to be enacted? Brigham's advice determines it. Is an offending 'Gentile' or an apostate Mormon to be assassinated? The order emanates from Brigham.

After enumerating the other sins and assumptions of Brigham, Mr. Cradlebaugh said his deluded followers yield him implicit obedience, and a church organization known as 'Danites' or 'destroying angels,' stands ready to protect his person, or avenge his wrongs, and to execute his pleasure. Brigham is both Church and State. True, the atrocities committed in Utah are not committed by him with his own hands, but they are committed by his underlings, and at his bidding. He claims that he is not a criminal, because his hand is not seen in the perpetration of crime. He pleads an 'alibi,' when he is known to be everywhere present in the Territory. He seeks to avert censure by feigning ignorance of the atrocities of his underlings. Such ignorance can only be supposable on the hypothesis that Mormonism is not a system, and Brigham is not its head -- that he is a despot without power, or a prophet without the ability to foresee. Now, Brigham is either the complete ruler in Utah, or he is nothing. The complicity of the church dignitaries, mayors of cities, and other territorial officials, in the crimes that have been committed, demonstrate that those crimes were church crimes, and Brigham is the head of the Church. Armed with unbounded power over the hearts and lives of his people, Brigham defiantly drives the barbaric chariot of Mormon robbery, murder, polygamy and incest, over all law, in defiance of all the Federal officials in the Territory. Brigham not only controls the legislature, but he controls and the courts. He uses the one to aid in accomplishing the other. These facts he proceeded to prove. This attempt of the Mormons to interfere with the administration of the law and the courts, has been one of the chief causes of difficulty between the judges sent by the Federal Government to Utah, and the Mormon people. From almost twenty judges sent the Territory, with the exception of two, Judge Zerababel Snow, a Mormon, and J. F. Kinney, the present chief justice [is] the only territorial judge who has not been removed by the present Administration, and who bears the unenviable reputation of being the "creature and tool of Brigham Young." The testimony has been uniformly to the effect that the laws could not be enforced. Not one of these judges, with the exception of the two above named, have been enabled to serve out the short terms of four years. Some left in disgust, while others were driven away by force.

Mr. Cradlebaugh then gave his experience as one of the former associate justices of the Territory of Utah. Sitting as a committing magistrate [in Provo] complaint after complaint was made before him of murders and robberies, among which he mentioned, as peculiarly and shockingly prominent, the murder of Forbes, the assassinations of the Parrishes and Potter, of Jones and his mother, of the Aiken party, of which there were six in all -- and the wiorst and darkest in this appalling catalogue of blood, the cowardly, cold-blooded butchery and robbery at the Mountain Meadows. At that time there still lay all ghastly under the sun of Utah the unburied skeletons of one hundred and nineteen men, women and children, the hapless, hopeless victims of the Mormon creed. Time would not now allow that he should read the affidavits taken. He should publish a portion as an appendix to these remarks, that it might be seen that he was justified in charging that the Mormons are guilty -- aye, that the Mormon Church is guilty of the crimes of murder and robbery as taught in their books of faith. The motive the Mormons had in the massacre was in seeking revenge for the killing of Parley Pratt, a leading Mormon, while in the act of running [off with] another man's wife and children through Arkansas to Utah. He was overtaken by the outraged husband, and slain -- the Arkansas courts refusing to punish the perpetrator. Vengeance is visited on the heads of these poor emigrants by the Mormons, who, in addition, no doubt, were also actuated by the great amount of stock and property of the emigrants, supposed to be worth sixty or seventy thousand dollars. This was emphatically 'getting the Lord's property,' as Heber Kimball expresses it, 'without getting in debt to the Lord's enemies for it.' A great portion of the property was taken to Cedar City, deposited in the tithing office, and then sold out. So much of the clothes, especially the bed-clothes upon which the wounded had been lying, and those taken from the dead, were piled in the back room of the tithing office, and allowed to remain for so great a length of time that when he (Mr. Cradlebaugh) was there, eighteen months after, the room was still offensive. What a a commentary upon the condition of affairs in our country! Momonism reveling upon the spoils obtained by murder, while seventeen orphan children are turned penniless upon the world.

After alluding to other outrages, Mr. Cradlebaugh said the most weak, timid, temporizing policy which has ever been pursued towards Utah by the Federal Government has only led to disorganization and anarchy, to the open violation of the most sacred rights; and has exhibited Utah before the world as the gloomy theatre where murder and robbery alternately shift the scene. He might continue the catalogue, if it were necessary. The dead rise up in awful judgment against Mormonism. In conclusion, he said: "I contend that we owe it as a duty to manifest our disapprobation of practices and doctrines so odious, and that it is our duty to retain this Mormon people under the general jurisdiction of the Government, so that their institutions may be reached by Federal legislation, if necessary, and thus show in a most indubitable manner that we are unwilling that the stain and disgrace shall be fastened upon us. It is a duty enjoined upon us by the common obligations of justice and humanity."

Note: Missing from The Press's excerpt is Cradlebaugh's 1863 assertion, that "Mormonism... is in part founded upon the eccentric production of one Spaulding, who, having failed as a preacher and shopkeeper, undertook to write a historic novel. He had a smattering of biblical knowledge, and chose for his subject 'the history of the lost tribes of Israel.' The whole was supposed to be communicated by the Indians, and the last of the series was named Mormon, representing that he had buried the book. It was a dull, tedious, interminable volume, marked by ignorance and folly. The work was so flat, stupid and insipid, that no publisher could be induced to bring it before the world. Poor Spaulding at length went to his grave, and the manuscript remained a neglected roll in the possession of his widow."


Vol. VI.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, March 6, 1863.                                No. 183.

The  Government  of  Utah.

A telegram has been received from Brigham Young stating that a meeting had been held in the tabernacle "to petition the President to remove Governor Harding, and Judges Waite and Drake, and appoint good men in their places." He adds -- "The majority of Federal officers (all the other gentlemen) are acting honorably." From this it appears that Chief Justice Kearney, Secretary of State Fuller, and Superintendent of Indian Aifairs Doty, are included in the compliment. Congress altogether failed to provide by legislation any measure for quieting the disaffection in Utah Territory, leaving that duty to the Executive Department.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, March 10, 1863.                              No. 186.


The Mormons Attempt to Expel the U. S. Authorities --
Noble Reply of Gov. Harding -- The Federal
Officers will not Resign -- Sketch of the
Territory Past and Present.

Salt Lake City, Utah, March 3, 1863. -- In a mass meeting held to-day in the Tabernacle, Governor Harding and Associate Justices Waite and Drake were denounced as enemies to the Territory and General Government. The Governor's speech to the Legislature and other papers were read and severely handled. It is rumored that they are to be waited on and requested to resign and leave the Territory. A petition to the President for their removal is in circulation.


Salt Lake City, Utah, March 6, 1863.             
Governor Harding, as well as Judges C B. Waite and Drake, in very emphatic language, refuse to resign or leave the Territory.

Governor Harding said to the committee: "I will not cowardly abandon my post of duty until it shall please tha President to recall me. I may be ia danger of personal violence by remaining, but I will not leave. I will not be driven from the Territory. As this is said to be a land of prophesy, I too will prophesy: If one drop of my blood is shed while in the discharge of my duties, by your ministers of vengeance, it will be avenged, and not one stone in your city will remain upon another."


There is trouble brewing ia the many-wived kingdom. The Saints are rising, and another ulcer is doubtless about to break on the body of our nation, so slavery and polygamy will doubtless come to be disposed of together. Let us give enough of the past of Utah and of its present, to prepare our readers for what may prove the extent of this disturbance. Governor Stephen S. Harding was appointed to the Executive office ia Utah by President Lincoln early in the spring of 1862, and assumed the duties of his office on the 7th of July. The United States District Judges, Waite and Drake, went out with him.

One word as to Governor Harding's predecessors in the Gubernatorial office. Briaham Young was appointed in September, 1849, by President Fillmore. The Saints had left Nauvoo, in Illinois, in 1845 and 1846, and reached the Salt Lake valley, the pioneers in 1847, the mala body one year later. Aspiring to be, from the outset, a full-blown State, they knocked for admission as Deseret, in 1849. Congress held the door fast against them, but organized the Territory of Utah, its admission being all that was successful in the famous "omnibus bill" for the organization of the Territories, the struggle over which formed a prominent part of the Congressional annals of 1850.

The Saints accepted Brigham, of course, but speedily expelled the Federal Judges, the Governor himself aiding to drive them out. Brigham was removed, and Colonel Steptoe, United States Army, was appointed to replace him. The latter did not dare take the chair. The Mormons now had it all their own way, and their resistance was muscularized by four years of successfully having their own will. Colonel Steptoe made a show of assuming his duties in 1854, but was frightened away, and shortly after be left, his fellow-unfortunates in Federal appointments in Utah arrived, to embark on a stormy sea of trouble. They took only feeble semblance of office or function, but even this the Mormons resented, and in 1856 the now not very illustrious Chicago lawyer, who bears the name of "Utah Drummond," was forced to close his United States District Court, in Salt Lake, and leave. Brigham was then in full bloom as a Governor "appointed of the Lord," and not to be set aside by Federal mandate.

Alfred Cumming, [and?] Superintendent of Indian Affairs, backed by two thousand United States Regulars, was next sent out as Governor of Utah, by President Buchanan, of foul fame. The troops met with hostile snows and more hostile Mormons, and only by intervention and a fresh understanding, brought about by mutual concessions, was Governor Cumming allowed to enter the kingdom. This was in 1858. Governor Cumming's troops were stationed about forty miles from the Capital, where they remained until 1860, when they were withdrawn. The appointees of President Lincoln in time succeeded those of the ignoble Lancastrian tool of the rebels.


Governor Cumming's chief exertions seem to have been to draw his pay of two thousand five hundred dollars and "let alone contention." There is this to be said, however, that until 1862, no Federal action was taken affecting the great distinctive, social crime of the Territory. In that year Congress passed an act "to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States," &c.

This put into Governor Harding's hand the law be needed, and he was not unwilling to execute the same. The twelfth annual election of Utah was held ia the fall of 1862, chosen by which on the 8th of last December the Territorial Legislature convened. The Chicago Tribune of three weeks later contained in full, the Inaugural speech of Governor Harding, forwarded by our special correspondent in Salt Lake City. From that document we republish an extract or two, which will suffice to show how Governor Harding has nobly earned the animosity of the Saints. .


"Much to my astonishment, I have not been able to find any law upon the statutes of this Territory regulating marriage. I earnestly recommend to your early consideration the passage of some law that will meet the exigencies of the people."


"I respectfully call your attention to an act of Congress, passed the first day of July, 1862, entitled 'An act to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States, and in other places, and disapproving and annulling certain acts of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah,' Chapter CXXVII of the statutes at large of the last session of Congress, page 501. I am aware that there is a prevailing opinion here that said act is unconstitutional, and therefore it is recommended by those in high authority that no regard whatever should be paid to the same.

"And still more to be regretted, if I am rightly informed, in some instances it has been recommended that it be openly disregarded and defied, merely to defy the same."

The address further rebuked Mormon disloyalty to the Union. The sensation was tremendous. The Mormon press dare not publish the address. It was scrupulously kept from circulation in Mormondom, and since then the storm has been brewing, apparently now about to break. There is no doubt that violence will overtake and destroy the bold Federal officers in Utah, unless they are speedily reinforced with troops, which cannot be too soon sent thither. The matter will, doubtless, receive the early attention of tbe Government.

Early last year the Saints revived their expression of a desire to become a State, framed a Constitution, and held an election for its adoption and the election of State officers, on the 3d of March, 1863. We give the official vote, as indicative of the Mormon strength.   [vote tabulation follows] This application for admission failed in the last Congress...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                           Philadelphia, Wednesday, March 11, 1863.                           No. 187.


Exciting News from Utah. -- Threatened Collision Between
the Military and Civil Authorities -- Brigham Young and
his Counsellors to be Arrested by Col. Connor --
The Mormons Preparing to Resist the Man who
has just Driven the Savage Snake Indians
from their Doors, &c.

Salt Lake City, March 9. -- A collision between the military and the Mormon cirtzens is imminent.

Governor Harding and Associate Justices Waite and Drake, it is understood, have called upon Col. Connor to arrest Brigham Young and Counselors Kimball and Wells.

The Judge of the District Court can serve any civil process, but the citizens are in arms, determined to prevent the arrest of their leaders.

Other Federal officers, and the Mormon citizens, have telegraphed General Wright to restrain Col. Connor till an investigation can be had.

A colonel of the United States Army, who had left for Washington, has been arrested by Colonel Connor and brought back.

It is presumed that his intentions were unfavorable to Colonel Connor's military interference.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Philadelphia, Saturday, March 14, 1863.                             No. 190.

Brigham Young  Arrested  for  Polygamy.

Salt Lake City, March 10. -- Judge Kinney this day issued a writ against Brigham Young, under the polygamy act of Congress. United States Marshal Gibbs served it without the aid of posse. The writ was responded to, and the defendant personally appeared in court. After a preliminary investigation, the judge held him in two thousand dollars bail, which was promptly given.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, March 19, 1863.                             No. 194.

Affairs  in  Utah.

There is much speculation indulged in concerning the action of the Government respecting affairs in Utah. Private parties have suggested different courses of policy. From what has transpired to-day, it is probable that Governor Harding and the judges complained of by the Mormons will be sustained. It is said by gentlemen well acquainted with Utah affairs that the arrest of Brigham Young by Judge Kinney was an agreed arrangement between the two to test the constitutionality of the anti-polygamy law, and to create the impression that there is no resistance to the judicial powers in that Territory.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, March 26, 1863.                             No. 30.


...Polygamy. -- The report of Brigham Young's arrest in his own dominions, on the charge of bigamy, sounds like the beginning of the end. To the disgrace of our race and our country, we have harbored a nest of horrid profligates from all lands, who under the flimsy guise of a new religion, have made for themselves a city of abominations, compared with which Sodom was righteous. Baffling the laws and strengthening themselves behind their own fortifications, they have defied the authority of government, until they have grown to be a fearful power in the land. We are encouraged to hope that the time is at hand when the Mormons will be scattered and destroyed as a sect, and the vice around which they have been gathered, will be driven into the wilds of heathenism, or to the dominions of the Sultan. And so rapidly is the progress of population gaining upon the Mormons, we may be reasonably sure, that in a few years more, they will be compelled to seek another refuge, unless they abolish their harems, and become conformed to the decencies of a Christian land. --N. Y. Observer.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, April 2, 1863.                             No. 206.


Official Report of the Battle of Bear River --
The Savages Badley Beaten -- Colonel
Connor's Splendid Victory --
Complimentary Notice
from General Halleck.

Washington, April. 1. -- The following is a copy of the report of Colonel [P. E.] Connor, of the 3d California Volenteers, detailing the accounts of a victory recently attained over a party of Indians, on Bear river, Washington Territory, together with a letter from General Halleck to Brigadier General Wright, commanding the Department of the Pacific, acknowledging the receipt of Colonel Conner's report at the headquarters of the army.
Headquarters District of Utah.            
Camp Douglas, W. T., Feb. 6, 1863.            
Colonel: I have the honor to report that from information recieved from various sources of the encampment of a large body of Indians on Bear river, W. T., 140 miles north of this point, who have murdered several miners during the winder, passing to and from the settlements in this valley to the Beaver Head mines, east of the Rocky Mountains, and being satisfied that they were a part of the same band who had been murdering emigrants on the overland mail route for the last fifteen years, and the principal actors and leaders in the horrid massacres of the past summer, I determined, although the season was unfavorable to and expedition, in consequence of the cold weather and deep snow, to chastise them, if possible. Feeling assured that secrecy was the surest way to success, I determined to deceive the Indians by sending a small force in advance, judging, and rightly, they would not fear a small number.

On the 22d ult. I ordered Co. K, 3d Infantry, C. V., Captain Hoyt, two howitzers, under the command of Lieut. Honeyman, and twelve men of the 2d Cavalry, C. V., with a train of fifteen wagons, carrying twenty days' supplies, to proceed in that direction. On the 24th ult. I proceeded with detachments of four companies A, H, K, and M, 2d Cavalry, C. V., numbering 220 men, accompanies by Major McGarry, 2d Cavalry, C. V.; Surgeon Reed, 3d Infantry, C. V.; Captains McLeen and Price, and Lieutenants Chase, Clark, Quinn, and Conrad, 2d [Cavalry], C. V.; Major Gallagher, 3d Infantry, C. V., and Captain Berry, 2d Cavalry, C. V., who were present at this post attending general court-martial, as volunteers. I marched the first night to Brigham City, sixty-eight miles distant. The second night's march from Camp Douglas I overtook the infantry and artillery at the town of Mendon, and ordered them to march again that night. I resumed my march with the cavalry and overtook the infantry at Franklin, W. T., about twelve miles from the Indian encampment. I ordered Captain Hoyt, with the infantry, howitzers, and train, to move to move until after 3 o'clock A. M. I moved the cavalry in about one hour afterwards, passing the infantry, artillery, and wagons about four miles from the Indian encampment. As daylight was approaching, I was apprehensive that the Indians would discover the strength of my force and make their escape. I therefore made a rapid march with the cavalry and reached the bank of the river shortly after daylight in full view of the Indian encampment, and about one mile distant. I immediately ordered Major McGarry to advance with the cavalry, and surround, before attacking them, while I remained a few minutes in the rear to give orders to the infantry and artillery. On my arrival on the field I found that Major McGarry had dismounted the cavalry and was engaged with the Indians who had [sallied] out of their hiding places on foot and horseback, and with fiendish malignity, waved the scalps of white women, and challenged the troops to battle, at the same time attacking them. Finding it impossible to surround them, in consequence of the nature of the ground, he accepted their challenge. The position of the Indians was one of the strong natural defenses, and almost inaccessible to the troops, being in a deep, dry ravine from six to twelve feet deep, and from thirty to forty feet wide with very abrupt banks, and running across level table land along which they had constructed artificial covers of willows thickly woven together, from behind which they could fire without being observed.

After being engaged about twenty minutes, I found it was impossible to dislodge them without great loss of life. I accordingly ordered Major McGarry with twenty men to turn their left flank, which was in the ravine where it entered the mountains. Shortly afterwards Capt. Hoyt reached the ford three-quarters of a mile distant, but found it impossible to cross footmen, some of them tried it, however, rushing into the river, but finding it deep and rapid, retired. I immediately ordered a detachment of cavalry with led horses to cross the infantry, which was done accordingly, and upon their arrival upon the field, I ordered them to the support of Major McGarry's flanking party, who shortly afterward succeeded in turning the enemy's flank. Up to this time, in consequence of being exposed on a level and open plain, while the Indians were under cover, they had every advantage of us, fighting with the ferocity of demons. My men fell fast and thick around me; but after flanking them we had the advantage, and made good use of it. I ordered the flanking party to advance down the ravine on either side, which gave us the advantage of an enfilading fire, and caused some of the Indians to give way and run toward the north of the ravine. At this point I had a company stationed, who shot them as they ran out. I also ordered a detachment of cavalry across the ravine to cut off the retreat of any fugitives who might escape the company at the mouth of the ravine. But few tried to escape, however, but continued fighting with unyielding obstinancy, frequently engaging hand to hand with the troops until killed in their hiding places. The most of those who did escape from the ravine were afterwards shot in attempting to swim the river, or killed while desperately fighting under cover of the dense willow thicket which lined the river banks.

To give you an idea of the desperate character of the fight, you are respectfully referred to the list of killed and wounded transmitted herewith. The fight commenced about six o'clock in the mording and continued until ten. At the commencement of the battle the hands of some of the men were so benumed with cold that it was with difficulty they could load their pieces. Their suffering during the march was awful beyond description, but they steadily continued on without regard to hunger, cold, or thirst -- not a murmur escaping them to indicate their sensibilities to pain or fatigue. Their uncomplaining endurance during their four nights' march from Camp Douglas to the battle-field is worthy of the highest praise. The weather was intensely cold, and not less than seventy-five had their feet frozen, and some of them I fear will be crippled for life.
*   *   *   *   *   *
The chiefs Pocatello and Sanpitch, with their bands of murderers, are still at large. I hope to be able to kill or capture them before long.

If I succeed, the overland route west of the Rockey Mountains will be rid of the Bedouins who have harassed and murdered emigrants on that route for a series of years.

In consequence f the number of men left on the route with frozen feet, and those with the train and howitzers, and guarding the cavalry horses, I did not have to exceed two hundred men engaged. The enemy had about three hundred warriors, mostly well armed with rifles, and having plenty of ammunition, which rumor says, they received from the inhabitants of this Territory in exchange for the property of massacred emigrants. The position of the Indians was one of great natural strength, and had I not succeeded in flanking them, the mortality in my command would have been terrible. In consequence of the deep snow, the howitzers did not reach the field in time to be used in the action.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,           P. EDW. CONNER.
                                      Col. 3d Infantry, C. V., Commanding District.

      To Lieut. Col. R. C. Drum, Assisant Adjutant General, U. S. A., Department Pacific.

Headquarters of the Army,            
Washington, D. C., March 29, 1863.            
Brigadier General G. Wright, Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, California:
     General: I have this day received your letter of Feb. 20, enclosing Colonel P. E. Connor's report of his severe battle and splendid victory on Bear river, Washington Territory. After a forced march of one hundred and forty miles in mid-winter, and through deep snows, in which seventy-six of his men were disabled by frozen feet, he and his gallant band of only two hundred attacked three hundred Indian warriors in their strong-hold, and after a hard-fought battle of four hours, destroyed the entire band, leaving two hundred and twenty-four dead upon the field. Our loss in the battle was fourteen killed and forty-nine wounded. Colonel Connor and the brave Third California Infantry deserve the highest praise for their gallant and heroic conduct.

             Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. W. HALLECK,             

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Philadelphia, Tuesday, July 28, 1863.                             No. 306.

Affairs  in  Utah.

Washington, July 27. -- The following interesting report from Gen. Connor has been received at the headquarters of the army of the United States:

Headquarters of the District of Utah,              
Camp Douglas, U. T., June 2, 1863.              
Colonel: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the department that on the 5th of May ultimo, Co. H., 3d Infantry, California Volunteers, Captain Black, left this post, pursuant to my orders, en route via Box Elder, Bear river, Cache and Marsh valleys, for a point at or near the great bend of Bear river, known as Soda Springs, Idaho Territory, for the purpose of establishing a new post in that region for the protection of the overland emigration to Oregon, California, and the Bannock City mines.

Accompanying this expedition and under its protection were a large number of persons, heretofore residents of this Territory, seceders (under the name of Morrisites) from the Mormon Church.

Many, if not all of them, having been reduced by the long-continued persecutions of the Mormons to the most abject poverty, have for some time past claimed and received the protection of the forces under my command.

Prudential reasons, applying as well to this command as to the Morrisites themselves, rendered it advisable that they should be removed from the vicinity of this camp, and beyond the evil influences and powers of the Mormon hierarchy.

After leaving Brigham City, the command, performed two night marches -- the first of twelve and the second of thirty-five miles -- as I had reason to believe that wandering bands of hostile savages, remnants of the Shoshones engaged or connected with those who took part in the battle of Bear river, (January 29th last,) were in the neighborhood, and might be surprised and punished for repeated and recent outrages upon emigrants and settlers.

In this expectation, however, we were disappointed, few, if any traces of Indians being found, and thenceforward the command proceeded by daily marches. In Port Noeuff valley we came across two lodges of Indians, (Shoshones,) who came unhesitatingly into camp with their squaws, satisfactory answered all questions propounding, and gave evidence of a friendly disposition toward the whites.

Giving them to understand the determination of the Government to punish summarily all bad Indians, and receiving assurances of future good conduct on their part, I passed on without molesting these Indians. At Snake river Ferry were several large trains of emigrants bound north to the mines, and were recruiting their animals. Here also was an encampment of Shoshone (or Snake) Indians, numbering in all, including those who came in the next day, 250 or 300. They were well mounted and had grazing in the vicinity a considerable amount of stock. These Indians were reliably represented to me as friendly and peaceable, and as having lived at the ferry during the past winter.

The report proceeds: On the 20th Company H, 3d Infantry, after a long and tedious trip, accompanied by their charge, the settlers for the new town [arrived at a place where] a suitable spot was selected on the north bank of the Bear river, near the Great Bend, and four miles east of where the Soda Springs valley opens into old Crater valley, and striking Snake river seventy miles above and east of the present ferry.

At this point a ferry has been established, and in a short time a good boat will be in running order. With the main body of the cavalry train, etc., I left the Blackfoot about fifteen miles east of the ferry, and pursuing a southeasterly course across the divide, on a good natural road, arrived at Soda Springs on the 17th of May, passing through large and fertile valleys lying along Ross' Fork of Snake river and the north branch of Port Noeuff. The site was surveyed immediately east of the springs, as was also one mile square for a military reservation adjoining, on the east of the town site, in latitude about 42 1/2 north, longitude 111 1/2 west. The water is good and abundant, as well from the river as from numerous mountain streams, and easily diverted for purposes of irrigation.

Back of the town and north, wood for fuel is abundant, while on the opposite side of the river, timber of large growth, suitable for building purposes, is found at a distance of less than two miles.

The soil, judging from the growth of the native grasses, and the appearance of the ground, is susceptible of cultivation and the raising of valuable crops.

The shortness of the season, and the altitude of the place alone, render this at all doubtful. The settlers were allowed building lots of fair size, and proceeded immediately to the erection of shelters for themselves and families.

Note: The above article reproduces only about half of the text of Connor's report. The original document ends with the following: "Your obedient servant, P. Edward Connor, Brigadier General U.S. Volunteers, Commanding District. -- [to] Lieut.-Col. R. C. Dunn, Assistant Adjutant-General U.S.A., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal."


Vol. VIII.                         Philadelphia, Thursday, September 24, 1863.                         No. 4.


On a recent visit to Salt Lake I had good opportunities for observing and inquiring into the effects of polygamy as practically exemplified in the case of that people. While sojourning there I mingled much among them, visiting them in their homes, and seeing them at their public assemblies and places of business and pleasure; wherefore I feel qualified to speak of the results of their peculiar institutions, both in their social, physiological, and intellectual bearings. It is, however, chiefly as a physiologist that I shall, at present, consider the subjects, and in this view, I must say, the consequences of the Mormon system, as we find them illustrated in the inhabitants of Salt Lake, are, in every aspect of the case, hurtful and degrading.

A marked physiological inferiority strikes the stranger, from the first, all being one of the characteristics of this people. A certain feebleness and emaciation of person is common among every class, age, and sex; while the countenances of almost all are stamped with a mingled air of imbecility and brutal ferocity. This, in fact, is their true character they being obsequious and yielding to their superiors, to strangers sullen and spiteful, while among themselves they are cold and unamiable. In the faces of nearly all one detects the evidence of conscious degradation, or the bold and defiant look of hardened sensuality, the women, with but few exceptions shrinking from the gaze of the stranger, as if fully alive to the false and degrading position they are forced to occupy. Some seem overwhelmed with shame; others wear a forlorn and haggard appearance; while a few put on a cheerful air, affectiog to be satisfied with their sad condition.

Without entering into minutiae, I may instance the following as a few of the bodily peculiarities that strike the medical man in mingling with the inhabitants of Salt Lake City. Besides the attenuation mentioned, there is a general lack of color, the cheeks of all being sallow and cadaverous, indicating an absence of good health. The eye is dull and lusterless, the mouth almost invariably coarse and vulgar. In fact, the features, the countenahce, the whole face, where the divinity of the man should shine out, is mean and sensual to the point of absolute ugliness. I have nowhere seen anything more pitiful than the faces of the women here, or more disgusting than the entire appearance of the men. It is a singular circumstance that the physionomical appearance of the children are almost identical. The striking peculiarity of the facial expression, the albumnious types of constitution, the light yellowish hair, the blue eye, and the dirty, waxen hue of the skin indicate plainly me diathesis to which they belong. They are puny and of a scorbutic tendency. The external evidences are numerous that these polygamic children are doomed to an early death, the tendency to phthisis pulmonalis being eminent and noticeable.

The evidences of natural degeneracy are more palpable in the youthful than in the adult population; the evils of this pernicious system not having taken full effect upon the latter. A more feeble and ill-looking race of children I have not met with; even among the vice and squalor of our larger cities. One looks in vain for those signs of constitutional vigor and sturdy health common to the juvenile portion of what may be considered but a country town. So far as food, climate, and other external causes are concerned the children, as well as the adults here, are favorably circumstanced; their sanitary conditions are generally good: wherefore we must look to the evils engendered by their religious and social system for the agents of this physical inferiority. In this system the physiologist and moralist will not fail to detect the ample causes for a decay even so marked and melancholy. That this is not a mere fancy, or the result of prejudice, I may say the same impression has been made upon all who have ever visited Salt Lake City and published their opinions on the subject. Indeed, we find, in all the instincts and habits of these people, full confirmation of the physical facts above set forth. They are as gross and vulgar in all their tastes, thoughts, and styles of expression as in their bodily appearance. More than half their language is made up of their slang phrases; nor do they relish the efforts of their preachers, unless well interlarded with this style of speech. As a consequence, these men indulge freely in the most trivial, and, sometimes, in the most vulgar and blasphemous expressions, to the great delight and mental distillation of their hearers.

The Mormon, with few exceptions, is low-bred and vulgar. Dancing is his favorite amusement -- forming, in fact, not only a pastime, but a part of his religious exercises. His conversation is of the most simple and commonplace character. His thoughts never soar above his amusements or domestic affairs. He deals in the gossip and scandal of his neighborhood. The Mormons of both sexes, are an ill-looking set and when we have said that they are frugal, industrious, and contented, we have enumerated about all the virtues they can claim, or that we can conscientiously concede to that wretched system of degradation known as Mormonism.

More than two-thirds of the births are females, while the offspring, though numerous, are not long lived, the mortality in infantine life being very much greater than in monogamous society, and were it not for the European immigration, the increase would be actually less than in Gentile communities. -- San Francisco Medical Press.

Note: The original, unredacted article, as published in the April, 1863 issue of the Medical Press, ended with a somewhat lengthier paragraph: "Under the polygamic system, the feeble virility of the male and the precocity of the female become notorious. The natural equilibrium of the sexes being disturbed, mischief of this kind must ensue; as a consequence, more than two-thirds of the births are females, while the offspring, though numerous, are not long lived, the mortality in infantine life being very much greater than in monogamous society, and were it not for the European immigration, the increase of inhabitants would be actually less than in Gentile communities. The fecundity of the women is remarkable, as might be expected, considering that the husband cohabits with the wife only at such periods as are most favorable to impregnation."


Vol. XVII.                             Philadelphia, Tuesday, February 23, 1864.                            No. 270.

MINERAL WEALTH OF UTAH. -- Hon. James S. Doty, Governor of Utah, now in Washington, gives the most interesting account of the enormous wealth of that Territory. These treasures of the soil will rival those of California. Brigham Young is exceedingly vigilant in his efforts to prevent any examination, but it is probable that the owner, Uncle Samuel, may sometime put in a pre-emptionary right, and claim to examine into his own premises.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                             Philadelphia, Friday, February 26, 1864.                             No. 178.

MORMONISM. -- It would seem that the lately-reported schism among the Mormons is making headway. We find tbe following in the Cincinnati Gazette of Friday:

The copyright of a book was taken out the other day, in the United States District Court, having the following title: "A Book of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, carefully selected from the Revelations of God, as given in the order of their dates." It is, perhaps, known to most readers that there is a formidable schism among these "Saints," the secessionists declaring against polygamy, and contenting themselves with one wife -- at least one at a time. An organization based on this idea has been in process of completion in this city for some time past under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Jr. and Israel Rogers, who in conjunction with others, have published the book above referred to. They say that they have missionaries operating in Brigham Young's dominions, who are very successful in making converts. Their present rendezvous is in the vicinity of Chicago, but they have purchased 30,000 acres of land in Missouri, where they intend to settle when the war is over, and build up a city for the habitation of the faithful.

Notes: (forthcoming)


nsVol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, April 7, 1864.                                No. 14.

Editor's  Table.

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY for April, is the first number for some months that has seemed to us worthy of an extended notice... Among the Mormons, is an admirable account of a visit to these repulsive people, from one who, with a just indignation against their crime, combined a seemingly calm and impartial judgment, and who determined to recognize and acknowledge everything really commendable among them. He shows their disloyalty to the Union, their complicity with the murder of emigrants across the plains, their practice of assassinating renegades from their own number, the complete despotism of Brigham Young over the community, and utter absence of anything like a republican form of government. His conviction is, that with the death of Brigham, now nearly seventy years old, the whole Mormon system will fall inevitably to pieces. Several factions are already in existence, restrained from open rupture by his influence. A valuable part of this paper, is the exceedingly graphic description of the natural features of the Rocky Mountain district, and especially of the power of the wind in cutting the sand bluffs into their grotesque and artificial-seeming forms....

Notes: (forthcoming)


nsVol. I.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, July 14, 1864.                                No. 28.

Religious Intelligence.


Pittsburg Baptists, Campbellism and Mormonism. -- We clip the two following items from the N. Y. Chronicle:

Pittsburg, the Metropolis of Western Pennsylvania, is one of the most thriving as well as loyal cities in the land. Here Campbellism had its birth, in connection with the Redstone Association. Alexander Campbell was originally of the hard shell Baptist school. In a sermon, preached in1816, which was printed, he takes the ground of the Supralapsarians. Soon after we find him in the lowest depths of Arminianism, with the dogma of baptismal regeneration added.

In 1822, or thereabouts, Campbellism made its first assault on the then first Baptist church of Pittsburg. The church at the time numbered 115 members, and was the only baptist church in the city. Ninety, including the pastor, the somewhat noted Sidney Rigdon, embraced the new faith and became followers of Mr. Campbell. They also claimed and held the house of worship -- a frame building, on the same ground where now stands the first Baptist meeting house. Sidney Rigdon went from bad to worse. After a few years' service in the reformation, he became a Mormon. Indeed, Rigdon, rather than Joe Smith, may claim to be its founder. Mr. Rigdon lived near to and was intimate with Mr. Stiles [sic - Engles?], who was foreman for a publisher of the name of Patterson. There was, moreover, a Mr. Spaulding, a Presbyterian minister, residing at Conneaut in Ohio. Mr. Spaulding wrote what he called a religious novel, after the style of the Bible, and put it into Mr. Patterson's hands for publication. Mr. Patterson places it in the hands of Mr. Stiles, to read and decide whether it would pay to publish it. Mr. Stiles intrusts the reading to Rigdon, who remarked to Mr. Winter, from whom I have the facts, while reading it, "I have a smart book in hand."

Subsequently Mr. Stiles died, and also Mr. Spaulding. Mr. Patterson in the meantime lost sight of the book until called upon by Mrs. Spaulding, who traveled all the way from her home on horse-back to inquire concerning her husband's book. It could not be found. Soon after, Rigdon goes to the State of New York, falling in with Joe. Smith, who claimed to have found certain plates. Smith interprets, and Rigdon plays amanuensis. The result was the so-called Mormon Bible. The Bible thus published was the novel written by Spaulding, with a few alterations made by Rigdon. That [the] Mormon Bible is the Spaulding novel has been verified by Mrs. Spaulding and others, who had read it before it; came into, the hands of Mr. Patterson.

Note 1: The above article was evidently reprinted from an early July, 1864 issue of The Chronicle, the Baptists' New York City weekly newspaper, formed at the end of 1863 by the merger of the New York Chronicle and Philadelphia's Christian Chronicle. It was succeeded in mid-1865 by The Examiner and Chronicle, which lasted until 1881. Most libraries (such as the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, in Louisville), probably have the 1864 issues shelved as part of the run of the latter title. No copy of its 1864 "Baptists" article has yet been located for proper transcription.

Note 2: The point of pivotal importance related in the above account is that "Mr. [Sidney] Rigdon lived near to and was intimate with" the "foreman for a publisher of the name of Patterson." To this assertion the unidentified narrator attaches the name "Mr. Stiles." The only known publishing professional who even remotely fits this description is Thomas Truxton Stiles, Sr. (1784?-1831), who was a partner with Silas Engles (1781-1827) in the 1804 Philadelphia printing firm of "Engles and Stiles." That partnership printed and published the first American edition of Alexander Gerard's An Essay on Taste that year, but was soon dissolved. Both of the former partners then printed separate editions of two Thomas Branagan books, and thereafter had no known connection, professional or personal. The logical conclusion to be drawn from these facts is that the writer of the 1864 account confused T. T. Stiles with his old partner Mr. Engles, (Stiles never worked with Patterson in Pittsburgh, but Engles did). For more on Thomas T. Stiles and Silas Engles, see notes attached to the Republican Advocate clipping of Jan. 3, 1810.

Note 3: The 1864 narrator claimed to have received his "facts" from a certain "Mr. Winter," who at some point in the past was engaged in a conversation with Sidney Rigdon, and Rigdon then remarked: "I have a smart book in hand." Again, there is only one known associate of Sidney Rigdon who might have later related such a conversation, and that was Elder John Winter (1794-1878) who in 1823 became Rigdon's successor in the pastorate of the First Baptist Church in Pittsburgh. Elder Winter was described thusly by Lawrence Greatrake, the next pastor in that same church: "John Winter -- a Fullerite baptist minister... the tenor of whose life, (and the tenor of a man's life is the righteous standard of judgment of him,) we fearlessly proclaim to be, when compared with your's [Alexander Campbell's], in mental integrity and moral principle, a crystal stream in contrast with an Ocean of Mud."

Note 4: John Winter was subsequently mentioned (two decades after the appearance of the Chronicle report), as an old associate of Sidney Rigdon, who had seen just such "a religious novel" in Rigdon's keeping, at Pittsburgh in late 1822 or early 1823: "During a portion of the time when Sidney Rigdon was pastor of the First Baptist Church in Pittsburgh, Dr. Winter was teaching a school in the same city, and was well acquainted with Rigdon. Upon one occasion during this period, 1822-23, Dr. Winter was in Rigdon's study, when the latter took from his desk a large manuscript and said in substance, "A Presbyterian minister, Spaulding, whose health had failed, brought this to the printer to see if it would pay to publish it. It is a romance of the Bible."

Note 5: If these two recollections of Elder Winter's assertions are added together, they portray Elder Sidney Rigdon receiving the loan of a Spalding manuscript for a "religious novel" -- or, at least for "a romance of the Bible," which he later discussed with Elder John Winter. Assuming these accounts are true, Rigdon received this document from "foreman for a publisher of the name of Patterson," as a delegation of the duties of his [Silas Engles'] c. 1812 work assignment: "to read and decide whether it would pay to publish it." Engles was indeed acting as just such a trusted "foreman printer" for Patterson, c. 1811-1818 (see the 1842 statement of Robert Patterson). Engles was also reported to have had some connection with Sidney Rigdon at Pittsburgh, both during Spalding's life and as late as a decade thereafter. See also notes appended to an article in the Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette of Feb. 17, 1879.

Note 6: The 1864 Chronicle correspondent claimed that "Subsequently Mr. Stiles [sic - Engles?] died, and also Mr. Spaulding. Mr. Patterson in the meantime lost sight of the book until called upon by Mrs. Spaulding, who traveled all the way from her home on horse-back to inquire concerning her husband's book. It could not be found..." This report seems to conflict with a 1876 account provided by Elder William Small, who said of Spalding's manuscript: "after it had laid there [on a second occasion with Rev. Patterson] for some time, and after he had due time to consider it, he determined not to publish it. She [the Widow Spalding] then came and received the manuscript from his hands, and took it away." Robert Patterson, in his 1842 statement, said: "He (the author) failing to comply with the terms, Mr. Engles returned the manuscript, as I supposed at that time, after it had been some weeks in his possession with other manuscripts in the office." In his 1857 letter on this topic, Spalding's old neighbor, Cephas Dodd said: "I have understood that Mr. S[palding]. had submitted his manuscript to Revd. R. Patterson of Pittsburg [who] was connected in a printing office & Bookstore with a view of having it published -- and of course that must have been before he came to Amity as he still had it here. Mrs. S. went after his death to N. York State and I suppose carried the M. S. with her."


nsVol. I.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, November 3, 1864.                             No. 44.


A member of one of our Philadelphia congregations now in Great Salt Lake City, writes to his pastor as follows, under date of September 10th, via San Francisco:

On the Sabbath following his arrival, Dr. Kendall preached us a powerful sermon in the Mormon tabernacle here, by invitation of President Brigham Young. The audience was very large, consisting of all or nearly all the Gentiles in this place and a numerous addition of Latter Day Saints. They were uniformly attentive and respectful. Dr. Kendall left, I think, impressed with the practicability of establishing a mission here. As, however, he probably intends to communicate his observations and impressions through the proper channels, details may well be left to him.

As every system; whether social, moral or religious, is much influenced by the physical nature of its location, it may not be improper to add a few words respecting the Great Basin and the remarkable fanaticism here.

The Great Basin as it is called is situated between the Wasatch and Rocky Mountains, in the form of an ellipse, with the major axis extending from 37 1/2 to 41 1/2 deg. of north latitude, about 250 miles, and its minor axis extending about 130 miles in length. The bottom of the basin consists of a series of valleys, the finest of which is Utah; none of them less than 41000 feet above the level of the sea. The sides of this remarkable physical structure are composed of a chain of mountain wall all around, from 8,000 to 12,000 feet high, and wholly unbroken except by a few ravines or canyons, as they are called here. The supply of water in the basin is inadequate to the requirements of extensive agriculture or manufactures; nor can it be materially increased by any existing natural laws, for the oceans, which are the only possible sources of such increase, are 1000 and 2000 miles distant, and the surrounding mountain barrier rises far higher than the watery vapor ever ascends in any considerable quantity, and thus hermetically excludes all accessions of water from without. Not more than an annual average of six inches of water falls in the valleys of the basin in all the forms of rain, snow and hail. With an evaporation of extraordinary intensity, cultivation of the soil in any form requires an aggregate distributive supply of at least thirty inches of water per annum. The difference must be supplied from the rivers and mountain streams.

The rains which are attracted by the masses of the mountains fall much more abundantly on their declivities than in the valleys. Rain clouds sometimes come in collision with the mountains, producing stupendous water-falls, whose local dynamic effects are not unlike earthquakes. The mountain streams and rivers owe their existence to the rains and snows which fall at elevations considerably above the valleys, much more abundantly than below.

Wheat, barley, oats and Indian corn, with the various fruits and vegetables, are produced in various parts of the valleys in tolerable quantity and quality. Chinese sorghum and the more hardy varities of grapes especially do well. All these, however, require laborious and expensive irrigation.

Coal, iron, copper, lead, sulphur, sodium, nitre, antimony and rock salt, with several kinds of potters' clay, are found in many places -- some of them in much abundance -- all of them in quantities sufficient perhaps to supply ultimate wants. The coal is a good medium between the cannel and bituminous coals.

Signs of gold and silver are numerous and promising. Explorers have been active. Much has been said and written of the abundance of both of these metals in the Territory of Utah. I am not aware, however, that their existence here in any very large masses has yet been verified. The question must soon be determined by agencies now in operation.

The most interesting object in the Great Basin is Great Salt Lake, an inland sea of no apparant outlet, somewhat larger than the State of New Jersey, whose waters are so completely saturated with saline matter as to yield, by evaporation, one-third their own bulk of dry salt. The Jordan, Weber and Bear, three considerable rivers, supply the waters of the lake. The waters of these streams are supposed to be entirely pure, and the question is whence the lake acquires its salt. The truth is, these rivers carry in solution chlorine and sodium, which are the table of animal life. It contains several considerable mountain islands, which rise several thousand feet above its waters. The waters of the lake which are forced over its banks by the winds into the neighboring depressions, there evaporate and annually produce many thousand tons of good table salt. The nearest part of the lake is ten miles from this [city].

The condition of the Mormons here, as may be inferred from the above, has heretofore been one of hard labor and isolation -- neither of them, perhaps, favorable to social or moral change. The development of rich gold and silver mines, and the construction of the Pacific railway would powerfully aid in destroying this Mormon fanaticism, by attracting an unMormon element here, and placing it in conflict with the other sentiment.

The moral results of the Pacific railway, would, for many reasons quite obvious here on the western slope of the country, be greater even than the physical.

The Mormon population here may be 60,000, with, perhaps, an equal number in other parts of the world. All the Mormon population and power are rapidly concentrating in the Great Basin, and here this remarkable fanaticism must find its solution, if at all, either by the mild agencies of Christian reform, or by the sterner processes of war and social convulsion.

Mormonism is, as already stated, a system of fanaticism, whose characteristic is the impious effrontery of its claim to infallibility. Tested by Christianity, its prevarications are revolting to decency and common sense. The deity of the Mormons is infinite in but one of his attributes, duration. He has been and still is progressive. Mormonism has not explained how divine perfection is reconcilable with progress at all, nor when and how he is to become perfect whom eternity still leaves in a state of progression. The Mormon deity is superior to the Mormon man, only in duration; and even this is left doubtful by the system, which rejects the Biblical doctrine of human creation, and adopts the dogma of pre-existence of the human soul -- a dogma as inconsistent, perhaps with any established condition of human nature as it has been found insoluble by the human mind.

The origin of man Mormonism leaves in doubt. Creation, according to this system, was nothing more than the fabrication of bodies for souls, pre-existent in states of transmigration in some way, unexplained of course, for infinite periods. The Mormon man is rapidly progressive, and in the course of his development may become deific in his attributes. He may create, modify, or destroy worlds. Mormons claim miraculous power. Brigham Young claims to be the standard of Mormon excellence, and the reason, I am told, which he assigns for not exercising his miraculous powers in healing the sick, and raising the dead, is the want of faith among men.

Happiness, according to the Mormon system in the future state, consists in enjoyment -- misery in want of it. Thoughts or actions in this life are of no other consequence than as they establish certain habits or susceptibilities, which follow the human being and which he will not be able to gratify in the life to come. Thus, the Mormon murderer will suffer only because he cannot gratify his murderous propensities, in the life to come -- so of the drunkard, the theif, &c., &c. To the adulterer the system is more accomodating.

Brigham Young claims to be equal to the Mormon deity, and many Mormons have been expelled from the connection for denying it. Other Mormon leaders share his excellence, but in an inferior degree. They surpass all men who are not Mormons, but they are inferior to Brigham.

The only office of the Mormon woman is to minister to the passions of man. This she does according to the system, both in the present and in the life to come. No Mormon woman can be happy in the future state unless she marries some man in this. The woman is in duty bound to marry, even if the marriage be spiritual and nothing more. The death of one party in this life suspends the marriage; but it is renewed on the death of the other, in the life to come. The ruling attributes of the Mormon system are lust, avarice and ambition. Brigham Young is the prototype of the true Mormon, and he is noted here for his overgrown wealth unscrupulously acquired, for his score or more of wives and his arbitrary exercise of power

The Mormon system is one of diabolical malignity. Gentiles are those not Mormons, and the Mormon system teaches that no faith need be kept with any such by its professors. Falsehood, deception, spoilation and murder are allowable for the Mormon towards the Gentile.

As early as 1836, the Danite Mormon band was organized, consisting of a body of Thugs, or murderers, pledged by the most atrocious rites, to execute the mandates of the Mormon leaders. Many Gentiles and contumacious Mormons have undoubtedly fallen by their hands.

One effect of the Mormon system is disloyalty to our Government. This sentiment is said to have had its origin in a foolish rhapsody of Jo. Smith delivered about the time of our troubles in 1832 or '33. I have seen this production, and contemptible as it is, both in thought and expression, it cannot, by any legitimate construction be made to predict the overthrow of the United States. This however, is its interpretation as made by the Mormon leaders; and as it is alleged by them to have been delivered under Divine inspiration, its effect has been most prejudicial to the political sentiments of the Mormon followers.

Jo. Smith declared that the Mormons would some day conquer and govern the United States. The Mormons openly declare that the Constitution of the United States is of Divine authority, having been framed under heavenly inspiration, and that the national power is destined to revert to them (the Mormons,) who are to govern the country in accordance with this Divine charter.

At both the courts in this district, a rule was adopted in April last, requiring every applicant to swear, before admission as a citizen of the United States, that he had done no act in violation of the Act of Congress of 1862, against polygamy. Erastus Snow, a Mormon and formerly a United States judge, on argument of a motion for the admission of Broadhurst, an Englishman, who could not thus swear, declared that the day would soon come when the Mormons would pass judgment upon the government and people of the United States.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, November 17, 1864.                          No. 94.

THE MORMONS ALL REBELS -- THEIR POWER BREAKING DOWN. -- The readers of The Press recollect the refusal of Brigham Young to relinquish the post of Governor of Utah, the march of colonel (afterwards rebel General) Johnson, and the treaty with Young. But this treaty bound none but those who made it, and in October, 1862, Gen. Connor, with a brigade, was sent to Utah, making no treaties, enforced the commands of our Government in Utah, and beat the Indians on the Bear river, thus opening the gold regions of Idaho and Montana, and camped his army on a plateau overlooking Salt Lake City, where his artillery could make the adobe houses a mass of pottery at any provocation. When he first entered the city, the prophets, little and large, declared he could never pass the Jordan, small stream flowing into Salt Lake at their city. They said that Brigham had power from God to stop the whole command, and make further approach fatal. But, heedless of all these and other means used to stop him, with flags flying and drums beating, his command crossed the Jordan, entered the city, and the heavens did not fall. Since then he has kept them in perfect.subjection. They hate him for it, and if money could move, or the earth and heaven, they would move them to have him removed. They are all rebels. Their current, open preaching has been treason for some time. Heber Kimball has announced again -- and again to the vast audiences in the Bowery that the "United States are no more." On the authority of Godwin a prophecy of Joseph Smith, he has assured the Mormons that the North and South would annihilate each other, and they should take possession of the country; "and," said the impure vagabonds and ruffians, "what will you do with the wives and daughters whom they leave What? Why put them to raising children!" This was said in the presence of Governor Harding himself, who was seated on the platform near Brigham at the meeting. And an old fanatic and savage, whose pronunciation showed his foreign origin, cries out, with joy at this annunciation of the destiny of our American women to Mormon polygamy, "Ha-men!" But Gen. Connor's chief hope of disarming the Mormon opposition to his government is in the mines, of which the adjacent mountains are full. There is one blast furnace already in operation, saw-mill building to make lumber for more, and he hopes in a year or two to bring in a population of fifty thousand miners, so that the political power will pass into the hands of loyal citizens, and from that hour the supremacy of Mormon priests must fall, as nothing but the most terrible and stringent despotism can keep the Mormon masses in subjection to their stupid, mindless, and senseless superstition.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, February 16, 1865.                            No. 261.

REMARKABLE SILVER MINES IN SOUTHERN UTAH. -- The following account of marvelously rich silver mines in Southern Utah is from the St. Joseph Herald and Tribune of November 1:

Mr. John Harris, of this city has recently returned from Meadow Valley, Utah Territory, where he has been for several months past. This valley is about three hundred miles in a southerly direction from Great Salt Lake City, and about one hundred miles, from the head of navigation on the Colorado river. The silver mines located here are of incalculable value, the ore being so rich as to be malleable under the hammer. Assays made in San Francisco, Salt Lake City and New York prove it to be worth more than the famous Washoe Lodes. General Connor is keenly alive to the wealth of this section, and has located his great road from Salt Lake City to the Colorado river through it. Brigham Young will bring his people from Europe up this river hereafter, and not through this State. Many circumstances indicate the coming importance of these mines as better than any before known.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                             Philadelphia, Friday, March 3, 1865.                            No. 274.

PROSPECTIVE TROUBLE IN UTAH. -- The Colorado News states that, recently, General Connor established a provost guard in Salt Lake City for the purpose of preventing disorder. Brigham Young demanded that they should be removed, and made preparations to attack them; and was only deterred from doing so by General Connor's turning his guns on Brigham's harem and throwing shells over the city to the country beyond, and telling him if he wanted the provost guard removed he must remove them. The guard remained, but the discontent remained also, and the News thinks it probable it will soon break out in acts of violence that will bring the Federal authorities into conflict with those of the semi-ecclesiastical Government of the Territory -- a collision that will inevitably lead to a condition of actual war. Gen. Connor apprehends this, and is making preparations accordingly.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                             Philadelphia, Tuesday, March 7, 1865.                            No. 278.

BRIGHAM YOUNG, in a recent sermon, said -- "The North prays that their swords may strike into the heat of every rebel, and I say, amen! and the South prays that the North may be cut down on a thousand battle-fields, and again I say, amen!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XVIII.                             Philadelphia, Thursday, March 9, 1865.                            No. 280.

TROUBLE is brewing in Utah. General Connor lately establisfied a provost guard in Salt Lake City to keep order, and Brigham Young demanded its removal. Connor turned his guns upon Brigham's harem and told him he must remove them himself if he wanted to. Brigham didn't venture to attack them, but he is very growly about it.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                             Philadelphia, Friday, May 12, 1865.                            No. 27.

OIL IN UTAH. -- In Utah the Mormons have found oil, and the Deseret News states that a well is to be sunk this season on Sulphur Creek. Coal oil is said to be §12 per gallon at Salt Lake City. Brigham Young opposes the development of the gold and silver mines, but is willing to have any one strike oil.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                           Philadelphia, Saturday, July 29, 1865.                          No. 229.





(From Our Special Travelling Correspondent.)

Paradise, U, T., June 20,1865.


It was a calm and beautiful morning in the month of May, as the stage-coach drove up into the beautiful capital of the Territory of Utah, on the great Salt Lake. I found the citizens very much excited, and gathered together in groups at the street corners, while a vast throng, male and female, were wending their way to the Temple. Of course, I joined the multitude, and soon was safely seated in the vast audience-chamber. A sturdy, sunburnt old man, of about sixty winters, occupied a prominent position on the stage in the foreground, while a sharp, thin, wiry-looking individual was haranguing the people, who testified their appreciation of his discourse by occasional shouts and loud cheering. His remarks were in substance as follows:

(Note: The remainder of the presumed "correspondence" was meant as comic parody of Mormon preaching and is not an actual report.)


Brethren: The red men are chalking their countenances more and more every year, and the pale face is drawing the line nearer and nearer to the shore, and our progenitors will soon be wiped out. Our dear Brigham Young, that worthy father of his country's children, will soon cover the land with worthy sons and daughters of a very riotous sire, and the eagle of peace will flap his wings with joy at the advent of a young republic.


A new flag has already been adopted. It is rectangular in shape, and made of yellow and red flannel. Two black bars cross in the centre, and are ornamented with chickens' claws tipped with silver. A heavy fringe, composed of wild cats' tails, surrounds the whole. The design of the flag is very suggestive. The rectangular shape makes a neat affair; the yellow and red denote a commingling of the Norman and aboriginal, while the black bars in the centre denote the final destination of our American Africans, who will flock to our stronghold and cover it from one end to the other. The chickens' claws denote the heavy time they will have to scratch enough food to keep the Republic together, while the silver tips indicate its future wealth. The wild-cats' tails indicate the manner in which the country will be steered swiftly and cautiously through all times of trial by an unseen yet powerful agency.


It is proposed also to erect a monument in memory of the gallant and glorious founder of the Republic. It will be built in the Washington style of architecture, composed principally of mud and marble, and will tower upwards to the height of several feet. A magnificent flag-staff of burnished steel will be placed on the apex, and the glorious emblem of the young nation will wave fearlessly in the breeze. No generals or militiamen of any kind will guard the purity of the Commonwealth. The women do all the voting, and the children fill all the offices of trust and profit.


The Blair family will not be admitted into this young nation, as they desire to live at peace with the rest of mankind. Conspirators of all kinds are mildly requested to stop at home. Army contractors will not be tolerated. The national airs have not yet been adopted. There will be no States, and consequently no rights to quarrel about. Steam engines are forbidden the freedom of the cities, and passenger cars must not run off the track when colored persons get on board. Cabinets must not be broken up on any account, and treason of different sorts, mild and strong, will be severely punished. Bands of all kinds, musical or pilferical, must be broken up at all hazards. Match girls and match-making mammas are deolared a nuisance. Animals of all kinds must be muzzled. Birds are specially requested not to sing on Sunday. The breeze will stop blowing, and the sun will stop shining for the accommodation of the public. The cologne trade will be entirely abolished, and all waterfalls have been leased out to enterprising mill-men to grind corn for the people. We shall be a great nation in a few years.


We are independent of everything, and ask no favors; no sugar-coated gentry can lord it over us. A grand invitation has been extended to the whole world to aid us in our enterprise; whole pages of newspapers are covered with our praises, and the prairies are lined with pilgrims to our shores. But the shades of evening are coming upon us, and I must be brief. Our young capital has been appropriately named Paradise, and its elysian fields invite the pleasure seeker to its shelter.


A rising young village is called Macaran, after a distinguished citizen of the Commonwealth. Baby, Crosspatch, Spookendoodle, Duckey, Youreabrick, and Howareyou, are some of the principal towns. Let us all put our shoulders to the wheel, and work diligently for the grand advancement of the new republic, and show to the world that our Government is conducted in the only true way to advance the interests of a great nation, and raise it to honor, wealth, and renown.

He ceased, and his audience remained spellbound; then, as if by magic, the vast assemblage sprang to their feet and united, in a grand shout of "Viva la [Young?] -- Viva la Republique!" and then slowly dispersed.


To me, a perfect stranger, the scene was peculiarly interesting. I retraced my steps to my stopping place, and sat musing on the events of the day until I fell into a deep slumber, from which I was suddenly aroused by a sharp, stinging pain in my lower limbs, and a horrid growl from some animal, in a crouching position, at my feet. I tried to change my position, but was greeted by another howl from my unknown foe. Lights sprang out from the door and windows, and there, lying before me, was a young panther getting ready for another spring upon my poor person. It proved to be a pet of my worthy host. He had been securely fastened (as they thought) in the back part of the premises, but had managed to escape from his prison house; and, I being a stranger in the scene, was thus made the victim of his displeasure. But the Salt Lake mail will soon leave, and I have only time to say, "Come and see us, at Young. Direct all letters to Paradise, via Butterfield's Overland Despatch, and they will reach us safely. Until then, I am, as ever yours,       MORMONICUS.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Monday, November 27, 1865.                         No. 192.



Interesting Facts About United States Officials.

The Mormons Preparing to Resist the National Authorities.
How Brigham Young Controls Political Affairs.

(Correspondence New York Times.)

Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, Wednesday, Oct. 4, 1865. -- There are three governments in Utah, each of which extends over the whole Territory, in form, if not in fact -- the Territorial Government, organized by virtue of the organic act of Congress; the government of the so-called State of Deseret, of which Brigham Young is Governor; and the government of the Church, of which Brigham Young is First President, the anointed of the Lord, and the supreme head. The Church confines its control, not to things eternal and celestial, but extends to all the relations of life and business; to family affairs, and to the fixing of the price of commodities for sale. Nothing is beneath its care, and nothing is above its power. This Church has larger and more positive powers than were ever claimed by the Church of Rome in the dark ages.

So far as relates to power, it has, by irrevocable revelation, been placed in the hand of one man, the Lord's anointed. The Territorial Government is a fiction; it is without vitality and power. None but Mormons are sent to the Legislature. It the Governor vetoes laws passed, the Legislature of the State of Deseret can pass them, and Governor Young gives them his sanction, and they are laws for the State, when they failed to be so for the Territory. The laws of the State of Deseret are not published, but kept among the secret archives.

A Territorial Supreme Court was an inconvenient thing, until the ingenuity or inspiration of the anointed, aided by the flexible morality of a Democratic Governor, surmounted the inconvenience, when the shackles of the law fell from every man in the Territory. A court of paramount jurisdiction, called the Probate Court, was established by Territorial legislation, and Congress has never interfered with it. This court and its juries can be trusted, and the Supreme Court is without business.

The kindness of the government to this Territory and its people is proverbial. A long time ago it appointed a Mormon by the name of Stout, District Attorney. He has never presented himself before the court or before any judge thereof. It the man had a good excuse for not coming, when he had married a wife, this Mr. Stout has six good excuses, as he has six wives. He may have thought Judge Titus might take it into his head to charge the Grand Jury on the act of Congress of 1862 relating to polygamy. He showed his shrewedncss by stating away and not appointing a substitute, as the court has no power to appoint a prosecutor in his stead, and, therefore, no criminals can be prosecuted in the Supreme or District Courts of the Territory.

The Government has hero a Collector of Internal Revenue for the Territory, in the person of a Mr. Burton, a belligerent Mormon and confidant of Brigham Young. Under him, (B.Y.,) he holds the following offices: Sheriff of Salt Lake County, Assessor and Collector of the County and Territory, Member of the City Council and Adjutant General of all the forces of the Church and the State of Deseret. All of those offices are of great importance, and comprise more powers than your room will allow for explanation. He has six offices; he has six wives.

Mr. Little, another of Brigham's confidante, is Assessor of United States Internal Revenue. He is also Counsel of the Board of Bishops, Colonel in Brigham's army and member of the City Council. He has four offices; he has four wives.

Mr. McKane is Assistant Collector under Burton, holds an office in Brigham's military system, and has three wives.

Mr. Simmons is Assistant Assessor under Little; is an actor in the theatre belonging to the Church or Brigham Young, and has three wives.

All these government officials, including Mr. Stout, the District Attorney, hold military offices under Brigham Young, and for a long time have been actively engaged in the business of arming and drilling the forces of the Church of Latter Day Saints for the great battle of Armageddon. This force is headed by an Englishman, an enemy of the United States, Gen. Ross. His duty is designated by the title of his office -- Drill-Master-General of all the militia of the Church and the State of Deseret.

I now will speak of the most important United States official incumbent in the Territory -- the Postmaster of Salt Lake City. Mr. Stenhouse, an Englishman, is the man. He went through the forms of naturalization after his appointment as Postmaster before a court that has no jurisdiction to naturalize. Like the other United States officials I have named, he has prosecuted the first duty of a man in Deseret, raising families. He has but two wives. By the first he has eight children, by the second, one. He took his second wife after he had taken the oath to support the constitution and laws of the United States, and long after the passage of the act of Congress prohibiting polygamy. For a long time he denied his second marriage. But after about nine months and the declaration of the first matrimonial dividend, denial was changed into admission. Such dividends are sometimes stubborn but noisy little things.

I wish to say something about the collection of internal revenue -- that little matter in which must people in the United States take an interest, about these days. Are the revenues fairly assessed and collected in this Territory? I cannot answer; but I can draw an inference and make a guess. The population of Utah is estimated by Brigham Young at over 100,000 souls. Prosperity has prevailed during 1864 and 1865, thus far, to an unusual degree. A few Sundays since, one of the preachers in the great Tabernacle here said: "The fact, brethren, is, all of our people are fast becoming rich." He had just returned from a tour through the Territory, and spoke from personal observation. One man, a merchant in this city, last year cleared over $400,000, and all the merchants were correspondingly prosperous. All of this people are compelled to pay into the hand of Brigham Young a tithe of all they earn, grow, make or have. This tithe, in the gross, must be immense. From all the settled parts of the Territory may be seen continually, in the day time, passing through the big gateway in his high and massive wall, wagons loaded with various products for the capacious barns and granaries of the "Lord's Anointed." The products of this Territory are too various to be enumerated here; one item this year will be over 100,000 pounds of cotton. This tithe received by Brigham Young must be income. Is it assessed properly and the assessment collected? I guess not. The amount assessed for the whole Territory, to be collected, is about $38,000. The Territory of Colorado last year paid into the Treasury of the United States over $100,000, and this year it will pay over $90,000, and these have been years of disaster to Colorado. I obtained these facts from Mr. Brown, the Collector of that Territory. Colorado is not half as old a Territory as Utah, and no man claims for it a population of over 20,000. I now leave the question to be answered by others as to whether or not the revenue is properly collected in Utah.

In one of Brigham's sermons he said: -- "The man that sells liquor, and thinks to escape damnation, fools himself." He has, however, changed his sentiments on this subject, and has determined to save the whole class of liquor vendors from so hard a fate, by taking the damnation upon himself alone. He has forbidden all to sell, and has opened a bar himself, the only bar in Salt Lake City. He claims and exercises the sole right to sell liquor by wholesale or retail.

Notwithstanding the risk of being too long, I will say a few things plainly. I know their truth.

This people, under the advice of their leaders, are preparing for resistance, even to war, against any interference with what they call their religious faith. They anticipate no interference, except from the United States. The burden of their speeches and sermons everywhere is to arm for the coming contest. They are arming. Brigham Young has just returned after a tour of four weeks with his military staff and speech-makers. I have carefully perused the letters written from this expedition and published in their paper here, giving accounts of speeches and military drills and reviews. These only confirm what I have heard myself from Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and others. War, open or concealed, their voices alike do not dissuade.

Their faith, as appears from all they say, and all they act, is reduced to but one item -- polygamy. This is the only thing they talk of fighting for, and it is the only item the leaders care a rush for.

It is my firm belief that in the Spring of 1861, South Carolina was more loyal to the Union than Utah is to-day. The character of the leaders and the followers in both have a striking resemblance. In both the first created and commanded the latter. Utah was the first to go through with the solemn farce of declaring its little self independent of the United States. This was done as long ago as August, 1857, when Brigham Young, in the Tabernacle of Latter Day Saints, in Salt Late city, rising in the midst of his worshippers, declared, in the name of the Lord of Hosts, that the umbilical cord that united this Territory with the United States was then and there cut, and said amen! and all the congregation said amen! After this was formed the government of the so-called independent State of Deseret, with Brigham Young as its perpetual Governor. This government has never been surrendered. The so-called State of Deseret, as a community, is in open rebellion against the United States; and the people, under the command of their leaders, are in open rebellion against the laws of the United States.

During the short stay of Mr. Speaker Colfax in this city, he received a formal visit from Brigham Young, at the Salt Lake House. While they were sitting together upon the sofa, Brigham asked the following question: "Mr. Colfax, what kind of a delegate did Capt. Hooper make for us in Congress?" Mr. Colfax replied, as any man must have answered, that he knew Capt. H. while in Washington; that he was a gentleman, a business man, of courteous manners, attentive to business, and he thought he had been a good delegate for the Territory. Let it be understood that Capt. Hooper had been appointed by Brigham as a Missionary to Europe, and was making his arrangements to leave. Immediately after Mr. Colfax's reply, Brigham put his arm over Mr. Hooper's shoulder, and asked him, "Captain, how would you like to go to Congress again?" "Very much," said Capt. Hooper, "if you think me worthy." "Well, that is all right," said Brigham. This was in the presence of Messrs. Colfax, Richardson, Bross and Bowles. From that moment Capt. Hooper was looked upon as the successor of Judge Kinney, although his name had never been mentioned in that connection before. His election soon after followed, but merely as a matter of form, the voice of Brigham being the voice of God with the people. Judge Kinney, the former delegate, had endeavored to get an appropriation of $10,000 for government surveys; this was the weight that pulled him down. Brigham wanted no government surveys of lands the Lord had given to his saints. This blunder will not be repeated.

There are many other matters very important, and that should be known in the States, but space will not allow a detail of them. A future occasion will be sought, it what has been already written is given to the public.   DELPHI.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Tuesday, November 28, 1865.                         No. 193.

Hon.  Schuyler  Colfax  On
"Across the Continent."


Our National Resources -- The Pacific Railroad --
The Monroe Doctrine and Mexico --
The Mormons, &c,

A very large and brilliant audience thronged the Academy of Music last evening. The occasion was the delivery of the third lecture of the Press Club's admirable course, by Speaker Colfax. At 8 o'clock the orator was introduced by Mr. E. W. C. Greene, the Chairman of the Lecture Committee of the Club, in a few complimentary terms. The audience heartily applauded the speaker, who thus began:

Address of Mr. Colfax.

He said... that he had noticed in the city papers the announcement that he was about to deliver a great lecture this evening. It would be great only in its length. It would be an attempt to bring before the minds of the audience some scenes and incidents in the long journey across the continent, which consumed four or five months of the last summer and fall. It was he most delightful, instructive and invigorating journey he had ever made....

Mr. Colfax next proceeded to describe minutely his journey to the Pacific ocean and back. He said that for several years be had an almost irresistible longing to visit the Old World and its historic regions; to scale the Alps and travel over vine-clad France, and enjoy the superb sky and scenery of beautiful Italy: to cross over to Russia, visit Siberia, and leave no spot of Europe unvisited. But he thought it was wiser to postpone this trip until he had traveled over his native land, and learned more thoroughly, by actual observation, the grandeur of its more than imperial domain and the vastness of its almost illimitable resources. He had received repeated invitations from numerous friends on the Pacific coast, and these drew his desires more and more in that direction; and when, at the close of our four years' struggle for the salvation of the nation... he concluded to undertake the journey across the face of our country, to view its grand mountains and plains, and explore its beauties, as well as its great natural resources. He was so fortunate as to have with him three gentlemen -- personal friends -- and their little party started forward bent on information as well as pleasure.

They went through all sorts of fatigue. They found the scenery such that it was not in his power to describe, and such that he never could forget. Thirteen thousand miles was the extent of his journey, during which time the party lived on about half rations. They had returned invigorated and pleased with what had been seen. They passed through Colorado, where some of the finest roads in existence were seen. The plains spread before the eye in magnificent canty. It will not be long, he thought, before cities and towns would spring up all over the boundless plains of the West. The prolonged twilight, the clear atmosphere, the exquisite sunlight scenes on these plains, were delightful to look upon. The speaker described the appearance of the Rocky Mountains as they appeared to him on his journey. At Denver he remained for several days, and enjoyed its pure atmosphere and glorious scenery as he never enjoyed anything before. He visited the mining cities, groped his way into the bowels of the earth, studied the machinery of those mines, and drank in instruction at every step. The future destiny of Colorado was pictured in glowing colors.

From Denver the speaker traveled to the north-west, and the journey in that direction was described to be exceedingly dangerous. The Indians were not of the most friendly character. The race of Indians which we read of, in Cooper's novels is entirely extinct, he thought. {Laughter.} The mountain scenery along the journey was described minutely. The mountains were like the ruins of some gigantic cathedral but grander and even more impressive. He indulged in a snow frolic with his comrades in the month of June in these far-off mountains. It was on a beautiful morning while whirling over a rocky road, that he viewed, for the first time, the city of Great Salt Lake, lying in all its beauty before him, and shining like a flourishing garden in the sunlight.

He did not wonder that the Mormons were proud of their city, for it is one of the most beautiful cities with which his eyes had been gladdened. Its fruits, its gardens, its shrubbery, setemed almost like a Palmyra in the desert. He stopped at Camp Douglas, on the prairie, which overlooks the city, and beheld the starry banner of beauty and glory waving in triumph before him, as it waves in unquestioned triumph over the entire republic. Of the peculiar institution which exists there, he would probably speak before he concluded. He was now taking a hurried glance at the face of the country over which he traveled. Between Salt Lake and Sierra Nevada, thirteen ranges of mountains crossed his road. The past and future prospects of mining were also touched upon. Mining in that country, as elsewhere, was a speculation. One company he knew spent half a million of dollars without finding anything, and out of one hundred companies, on one ridge, but twenty pay dividends to their stockholders....

The valleys of California are as fruitful as they are beautiful. Chief among them all is Sonoma, famous for its wines. There, too, we meet the wonder of the continent, the Yo-Semite valley, never trodden by the white man's foot until 1851, and shut in by high walls of rock on every oside. Its romantic beauty and wild sublimity surpass the fondest dreams any of our party had conceived of it. We might have thought of the home of the genius of Solitude. From the cliffs we looked down into the valley eight miles long, and averaging half a mile wide, with the Merced river winding gracefully through its length. On either side rise mountains from three thousand to six thousand feet above the valley itself, and four thousand feet above the sea level. Here are the yellowish granite walls of El Capitan, surmounted with a beautiful dome, grander than the dome of capital or catheral; other rocks rise from the floor of the valley, with scarcely a variation from the perpendicular. Such an aggregation of remarkable mountains fills the soul of the beholder, and awes him with the sublime magnificence of the scene. It seems as it in the creation the rock had been plowed through, and the fragments thrown away. It seemed like the happy valley of Rasselas, where, shut out from the rest of the world, peace and contentment could be found. {Applause.} ...

But we are back to San Francisco. The last good-byes are said, we embark on the steamship Golden City, and move along the Pacific coast, past the shores of California, along the shores of the Republic of Mexico. {Applause.} I call it a republic {cheers} -- I call it a republic, because I recognize no rightful empire there. {Great applause.} Then into the land-locked port of Acapulco, where, three hundred and thirty years ago, Alvarez built the ships with which he sailed to Peru; and finally, when we had sailed 3,300 miles; and our steamer's wheels had made 214,440 revolutions -- I like to be exact-- we cast anchor in the harbor of Panama, and crossed the forty-seven miles of railroad on the isthmus, which is doing an immense business, paying thirty-three per cent, on its large capital, and yet scarcely receiving more than a tenth of its income from the travel between New York and San Francisco. All along the route are the residences of the wealthy inhabitants of the country, who all crowd on their piazzas to watch the passing steamer trains. On the Atlantic side the steamer is waiting; we are onboard, and in six and a half days we are in New York bay.

But the two great topics of the day are the Mormon question and the Pacific Railroad. And first of my individual experience of the Mormons. Concentrated in the valley of Utah, with a population of a hundred thousand people, bound together by a most powerful ecclesiastical system, and under the control of one man, they present an interesting study. They form a compact and powerful organization, but polygamy is their strongest bond of union. Nowhere else in the whole civilized world can they live, and Utah is their only home and only hope. There we heard a discourse in the Bowery by Brigham Young, who defended their system, and said that the Gentiles who did not become Latter-day Saints would remain in eternal misery, while the chosen would possess the earth. He has natural administrative talents, exercising a supervision of the whole church, and his success has proved this. His own wealth shows him a business man, and the industry of the valley shows him to be a good organizer of labor. We called at his house, where he defended his peculiar system, saying that he had a revelation from Heaven commanding him to adopt it. {Laughter.} I told him it placed him in antagonism to the law of the land, and that it would be well for him to have another revelation commanding him to discontinue it. {Laughter.} He said he would be glad to get such a revelation. His conversation impressed us with the idea that he would soon have to give it up or to array himself against the Government.

Visiting among the Gentile people there, they told us that this conversation had been reported through the streets, until it had grown to such a magnitude that it was commonly believed among the people that the Government had sent me to instruct Young to have a revelation to discontinue it, and caused great excitement.

Soon after we left, an editorial appeared in the daily Mormon paper, stating this conversation, and then in a paragraph evidently written or inspired by high authority in the church, declaring their readiness to defend their peculiar institution with their lives if need be. I did not see much of the Mormon women to ask their views of the system. Their religion teaches that no woman can enter heaven except through married life. The "Gentile'' ladies all tell me that the experience of those living in plurality, who are at all possessed of refinement, is indeed unhappy. How is this to be prevented? No jury there can convict a man, controlled as it would be by the Mormon church. The growing army of children with which Salt Lake City is swarming, are being educated to consider it as heaven-inspired. But they should be taught that there is a limit to pretended revelations, and that the Government cannot permit these so-called revelations to conflict with the laws of the United States. This line is being drawn by many of the Mormons themselves, who are seceding from the church, and journeying from its jurisdiction.

The law against polygamy should be repealed, or they should be taught that it is a violation of the statutes. No man who practices it should be allowed to hold office under the Government, and an oath to obey that law against it should be required. There are Jews and miners there, and they are all anti-polygamists. It is the only country where the saints are all sinners and the Jews are all Gentiles. {Laughter.} But the whistle of the locomotive will sound its requiem, and the shovel of the miner will dig its grave. {Applause}

But the grandest of all our national measures is the great Pacific Railroad. Always an earnest advocate of that scheme, my Iong journey has convinced me of its incalculable necessity. It is a national necessity, for all are interested in it; it is a political necessity, for it will bind the Atlantic and Pacific States into an eternal bond of union; it is a military necessity, for were we engaged in war with France or England, it is there that our enemies would strike and endeavor to obtain a foothold, and without this great road how long would be the time required to convey troops and stores across the plains. The interests of the nation demand it even in this light....

This grand line of national communication completed, our country will be bound together then as never before. Then the iron horse will speed his way along the rails while the increased facilities will cheapen transportation, and enable the population, with the aid of more complete and easirer attainable appliances, to develop the immense wealth of the mountains with new processes. California will then become, indeed, as our beloved martyr President predicted to me on that day when, having labored so faithfully for us, he was to die for us, that the great far West, with its immense agricultural resources, would become not only the granary of the world, but, with its illimitable mineral wealth, the treasury of the world....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           Philadelphia, Wednesday, November 29, 1865.                           No. ?


The lecture of Hon. Schuyler Colfax, recently delivered in this city, describing his summer trip "across the continent," contained many subjects of great interest in relation to the boundless wealth and resources of our country. There was one subject to which the speaker referred, which requires close attention from every loyal citizen, and in regard to which there must soon be some sort of interference by the United States Government. It is the manner in which polygamy is permitted to flourish in the Territory of Utah as a system, apparently under the protection, certainly without repression by the United States. This legacy of sin comes to us from the Democratic administrations which formerly controlled our national affairs. They coquetted with the Mormon leaders; they allowed them to defy the laws which govern the Territories, and winked at the immoral practices which were increasing in Utah in the name of religion. Had the administration of Mr. Pierce or Mr. Buchanan firmness and moral principle, the polygamous practices of the Mormons would have been prevented at the beginning, and the system, never having had opportunity to grow, would not have assumed the strong and daring front which it now holds in the face of the law. Utah is nominally a Territory of the United States, but practically it is a foreign State. Its inhabitants are bound to a Government which they consider superior to that of the United States, and which, so long ago as 1857, they declared independent of the Union. The state of Deseret yet continues to exercise power within the Territory of Utah. Congress refused to admit that State and organized a territorial Government for Utah, but that Territorial Government is powerless, except in the immediate neighborhood of United States troops.

There is a United States Governor for Utah, a District Judge, a District Attorney, a Postmaster, a Marshal, an Assessor and Collector of Internal Revenue, and such of these officers as are not Mormons hold but empty commissions, and are so hampered that they cannot act. Such of them as are Mormons pay but a limited obedience to the United States Government, and manage their affairs as they are directed by the Church dignitaries. A policy was inaugurated in reference to that Territory under the Democratic Administrations which has placed the Union officers under the control of the ecclesiastical authorities. The Governor (Charles Durkee) and Judge of the District Court (Titus) are "Gentiles," but the District Attorney, Postmaster, Marshal, Assessor and Assistant Assessor, Collector and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue are all Mormons. The latter conduct all the actual business of the Territory connected with the administration of the laws or the collection of revenue. How they do this may be guessed from the fact that although Utah has a population of one hundred thousand persons, all industrious and prosperous, the whole amount of internal revenue for the year 1865 is assessed at $88,000. By way of contrast may be adduced the return of Colorado, with a population of not more than thirty thousand, who, nevertheless, paid last year into the United States Treasury $100,000.

But it is not alone in the matter of revenue and of polygamy that the condition of Utah demands attention. It is clear that the people of that Territory deliberately meditate rebellion. They have been talking of it for years. They have the whole male population under military instruction and well drilled. With the peculiar power over conscience and life which these fanatics grant to Brigham Young, there is no atrocity which the latter may not command them to perform, and which they will not execute according to his wishes. What is to be the solution of this problem is not so easy of suggestion. A war with Utah, in consequence of its remote situation and the difficulty of sending troops thither, would be a more costly experiment than the old Florida war. It would necessitate an immense expenditure of blood and treasure. The best way to deal with the difficulty will be to hasten the construction of the Pacific Railroad, and hem in this peculiar Territory with a civilized and Christian population. Polygamy cannot stand wherever morality is at liberty to compete with it, and to shame it. Could twenty thousand families be sent to Utah, to-day, nnder such protection that they could settle and live there, the rule of the lecherous leaders of Mormonism would be at an end.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Friday, December 15, 1865.                         No. 207.

Wealth of the Mormons.

Lieutenant-Governor Bross, of Illinois, who has been visiting the Mormons, explains the source of their prosperity as follows: "Within the last few years they have grown wealthy. The sources of their riches are easily understood. During all the California emigration, scores, and in some years hundreds and even thousands of emigrants would arrive at Salt Lake with their teams broken down, or half of them dead , and, therefore, unable to proceed. Of course the Mormons were ready, in true Yankee style, to trade good animals for those that were about worn out, pocketing a handsome difference in hard cash. In a few months at most, these broken down animals would be fat and sleek, and Mr. Mormon elder was ready to trade with the next emigrant that came along. Of course, many goods and provisions were sold to emigrants. Within the last four years there has been a great rush of emigration to Montana and Idaho, and the Mormons have been able to sell all their surplus grain and provisions at fabulous prices. With corn at three to six dollars a bushel, and wheat at eight to ten dollars, and provisions of all kinds at proportionate figures, the Mormons have become rich far sooner than any other people upon the continent. Now, the hundred thousand people of Utah give a tenth of all they produce or manufacture to the church. Brigham Young and his elders are the church, and hence the untold wealth they have been able to place in their coffers. Two of the merchants of Salt Lake assured us that their freight bill alone would amount, during the present year, to $150,000."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Saturday, December 23, 1865.                             No. ?


The United States Senate has confirmed the appointment of Chas. Durkee, of Wisconsin, to be Governor of the Territory of Utah. Governor Durkee is already in the Mormon land, and has discovered, no doubt, that his honor is an uneasy one. He may be the United States Governor, but Brigham Young is Governor in fact. Hitherto the representatives of the United States in that Territory have been unable to command respect. The United States District Judge, John Titus, has an office which he cannot exercise, because the United States Attorney-General is a Mormon, and manages affairs so that no business can be brought before the Court. Until a new policy is adopted, and all the offices are given to "gentiles," the United States will receive neither respect nor obedience in Utah. There should also be a strong military force there, to maintain the national authority, Otherwise Utah will be but nominally a Territory of the United States. But this being done, and the emigration to that Territory and those which adjoin it being encouraged, the result will be an overthrow of the hierarchy which how sustains the surviving "twin barbarism." All this may be done peaceably, in time, provided the "saints" do not openly rebel, a contingency which is not improbable.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Philadelphia, Thursday, December 28, 1865.                             No. ?

Wealth  of  the  Mormons.

Lieutenant-Governor Bross, of Illinois, who has been visiting the Mormons, explains the Source of their prosperity as follows: --

"Within the past few years they have grown wealthy. The sources of their riches are easily understood. During all the California emigration, scores, and in some years hundreds, and even thousands of emigrants would arrive at Salt Lake with their teams broken down, or half of them dead, and therefore unable to proceed. Of course the Mormons were ready, in true Yankee style, to trade good animals for those that were about worn out, pocketing a handsome difference in hard cash. In a few months at most these broken down animals would be fat and sleek, and Mr. Mormon elder was ready to trade with the next emigrant that came along. Of course, many goods and provisions were sold to emigrants. Within the last four years there has been a great rush of emigration to Montana and Idaho, and the Mormons have been able to sell their surplus grain and provisions at fabulous prices. With corn at $3 to $6 a bushel, and wheat at $8 to $10, and provisions of all kinds at proportionate figures, the Mormons have become rich far sooner than any other people upon the continent."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Saturday, January 13, 1866.                         No. 231.


Utah occupies such an important geographical position that her political and moral condition is a matter of concern to the whole country. The State of Colorado lies on the east side and the State of Nevada on the west. Both are rich in mineral and other wealth, and both are fast filling up wilh an industrious and enterprising population. On the north lies the territory of Idaho, and on the south that of Arizona, and these, too, will soon be applying for admission into the Union as States. It is an anomaly that a region thus surrounded should have a government that is an absolute despotism, and that under that despotism an immoral institution that is illegal in every other part of the United States, should be maintained in utter defiance of the national authority.

One of "the twin relics of barbarism," slavery, has been abolished. The equally vile and detestable one of polygamy still exists and flourishes. Slavery was only destroyed by a long, bloody and costly war. It is a question whether war should be resorted to in the matter of polygamy. The question of the right to coerce a territory was settled when the right was established to coerce States thatdefied the national authority. But it is not clear that the suppression of the practice of polygamy by military force would be in accordance with a wise policy. We are reducing our army and are not prepared to incur the expense of another Mormon war. Still, some measures should be adopted looking to the abolition of polygamy in a reasonable time, and the Federal government can, without extraordinary cost, take some steps in this direction during the present session of Congress.

It is ascertained that a large proportion of the federal officers in the Territory of Utah are polygamists. This state of things should be put an end to at once, and it should be a test qualification, in all selections for offices under the national government, that the persons to be appointed should not live in utter violation of the moral law of all civilized nations. Fill all the government offices with "Gentiles," and let there be a sufficient military force to protect them, and a beginning of the needed reformation would be made. Then let Congress encourage the immigration into Utah of good miners and agriculturists, who are not Mormons, by liberal offers of land. In that way a population would be introduced that would soon out-vote the polygamists, and the vile, degrading practice could then be put an end to by local legislation.

The time cannot be far distant when Utah will be applying for admission into the Union as a State. It will never be allowed while polygamy exists and is tolerated by the local laws. The Constitution guarantees to every State a republican form of government. But Brigham Young's rule is an absolute despotism, and it must be put an end to before an application for the admission of Utah can be considered. When this fact comes to be well understood by the people of the territory, and when they have increased in numbers by the immigration of those opposed to Mormonism, the institution will be legally abolished.

Brigham Young will be deprived of his power, and no one can succeed to him or usurp a similar power. We are, therefore, not disposed to think that any hasty or severe measures for the suppression of polygamy should be adopted by Congress.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Friday, January 19, 1866.                         No. 236.

From  Washington

(Special Despatch to the Bulletin.)

Washington, Jan. 19. -- ...Brigham Young, backed by all his people, is urging the admission of Utah into the Union as a State. The Territorial Committee have the matter under consideration.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                         Philadelphia, Friday, March 2, 1866.                         No. 272.



...The House went into Committee of the Whole on the Miscellaneous Appropriation bill, Mr. Wentworth in the chair.

Mr. Benjamin (Mo.) moved as an amendment a proviso that no part of the sums appropriated by the act should be expended in violation of the provisions of the act prescribing an oath of office.

Some debate arose on the amendment, in the course of which --

Mr. Brooks, referring to allegations against executive officers lor dispensing with the oath in the late rebel States, suggested that this was not the proper way to remedy the evil, but that gentleman who made the allegations should demand an impeachment of the President of the United States.

Mr. Stevens (Pa.) intimating that the trouble with the Postmaster General, who could find only two thousand persons to fill six thousand offices, who could take the oath, was that he could not find loyal men to sustain the President's doctrine of reconstruction, that being the delusion under which those agents had been acting, it was probably right to adopt the amendment for the purpose of denning clearly what Congress meant.

The amendment was agreed to.

Mr. Windom (Minn.) moved to amend by striking out an item of forty thousand dollars for moneys advanced by Brigham Young to Indians -- an old claim. He claimed that if such moneys were ever advanced by him, it was for hiring the Indians to attack emigrant trains and massacre the emigrants, instancing an attack made upon a train by Indians and Mormons disguised as Indians, when a hundred and twenty men, women and children were murdered in the most horrible manner.

Mr. Stevens defended the appropriation and denounced the spirit influencing this movement as the same which caused the murder of Joe Smith and the expulsion of tbe Mormons from their valley in Illinois. It was a spirit unworthy of a Christian age. He had nothing to say in favor of the general principles of Mormonism, not a word; he was too old for that. He was sorry to see this old cry revived of Indian massacres, which were never proved against the Mormons.

Mr. Washburne (Ill.) also defended the item in the bill, denouncing the allegations alluded to by Mr. Windom as emanating from Judge Cradelbaugh, who had been sent to Utah as a judge by old Buchanan and who induced Floyd's expedition to be sent there, costing the Government ten millions of dollars. The delegate from Utah was absent on account of the death of his daughter. If he were present he could explain the matter.

Mr. Windom fortified his position by the evidence of a captain in the regular army, as to the gentleman's (Mr. Stevens') intimation that he was too old to imitate Brigham Young, reminding him of the case of Lord Palmerston, who was over eighty. {Roars of laughter.}

The amendment was finally agreed to.

Note: It is a remarkable phenomenon -- to discover that members of the U. S. Congress, as late as 1866, were content to believe that there was no Mormon involvement in the massacre of any of the overland emigrant trains that had passed through Utah in years gone by. Perhaps these particular Representatives found such a public stance advantageous to their political (or financial) success in the nation's capital. Or, perhaps they found the evidence compiled and published in 1863 (for their own special reference by "Judge Cradelbaugh" [sic] ) inadequate or unconvincing. The Hon. John Cradlebaugh (1819-1872) was elected to serve as Nevada's Territorial Delegate to the 37th Congress and was a member of that august body from December 2, 1861, to March 3, 1863.


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Saturday, April 28, 1866.                                No. ?


An atrocious murder was perpetrated in Salt Lake City, Utah, on the 27th ult., the victim being Mr. S. N. Brassfield, lately a resident of Nevada. He had undertaken the dangerous and fatal experiment, as it proved, of marrying a Mormon woman, the second wife of one of the polygamous saints, who was abroad. He was married to the woman by a United States Territorial Judge, who held that the man with whom she had been living having already one wife, his so-called marriage to the second was void, and the latter was at perfect liberty to contract a new matrimonial obligation. This attack upon the "religion" of the Mormon adultress seems to have aroused the latter to fury. Brassfield was arrested on his wedding night, while assisting his wife to remove her goods and clothing from the house of the man whom she had lived. The charge against him then was, "resisting an officer." He was kept in prison all night, and next morning was taken before a Mormon official, holding a "Probate Court," and bound over to answer. The next day he was indicted by a Mormon Grand Jury upon two charges -- one for resisting the officer, the other for the larceny of the goods which his wife was about to carry away. He was promptly put upon trial, and the case partly heard. Meanwhile, the wife attempted to get the custody of two children by the Mormon father, but was resisted by the friends of the latter. The mother got a writ of habeas corpus for the children from a United States Judge, and the friends of the father had another issued by the Mormon Court. The United States writ was first executed, and the United States Marshal took possession of the children. The Mormon writ was served upon him, and he refused to obey it, and was threatened with imprisonment, for contempt, by the Mormon justices.

The hearing of the case caused great excitement; it was not ended at the time of the adjournment of the United States Court. Brassfield, the unfortunate husband, left the Court with the United States Marshal, and while going home he was deliberately shot down in the street by a man who was armed with a gun. Brassfield died in about three-quarters of an hour. The assassin ran away and there was no attempt to arrest him by the city (Mormon) police, which it is averred might have been easily done by them if they had desired to do so. The cause of this murder was evident. Brassfield had dared to attack one of the Mormon vices in a peculiarly bold manner. The issue was, whether polygamy or the laws of the United States should be supreme, and the man was sacrificed to the Mormon spirit of lust and beastliness.

It is really time that these people were put under the strict enforcement of military law. They are wicked and defiant. They stop at no crimes to carry out their abominable principles, and since they have been in Utah they have revelled in savage crime and debauchery, and are restrained by no sentiment of humanity or justice in maintaining their objects and attaining their ends. Murder stalks abroad in Utah, and no man's life is safe who dares to assert that polygamy is a barbarism which is a stigma and a disgrace to a Christian land. The attention of the President and of Congress should be earnestly given to the adoption of such measuses as will put down the spirit of assassination which reigns without control in Utah. It has had its way too long. The past history of that Territory is a record of atrocity and crime which, if revealed in all its horrors, would astound the world.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XX.                         Philadelphia, Wednesday, May 30, 1866.                         No. 45.

The  Great  West.

Chief Justice Turner, of Nevada ,delivered an address last evening before the Young Men's Christian Association. His subject was the "New Eldorado, or the Golden Shores of the Pacific.'' He sketched briefly his trip from St. Joseph, Mo., to Carson city, described Fort Kearney, Fort Laramie, South Pass, Fort Bridger, and Salt Lake city. His interview with Brigham Young was graphically described. Over his gate is the emblern of an eagle; his portico a bee hive, his office a couchant lamb, which, being interpreted, are significant of courage, industry and innocence. "How many wives have you, Governor?" he inquired. "Sixty-five, sir," responded the chief of the Saints, "one for each year of my life."   He sketched Fort Bridger, Camp Floyd, thename of which being difficult to pronounce, the Government changed to Camp Crittenden....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XX.                         Philadelphia, Tuesday, July 24, 1866.                         No. 91.


Report of the House Committee on the
Condition of the Territory.

Washington, July 23. -- The House Committee on Territories have made a report on the condition of Utah. They say the testimony discloses the fact that the laws of the United States are openly and defiantly violated throughout the Territory, and that an armed force is necessary to preserve the peace and give security to the lives and property of citizens of the United States residing therein. The only witness introduced at the request of the delegate from Utah admits the necessity of maintaining United States troops in the Territory in order to secure protection and safety to persons and property.

The committee have been unable to adopt the suggestions made by some of the gentlemen examined, for the abolition of the present Territorial government of Utah and the establishment of a military government. They also regret to state that they have been unable to agree upon and submit for the action of the House any plan which seemed to them to promise a practical solution of the abuses and evils complained of and which are admitted to exist. They do not deem it advisable either to divide the Territory and annex it to Nevada and the Territories adjacent, nor do they favor the establishment of a military government. They have, therefore, been compelled to postpone the further consideration of the matter until December next.

On the 18th of June, Mr. Hooper, the delegate from Utah, addressed a letter to the chairman of the committee, in which he denies the statements of some of the witnesses, and asks that no report be made to the House until the people of Utah can be heard in reply to the charges made against them. He also asked for a copy of the testimony already taken, which the committee declined to furnish him. He subsequently appeared before the committee, and requested that a select committee or a sub-committee from the Territorial Committee be sent to Utah by the direction of the House, with authority to examine and report on all the allegations made by the witnesses examined; as also on the condition of all classes residing in the Territory. The Committee were unable to satisfy themselves that any material facts could be obtained even if a sub-committee should go to the Territory. They therefore declined to ask the House to make an order which would necessarily involve a large expenditure of money in sending such a committee to Utah.

Among the witnesses examined was Joseph Smith, the son of the founder of the Mormon Church, who says the Book of Mormon explicitly condemns and forbids polygamy, which was not known, acknowledged, or held as an article of faith until Brigham Young became the leader of that part of the Church which went West with him. The Church did not under the presidency of his father, nor does it now under his (the witness') presidency, teach hostility to the Government of the United States. General Connor, who has been military commander of the department of Utah since 1862, testified that polygamy is taught as a fundamental principle of the Mormon religion, and disloyalty and treason to the Government as a practice enjoined by its tenets. It is regarded by good Mormons as not only allowable but meritorious to assault and despoil the Federal Government in every practicable way. General Connor has no doubt the Mormon leaders have assumed to authorize and justify homicide. He believes it from their own records, from current reports among themselves, and from a Mormon who confessed to him that he had committed murder by direction of the Mormon leaders, and believed at the time he was doing right; as taught by them. As further evidence, the witness submitted the following copy of a special order issued by the advice of Brigham Young, for the murder of eighty innocent men, discharged teamsters from General Johnson's command, then at Fort Bridger, Utah, who were on their way to California. Fortunately the officer designated to execute the order was a humane person, and did not execute it, and lately gave the original order the Federal officer in Utah, and it is now in General Connor's possession. The signature of' James Ferguson is authenticated by the affidavits of two respectable Mormon merchants of Salt Lake City.

The following is a copy of the order --
Salt Lake City, April 9, 1858 -- Special Order. -- The officer in command of the escort is hereby ordered to see that every man is well prepared with ammunition, and have it ready. At the time you see these teamsters a hundred miles from the settlements President Young advises that they should be all killed, to prevent them from returning to Bridger to join our enemies. Every precaution should be taken, and see that not one escapes. Secrecy is required.
         By order of Gen. Daniel H. Wells.
                            JAMES FERGUSON,
                            Assistant Adjutant General.
Other witnesses testified to the demoralized condition of the Mormons.

Note 1: The authenticity of the purported April 9, 1858 "Special Order" has been effectively challenged by knowledgeable historians.

Note 2: In the official report of his testimony before the House Committee, RLDS President Joseph Smith III is quoted as saying: " I wish the committee to understand this -- that there is now, and has been for some years, a well-grounded fear resting upon all persons holding nominal connexion with the church and Brigham Young who have felt restive under his government, that any attempt to openly express their opinions, or to escape from the Territory, would be met by persecutions of various kinds, in some of which the loss of life was not improbable; and this year, coupled with the inadequate enforcement of the laws of the United States in the Territory of Utah, and the easy seduction of officers of the government sent to Utah from the path of right-minded dealing with the people of the Territory, has prevented, and still does prevent the free exercise of the right of speech and action, while a system of 'tangling alliances' has been sought to be enforced upon all professing 'Mormonism' in Utah, that leads me to believe that the property and persons of those dissenting from the rule of Brigham Young in Utah are, and have been, insecure."


nsVol. III.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, December 13, 1866.                          No. 50.

XXXIXth CONGRESS -- Second Session.

... House. -- ... Dec. 6. -- Mr. Eliot, of Massachusetts, offered a resolution, which was adopted, providing for a committee of three to investigate the New Orleans riots. The Judiciary Committee were directed to inquire into the expediency of a law to more effectually punish bribery at elections, and to make persons who purchase votes ineligible to office. A committee was appointed to investigate the murder of three U. S. soldiers in South Carolina on the 6th of October, 1865. The Judiciary Committee were instructed to report a bill excluding ex-rebels from suffrage in the District of Columbia. A bill of last session, in relation to the Territory of Utah, was called up for the purpose of reference. It is a very important measure. Under the simple title of a bill to provide for the selection of grand and petit jurors, it proposes really to abolish polygamy. Among other things, it prohibits the solemnization of matrimony by Mormon priests, and commits that office to the Judges of the United States Court in the District. It also annuls a number of laws of the Territory, under which Brigham Young claims possession of lands, water-courses, etc., belonging to the United States....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XX.                         Philadelphia, Monday, December 24, 1866.                         No. 222.

Utah and the Mormons.

(From the Chicago Journal)

The population of Utah was, in 1860, 40,295. The present maximum estimate is one hundred and fifty thousand, not including United States soldiers nor the miners who go into winter quarters at Salt Lake City. Under ordinary circumstances Utah would have been admitted into the Union long ago, but the conflict of opinion between the local and national authorities on the "peculiar institution" of the Territory is irreconcilable, though perhaps not irrepressible. This conflict, long impending, was first fairly commenced in the 37th Congress, when Utah, or "Deseret," applied for State recognition, and that tody answered the request by passing a bill prohibiting, polygamy in all the Territories, specially naming Utah. It is quite probable that the Mormons had no wish to be admitted, for the real demand of their institution, like that of the one which occasion the late rebellion, is to be let alone.

Brigham Young is a Vermonter of far more than ordinary shrewdness, and he must have seen and must still see that the very existence of Mormonism depends upon its isolation from the "Gentile'' world. Once bring it into contact with Christian civilization and its days would be numbered. When the wave of emigration reaches Utah, Mormonism must perish or migrate. The rumor that Brigham intends to take up his line of march for one of the Pacific islands lacks confirmation, but is highly probable.

Although Congress has never repealed the anti-polygamy law of 1862, it stands, and always has stood, upon our, statute books a mere dead letter. It expresses the national abhorrence of Mormonism, and asserts the right of the Government to interpose for its destruction, but beyond that it has no value. No attempt, even, has ever, to our knowledge, been made to enforce that statute. In Utah Brigham's will is law, judge and jury. The Federal Government is hardly more than a looker-on. The soldiers eat the rations bought in Mormon markets, and the profit that accrues to the "Saints,'' from this source, quite compensates for the annoyance of having "the blue-coated devils," as they are called, quartered among them.

The practical question now before us is, shall we let the accursed thing alone, assured that its destruction will follow close in the footsteps of our on-marching civilization, or shall we lay hands upon it and strangle it, as the infant giant did the serpent that crawled into his cradle? This question has long been under consideration. Congress has often been urged to interpose some effectual measures for cutting out the deadly cancer. This it has, unquestionably, the constitutional right to do, as its unchallenged previous legislation shows. That the Government has also the power to enforce its anti-polygamy enactment, is beyond controversy. It is, then, not a question of power but of propriety.

With Mormonism as a system of religion, if such a "cup of abominations" can be called by that name, the Government has nothing whatever to do; but as a social and political institution, it comes within the scope of legislation. Neither common nor statutory law has anything to do with marriage considered as a "sacrament," but it is, however, as a civil contract, taken cognizance of by all well ordered States. Therefore, the system, which is at war with all the principles and sanctities which give value to the marital relation comes within legal scope. But those who favor the let alone policy hitherto observed practically by the Government toward Mormonism, point to the records of the past, which, it is claimed, establish the position that whatever can be construed into persecution is sure to help the cause against which it is directed. Tertullian, Christian "apologist" of the third century, said "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church," and subsequent developments have confirmed this opinion -- although important exceptions are furnished by the ecclesiastical history of Spain, Italy and France. On the other hand, the history of American Slavery shows that the more that evil was let alone the better it, prospered, until fire and sword were needed to eradicate it. The close analogy between slavery and polygamy -- their only difference being that one is the oppression of a race, the other of a sex -- would indicate that what was demanded in the one case is, or will be, in the other.

But there are strong reasons for supposing that even should Congress and the Executive continue to practically ignore the crime of polygamy, it will yet be short-lived. The great destroyer of polygamy will probably be the Pacific Railroad. From both the East and the West that railroad is making its way towards Utah, and with a rapidity never approached in any previous railway enterprise. Twelve months hence the Eastern branch will have reached the base of the Rocky Mountains, some six hundred miles from Salt Lake City. The Western or California branch will have reached, it is confidently expected, Virginia City, Nevada, which is on the side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, which are said to present far greater difficulties than any other part of the route.

When once Utah becomes united by rail with the great "Gentile" world, the shock will prove fatal to the institution which now blights and disgraces it. The question whether the Government shall interpose and crush out Mormonism is not one, therefore, that presents the practical importance which it would, were it not that the spade which grades the Pacific Railroad is, at the same time, digging the grave of polygamy.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 Philadelphia, Tuesday, February 19, 1867.                                No. ?

Polygamy  in  Utah.

The Legislative Assembly of Utah have petitioned Congress to repeal the act of 1862, providing for the punishment of polygamy in that Territory. In support of their petition they say that there has not been a single case tried under it, and that as the Constitution of the United States prohibits any interference with religion, they have the right to practice polygamy as a part of their creed, that institution being of divine origin. They also assert that polygamy has had a great moral influence in saving the people from prostitution and kindred evils.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XX.                         Philadelphia, Saturday, February 23, 1867.                         No. 273.



Extract from Hepworth Dixon's Book on "New America" --
Personal Gossip Abont Brigham Young abd His Family.

Messrs. J. B. Lippineott & Co. have just published Wm. Hepworth Dixon's "New America," being notes of his travels through this country during his late visit. The book is gotten up in superb style, and illustrated with engravings from original photographs. We extract the following interesting account of the Mormon Theatre, its peculiarities and surroundings:

Outside, this theatre is a rough Doric edifice, in which the architect has contrived to produce a certain effect by very simple means; inside, it is light and airy, having no curtains and no boxes, save two in the proscenium, with light columns to divide the tiers, and having no other decoration than pure white paint and gold. The pit, rising sharply from the orchestra, so that every one seated on its benches can see and hear to advantage, is the choicest part of the house. All these benches are let to families, and here the principal elders and bishops may be seen every play night, surrounded by their wives and children, laughing and clapping like boys at a pantomime. Yon rocking chair, in the centre of the pit, is Young's own seat; his place of pleasure, in the midst of his saints. When he chooses to occupy his private box, one of his wives, perhaps Eliza the Poetess, Harriot the Pale, or Amelia the Magnificent, rocks herself in his chair while laughing at the play. Round about that chair, as the place of honor, cluster the benches of those who claim to stand nearest to their prophet: of Heber Kimball, First Councilor; of Daniel H. Wells, Second Councilor and General-in-Chief; of George A. Smith, Apostle and Historian of the Church; of George Q. Cannon, Apostle; of Edward Hunter, Presiding Bishop; of Elder Stenhouse, editor of the Daily Telegraph; and of a host of less brilliant Mormon lights.

In the sides of the proscenium nestle two private boxes; one is reserved for the Prophet, when he pleases to be alone, or wishes to have a gossip with some friend; the other is given up to the girls who have to play during the night, but who are not engaged in the immediate business of the place. As a rule, every one's pleasure is considered in this model playhouse; and I can answer on the part of Miss Adams, Miss Alexander, and other young artists, that this appropriation to their sole use of a private box, into which they can run at all times, in any dress, without being seen, is considered by them as a very great comfort.

Through the quick eye and careful hand of his manager, Hiram Clawson, the President may be congratulated on having made his play-house into something coming near to that which he conceives a play-house should be. Everything in front of the foot-lights is in keeping; peace and order reign in the midst of fun and frolic. Neither within the doors nor about them do you find the riot of our own Lyceum and Drury Lane; no loose women, no pick-pockets, no ragged boys and girls, no drunken and blaspheming men. As a Mormon never drinks spirits, and rarely smokes tobacco, the only dissipation in which you find these hundreds of hearty creatures indulging their appetites, is that of [sucking] a peach. Short plays are in vogue in this theatre, just as short sermons are the rule in yon tabernacle. The curtain, which rises at eight, comes down about half-past ten; and as the Mormon fashion is for people to sup before going out, they retire to rest the moment they get home, never suffering their amusements to infringe on the labors of the coming day. Your bell rings for breakfast at six o'clock.

But the chief beauties of this model play-house lie behind the scenes; in the ample space, the perfect light, the scrupulous cleanliness of every part. I am pretty well acquainted with green-rooms and side-wings in Europe; but I have never seen, not in Italian and Austrian theatres, so many delicate arrangements for the privacy and comfort of ladies and gentlemen as at Salt Lake. The green-room is a real drawing-room. The scene painters have their proper studios; the dressers and decorators have immense magazines. Every lady, however small her part in the play, has a dressing-room to herself.

Young understands that the true work of reform in a play-house must begin behind the scenes; that you must elevate the actor before you can purify the stage. To this end, he not only builds dressing-rooms and a private box for the ladies who have to act, but he places his daughters on the stage as an example and encouragement to others. Three of these young sultanas -- Alice, Emily, and Zina -- are on the stage. With Alice, the youngest wife of Elder Clawson, I have had the honor to make an acquaintance, which might be called a friendship, and from her lips I have learned a good deal as to her father's ideas about stage reform. "I am not myself very fond of playing," she said to me one day as we sat at dinner -- not in these words, perhaps, but to this effect -- "but my father desires that my sister and myself should act sometimes, as he does not think it right to ask any poor man's child to do anything which his own children would object to do." Her dislike to playing, as she afterwards told me, arose from a feeling that Nature had given her no abilities for acting well; she was fond of going to see a good piece, and seldom omitted being present when she had not to play. Brigham Young has to create as well as to reform, the stage of Salt Lake City; and the chief trouble of a manager who is seven hundred miles from the next theatre, must always be with his artists. Talent for the work does not grow in every field, like a sunflower and a peach-tree; it must be sought for in nooks and corners; now in a shoe-shop, anon in a dairy, then in a counting house; but wherever the talent may be found, Young cannot think of asking any young girl to do a thing which it is supposed that a daughter of his own would scorn. * * *

We saw Brigham Young for the first time in his private box. A large head, broad, fair face, with blue eyes, light brown hair, good nose, and merry mouth; a man, plainly dressed, in black coat and pantaloons, white waistcoat and cravat, gold studs, and sleeve-links, English in build and looks, -- but English of the middle class and of a provincial town; such was the Mormon prophet, pope, and king, as we first saw him in the theatre among his people. A lady, one of his wives, whom we afterwards came to know as Amelia, sat with him in the box; she, too, was dressed in a quiet English style; and now and then she eyed the audience from beyond her curtain, through an opera-glass, as English ladies are apt to do at home. She was pretty, and appeared to us then rather pensive and poetical.

The pit was almost filled with girls; on many benches sat a dozen damsels in a row; children of Kimball, Cannon, Smith, and Wells; in some places twenty or thirty girls were grouped together. Young, as he told me himself, has forty-eight living children, some of whom are grown up and married; and, since he sets the fashion of attending this theatre among his people, it is only right that he should encourage his children to appear, both before the footlights and behind them. Alice is a young lady married to Clawson. Zina, whom we have seen play Mrs. Musket in the farce of "My Husband's Ghost," is a ladylike girl, tall, full in figure, moon-faced (as the Orientals say), not much of an artist. Emily we have also seen; Elder Clawson is said to be courting her. I am told that the flame is mutual, and that Emily is not unlikely to be gathered home to her sister Alice. Gentile rumor -- fond of toying with the domestic secrets of the President's family -- says that Alice is not happy with her lord; but this is one of those Gentile rumors which I can almost swear is false. One day, last week, I had the pleasure of taking Sister Alice down to dinner, of talking with her for a long evening, and of seeing and romping with her four brave boys. A brighter, merrier woman I have rarelyseen; and I noted, as a peculiarity in her, not common in either eastern or western America, that she always addressed her husband by his baptismal name of Hiram. American ladies almost everywhere speak to their husbands as Mr. Jones and Mr.Smith, not as William and George. The perils of a double alliance with the great Mormon Pope are said to be great; envy among the Elders, collision with the Gentiles, jealousy at Camp Douglas, hostility in Washington; but Elder Clawson is said to be ready to take his chance with Sister Emily, as he has done with Alice, answering, as the Mormons put it, Washington theories, by Deseret facts.

The first piece we saw was "Charles the Twelfth." Where Adam Brock warns his daughter Eudiga against military sparks, the whole pit of young ladies crackled off into girlish laughter; the reference being taken to Camp Douglas and the United States officers stationed there, many of whom were in the house and heartily enjoyed the fun. This play happens to be full of allusions to soldiers and their amours, and every word of these allusions was appropriated and applied by the saints to their local politics. The interference of these United States officers and soldiers with the Mormon women is a very sore point with the saints, some of their wives having, it is said, been seduced and carried off. Young spoke to me with indignation of such proceedings, though he did not name the offenders as connected with the camp. "They cause us trouble," he said. "They intrude into our affairs: and, even into our families; we cannot stand such things, and when they are guilty we make them bite the dust." I thought of all that I had ever heard about Porter Rockwell and his Danite band; but I only smiled and waited for the President to go on. He quickly added, "I never had any trouble of this sort in my own family."

When Charles the Twelfth referred to the amours of his officers, it was good fun to see the prophet rolling back in his chair, convulsed with merriment, while the more staid Amelia eyed the audience through her opera glass.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                   Philadelphia, Friday, March 1, 1867.                                   No. ?

Polygamy  in  Utah.

Some days ago a memorial from the Legislature of Utah was presented to the House of Representatives, asking that the anti-polygamy law, as applied to that Territory, be repealed for reasons stated. This memorial was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, who to-day made a report in which they, in strong terms, denounce polygamy as contrary to the spirit of the Christian religion, and a relic of heathenism and barbarism, and subversive of the marriage relation in all nations where it is tolerated. It is simply legalized prostitution, destroying the original and divine constitution of society.

No greater outrage on the freedom of religious faith could be perpetrated than to require the people of any nation to sanction and approve by law a practice so deeply offensive. Alluding to the assertion of the memorial that no effort has been made to enforce the law the committee say the fact is humiliating. If this is in consequence of the neglect of the Federal judges, they ought to be removed, but if the failure arises from other causes it is the duty of the President to see that the law is executed.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                   Philadelphia, Saturday, March 30, 1867.                                   No. ?

Legislative  Resolution  Against
Mormon  Doctrines.

San Francisco, March 29. -- ...The Nevada Legislature has passed a revenue bill. A concurrent resolution has been introduced in the Senate against the Mormon doctrines as prejudicial to the whole country, and asking the general government to place a military force in the Territory, in order that equal, civil, political and religious rights may be insured to all citizens of the United States, and that the laws of the land may be enforced.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Monday, July 8, 1867.                               No. 77.


Apostles becoming Apostates -- Brigham Young Denounces the
Chief of the Twelve Mormon Apostles and Two Subordinates
as Apostates and Possessed of the Devil.

St. Louis, July 7, 1867. -- The Salt Lake Vidette of June 25 says -- On Sunday afternoon Brigham Young preached a lengthy sermon openly, boldly and announcing that Amasa Lyman, Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt had apostatized, and were cut off from the church. Orson Hyde had been chosen President of the twelve apostles last April, Pratt is one of the twelve, and Lyman had been one of the apostles also. Young was severe on Hyde, but particularly so on Pratt. He denounced the latter as an unbeliever, and as now in possession of the devil.

The crops in Utah promise to be better than in five years.

Note: Although a St. Louis reporter and some eastern newspapers followed these developments, the Mormon-operated Deseret News and Salt Lake Telegraph remained silent regarding the "apostate-apostles." -- On August 9th, the New York Times announced that "In this instance, it is to be apprehended that the Vedette, in its eagerness to make a point against the Mormons, rather stretched the facts, or at least made them as sensational as possible..." The Vedette editor stood by his original report, however -- see his "Good Logic" article of Aug. 8th, "Is There a Schism..." on Aug.15th, and "Is There a Schism Among the Mormons?" in the issue for Aug. 20th. Finally, on August 17th the Deseret News responded to a New York Herald article from August 13th, and denied the New York paper's "schism" charges without ever mentioning the three problematic Apostles by name. The editorial in the News was printed on the very next page after the sanitized (?) transcript of Brigham's June 23rd remarks, raising the question of whether or not the Mormon leadership decided to retrospectively soften its rhetoric against Lyman, Hyde and Pratt after the schism story "went national."


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, July 9, 1867.                               No. 78.

There is a row in the Mormon camp, and a fair prospect of an ostracism of some of the leading saints. It has long been known that many of the sisters were disgusted with the condition of things under the Brigham dispensation, and many successful and unsuccessful attempts have been made to escape from the slavery in which the females are held. But it has been within a short time only that any prominent men have shown any sympathy with the disaffected. Some few, indeed, openly declared against polygamy, and practiced their precepts by sealing to themselves but a wife a piece. But sinful as the conduct of these saints was regarded, they were permitted to remain in the bonds of iniquity, without molestation, until they dared to protest against the design of the prophet Brigham to place his son in the high seat of the synagogue as his successor. Then three of the apostles, either filled with high aspirations for themselves, or desirous of putting an end to the despotism of the Youngs, declared against Brigham, and called forth from him a bitter denunciation, in which he pronounced them apostates who had fallen away from grace, and put themselves beyond the pale of the latter day church.

It is a very pretty quarrel as it stands, and is likely, if continued, to be productive of good results for Christianity and decency. Already the faithful axe beginning to leave this modern Sodom in droves, and if the hegira, is not checked, there is a fair prospect of the territory losing a large portion of its population. This is the result of the non-intervention policy of the Government. If we had persecuted them, they would have been united. We have let them magnificently alone, and they are tumbling to pieces of innate rottenness.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                                 Philadelphia, Thursday, July 11, 1867.                                No. 9.


Salt Lake City -- Despotism on the Great Plains --
Character of Brigham Young -- His Wives --
Polygamy -- Schisms Among the Saints.

Correspondence of N. Y. Tribune.

Salt Lake City, June 28. -- I have seen Mormonism in its best garments only. Its dignitaries have made me welcome. Its hospitality encompassed me. Its fruits and flowers, its light spots and pleasant recreations, were all before me. With its humble followers and its shadowed household circles, I must repeat the experience of all other Gentile visitors, and go as I came, a stranger. But on ever hand, on the streets, in the homes where crime wears its richest gilding, in the tabernacle, and even in the very fountain of the polluted stream, are plainly visible the melancholy evidences of mingled fraud and infatuation, of cunning wrong-doers and deluded wrong-sufferers.

The world elsewhere may be sought in vain for despotism so relentless and pitiless as is Mormonism. Kings and emperors rule willing or unwilling subjects, but there is no people in utter, abject servility to their monarch. There are churches wherein infallibility is accorded to the head, or limited power of an absolute character conceded, but in none could any spiritual potentate rise up, as did Brigham Young on Sunday last, before 2000 people, and prescribe their worldly actions, their ordinary daily dealings, with the penalty of eternal damnation proclaimed for disobedience. At first glance the arrogant exercise of power by the Mormon leaders, and the willing submission of their followers, bewilder the observer, but when the whole theory of this stupendous fraud is unravelled, the character of its subjects studied, the thousand channels through which absolute power reaches out and ramifies into almost every household, it ceases to be incomprehensible. A very large majority of the Mormon people are the rescued serfs of the Old World -- not so perhaps in name in most cases, but so in fact. They are ignorant, superstitious, fanatical, and ready victims for new doctrine that promises to bring them into immediate communion with God. When once brought to the home of the Saints, often by the generous aid of the Emigration Society, their temporal condition is readily bettered, their social status is elevated to recognition by even the inspired teachers, and they never learn aught else but submission to the dogmas of the Church and the mandates of its apostles. They, as a rule, remain aliens to the Government, and no claim upon the citizen is tolerated that in any degree antagonizes the claims or doctrines of the Church.

I regard Brigham Young as a greatly under-estimated man by most persons in the East. They all judge him mainly by his ribald and often blasphemous harangues from the pulpit -- do not appreciate him as a great administrator and a leader of surpassing attainments. I first saw him in his own business room. He was nearly or perhaps quite alone when I entered, but almost instantly several side-doors opened, and half-a-dozen brothers, sons, secretaries, etc., were seated around the little office. I learn that he never sees any person alone, unless he knows perfectly the character of the visitor, and when strangers call on him his person is guarded from possible assassination by the apparently casual but evidently systematic appearance of his immediate friends. He greets the visitor with serene dignity but faultless courtesy, and converses freely and quite intelligently on all agreeable topics. He was evidently in no mood for a talk about the inside workings of Mormonism, and an inquiry as to the number of his wives and children, and their health, would doubtless have terminated the interview most abruptly. He is a well-preserved man of sixty-six years, of medium height, rather corpulent, with an abundant growth of light, auburn hair, and a heavy crop of sandy whiskers, excepting on his upper and lower lips. His eyes are a very light, dull blue, and wanting in expression, his nose sharp and prominent, his lips thick aud firmly set, and the whole give him the appearance of a man of obstinate will and cold, calculating purpose. His head is of unusual shape. The face is quite broad just across the centre, and gradually narrows to the top of the forehead and point of the chin, while his neck is of uncommon thickness, and describes a semi-oval line from the base of the head to the top, tapering gradually to the crown, giving it a sugar-loaf finish. He is evidently a man of the keenest perception, of great self-reliance and will, of the subtlest cunning, and possesses a physical organization capable of the highest measure of endurance. In his manners and movements he is quite graceful, indicating considerable culture, but really the fruits of his varied experience and intercourse with all classes of men. No man could acquire any needed quality more readily than Brigham Young, he is eminent as a mimic, and often resorts to mimicking as his most powerful weapon in hurling his anathemas against the gentiles or apostates in his sermons. In short, I would put him down, after meeting him in his office and leaving him in the pulpit, as a most scienced impostor, singularly able, versatile, unscrupulous, and as one who seeks to hide his revolting, beastly licentiousness by deliberate blasphemy.

I do not pretend to know the number of wives and children Brigham Young can boast. I believe that no two writers have estimated them alike, and I have found no Mormon, in the scores with whom I have conversed on the subject, who professed to know. It is conceded, however, that he has some fifteen or twenty who are members of his household, and probably a score of others who are simply sealed to him as spiritual wives, so as to share his high crown in the future world. Even the dead have been wedded to him by proxy, to satisfy the anxiety of deluded parents, who wished their departed daughters to wear starry robes around the prophet in heaven. Of his living wives, who are subjet to his domestic laws, the first, who was his lawful wife before polygamy was thought of as part of the Mormon faith, now lives in a pleasant, spacious cottage by herself, some distance from the harem, that is peopled with the fairer and more tender acquisitions to his family circle. She is said to be a firm believer in the faith, and accepts her situation as a cross imposed upon her to enhance her reward hereafter. I saw her in the theatre, along with five junior wives, who in turn succeeded each other in the favor of the prophet, and gave way in time to younger and fresher charms. Of all the so-called Mrs. Youngs I have seen, the lawful wife seems much the most intelligent and refined. The last one, and of course for the present the favorite, had a private box in the theatre, sported gay ribbons and furbelows, and seemed to look down upon her faded predecessors with the contempt they deserved. She is a niece of the first wife, and defles even Brigham's boasted domestic governmnt. She was tried in the harem, but her rebellious spirit threatened the subversion of all aw and order there, and she's now quartered in a house of her own, beyond range of the others. I do not, of course, credit all the revolting scenes detailed as occurring in the extensive family of the Prophet, but it is well known that the last addition to the wives hectors her anointed fraction of a husband in the most irreverent style, and storms the holy inner circle of inspired power with profane speech and violent pugilistic gestures. Although each one after the first has usurped the place of another, not one has been discarded for a successor without the keenest sorrow, and often only after frenzied, but fruitless resistance.

Polygamy was not a part of the Mormon creed, as promulgated by Smith. On the contrary, he expressly denounced it, and his widow and sons have discarded the Salt Lake Mormons because of the adulterous practices committed in the name of the Church. Brigham Young is the founder of the polygamic feature of the faith of the Latter Day Saints. While I doubt not that lust had much to do with its adoption, yet, as a means of attaining despotic power, it has served an important purpose. Mr. Young has four brothers, all adhering to the Church in this city, and all with a plurality of wives. His sons imitate his example with filial fidelity; and his daughters are married only into harems of the more intelligent and inlluential members of the Church. By this system he is directly related to every family of importance in Zion, and his power is perpetuated. By thus binding the more intelligent to his cause by marriage ties, he is enabled to command the complete submission of the unlearned, by declaring polygamy to be the duty of the faithful, and promising the heart-broken wives that their crosses are but creating for them lighter crowns above.

I had much anxiety to see polygamy in the household, but have failed. Not only are strangers practically denied acquaintance with plural wives, but the subject is never a welcome one in conversation. I have talked with many Mormons who are polygamists, and in every instance when I asked respecting their wives, they responded as if I had introduced to them some painful and delicate scandal about their families. I found one who claimed, and I learn justly, to have two wives in one house, and all happy, but only one. In most instances each wife must have a separate house to hide herself from mutual humiliation and shame. To all who introduced the subject to me, I asked the question, "Did your first wife cheerfully consent to your marriage to another?" and in not a single instance could an affirmative answer be given. Mormon or Gentile, with one accord they revolt against it. They must cease to be women, and descend into the scale of brutes, or even lower still, before the wives of Salt Lake can voluntarily consent to such appalling degradation. One-third of the entire adult male population of Utah is now practising polygamy, and in Salt Lake City the proportion is larger. It hangs like a terrible pall upon the mothers, wives, and daughters of the Saints. Not only those who have been enfolded in its slimy embrace mourn from day to day their hard lot, but those who have thus far escaped its pollution know not how soon the spoiler may enter their firesides, and harrowing anxiety dims the lustre of their eyes and traces its shadows upon their faces.

Not only is licentiousness ever pleading the cause of polygamy, but the church demands it of all men who can afford more than one wife, and women are taught to consent to it on pain of eternal damnation. I heard four Mormon sermons on Sunday two by fools and two by knaves. The one, for instance, who declared that he had seen Joseph Smith perfectly personated in Brigham Young, when he thrust Rigdon out and assumed the Presidency himself, even to a broken front tooth, was simply a lunatic. In the course of his sermon he gave the particulars of this conversion. He prayed to the Lord that if He would appear in person to him he would believe, and the Lord appeared to him, and he thenceforth became a saint. He was followed by one of the shrewdest of the elders, who argued with some plausibility that the original Church of Christ had strayed and broken into descendent branches, and that it had been founded again by Smith and Young, and was separate from the world and united in its great work. In the afternoon we had an incoherent and senseless harangue from a cockney, but Brigham Young pulled him down by the coat-tail in a short time, and took the pulpit himself. His speech would read away in the East like the foolish ebullition of a conceited blackguard, but never were remarks more timely or better adapted to the people he addressed. He argued for twenty minutes that not one person in forty knew how to take care of himself in either temporal or spiritual matters; that all must have leaders experienced in temporal and inspired in religious affairs; that they must live submissively to those who are competent to lead them, or be cut off with the wicked. He complained of the selfishness of some of the saints. Said 'he: "People I brought here from serfdom, who couldn't own a chicken before they came, and who were glad to take a spade from me to get a crust of bread, now have lands, and houses, and cattle, and greenbacks, and carriages; and they want to dictate to me; they want to sap the foundations of Zion; but I will not be dictated to. I am called of the Lord, and it is mine to teach and yours to obey. I say what I please; I put up this pulpit with the crimson covering, and paid for it myself, expressly to go into it and say what I please. I will take it away if I like, and stand on a table or chair, for the Lord's will can be declared in one way as well as another." And thus he rambled, but always with evident method. After pleading with unity, he told the young ladies of the Church that they had no capacity for taking care of themselves and their honor, and that the Church, with its ceremonies and covenants, was their only safety. He closed by demanding that Gentiles and apostates be shunned in all dealings, even although it costs more to purchase from a Saint. "You may answer," said he, "that it is none of my d__d business. Perhaps it is not, just now, but the time will soon come when it will be my business to testitfy respecting this people, and I pledge you that those who disobey this command shall not enter into the straight gate. I will not speak hard of you if you don't stop wasting your dollars with Gentiles and apostates, nor will I think hard of you, but I will say in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ 'let the righteous be saved, and the wicked go their way to everlasting punishment.' I saw poor infatuated Mormons shudder at this terrible anathema from what they supposed to be an inspired oracle of God, and the fear of his malediction is one of the strongest elements of cohesiveness with the deluded masses of his followers. In the foregoing quotations I have given his language almost literally, and preserved the sentiments faithfully, without the least embellishment.

Brigham Young is the supreme temporal as well as spiritual head of the Church, and he is no more responsible to his people in temporal than in spiritual matters. The Church property is all in his name in fee, the titles are received by him, and he accounts to no one, nor will he tolerate inquiry as to his expenditures. A prominent Mormon merchant here, whose tithes amounted to a very large sum of money, demanded a statement of the receipts and disbursement, and he was out off from the saints here and from the saints inHeaven. When it is considered that all Mormons are required to give to the Church one-tenth of all they raise in kind, and one-tenth of all they make in any business, the magnitude of the fund intrusted to Young without question or check of any Sort is startling. First of all, he supplies his harem and numerous progeny; then he builds at the tabernacle and temple; then mills, theatres, factories, etc., all in his own name; receives the proceeds ostensibly for the Church, and no one dares to question his judgment or demand a balance sheet. His annual income now cannot be less than half a million dollars. The humble, deluded followers believe that it is wisely and faithfully expended; but do not the licentious leaders know better.

There are palpable signs of dissolution in the Mormon Church. The Josephites (the followers of Smith) pronounce polygamy a sin, and they claim to be the true Mormon Church, and entitled to the Church property. When Brigham was South this spring he had to cut off several hundred members, for heresy because they adhered to Smith, and over 100 wagons of emigrants are now in the mountains on their way East to escape his fearful vengeance. The Morrisites are another class of dissenters, and have no fellowship with the Salt Lake Church. They denounce polygamy, and are constantly receiving acquisitions to their numbers. They have a strong settlement in Utah, at Soda Springs, under the very shadow of the Prophet. Every sermon I heard from the Mormons betrayed nervous fears as to division: some appealed, some unfolded the duty of submission, and Brigham thundered his fierce anathemas against the faithless. Gentile dealings and associations are forbidden, because Mormonism cannot bear contact with virtue and truth; nor can its crowning crime of polygamy bear contact even with vice. Virtue and vice are alike its foes, and equally fatal to its perpetuity. Thus is the Mormonism of Young beset by schisms, perilled by growing intercourse with Gentiles, and soon the Pacific Railroad will pour thousands of population into all the fruitful valleys ot the West, and in but a few years the distinctiveness of this people must fade away. While the Government has been shamefully remiss in tolerating the habitual insolent defiance of one of its soundest laws, it seems that natural causes are fast converging to the overthrow of this foulest blot upon the American name. One Gentile family in a community of polygamists is better than a thousand sermons against this colossal crime. One happy, cheerful wife, confident of the undivided affection of her husband, is like an angel of light in the region of despair, and even the deepest-seated superstition gradually yields as they see the Gentile wife worship with her husband and household gods, read from their common Bible, plead the atonement of the same Saviour, and supplicate the same God. Secret discontent, positive dissatisfaction, or open rebellion, have their place around every fireside, and each year develops in bolder tones and more defiant actions the restless cancer that is preying upon the vitals of this monstrous vice. It must soon die. Its own enormity must give it the grave of a suicide, if no other great causes were tending to its destruction. But it is a blistering shame that, in this noontide of the nineteenth century, just laws forbidding this wholesale prostitution, practised in appalling mockery and blasphemy of all that is pure and holy, stand as dead letters upon our national statute-books. With the strong arm of the Government firmly maintaining virtue, order, and law ever careful to encroach upon no rights of conscience or freedom of worship this wrong would soon hide itself from the scorn of society, instead of its present boasted social supremacy, and linger out its full existence in shame. As an institution it would at once cease to have a habitation or a name, and this twin sister of human bondage, equally fruitful of treason and crime, would perish from the fair land of freedom and justice

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Saturday, July 13, 1867.                               No. 82.


...Brigham Young malignantly said of the wife of Joe Smith, the Prophet, that she was the d—dest liar he knew." This was part of a Sunday afternoon sermon upon the Smith family.

Note 1: Although this portion of the tabernacle diatribe was not published in the LDS newspapers, Brigham's personal copy of his Oct. 7, 1866 discourse was preserved. The official Deseret News report reads: "He alluded to the family of Joseph Smith the Prophet, and to the kindly feelings which have been entertained towards them by the authorities of the Church and the Saints; and called up portions of the history of the Prophet Joseph which proved how far that family have gone astray, as well as all who follow after them in their present course..." Brigham's manuscript copy, in part, reads: "To my certain knowledge, Emma Smith is one of the damnedest liars I know of on this earth; yet there is no good thing I would refuse to do for her, if she would only be a righteous woman; but she will continue in her wickedness. Not six months before the death of Joseph, he called his wife Emma into a secret council, and there he told her the truth, and called upon her to deny it if she could. He told her that the judgments of God would come upon her forthwith if she did not repent. He told her of the time she undertook to poison him, and he told her that she was a child of hell, and literally the most wicked woman on this earth, that there was not one more wicked than she...."

Note 2: A different source provides a similar, but lengthier excerpt from the same Oct. 7, 1866 conference talk: "I will now speak upon a subject which I think ought to notice for the benefit of a few who are inclined to be giddy-headed, unstable in their ways, and enthusiastic about something which they do not understand. -- You are already apprized of the fact that a son of Joseph Smith the Prophet was here in our City not long since. Joseph Smith's first son only lived a few hours; then Joseph Smith, commonly called Young Joseph, was born; then Frederic, and then Alexander; it was Alexander who was in our City lately. The people have not heard me say anything about him one way or the other. I will relate a few facts. The sympathies of the Latter-day Saints are with the family of the martyred prophet. I never saw a day in the world that I would not almost worship that woman, Emma Smith, if she would be a saint instead of being a devil. I feel so today. There is no good thing in a temporal point of view that I would withhold from her; anything that is in my power to do for her, I would willingly do with all my heart, and with an open hand. --- There are a few here that knew Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and some of them are apostatizing from the work, which the Lord commanded him to found, to run after Young Joseph Smith, the second son of the Prophet, who has no more authority to set himself up as a president and teacher of a people than any other man has in the sectarian world who possessed nothing of the priesthood of the Most High. Young Joseph Smith does not possess one particle of this priesthood. The Twelve Apostles and the other authorities of this Church would have been exceeding glad if the Prophet's family had come with us when we left Nauvoo for the valleys of these mountains. We would have made cradles for them if they had required them, and would have fed them on milk and honey. Emma is naturally a very smart woman; she is subtle and ingenious, and she has made all her children believe that myself, brother Kimball, and the other members of the Twelve laid the plot which terminated in the death of the Prophet. This charge is especially laid to myself. At the time that Joseph was killed I was in the city of Boston, a number of hundred miles away from the scene of the martyrdom. She has made her children inherit lies. To my certain knowledge Emma Smith is one of the damdest liars I know of on this earth; yet there is no good thing I would refuse to do for her, if she would only be a righteous woman; but she will continue in her wickedness. --- Not six months before the death of Joseph, he called his wife Emma into a secret council, and there he told her the truth, and called upon her to deny it if she could. He told her that the judgments of God would come upon her forthwith if she did not repent. He told her of the time she undertook to poison him, and he told her that she was a child of hell, and literally the most wicked woman on this earth, that there was not one more wicked than she. He told her where she got the poison, and how she put it in a cup of coffee; said he, "You got that poison so and so, and I drank it, but you could not kill me." When it entered his stomach he went to the door and threw it off. He spoke to her in that council in a very severe manner, and she never said one word in reply. I have witnesses of this scene all around, who can testify that I am now telling the truth. Twice she undertook to kill him. --- From a dream that I had while on my visit to Logan a short time since, I know that spiritualism is the head and front, and the arm and breast and brain, and the eyes and whole body of Young Joseph's profession and operations. In my dream I saw the Prophet Joseph, and he tried for awhile to sustain the old dwelling, and mediated building around it; but he finally concluded to discard it, and swept the ground clean where it stood to put up an entirely new building. Although this is a matter I have not thought of, yet the dream is true, and expresses the true state of the case. --- When Alexander Smith came here, we treated him kindly, and I plead with him to accompany us on our visit north. George A. Smith, his cousin, plead with him to accompany us, but to no purpose. Finally, Joseph F. Smith, who was from home, came back, and saw him, and met him in public in this city. Many of this congregation are acquainted with that circumstance. It was asked him what he thought of the endowment. He replied, "I do not mention it, for I do not wish to hear anything about the endowment." "What do you think of the doctrine of polygamy?" It is his business to preach against polygamy, and his brother Joseph said that his father never introduced it. Several of the sisters testified to him that they were sealed to his father. Well, said he, "if he did have any such revelation, or teach any such doctrine, or practice it, he must have got out of the way," or, in other words he must have been a fallen prophet, if he ever was a true prophet. That is the conclusion they come to when hard pressed with stern facts. Joseph Smith the Prophet taught the gathering; but this new sect deny the gathering. --- If there are any Latter-day Saints who wish to be destroyed, run after that family, and I will promise you in the name of the God of Israel that you will be damned. Any person who will follow this man or that man who is wrong, and refuses to submit himself to the ordinances of the house of God and to serve Him and keep His commandments, will perish; all that walk in that path will go to a sure and swift destruction. Young David Smith seems to be the pet of the company, he is heart and hand with his brother Joseph, and with a hundred others who are apostates from the true faith of the Gospel, and who were one with the mob who persecuted and slew the Prophet. When Joseph the Prophet was killed his wife Emma was pregnant. Joseph said, previous to his death, "She shall have a son, and his name shall be called David, and unto him the Lord will look." I am looking for the time when the Lord will speak to David, but let him pursue the course he is now pursuing, and he will never preside over the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in time nor in eternity. He has got to repent of his sins, and turn away from his iniquity, to cease to do evil, and learn to do well, embrace the Gospel of life and salvation, and be an obedient son of God, or he never can walk up to possess his right. It would be his right to preside over this Church, if he would only walk in the true path of duty. I hope and pray that he and the whole family will repent, and be a holy family. --- Now, you old Mormons, stop your talking about Young Joseph, and about David going to preside over the Church by and by! I wish he was prepared for it, would repent of his sins, and come in at the door, and be one with us, and walk up to the Twelve and the First Presidency, saying, I am one with you, and am your servant. When Sidney Rigdon swelled up and thought he was the most important man in the Kingdom, I told him where his place was, and that the Twelve Apostles would build up the Kingdom. Joseph more than one score of times told them both in private and in public, that he rolled the Kingdom on to their shoulders, and said I to Sidney, we will build it up, and bear it off, and not follow you one inch. What has he come to? He sits in the midst of the woods East mumbling to himself; but scarcely able to speak an intelligent word; he is almost a lunatic. And where has the rest of the apostates gone? And where has the rest of the apostates gone? And where will they go? Every one of them, bogus Joseph not excepted, will go to destruction, and the Kingdom of God will continue to flourish and spread abroad...."


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, July 16, 1867.                               No. 84.


Salt Lake City and Its People -- What the Industry and
Enterprise of the Mormons have Accomplished --
The Mormon Faith -- Brigham Young and his
Associates -- An Interview with the Shepherd --
The Extent of Polygamy -- Sunday in Salt
Lake -- The Tabernacle -- A Sermon by
Brigham, &c.

{Correspondence Franklin Repository.}

SALT LAKE, June 18, 1867. I have now spent a week with the Latter Day Saints, admired their green shades, beautiful artificial streams, pleasant homes, and the innumerable evidences of industry and prosperity which appear on every hand. Their markets are filled with the choicest vegetables, and the finest strawberries of the continent are offered every hour of the day at reasonable prices. Stores equal to those of the cities of the Western States are numerous, and business of all branches has an air of system, capital and thrift that is delightful. This is a city of 20,000 population, without paupers, brothels or gambling hells. Among the Mormons, who constitute over 90 per cent. of the people, there are none idle, and they claim that none suffer. The bee-hive is found on the dome of the Prophet's house, and frequently on rude business signs, as typical of the habits of the faithful. All must work, and while each owns his property gained by industry, there is still a common store where the distressed and children of want repair. And industry is brightened in every possible way. In the evening the merry dance is to be heard in almost every ward; the theatre is never closed for any length of time, and recreation is devised in every conceivable manner to lighten the burdens of toil.

Salt Lake City is in what is called the Great Basin of the west. A section of country, nearly a circle, with a radius of about 300 miles from the centre, is walled in by the Wasatch mountains on the East, the Sierra Nevada on the west, and their broken spurs north and south. This great valley has no outlet for its waters. The Jordan, Ogden, Bear and Weber rivers, with many lesser streams, empty in the Great Salt Lake, distant about twenty miles from this city. It is 120 miles long, and averages about 20 in width, and is the most briny body of water in the world. So strongly is it impregnated with salt that its shores, when the waters recede in the dry season, are but a bed of salt, and a man in the lake will float like a cork. Sink he cannot, but the head must be kept carefully uppermost, for in whatever position he lands in the water, he is likely to remain. If head down, down the head will stay, and it requires almost a superhuman effort to reverse the position of the body. In the Lake are vast islands and high, rugged mountains, some of them covered with nutritious grass and abounding in fresh springs. Cattle and horses are grazed there and thrive better than any place else in the territory. South of this the river Sevier empties into the Lake Sevier, which is also without an outlet, but the waters sink and do not become salt. In the western portion of the Great Basin (now the State of Nevada) there are a number of large rivers, and all sink into the earth at different points in the valley and doubtless find subterranean passage to the sea. The Humboldt, Walker, Carson, Truckee and other rivers drain Nevada, and all are without an open channel to the ocean. Some of them empty into lakes, but none of them are salt, and all doubtless have invisible outlets.

This great Basin was once regarded as a vast Desert. The Mormons accepted it as their home to escape the antagonism of the Christians, and supposed that here they could remain unmolested for centuries. When they arrived here there was not so much as a trail across the mountains. This valley, as well as all West to the Pacific and South to the Gulf, belonged to Mexico, and one of the chief motives for the Mormon pilgrimage to this place was to escape the hated jurisdiction of the United States. But within a year after they located here, the territory was acquired from Mexico, and they again became unwilling and disloyal subjects of our government. When they arrived here, there was nothing to promise them requited labor and plentiful harvests. The soil was sterile, acrid, full of alkali, and refused to produce anything but the dreary sage and grease-wood; but Mormon industry flooded it with artificial rains, tamed it with corn and buckwheat, and now raise as fine wheat, oats, barley, &c., as are grown in the Union. Not a shrub or tree shaded this vast desert plain when they made it their home, but they had with them the seeds of the locust, and they gathered the little cotton-woods along the streams, and now the city is one forest of the most heartsome shades and the gardens are covered with the green foliage of every species of orchard fruits. They seemed to have aimed to make this as nearly a paradise for the stranger as human effort could make it, and they have succeeded better than do most Christians in surrounding their homes, from the most humble to the most spacious, with the beauty, fragrance and fruitfulness of nature.

But the peculiar religion, or professed religion of the Mormons, is the most marvelous problem of the age. Here are 100,000 people, the most industrious, as a class, on the face of the earth; sober, neighborly, of good repute as a rule, and most of them sincerely and devoutly pious in their way, who tolerate and sustain in their leaders the most arrant swindling and revolting licentiousness, and call it making sacrifice to the Lord. Of the 100,000 Mormons, nine-tenths are ignorant aliens, who were the slaves of the mines or the serfs of the proprietors in the old countries. They need but little here to improve their condition, and as a rule they have been made owners of their homes. All they ever did learn they have learned from the Mormons, and it is not so surprising, therefore, they bow implicitly to the teachings of those they believe to be inspired from on high. If I were going to analyze the Mormon population, I would set down nineteen of every twenty as pitiable dupes and the remaining one-twentieth as the most expert and successful knaves on the earth.

Brigham Young is the spiritual and temporal head of the church. He assumes to be the successor of Christ, and is esteemed by his deluded followers as of equal power and glory with the Saviour. They hold that Jesus was the first Messiah, Joseph Smith the second, and Brigham Young the third, and I heard it distinctly taught in the tabernacle that Christ, Smith and Young would come back to the earth together, in the fulness of time, to reign with the people of God. Accepted as of divine anointment -- indeed, as being in immediate communication with the Almighty; as the oracle through which God speaks to His chosen people, it is not wonderful that he can riot in wealth, pick the fairest and tenderest lambs from the flock to gratify his beastly lusts, and have the streets filled with his children, who are fed, clothed and schooled by the labor of his followers.

I spent half an hour with him in his inner sanctuary, but it was a mere show, like going to see any other monstrosity. Some half a dozen others were with me, including Mrs. M., and the Prophet was courteous but reticent. He did not know who we might be, and his never failing sagacity made him self-poised and diplomatic in an eminent degree. He most adroitly warded off several neat strategic movements to get an insight of Mormonism, and kept the party to glittering generalities with masterly skill. Whenever the conversation became unpleasant for him, he would turn to Mrs. M. and address her with great elegance and fluency on common place topics. I had a seat beside his oldest son, who was not so prudent as the father, and I had his view of true Mormonism. "Religion" said he, "without plurality of wives in the Lord, the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out," and he gave me a patronizing look as if he pitied my unbelief. I did not venture on a discussion, as we had merely called to see the lions, and could not, in a general conversation, learn much worth knowing. Around the house, or rather houses, of Mr. Young, there were a score of children, from three to ten years of age, most of them girls, with different mothers, but all owning Brigham as father. He has some twenty wives who are named to him in the flesh, and perhaps twice as many who are sealed to him merely to become his spiritual wives in heaven. I need not say that these, as a class are long neglected spinsters and unsightly widows, who have failed to gain a union in the flesh. I saw several of them stowed away in one corner of the theatre, and it was not difficult to determine why they were merely sealed as wives for the spirit-land. I noticed that in no instance do the Prophet and Elders seal the young and beautiful daughters of the church as spiritual wives. Severe as they profess the cross to be, they accept them in the flesh, usually to the neglect and sorrow of their older partners. In the theatre were six of Brigham's wives in a row, the original wife occupying a comfortable rocking chair as the honored in Israel. She looks like at woman of intelligence and refinement, but rude furrows have been plowed in her face by ever visible grief. She lives in a cottage by herself, and seldom is favored with visits from her lord. The others are all woman beneath mediocrity, all more or less faded, and none bearing the traces of early beauty. They are the sobered and practically discarded mistresses of the Prophet, and have served their purpose, while other and fairer faces usurp the favor they each in turn enjoyed. They are relics of the past, and seem to have quietly resigned themselves to their fate. And why should they not? Each one as she becomes the favorite so-called wife, pushed others aside, and they accepted their degraded position with the full knowledge that the passions which were sated with their predecessors, would in time demand others to take their places. The favorite is, of course, the last wife, and while the venerable, unsightly spiritual wives were huddled in a corner in plainest garb, and those discarded in the flesh crowded each other in a row near the centre of the parquette, the richly gilded and curtained private box, and softly cushioned chair, held the last fair flower transplanted to the harem. She is still gay and festive, has a queenly step, sports her elegant opera glass and the best of ribbons and laces. She is the niece of the first wife, and like most babes in large families, is the spoiled child of the establishment. Notwithstanding the holy sphere in which she moves, she occasionally combs the head of the Prophet with a three-legged stool, raises Hail Columbia in the very sanctuary of the holies, and smashes a chair over the piano to prove her devout affection to the sacred calling she has accepted. So revolutionary has she been in spite of divine commands from the very oracles of heaven that she had to be "corralled" in a house by herself, and there she rules in her boisterous, obstinate way, and makes the Prophet bow at her feet, instead of becoming the meek submissive wife the church demands of all on pain of eternal punishment.

According to the Mormon faith, woman have no status in heaven excepting such as is given them by their husbands; and, as they cannot be given in marriage there, it is of the importance to all woman to become wives. If they become the wife of a man who has many others, and sad crosses and trials result therefrom, they thus lay up for themselves bright crowns in heaven. In accordance with this belief, it is not uncommon for dying damsels to send for high officials in the church and be sealed to them before death, so as to gain a high seat with their spiritual husbands; and even the dead are sometimes married by proxy, near friends representing them, to lift them up to a level with their spiritual lords in the future world. This doctrine is preached daily to the woman by men who claim and are believed, to be inspired by God, and as a rule is accepted religiously by the Mormon woman. Yet each one struggles to paint the pollution of her own domestic circle and prays that the bitter cup may pass from her. I hear of one man who married two wives together who has a peaceful household, but no wife in all Utah has received another to divide, or rather to usurp, the love of her husband without consuming sorrows. They bow in submission to it, but in spite of their religious infatuation, and the promise of a brighter crown above, their womanly instincts revolt at it, and they go in grief the remainder of their days.

I wished to learn of Mormonism from its votaries, and of polygamy from its advocates and victims. I have met its advocates, a class confined to husbands, and heard the best defence of that peculiar feature of their faith; but its victims are not accessible to the stranger. I met a few Mormon ladies who are wives without presiding over a brothel, and the saddest shadow is brought to their faces by the slightest reference to the plurality of wives. One most intelligent and accomplished wife, who with her husband professed the Mormon faith, and have increased in worldly prosperity thereby, advocated the claims of the Mormon people to the generous support of the government with much earnestness. I was about to ask her whether she would be willing for her husband to bring another so-called wife into her house, but it would have been too cruel, and I was silent. It would have ended the conversation, and been regarded as a wanton indignity from a guest to a hostess. I have seen one man who has five wives, a mother and two daughters; others who have brought to their homes children of fourteen years, and made them the reigning queens of their firesides, while their lawful wives, often with children older than their associates, or rather successors, bow in shame with broken hearts. Old men of sixty, dignitaries in the church, have half a dozen or more, from the aged partners of their youth, down to the latest fancy, always of the tenderest years and young girls are thus freely sacrificed by infatuated parents, to decrepid lecherous beasts, with the firm belief that it is a religious duty, and will be rewarded in heaven. After a careful observation of this polygamic people, I must accept the conviction that the leaders teach and practice it simply to gratify their unbridled licentiousness, and they deliberately blaspheme God and his holy precepts to maintain their polluting doctrines. Bear in mind that polygamy is not general among the Mormon people. Not over one-third of the married men have a plurality of wives, and they are, as a rule, the bishops, elders, councillors and other dignitaries, who handle the tithings and fatten on the toil of their miserable dupes.

On Sunday I attended Mormon service in the tabernacle morning and evening, and heard four sermons. The high officials do not attend in the morning, and I was surprised at the low grade of faces almost uniformly presented. There were over 1,000 women present, and there was scarcely a bright, intelligent, happy face among them. In the afternoon the elite of the church attended with others, the sacrament was administered (as it is every Sunday) and Brigham Young preached. There were 1,500 women present, and among them were very many bright, pretty faces, with lustrous eyes, rosy cheeks and pouting lips that might tempt even a Gentile kiss. The choir looked like a Coventry May party, -- filled with pretty girls, with jaunty hats and feathers, and all most tastefully clad. A crazy cockney opened the service by a rambling harangue, demanding equal division of property and wives, and cautioning, with peculiar fervor, the "ewes and lambs" of the church against gentile unions. Brigham sat behind him, and wearied of his erratic doctrines. He first tried to stop it by crying out "amen" at an appropriate moment, but the inspired minister rushed on. Finally Brigham's patience was exhausted, and he seized the cockney by the coat tail and jerked him down, when the Prophet ascended the sacred desk and spoke an hour with rare adroitness and perfect fluency. He at once took issue with the man who had preceded him, and declared against an equal division of property. "Equalize tomorrow" said he, "and how long will it remain equal? Not a month, not a week, not an hour. It is folly to talk about it. Not one in forty of you can take care of yourselves, and you must be dictated to by some one who has experience in temporal matters, and is inspired on spiritual matters." After he had shown them that they could not manage their own affairs, he declared that he was their leader, by divine appointment; he would dictate to them and they must obey. He appealed to the women to be true to the faith, and proclaimed it as the will, even the command of the Lord, received directly from Him, that they must not trade with gentiles or apostates, who refuse to give tithings to the church. His arrogance, profanity, and frequent assumption of omnipotent power were shocking, but a careful survey of the people clearly demonstrated that he spoke with much worldly wisdom to maintain the infatuation and abject submission of his people. After which Sunday was devoted to recreation, and the delightful gardens of Salt Lake were filled with pleasure parties.

How long is this indelible blot on the American name to last? It is in open violation of law, and yet the law seems powerless to vindicate its majesty. Congress has enacted that this monstrous crime must cease to pollute the fairest homes of the far west -- why does it not enforce its own solemn law? It needs but one season of stern justice to scatter it to the winds and drive the bloated imposters from their sore oppression of a deluded people, and morality and public decency demand that it be speedily done.   A. K. M.

Note: Alexander Kelly McClure was a prominent Philadelphia Republican politician. During the 1860s and 1870s, after visiting Salt Lake City on a western tour, he gave lectures on the subject of Mormonism. See his 1879 article on the subject, as published in the Philadelphia Times.


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Wednesday, July 17, 1867.                               No. 85.


A serious schism is reported to have begun among the Mormons in Utah. Amnsa Lyman, Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt, who have been numbered among the Twelve Apostles, have been denounced by Brigham Young as having Apostatized from the faith, and it is understood that they have a large number of followers. They declare their determination to resist the succession of Brigham Young, Jr., as head of the Mormon church. The difficulty seems to be as much one of finance as of faith, the exclusive control of the funds of the church by the Youngs being apparently regarded as quite as dangerous as is the lodging of absolute power.

It is a scandal to the age and the nation that such a civil and ecclesiastical despotism as that of the Youngs should exist in any part of the United States, and especially that its foundation should rest on the licentious and detestable practice of polygamy, which is contrary to the laws in every other part of the country. Decent people should, therefore, and will, rejoice at any circumstance that indicates discord among the followers of the vile doctrine. The institution of Mormonism is scarcely one for the suppression of which a military force should be called out. That would savor of persecution, and all history proves that moral and social evils cannot be eradicated by such means.

It is impossible that an infamous institution like that of Mormonism should long continue in a country like the United Stales. The only thing that has prevented its abolition before this, is the remoteness and isolation of Utah. Civilization and republicanism have been shut out by vast, uninhabited and desert plains and by lofty mountains. As these are occupied or overcome by advancing population, the heresy against religion, morality and decency must give way, and perhaps it is as well to await the silent but irresistible progress of these agents. The Mormons see them even now, advancing with rapid strides, and it is probably this that has led to the recent disorders and symptoms of rebellion against the supreme authority of Brigham Young. The Pacific Railroad is approaching the Salt Lake from the East and the West. Immigration of decent, energetic and independent men follows closely in its tracks, and these are destined to overshadow and finally extinguish the Mormon superstition. It is only now maintained by the importation of deluded and ignorant creatures from Great Britain, Sweden, and other European countries.

The time cannot be far distant when, under the influence of the Pacific Railroad, Utah will have a population sufficient to warrant an application for admission into the Union as a State. The Constitution of the United States guarantees to each State a Republican form of government. This cannot be given so long as the despotism of Brigham Young continues. It will be the duty, therefore, of a future Congress to see that this despotism is abolished, and as soon as the civil power is taken from Young and his successors, his so-called religion will die a natural death. It is as well, perhaps, to wait for this; in the meantime exercising a strict control over the territorial authorities, and letting the Mormons of' Utah see, as the rebels of the South have already seen, that in this country the Federal authority is paramount.

Mormon Revival.

Whether the visit to Europe of Brigham Young, Junior, and a brother "saint" or two, has had any effect in a propagandist sense, we cannot say, but there certainly is a revival of Mormon emigration.

A steamer sailed from Liverpool only a fortnight since, with four hundred Mormon converts on board, bound to Salt Lake City. "There was about an equal proportion of men and women among them," says a British paper, "the principal part of whom were young, perhaps ranging from eighteen to twenty-eight years of age." A small minority was made up of persons who must have reached between thiny and fifty years. The forward part of the ship was devoted to their exclusive use, and according to contract with the company, no persons, were permitted in that part of the vessel, or to associate with the Mormon proselytes. The emigrants belonged to Wales, the western counties of England, and some came from Scotland, but there was not a single Irishman or Irish woman among them."

This last fact, by the way, is a curious one. Are there no Irish Mormons?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Wednesday, July 24, 1867.                               No. 91.

From  Omaha  and  Utah.

The Salt Lake Vidette of the 7th, in an editorial, says that there is no doubt of the rich gold discoveries made by the Robinson companions somewhere on Green river. The exact locality is still a secret to the public. The discovery was made by Mormons. A large number of the Mormons were putting out for the new mines from different towns above and below Salt Lake. Brigham Young and Captain Hooper outfitted parties for the new Eldorado.

The Vidette of the 9th says everybody is going to the Green river mines. Brigham Young is encouraging the hegira. The Vidette advises settlers to remain for the purpose of harvesting the crops.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Friday, August 2, 1867.                               No. 99.

Among  the  Mormons.

{Correspondence of the Boston Traveller.}

GREAT SALT LAKE, May 9, 1867. -- The tourist, when approaching the city of the "Saints" for the first time, having traveled the hundreds of miles of wilderness which surround it, cannot but be favorably impressed. It is literally an oasis, combining the comforts of civilization with natural fertility and beauty. Coming in from the east and descending the mountains through a ravine, we emerge into a vast basin, with high mountains which seem completely to surround it. Here is the Great Salt Lake, its water completely saturated with salt, its shores bounded by a white line of the crystallized substance. Bear and Jordan rivers are continually pouring in fresh water, there is no outlet to the lake, and yet no rise of the waters. A few years since this basin was a wilderness untrod by white men, and so far from the nearest points of civilization, and so difficult of access, that its settlement appeared only the possible work of another century. Mormonism has done the work, and the city now offers rest and luxury to its guests. To-day the peach and apple trees are in full bloom. The gardens afford all kinds of early vegetables for the table.

The streets are neat, the public buildings a credit to the taste and wealth of the builders, the (Gentile) citizens hospitable and genial, and "every prospect pleases and only man is vile." Brigham Young has done here a great work, and done it to satisfy his avarice, ambition and sensual appetite. He is the leader, the very mainspring of Mormonism, without whose agency the whole machinery would stop, and Mormonism in all its details die out. The secret of his success lies in his shrewdness and cunning. He divides a portion of his privileges and power with the smart but mostly illiterate and unscrupulous persons who support and aid him, while the weak-minded dupes who worship him as the great "I am" of their religion, are drawn from the lowest of the human race, and the whole civilized world is visited for proselytes.

The question is often asked: "Why do these poor Mormons continue to suffer the taxation and degradation imposed on them by their leaders?" The question suggests another, "Why do the Gentile merchants, bankers and tourists coming here with plenty of means to be independent, so cater to Mormon habits, and indirectly, at least, pay homage to Brigham Young?" Because he holds the key to every individual man's interest. The rich business man needs his patronage and protection, while the poor cannot cope alone against his absolute power. The few intelligent Mormons are given offices of trust and profit, to keep them faithful by the perquisites which pay a large percentage over the tithings required of them; and by the interested submission of this minority the masses are ground down and kept poor, ignorant and faithful, only because free thought and free speech, would be certain ruin and starvation.

Brigham Young wields to-day a power second to no man on the continent. He can commit more crimes and go unpunished; can talk treason, and act it too; he can cause murder, and violate every law of decency, and no man can, or will call him to account. The influences he has brought to bear on his followers have made them his obedient slaves; ready at his bidding to fight or die in his defence; and his money is an influence potent in Washington to secure immunity from any very close investigation of his affairs. His money removed Gen. Connor from Camp Douglass, and spiked the cannon whose open mouths looked so frowningly upon his harem. His money silences the judges, and buys the courts of Utah, and gives his lawless and unbridled will full exemption from penalty.

In one of my rides around the city, I called to the carriage an apple peddler, and by a liberal purchase felt warranted in asking questions. He answered that "he was an Englishman lately come to Deseret, was formerly an Episcopalian, was converted to Mormonism by promise of a high place in this western paradise; spent all his money in getting here, did not find things as he expected, his wife was not happy or satisfied, and as for Mormonism, they told me it was the only true religion; alas, I don't know, I don't know!" He said this with tears in his eyes, and a faltering voice, and looking uneasily around him to see that no Mormon leader was watching him. I advised him to go back to his old faith, and if possible the land of his birth.

I asked one of the leading and wealthy Gentiles how he got along with the Mormons? "First rate," said he; "why, I often call on Brigham Young, and he on me. He is very much of a gentleman I don't believe in Mormonism, to be sure, but then I have nothing to do with their religion."

I asked a Jewish merchant how he got along with the Mormons. "Very well, indeed," he replied, "they are very peaceable people, if you let them alone. Why, Brigham gave to my people a building for worship, and even fitted it up so as to accommodate our peculiar rites. He also gave us a lot of land for a Jewish cemetery."

Two days after I asked each of these persons why they spoke so well of Mormonism. Both answered that it was only on account of their interest; that Mormonism was a most disgusting outrage on society, and if the Gentiles were only strong enough to oppose them, they would speedily wash their hands from the polluting contact.

I asked General Connor to-day what was his estimate of Brigham's worth. "Not enough by millions to buy me, damn him," was the reply; and he told me many things happening under his own observation, of the corrupt and degrading system. General Connor is honest in speech and action, and he walks these streets in peril of his life; but he is watchful as well as brave, and will go where his business calls him, even if the "destroying angels" of Mormonism dog his path.

I did not visit Brigham for several reasons. He was not at home, and if he had been, would not have invited me. I had no business with him, as I was not about to write a book, and had no occasion for Mormon patronage. If I had, I should have flattered his "well enoughs," and spoke very kindly of him, and, like Dixon, have had a "soft thing of it."

My views of Mormonism have been in the street, in the houses of private Mormons, in the theatre and in churches, and these views have led me to the following conclusions: The street shows many of the plural wives of Mormons ready for unlicensed intercourse with the Gentiles. They talk freely of their position, and consider themselves only as slaves, kept for no reason but to gratify the appetite of their worse masters, and see no lower degradation in extending their questionable hospitalities. In the houses of the Mormons I have had frequent conversations with the wives, and have never seen one who liked to share her husband with her sisters, but was an unwarranted innovation on their original religion, and a crime against the laws of God and man.

I never saw a Mormon wife cheerful and happy. I never saw one whose countenances showed any thing better than resignation, often misery.

I never saw one whose general appearance was that of self-respect or a consciousness of the appreciation of others.

In the theatre only have I seen anything to tolerate in their institutions. It is the only bright spot in Mormonism. Brigham looks out for the amusement of his people, and at the same time derives a good income for his own pocket. He has so graded the prices that the poorest can have a seat: and in the plays and excellent scenery, they can find an hour's forgetfulness from their misery.

The churches are a farce, without piety or religion. The miserable tirades of the President and Elders are too obscene for copy.

Mormonism is a foul blot in morals, a miserable humbug in religion, a successful scheme in ambition, a dangerous, though thus far fortunate, speculation for concentrated wealth, and a shame to a free and independent government.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Saturday, August 3, 1867.                               No. 100.

Serious trouble is brewing among the Mormons. The issue is between the polygamous and anti-polygamous or monogamous elements in this profanely self-styled Church. In the Utah vernacular these two parties are known as the "Brigamites" and "Josephites" -- the former being named after Brigham Young, the latter after Joseph Smith, Jr., the son of the martyr, and he himself a candidate for martyrdom if he ever gets within the reach of the despotic Young. Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, and Amasa Lyman, three of the twelve apostles of Utah Mormondom, have become converts to the one-wife system of Smith, who has his headquarters in Illinois, and have been officially anathematized and cut off.

Note: The above mis-reporting appears to have originated with the Bulletin editorial staff -- in attempting to join together disparate "Mormon" news items into a single article.


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Monday, August 12, 1867.                           No. 107.


Commotion Among the Saints -- President Young
and Young Joe Smith Fighting for the Succession --
Joe Smith Gaining Ground.


{From the Nevada Enterprise.}


It is generally known that there is an irreconcilable schism in the Mormon Church: but it is not generally known that the division separates forty or fifty thousand "Saints" from the recognition and control of Brigham Young and Salt Lake church authorities. The branches dIffer, not only in relation to the legitimate succession to the Presideucy of the Church, but in vital doctrinal points as well, and there is no probabilitly of their ever coming together. The disaffected Mormons are scattered throughout the Western States, and are under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Jr., son of the founder of the faith. He lives in Iowa, and seems to be much respected by his neighbors. It was doubtless the intention of the elder Smith to place the mantle of his authority and succession upon the shouldcrs of the Iowa prophet, but he was killed in prison, and Brigham Young managed to elevate himself to the Church Presidency, while the junior Smith was mourning for the death of his father. Such of the Mormons as could not be prevailed upon to remove to Salt Lake twenty years ago remained in Iowa and Missouri, and recognized the authority of the younger Smith. Their numbers have increased largely, and they now count all of forty thousand souls; it is said. They neither believe in nor practice polygamy, and are altogether a more intelligent body of people than is the Utah branch. A large proportion of them are nativcs of the United States, and during the rebellion they were noted for their loyalty to the government. Some months since we published a letter from Joseph Smith, Jr., in which he stated the points of difference between the two sects, and alluded to the disloyalty of the Salt Lake branch. The letter seems to have had some effect, for his followers have largely increased during the past year. He has made two or three unsucceessful efforts in the way of proselyting at Salt Lake, and the two branches are irreconcilably hostile to each other.

[From the Salt Lake City Vedette.]

That a deep-seated disaffection exists among the adherents of the Mormon Church is too apparent to need demonstration. We do not assert (for in fact we do not know) that this disaffection is toward the Mormon religion. Our own belief on that point is that it is not. The disaffected appear to be excellent citizens in contrast with their opponents, possess as much intelligence, if not more, have the moral honesty to believe there are two duties for man, one to the State, and the other to the Creator; and that the intermediate relations are claimed by ambitious men who jumble into a hotch-potch those obligations and are arrant humbugs, who assert that they are the representatives of both and the only way to discharge one's duty to both is to strictly follow the advice of those strange men who arrogate divine, prophetical attributes in order to establish themselves in the credulity of the people. Large numbers in this city, if we can rely on the statements of those who have advantages for knowing, are tired and disgusted with the continued petty tyrannies exercised over both body and mind, and the perpetual drain upon resources of their industry to keep up a legion of Presidents, Apostles, Bishops, Elders, Teachers and triple the number of wives, to say nothing of children. The leading magnates of the Church are rich; have houses and lands and quite unlike the Nazarene in that respect, for he had no place whereon to lay his head. But these chaps have several places whereon to lay theirs, and good places too. And when the inquisitive follower of the Mormon faith inquires what has become of the "tithing," he is answered by the oracle that it is none of his d___d business. Such matters are not easily digested, and sit right hard on the stomach. When the people look out and see the fruit ot their industry contributed for the good of their Church, converted into fine stores, mills and ranches and stock and carriages for the aggrandizement of individuals who are rolling in wealth and sensual comfort, hobnobbing with every celebrity that comes along, and always courting the consideration and distinction of moneyed power, that the world over despises labor, they cannot be blamed if they do not acquiesce entirely in all these things. We expect to see a great deal of this disaffection manifested this summer. All that is required is some man having confidence in the honesty of his convictions to openly declare himself free of these embarrassing temporalities, and then lead the van; Craven spirits and temporizers would do otherwise.

Notes: The second article was taken from the July 11, 1867 issue of the Salt Lake Union Vidette. See also the Daily Milwaukee News of Aug. 23, 1867.


Vol. XXI.                               Philadelphia, Tuesday, August 20, 1867.                           No. 114.


Some Personal Reminiscences of
"High Priest" George J. Adams --
His Career as a Mormon Elder and Strolling Actor.

The documents lately published by well-informed and trustworthy persons concerning the lamentable condition of the American Colony in Jaffa, Syria, and more especially their last appeal addressed to the American Consul at Jerusalem, Palestine, telling the sad story of their sufferings for the past year and of their present wretchedness, are very sad. Especially so are those setting forth the most earnest desire of the colonists to return at once to the United States, and so escape from the condition, of utter poverty and semi-slavery to which they have been reduced by the devices of their leader; and this appeal has very likely provoked a general desire to know something of the antecedents of this man -- their leader -- the self-styled "Prophet" Adams. It chanced that a number of years ago certain business relations brought Adams and the writer for several months into half-a-dozen-times-a-daily communication, so that the deponent can, to a certain extent, speak by the card.

This man, George J. Adams, the founder and "High Priest" of the "New Church of the Messiah," who has so cruelly deceived and then so basely deserted the little band of New England men now starving at Jaffa, is a notorious individual, who was some years ago familiar to the public as an adventurer, a charlatan and a scamp. He is none other than the once well-known "Mormon Elder Adams," who at one time made himself disgracefully conspicuous in and about the town of Boston, as will appear in the sequel. He was born in England, so he says, and certain it is that neither New England or Old England ever turned loose a more consummate and plausible rascal, or one better qualified to take the position of chief of all the confidence men on the face of the earth. The embryo prophet and high priest, yet to be, was early apprenticed to a tailor, and in due time was graduated from the shop-board a doughty and able Knight of the Thimble, the Needle and the Goose. During the days of his sartorial apprenticeship, Adams was, an enthusiastically active member of an amateur dramatic association, and more than once in some rustic "spout-shop" did he, forgetting for the time his cabbage, rant and roar through Othello or Damon.

Early in his twenties Adams became converted to the Wesleyan variety of the Protestant faith, and, as a Methodist exhorter, soon distinguished himself by the zeal and fluency of his ministrations. Possessed of a certain rude eloquence; he soon became a shining light of the religious community, and his converts were many. This in, near and about Boston.

After some time, when the excitement and novelty of exhorting and preaching had died away, the promising young exhortist, lately so uproariously enthusiastic, became, for some reason, what the brethren call "lukewarm" that is, he backslid, or backslode, or, at any rate, the Methodjsts-theologico-technical term is, that he became a "backslider" -- he dropped his faith, and didn't elder any more just then. By some means this lapsus became known to Mr. Purdy, the manager then of the leading theatre in Boson, who, being in sore need of an attraction, and having heard somewhat of Adams's dramatic aspirations, made that worthy an offer of much cash if he would enact for him on six consecutive nights in his theatre (the National it is said) the leading characters in half a dozen plays. Exactly how many shekels were required to tempt the recreant elder to take off the white neck-tie and put on the buff-leather boots, history has failed to record. Suffice to say Adams agreed to act, and was forthwith billed to appear as the crook-backed tyrant in Richard III. The result may be easily imagined -- the new star had but yesterday been "converting," scores by the fervent power of his exhortations and his prayers, and now. -- Well, let a New York reader imagine what would be the crowd were Rev. E. H. Chapin announced, in all good faith, to personate at the Olympic Theatre next Wednesday, the rash, young, handsome, hero lover in the play of Romeo and Juliet.

Manager Purdy's theatre was jammed to its utmost extent for the first few nights. People went just to see how the elder would get along. Considered in a critical light, the acting was about as bad as a superlatively good-natured audience could possibly endure; the novelty soon wore off; four or five nights exhausted the public curiosity, and the great and increasing number of empty benches on the two or three concluding evenings warned the discreet manager not to renew the hazardous engagement with his theological star.

So Adams's engagement terminated abruptly, and was soon only remembered as a nine-days' wonder. A number of ludicrous incidents grew out of it, however, one of which was as follows: An editor of a religious paper saw fit to make about Adams some severe remarks editorially and personally, for which the backslidden elder vowed vengeance. Arming himself with a cowhide or horsewhip (the technical and quadrupedal difference between which should, for the benefit of future writers, be at once explained), the irate actor-elder awaited in the street the coming of his foe. When Adams espied him in the distance, approaching and unconscious of harm, he concealed himself until his intended victim had come near, then, rushing from his concealment, he seized the trembling editor by the collar, and drawing on his stock of Bible texts, of which he had many at his tongue's end, and which he never hesitated to jumble together in a way to suit his own purposes, Adams proclaimed aloud, "The Lord hath delivered mine enemy into mine hand -- now will I deal unto him forty stripes save one."

Then, administering the horse-hiding or cow-whipping, whichever it may be, at his own elegant leisure, to his non-resisting antagonist, the belligerent "Elder" retired to his dressing-room to attire himself for Othello, the Moor of Venice. There are many versions of this whipping story; the foregoing is a fair average of Adams's own tellings, struck as near as may be between the time of his perfect sobriety and other times of equally perfect intoxication. Adams was fond of telling this story himself. The above would seem to be the main facts, while the amount of embellishment depended on the quantity of old Bourbon previously imbibed.

In one of his peculiar moods, when his "receptivity" was ready for almost anything new, Adams "received" the doctrine of Mormonism, and forthwith became a red-hot convert, and in a marvelously short time he was a regularly ordained Mormon preacher, authorized to travel throughout the land, preaching the new Gospel of Mormon according to Joe Smith, and proselyting whomsoever he might. He was successful as a Mormon preacher, and soon became known as "Adams, the Mormon Elder."

When the people of the West broke up by force of musketry the Mormon settlement at Nauvoo, the greater part of those deluded disciples of Joe Smith went to the Far West, but not all. Small bodies of them colonized in various places for the time, until they could dispose of their effects, wind up their affairs, and prepare to follow their priests and leaders to the territory which they now occupy. One little squad of Mormons, some of whom had been at Nauvoo, but most of whom had been converted elsewhere, found in Lake Erie [sic] between the Michigan and the Canada shores, a small island, nearly uninhabited called "Beaver Island," where they congregated and formed a Mormon settlement. In one of his erratic rambles George J. Adams found this little congenial colony, and he was made welcome.

His theatrical fever here attacked him again, and he organized a local company and played to the Beaver lslanders. Soon tiring of this, and neither Methodism nor Mormonism offering him now a livelihood, Adams determined to take his company of bass-wood actors and travel through the western towns and make a fortune, and in ten days the Nation Theatre was ready.

At this time Adams took from Beaver Island as his leading actress, the woman who afterward passed as his wife. There is a story that this lady was already somewhat married, or was attached to the harem of one of the Beaver Island magnates, and that the Elder found it convenient to travel far and travel fast in order to get his precious person comfortably beyond the range of a certain pistol.

From this time, August, 1851, for several reasons Adams vagabondized through the West as a strolling actor-man. His way of getting up a company was eminently cheap and rascally. In every town there are a score of ambitious "stage-struck" boys, who fancy that with "a chance" they can soon rival Garrick and excel Kean. Here the scoundrelism of Adams came into play. He would engage such young men, who were only too eager to go, telling them that he would pay no salary for a month, till he could judge of their fitness for the profession. Then, by smooth words, he would excite their ambition till they would study night and day, spend their money for wardrobe, draw on their friends for all the cash they could possibly get, only to be told by the manager as soon us the novelty wore off and the desire to be earning something came uppermost, that "really, my dear fellow, you're a hard worker, you try your best, you do all you can, but, candidly, between you and me, you'll never make an actor." So the aspirant would go disconsolately back to his plow or his yard-stick.

Yet strange to say, not a village but offered its scores of similar recruits. The women of the company must, for the most part, be paid professionals; for though there are quite as many stage-struck girls as boys, they dare not go, for the step, which in a boy would be a mere harmless escapade, would, in a girl, be utter and irretrievable ruin. Thus, with a wretched squad of raw school-boy actors whom he was always a swindling, living perpetually in an atmosphere of lies, "Elder" Adams for many months struggled on in his career as theatrical manager.

The manager was, of course, always the "star" of the company -- no matter what the play -- tragedy, comedy -- farce or pantomime, the "celebrated actor, Mr. George J. Adams, from the Boston theatres," played the leading part.

Adams was as poor an actor as ever spoke,without doubt. When he played his original engagement with Mr. Purdy, some one happened to say that his intonation was like the elder Booth's. It is well known that that admirable actor could not help giving a nasal twang to certain of his words, as his nose had been injured in such a manner as to affect his speech. After that remark, made in Adams's hearing, he always talked through his nose, with the idea of imitating the great actor. To such an extent did he carry this wretched affectation that the speech in the first act of Richard III, "Now is the winter of our discontent," &c., was drawled through the nose to such a degree that a listener with his eyes closed might easily imagine the speaker had a hair lip.

Adams was an exceedingly negligent, even dirty man, as to his person. He would borrow garments from his actors and return them in such a soiled condition that they must be thrown away. He used invariably to play Othello, and "Rolla" in Pizarro on consecutive nights, because he used for both parts to redden his face, neck and shoulders with Spanish vermillion to imitate the Moorish hue of skin and after playing "Othello" he would merely rub the red off his face, leaving it on his arms and neck for the "Rolla" of the succeeding night, as it was too much trouble to wash it off, and "it wouldn't show under his clothes."

The "Elder" frequently was taken suddenly drunk, and would have to be dosed with salt brine inside, and drenched with buckets of pump-water outside, to sober him sufficiently to enable him to "get through" his part.

Of course a company conducted on this plan was perpetually in pecuniary difficulties with landlords, printers and others. In these cases, when all else failed, Adams would call in the aid of his Free Masonry. In more instances than one, was the dramatic and personal wardrobe of the entire company attached and detained by officers until certain outstanding hotel bills were settled. Invariably Adams's first inquiry would then be for the leading Free Masons of the place; he would then disappear for an hour or two, and presently the goods would be set free.

The Elder still delighted in an occasional sermon, and he would always make a great sensation about it. While playing in a town he would engage some temporarily vacant church edifice, or school-house, and at the conclusion of the theatrical performance on Saturday night he would present himself before the audience and say: "Ladies and Gentlemen -- On to-morrow evening, at 8 o'clock, in the Episcopo-Presbyterio-Methodisco-Congregational Church of this city, I shall preach a sermon from the text," &c., &c.

The next evening the church would be crowded, and Adams would deliver a most admirable and brilliant discourse at the conclusion of which he would address the audience somewhat after this fashion: -- "I desire to state to this congregation, that on tomorrow evening, at the Theatre in Smiths street, I shall have the honor of enacting before a Jonestown audience, for my benefit, the character of "Macbeth," in Shakspcare's sublime tragedy of that name.

He never paid his actors, with the exception of two or three indispensibles; for a man to ask for money was to receive his discharge. In this manner Adams was thoroughly heartless, many a time turning out some poor fellow in mid-winter, hundreds of miles from his home, without a dollar in his pocket. On one occasion he discharged, at Green Bay Wisconsin, in January, when the weather was so cold that the mercury froze, nine persons, two of them women, and left them there, without paying them one dollar of the hundreds he owed them, and even with their hotel bill unpaid.

In short, the entire career of Mr. George J. Adams, for many years, has been one of meaness, hypocrisy, scampism and rascality.

This last enterprise, wherein he hoped to rival Joe Smith and Brigham Young, and make himself the high priest of a new church in a strange land, where there would be none to call him to account or challenge his actions, is of a piece with his previous scoundrelism, though conceived on a somewhat grander scale. That he will rob these deluded men and women of their all is a foregone conclusion. Their touching appeal to the American Consul at Jerusalem, signed by the few of them yet left alive, gives a sad outline of the rascally scheme, and if these poor creatures do not all perish of famine it will not be from any aid afforded by the arch-scoundrel, Elder George J. Adams

Note: For more on Elder Adams and his Palestinian exoloits, see Reed M. Holmes' 1981 book, The Forerunners: The Tragic Story of 156 Down-East Americans led to Jaffa in 1866 by charismatic G.J. Adams to Plant the Seeds of Modern Israel. See also the Jerusalem Post of Dec. 1, 2009.


Vol. XXI.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, January 23, 1868.                             No. 246.

A FLURRY IN MORMONDOM. -- The bill recently introduced into Congress by Senator Cragin of New Hampshire: "To regulate the selection of grand and petit jurors in the Tertitory of Utah," and for other purposes, has roused the ire of all the Saints. According to the terms of this bill, as construed by the Deseret News, the Mormons must either abandon their religion or be tried by a despotic court. In the opinion of the editor there is left no loophole for escape, for hereafter, should the proposed law take effect, it shall not be lawful for an officer or a member of the Mormon church to perform a ceremony of marriage. Says the News:
"By this bill every minister of our faith is muzzled. God has bestowed a revelation giving us plurality of wives as a doctrine of his church, and which we are commanded to preach and practice. But Senator Cragin says if we do obey the Almighty, and do preach and counsel it, we shall be fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months."
This is too much for Brigham Young and his disciples. Professing to believe that polygamy is sanctioned by divine authority, if not expressly commanded, they are not disposed to recognize the authority of the United States in this matter. The News reminds its readers that on a former occasion when the question arose, "Shall we obey God or obey man," the whole people took up their line of march into an unknown wilderness, and when the alternative is again presented, they promise to give an answer as plain and undecided as at any time in the past. In the language of the News the Mormons "know their rights, and knowing dare maintain them." They evidently do not mean to be coerced. Therefore the almanac makers, if they can predict when the aforesaid bill takes effect, may as well inscribe the words: "About this time look out for squalls in Utah."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, February 27, 1868.                             No. 276.

Lecture by Hon. A. K. McClure.

(Special Despatch to the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin.)

Harrisburg, Feb. 27 -- Hon. A. K. McCIure, Ex-Senator of Pennsylvania, who has just returned from the Western Territories, Iast night delivered an address before the House of Representatives, setting forth an animated description of the far West. Governor Geary presided, and introduced Mr. McClure, who said: No part of the East is as fertile as the country west of the Missouri. He has seen in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, 4,000 feet above the sea, long: valleys extending over three hundred miles, producing the finest wheat in the world. It would be policy to appoint school masters to teach legislators what the West really is. No part of the country between the Missouri river and the Pacific, excepting the tops of mountains, but what will grow every product of Pennsylvania except corn, with greater ease than in our State. The first real settlement of the country was due to the Mormons, the masses of whom were ignorant, low foreigners, more degraded in their own country than any of our native citizens, but who, under the worldly wisdom and wonderful ability of Brigham Young, have reared homes of neatness surrounded with vines, flowers and fruits, and filled with contented men, who believe their ruler to be the prophet of the Lord. Thus one hundred thousand people exist in Utah, more free except on the score of religion, than any community of the same size in Amcrica from the vices of drunkenness, swearing and immorality. In the whole of Salt Lake City there are but two taverns; every ward has its bishop, nearly all of whom are Americans. The women are ignorant, not one in ten of them can read, and they are taught that their only hope of happiness in heaven is through their husbands. This is one inducement to polygamy, but there are no happy wives in Utah. A woman cannot leave her home without being watched with the same care as a criminal. To sum up, nine-tenths ef the Mormons are ignorant, earnest believers, and the remaining one-tenth are blasphemers, and licentious. Brigham Young positively declared to the speaker that polygamy should not be abolished. No act of Congress could destroy it, but the Pacific Railway would throw strange masses among; them, and work a cure. They manuf acture their own flour, iron, cotton and sugar. The difficulties of crossing the Rocky Mountains are exaggerated. The speaker had crossed them six times in four months. No single hundred miles of the crossing was as difficult as the line between Harrisburg and Altoona. The finest natural roads in America were among these mountains. In winter, however, the snow was fifty feet deep, and last January the speaker had walked upon it. How the railroad would succeed in conquering the difficulty he did not know. There was to town half the size of Harrisburg, in the far West, that did not do ten times the business of that place. The mines of Utah, Montana, Nevada and Colorado were rich beyond comparison. In two years a man could leave his Massachusetts home on Monday and worship the following Sunday in San Francisco.

The speaker was energetically applauded.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                               Philadelphia, Monday, June 29, 1868.                                No. 69.


Brigham Young is a bold ruler, when he invites the Pacific Railroad into his territory. To open Utah to a free commerce with the Gentile world is to introduce the elements of a certain and speedy downfall for the whole peculiar structure of Mormonism. And yet Brigham Young courts the approach of the Pacific Railroad with the full knowledge of all the consequences: Eight thousand Mormon laborers are now at work in Utah, constructing this great line of communication with the outer world, and to this co-operation of Brigham Young's the Company is largely, indebted for the rapid and extraordinary progress which it is now making. Six hundred and sixty miles of this wonderful work are now in regular operation, and within a month forty miles more will be completed, while the hope is entertained of reaching Salt Lake City by the close of the present year. Evidently Brigham Young is honest in his declaration that he "is not afraid of the Gentiles." Either he has a fanatical faith in the power of Mormonism to resist the influences of the outside pressure of American "institutions, or, foreseeing with keen sagacity the early abolition of polygamy, he is statesman enough to set his house in order in good time, and to lay deep and broad the foundations of that prosperity which awaits the people of Utah when they shall have cast away those features of their peculiar religion which now put them under the ban of the civilized world, and accepted those inevitable conditions of American progress of which the Union Pacific Railroad is now one of the greatest types.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                               Philadelphia, Monday, July 27, 1868.                                No. 92.

The results of the polygamy practised in Utah territory are themselves proving the iniquity and absurdity of the Mormon marital theory. A recent census of the Mormon settlements shows that of the whole number of children bom, the proportion of females to males is as nineteen to twenty, or nearly an equal number of both sexes. This is nature's protest against Brigham Young's doctrine, and it is difficult to perceive how he can prevent this hard, incontrovertible fact, working out the eventual ruin of his system of polygamy. Either he must provide for an enormous immigration of women that must continue indefinitely in an increasing ratio, or he must get rid of a great many more than half of the males that are born of Mormon parents; for as it is, there are not enough women to give the rising generation of young men one wife apiece. The first of these alternatives is nearly impossible; the second is quite so, and it seems to be inevitable that this simple and natural proportion of the sexes will be the occasion of effecting the overthrow of the whole wicked system. Like every other violation of the laws of the Creator, it works out its own destruction. It is strange that Joseph Smith, if indeed, as may be questioned, he authorized polygamy, did not think of this. It is an established law that the sexes shall be nearly equal in the total of the race. In crowded communities the well-known preponderance of females is attributable to loss of male life from excesses, violence, war and emigration. That this latter is a leading cause, is evident from the preponderance of males in new communities. Probably if man had retained his pristine purity and innocence, humanity would be paired off in exact couples. But the excess of women in the population of the world, if, indeed, it exists at all, at any rale is not great enough to supply the foreshadowed Mormon deficiency, without any regaid to the insufficiency of numbers which would exist if all mankind took Brigham Young's advice and adventured in polygamy.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Thursday, August 6, 1868.                           No. 101.


No. III.


We halted, perched on tho summit of the Laramie Mountains, or Black Hills, as they seem to be indiscriminately called. A breathing spell, and then we go launching down the opposite slope, reaching soon the more sterile region, which will become wilder and more barren until we again cross the Platte at Benton. At 2 P. M. we are at Laramie.

Laramie consists of a huge railroad hotel, not yet finished , and several streets of frame and canvas houses. Population, 1,500. Here the Union Pacific is building more fine shops, to take care of the construction and repair of the rolling stock of the Mountain Division. There are some stores and a post-office; many places of equivocal refreshment and amusement; and one of the oldest inhabitants assured us that there had not been a fight in the town, for more than half an hour! A man had been killed the day before, and there was some talk of hanging his murderer that night, if we would like to stay and see it, but, upon the whole, Laramie was considered rather dull. There are about six men in town who have wives and children. The few women that we see in the streets are not inviting in appearance, or extreme in the modesty of their demeanor. The quietness of the place was explained by the faet that the gamblers, thieves, and their female associates, had just "swarmed," and gone off to the new terminus of the road, at Benton. This makes it pleasanter for those who remain, and also safer. When there is a free fight in Laramie everybody shoots, and the wrong person is invariably hit.

Just outside of the town, lay a Mormon train. Seven hundred poor souls, who had come on ahead of us from Ornaha, looking very travelworn, and generally used up. Men, women and children, all ages, from the cradle to the grave. They were getting ready for their long wagon-ride across the plains to Salt Lake, for Laramie is, as yet, the end of their railroad journey. Poor souls! They looked as if la maladie du pays was already spreading among them. How many of them will find their hopes realized, under the dominion of Brigham Young?

We take supper on our train at Laramie, and after dark some of the more adventurous of the party explore the elegant evening amusements of this frontier town. Some of them don't Then at ten o'clock, while the sounds of revelry are just becoming fast and furious, our iron horse tools us out of town, and we are off for another night ride to the end of the road. Laramie does not make much of a picture on paper, and yet Laramie is going to settle down into a sedate and thriving railroad town, and that at no very distant day. Whatever the West does, it does quickly.

We are again riding away through the night, and have about 130 miles before us to reach, the North Platte where it winds around, to the road, four hundred miles from where we first crossed it. We are all tolerably quiet at night. In our car but one man snored, and he was a Democrat! The scene in the morning was always picturesque. There was always plenty of water, but only one wash-stand at each end of the car. Half a dozen Eastern editors, in various stages of dishabille, waiting their turn. Nobody was expected to be long about it. Five minutes betokened effeminacy. Eight minutes was a reckless disregard for fellow-beings that sometimes threatened difficulties. It was rather remarkable how clean the party managed to keep. Page's shirt bosom was the admiration and envy of the party for days. Not that we were never dirty. That would be putting altogether tun fine a point on it. There were periods of the journey when our mothers would have sternly refused to recognize us, but that was only occasionally.

On Thursday morning, early, we crossed the Platte again, 691 miles from Omaha. Close on the bank is a pretty camp, a new military post, named Fort Steele. Just beyond is Benton. Benton was two or three weeks old, and had nearly a thousand inhabitants. It was -- it may be quite different now -- a canvas town, the tents decorated with signboards, which had already done duty in Cheyenne, Julesburg and Laramie. Most of them Indicated that the business was Saloon. The Bentonites, -- it was an hour after sunrise -- come lounging down to take a stare at our train, and a few inquiries were made for Gen. Grant, who was floating round the country somewhere. As a general rule, the Bentonian is distinguished by an elongated protuberance over the right hip which indicates fire-arms. No one was killed while we lay at Benton, nor had been since the day before, when a sub-contractor had playfully murdered one of the railroad hands, for asking him for some money.

Personally we explored Benton very slightly. It was not attractive. But it was not without its interest to some of the excursionists. Clarke found a shoemaker there, with whom he had "a most interesting conversation," and who offered to make him of pair of boots for $20.00. And Bliss bought five lead pencils there for fifty cents, receiving a counterfeit note in change for his dollar. Being a modest man and distant from home, he did not like to tell the shop-keeper that he had cheated him, so he mildly remarked that he believed he would take five more pencils while he was about it, and so got rid of the dubious currency. There is no particular reason why Benton should last over a month or so, and we doubt if it gets down on the next maps.

We were soon off from Benton to the end of the track. It was a beautiful morning, and presently we all doffed our hats respectfully to the Seven Hundred Mile post on the U. P. R. R. Ten miles further, and we are brought to a halt by the construction and boarding trains at the end of the road. We are there!

It is a lively and deeply interesting scene. The country is wild and barren, the surface of the ground covered with a stunted attempt at grass and small stones, among which everybody, after awhile, went hunting for agates, with various degrees of success. Just there the track ran on an embankment twenty feet high. The advanced limit of the rail is occupied by a train of long box cars, with hammocks swung under them, beds spread on top of them, bunks built within them, in which the sturdy, broad-shouldered pioneers of the great iron highway sleep at night, and take their meals. Close behind this train come loads of ties and rails and spikes, &c., which are being thundered off upon the roadside to be ready for the track-layers. The road is graded a hundred miles in advance. The ties are laid roughly in place, then adjusted, gauged and levelled. Then the track is laid.

Track-laying on the Union Pacific is a science, and we, pundits of the Far East, stood on that embankment, only about a thousand miles this side of sunset, and backed westward before that hurrying corps of sturdy operatives with a mingled feeling of amusement, curiosity and profound respect. On they came. A light car, drawn by a single horse, gallops up to the front with its load of rails. Two men seize the end of a rail and start forward, the rest of the gang taking hold by twos, until it is clear of the car. They come forward at a run. At the word of command the rail is dropped in its place, right side up with care, while the same process goes on at the other side of the car. Less than thirty seconds to a rail for each gang, and so four rails go down to the minute! Quick work, you say, but the fellows on tho U. P. are tremendously in earnest. The moment the car is empty it is tipped over on the side of the track to let the next loaded car pass it, and then it is tipped back again, and it is a sight to see it go flying back for another load , propelled by a horse at full gallop at the end of sixty or eighty feet of rope, ridden by a young Jehu, who drives furiously. Close behind the first gang come the gangers, spikers and bolters, and a lively time they make of it. It is a grand Anvil Chorus that those sturdy sledges are playing across the plains. It is in triple time, three strokes to a spike. There are ten spikes to a rail, four-hundred rails to a mile, eighteen hundred miles to San Francisco. That's the sum, what is the quotient? Twenty-one million times are those sledges to be swung -- twenty-one million times are they to come down with their sharp punctuation, before the great work of modern America is complete!

On they go. Fifteen minutes from the moment that the rail is dropped upon the track, it is adjusted, spiked, bolted to its predecessor with the "fish-plate," (there are no "chairs" used,) and ready for the advancing train. It was worth the dust, the heat, the cinders, the hurrying ride, day and night, the fatigue and the exposure, to see with one's own eyes this second grand 'March to the Sea." Sherman, with his victorious legions, sweeping from Atlanta to Savannah was a spectacle less glorious than this army of men, marching on foot from Omaha to Sacramento, subduing unknown wildernesses, scaling unknown mountains, surmounting untried obstacles, and binding across the broad breast of America the iron emblem of modern progress and civilization. All honor, not only to the brains that have conceived, but to the indomitable wills, the brave hearts and the brawny muscles that are actually achieving the great work!

We spend two or three hours at the end of the track, during which nearly a mile of road is built, and then turn our faces Eastward once more. Returning to the fascinating town of Benton, we lie there for several hours, awaiting a special train which comes up in due time, bringing Vice President Durant, heart, brain and life of this great enterprise, and divers other officials, on a trip over the road. A bottle of Medoc is punished by the new arrivals, and at about 6 P. M. -- it is Thursday, July 23d -- we are fairly off on our homeward trip. Our train has the right of way, and we are to go through the whole 700 miles, kiting. And we did. Friday morning finds us breakfasting at Cheyenne, Rollins House. The thoughtful Frost has telegraphed for a first-rate breakfast, and we feast sumptuously on all the delicacies of the Cheyenne season, including broiled antelope, which is delicious.

Cheyenne is pronounced, Shy-Ann. We are an hour in Cheyenne, and then off again, making big time all the while. An early tea at North Platte, and a hasty survey of the Company's fine shops; a half-hour halt across the long bridge of the Platte River, and a bath for those disposed to tempt the shallow but rushing torrent; and off again for Omaha.

That night, Wadsworth, conductor, spread himself. He determined to show that the Union Pacific was a road that could be traveled over, and he traveled. Running by telegraph, dodging construction and freight trains, replacing melted brasses in his boxes, he went it, all night, kicking up a dust that reduced the train to a condition not easily described, and putting us into Omaha on Saturday morning, at 9 o'clock, having broken down three engines, run 56 miles one hour, 48 miles another, and 34 miles every hour for seven hundred miles! Anybody who wants a better proof of a well-built road must inquire at some other office. Wadsworth is an immense conductor, and deserves well of his country.

We make but a brief halt at Omaha. We breakfast and then recross that delightful mud-solution, the Missouri, and resume the Chicago and North Western. At Council Bluffs we bid good-bye to Frost. Frost, so full of information, so attentive, so obliging, so wide-awake to the interests of the Union Pacific and the comforts of Eastern editors. We all hope to see Frost again. We are a day ahead of our time, and have stolon a march on Pullman, but he meets us with the "Omaha" and her Great Organ, at Boone, toward evening. We are now running for Chicago as hard as we can pelt, but only kill a single cow. Probably if it had not been Sunday morning, we might have killed more. The Pullman Organ comes in play, and a wonderful variety of talent for sacred music is developed in the company, until, soon after noon, we reach Chicago, and are glad enough for the hospitable welcome that awaits us at the Tremont. We have run 2,000 miles since Tuesday morning, almost without stopping, and we are more than ready for a rest.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                       Philadelphia, Wednesday, August 12, 1868.                         No. 106.


An Interview with the Mormon Prophet.

(From the Cincinnati Commercial.)

Salt Lake City, July, 1868. -- Calling on a prominent tradesman in this place (himself a leading Mormon and Utah pioneer;) our party of four inquired as to the feasibility of obtaining a brief interview with Brigham Young. We were told that the modern Solomon (in domestic multiplicities if not in wisdom) granted few audiences to parties seeking his presence from motives of curiosity, beside which he was fresh from the grave of one of the most trusted ministers -- Heber Kimball -- and must be presumed to be indulging in that grief that arises as much from the suggestion, "how soon may paralysis pin me," as from the sense, of pain and vacancy that follows a bereavement. It so happened that one of our number had a proposition to lay before the Arch-chief of the Mormons, which had the color, if not the substance of business; and so, after a private parley between the gentlemen we applied to and Brigham, we were informed that the latter would see us at 10 A. M. if we could spare the time; if not, then at some later hour.

At ten minutes before the musical town clock struck ten, we were on the way from the hotel, walking along the stream and shade-tree bordered avenues, under a sky exquisitely blue, and fanned by an atmosphere that seemed just to have been unwrapped from the original package. Brigham Young's famous presidential mansions or harems; the Lion and the Beehive houses, stand in the centre of a square about ten feet from the pavement, and are surrounded by beautifully embellished grounds of twenty acres, the whole block being inclosed by a high wall of boulders. The Lion House and the Beehive House stand side by side, and look like ambitious country villas, three stories high, adorned by a wilderness of gables. A carved lion surmounts the portal of one, and a beehive that of the other. In front and along the entire square the pavement is margined with a row of vividly green locust trees half grown. To the left of the mansion a large branch of the network of small streams that line the streets and irrigate the gardens of the city, tumbles out into the street in a rocky channel excavated under the wall of boulders and neatly arched over.

Passing through the iron gate of the Beehive House, we found our intercessor waiting to introduce us to the modern Seer of Zion. We were conducted into Brigham's office, a large apartment handsomely furnished, and found ourselves shaking hands with a strongly built man of sixty-eight, who seems ten years younger. His manner was gravely cordial, and he motioned us to chairs with the routine air of one whose station demands that he take a daily "public bath" of visitors of all degrees. We were but fairly seated when two other callers were announced -- Mr. ____, of Illinois, and his daughter, a slender young girl of twenty or thereabouts. She rushed at Brigham with a palpitating stride, seized his hand convulsively, and exclaimed with hasty effusion: "Ah, President Young, I am dee-light-ed to make your acquaintance."

Brigham bowed with formal gallantry, but with a certain something lurking in his composure that seemed to say, "Don't overdo it, my dear young woman, either you are scared or a trifle bold." The auditors, now numbering six, took seats in a semi-circle, while the Prophet deposited himself with due deliberation in a cushioned arm-chair. Emptying his face and attitude of all but the soberest expression, he entered into a general conversation with the father of the young lady, whose name suggested the invention of the telegraph. Upon that topic the discourse ran for a few moments; then glided to Robert Fulton, his rebuffs, reverses and final triumph. The young lady's father thought the progress of the nineteenth century was something almost startling; Brigham agreed with him; and the young lady, in a bolt upright, prunes and prism pose, looked as if she were debating whether or not it would be the thing to say, "President Young, I am dee-light-ed to drop your acquaintance."

Now for a glance at Brigham himself, as he sits gravely upright in his chair, with his large broad feet making a decent right angle on the soft carpet. He is clad in a suit or greenish cassimere, coat, vest and pantaloons all of the same piece, all made roomy and comfortable, with no pretentions whatever to stylish build. The vest is cut so as to reveal a broad expanse of white linen shirt and turn-down collar. The only jewelry visible is a heavy but tasteful watch chain, leading from a vest button-hole to the left vest pocket. A crisply clean parti-colored silk pocket handkerchief is tied around his neck and fastened in a comely knot as if freshly adjusted there by the last new bride. The occasion of this addition to his ordinary costume is a trifling disorder of the throat, incurred in preaching the funeral discourse of Heber Kimball and following his remains to the grave. If you chance to get near enough you will occasionally notice that he wheezes a little after speaking.

His hair is still thick and retains much of its original golden color. It is neatly combed back, and its tendency to turn in under the ends encouraged a little. The blonde face is a good looking one in whole and in detail, but far from easy to construe. The forehead is broad, and moderately high, and well marked in the perspective region over the brows; the eyes are keen in their glance, though light in hue, and not naturally lustrous; the nose is a good, strong, straight sort of nose, and has been a handsome aquiline with sensual nostrils. The mouth can hardly retain much of its original form and expression. Authority has remolded and compressed it until it is more like a seam than a mouth. When he speaks the words seem to be calmly weighed by the brain, clipped by the teeth, and finally squeezed through the left half of the almost locked-up lips. The jaw is the one undisguised animal portion of the face. It is heavy, purplish in its fullness of blood, and inclines to take on the double chin. The throat is thick, the chest deep, the shoulders broad, the arms rather short, the legs yeoman-like in stoutness, and the whole figure that of a well proportioned large man nearly six feet in height, who has passed his prime, and commenced to descend a little. The predominant expression of his face, a broad sort of shrewdness. A profound knowledge of nature combined with quick, solid intuitions, and a rare executive capacity -- a capacity of intelligently dispatching important work with rapidity and no bustle have placed Brigham Young where he is, and made his little empire in the desert one of the wonders of the world. For a man of sixty eight he is well preserved. Hardly a gray hair is perceptible in his head. But when he walks across the floor there is a suggestion of old age, with its coming flabbiness and want of supple sinews. His step lacks elasticity and his complexion the freshness of vigor and ripe robustitude. The Prophet is going down hill.

He is no longer young -- nor middle aged. Though he has taken two new wives within the last six months, he has not increased the number of his offspring for three years and better. Three years ago Brigham married "Amelia," the vivacious, willful, pale and rather homely daughter of a Salt Lake carpenter. From the altar she has exerted a strange influence over her august lord; and though she has borne him no child, she is still his favorite, is most frequently seen with him in public, and is the object of attentions from him which few of his harem have ever known. Two new wives have succeeded her -- one of them a widow -- but neither of them have supplanted her as the Prophet's dearest.

The conversation rippled in the shallows for awhile, and then one of us made a push for deep water with the question: "Does your community, Mr. Young, take any interest in the general politics of the country?"

"No, sir,"'was the reply. "We believe here in men, and not in parties." And he changed the topic, almost in the same breath, to that of mining, in which some of his visitors are interested.

"Gentlemen," said he, "I understand some of you are going to the Pahranagat mines. You are very, hopeful I observe, but you will lose your money; mark my words. The ore is there, true enough; but not one mine in fifty can be profitably worked in America until wages are twenty-five cents a day, in Germany, instead of six dollars, as at your mines. The expense of reducing your ore will swallow up all the revenue, and much more. It won't do. What would my community be to-day if it had taken to mining instead of agriculture? Set one hundred men to mining and ten to farming, and at the end of ten years the ten will be worth more than the one hundred, and probably have to feed them gratuitously. You say it is possible that my views on this subject may be changed. They may be enlarged, and for your sake I hope they will. But I can only repeat my fullest conviction that you are doomed to bitter disappointment and heavy losses."

"I understand, President Young," said another, "that you have taken a contract for grading the ninety miles of the Union Pacific Railroad next east of your city."

"Yes," answered the Prophet; "not precisely east of the city, but east of a point twenty miles north of it."

"We have heard," pursued the first speaker, "that you would greatly prefer not to be disturbed by railroads -- that is, your people have sought to be isolated and would not object to remaining aloof from Gentiles and their enterprises."

"Oh, yes," replied Brigham, with a well-feigned flurry of impatience at the thought. ''That is the way with people generally. They would discredit the word of a reliable man and believe the first drunkard that sallies out of a grog shop. Why should we grade ninety mile of a road we are supposed to be afraid of?"

Nobody answered the question, but it is susceptible of rejoinder. When a man as far-seeing and shrewd as Brigham Young finds that he cannot crush an enemy, he makes a friend of him. And in the case of the Union Pacific Railroad, which he could not stay nor cripple, if he would, he claims to grade ninety miles at a profit to himself of a million of dollars, and have the work done by Mormons instead of regiments of ostreperous Irish laborers, who would surround Salt Lake City, and make its streets the scene of their periodic larks. To have said this much in the Prophet's own office would have been venturesome; but some of us thought it, and conceived that Brigham appeared to be a little indignant at the question, because he objected to a deeper probe.

"Would you rather the railroad would pass twenty miles north of instead of through your city?"

"Why, of course not," growled Brigham. "We have exhausted our influence in attempting to bring it right into Salt Lake City. Years ago I set apart depot grounds for railroad purposes. I have offered a part of them to the Union Pacific if they will come here; but they choose to pass twenty miles to the north, building across the lake and continuing their route west in that latitude without a detour of forty miles."

"Will you build a branch, then, to connect with the railroad?"

"Certainly, in good time. The valley is perfectly level, and the branch can be easily and cheaply constructed."

"What is the Mormon population of Utah, Mr. President?"

"I don't know, sir." -- This was said so loconically that some objection to the query was implied.

"This city, we hear, has about 16,000 inhabitants."

"It has about 20,000," said Brigham.'

"When, Mr. President, do you expect the Union Pacific Railroad to reach the latitude of this city?"

"Another season will suffice, I think. The ninety miles I have contracted to grade will be finished by next September, as stipulated. I have a large force at work already, as you doubtless saw when your coach came throngh Echo Canyon. The sub-contracts have nearly all been given out."

"Mr. Young,'' said one of the visitors, "I am the representative of a prominent mining company in the Pahranagat district, and am empowered to treat with you for an extension of the telegraph from your settlement in Southern Utah to our mines in Lincoln Co., Nevada."

"Lincoln County, Nevada, eh?" said Brigham, with a slight sneer. "Well, now, we are not quite sure yet that your mines are not still in Utah."

"But you must remember, Mr. President, that our mines were recently transferred to Nevada by a special act of Congress."

"I know all about it. That special act is the only specimen of that sort on record. We are not entirely convinced that you are not in Utah," continued the Prophet, with the air of a ruler co-ordinate at least with Uncle Sam himself.

"I suppose," chimed in Apostle Cannon, with a sarcastic smile, "that you had yourselves moved out of Utah because you feared invidious legislation."

"Yes," was the frank reply. The subject was becoming warm; so by tacit and unanimous consent it was dropped.

"I have read nearly all the books written about the Mormons," said somebody, "and have been most struck with Hepworth Dixon's rather elaborate volume on your community. What do you think of that book, Mr. President?"

"It's a novel," said Brigham, quickly, "a pleasing work of fiction. There's a little truth in it, but mostly it's an imaginative creation. There are other works on us much more correct than Dixon's book, but as a rule they all go wide of the truth."

Here he arose, went to a book-case with the confidence of a man who knows where he puts things, and got a card skewered with many varieties of telegraph wire. The conversation reverted to the subject of the telegraphic extension before referred to. Brigham had scented the one grain of business in our visit, and proposed to dispose of that and the call, which had now consumed about forty minutes. In conversation Brigham Young is frank, ready, apt and concise, with no peculiarity of accent and no eccentricities of grammar. It may interest those who hunger for minute details to know that he pronounces route as if spelled root, and that he says neether, not neither. The telegraphic negotiation resulted in nothing definite. We arose. The Prophet followed us to the door, shaking hands with each one. The young lady, who had remained primly silent, convulsively said, "God bless you, Mr. President Young!" "God bless you, miss," said Brigham with fervent emphasis, a bow, and a touch of a presumably lily-white hand.

As he bade adieu to the mining deputation, he said, "Sorry, gentlemen, if my views about digging silver are not as hopeful as your own. I can only repeat that your dreams of bullion will be shivered. Good day, gentlemen, good day."

The door closed gently, and in a few seconds one of the party said: "Good gracious I we forgot to follow Artemus Ward's example in asking Brigham after the health of his mother-in-law!" My conviction is, however, that I have never seen a man who looks better capable of neatly resenting an impertinence than Brigham Young. He is more shrewd than pious; more of a great man than a good one.   J. W. M.

Note: The above reprint of the Commercial's interview (which evidently appeared in Cincinnati during the first week of August) is a considerably abbreviated version of the original article. See other contemporary reprints for lengthier texts.


nsVol. V.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, September 3, 1868.                          No. ?

Mormonism in England and Wales. --Though the home of Mormonism is in the United States, all intelligent observers know that its growth is not from this country, and America has to bear the reproach of sheltering, but Europe that of feeding, this wickedness. The Pall Mall Gazette says, a propos of Mr, Hepworth Dixon's scandalous and libellous "New America":   "Any American book-maker, who wished to do a clever thing, had only to go to Liverpool and there make inquiries about the Mormons. He would probably be referred to Wales, and if he pursued his journey thither he would soon discover that be had hit upon the large training-ground of Mormondon. He would find that we rear the followers of Brigham Young, and that America gets the credit of them. A thrilling picture of the frightful state of social life in Great Britain might be drawn from the presence among us of strange sects. Wales is a great deal nearer to the heart of England than Salt Lake or Oneida Creek is to anything which deserves to be called 'American;' and an enterprising traveller, gifted with a lithe and sinewy style, might easily delude a portion of his countrymen into the belief that the Mormon nursery in Wales can be safely taken as an example of the relations which exist between the sexes all over the country. If he did this, and did it well, he would deserve to be considered a very 'smart ' man, for -- to use a common phrase -- he would have paid us back in our own coin. We send shiploads of Mormons to America, and then write books to prove that Mormonism is the natural fruit of the loose principles which prevail in America."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, September 10, 1868.                             No. 131.

Unpopularity  of  Brigham Young, Jr.

The Salt Lake Reporter of August 31st says:

"Madame Rumor says that recently Brigham Young, Jr., was proposed to the 'School of the Prophets' as the prospective successor of his father in the leadership of the Mormon Church, and that upon a vote being called for, only three were cast in his favor. We have heard of several presentations of similar characters at different times."

Are there Monsters in a Utah Lake?

The editor of the Deseret Evening News, who accompanies Brigham Young on his trip to Northern Utah, writes of the "monsters" reported to have been discovered in Bear Lake in that territory:
"We have had conversation with Brother Charles C. Rich and other brethren from Bear Lake Valley, respecting the monsters which have been seen in the lake. They all firmly believe the account as published. They consider the testimony that has been given by so many individuals, who have seen these creatures in so many places and under a variety of circumstances, indisputable. The Indians' traditions corroborate all that has been said of these creatures. It is well known that the Indians will not camp near the Lake, and they have never been known to bathe in its waters. They have persisted in stating that there were terrible monsters in the lake, of which they were in fear, two of their tribe having, within the memory of some of their number, been carried off by them. If one or two persons only had seen and described them, it might be set down, even if they were persons of good judgment and credibility, as an optical delusion; but they have been lately seen by numbers, and at different times and places, and their descriptions agree, and they also agree with the accounts of the Indians. Various plans have been suggested for the capture of one or more of them, but no attempt has as yet been made.

"One of those who are said to have seen them last, timed their speed while passing from one well known point to another on the other side of the lake, with his watch, and if the description can be relied upon, a boat would stand no chance of escaping if they were pursued or came in contact with it.

Note: The remainder of the Aug. 31st Salt Lake Reporter item reads: "but knowing nothing personally of the matter, we give it only as common rumor." The fact that none of Brigham Young's family members followed in his "prophetic" footsteps, speaks for itself.


Vol. XXII.                           Philadelphia, Friday, September 18, 1868.                             No. 138.


Tyrannical Conduct of Brigham Young.

The Salt Lake Reporter of September 10th says:

We are informed that Brigham Young has given orders to Bishops, throughput the Territory to cut ofl from the Mormon Church every member who deals at a Gentile store or purchases of an outsider. We have heard it stated by parties coming from the north that preaching upon that subject had been done at Ogden and other places. This is but a part of the plan arranged by Brigham and carried out by his subordinates, to place an effectual embargo upon the location of Gentile business men in this Territory; and which would be made a total prohibition, had they the power to enforce it. It has been the constant aim and object of the Mormon leaders to keep out Gentiles, and prevent them from selling in this Territory. To such an extent was this formerly carried that Mormons were even prohibited from renting houses to Gentiles; and several who dared to brave the displeasure of their rulers were considered as apostates. Lately owing to force of circumstances, the rigor of that rule has somewhat relaxed in this city, although the intolerant feeling toward Gentiles, upon the part of church authorities still exists in the country settlements of Utah. It seems to be cropping out afresh, coupled with a determination if possible, to drive Gentile traders out of Utah. Preaching against the Gentiles is indulged in to a greater extent in the country settlements than would be considered prudent in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. Thus while matters are kept quiet at Mormon headquarters, to pull wool over the eyes of some, elsewhere the anathemas against outsiders and the government are as loud as ever.

The Prosperity of Utah -- Condition of the People.

The Salt Lake Reporter of the 10th inst., speaking of the arrival of Mormon immigrants, says:

The Deseret News, the Mormon Church organ, takes occasion to state in its leader of the 8th inst., that the results of the labors of those Mormon emigrants, whom the New York press term low and degraded, are thriving [in] towns and villages throughout the Territory of Utah, and the tenor of the article would lead many, unacquainted with the actual state of affairs, to suppose that fine houses or neat cottages, beautiful gardens surrounded by nicely painted or whitewashed fences, respectable outhouses and other domestic improvements are to be found in every town throughout the Territory. How then will the traveler, passing through the settlements of Utah, be disappointed when he finds that the mass of the people outside of Salt Lake City, and one or two other places, live in poor "dug-outs," actually burrows in the earth, or in miserable log cabins, surrounded by old tumble down fences mode of poles; the corral and cow stables very often closer to the street than the dwelling-house, and everything presenting a dilapidated appearance. If there happens to be a respectable-looking adobe house in the village, they belong to the Bishop, the President of the place, and his counsellors or some other favored one; and frequently the poor people have spent their time and labor rearing houses for these leeches upon their energies, for which they get no returns. We find a total absence in Mormon settlements of the air of prosperity and solid comfort which is generally to be found in eastern villages. It is a noticeable fact that the majority of the foreign immigration into Utah is Danish, while the greatest number of immigrants to the Western States are Germans. The latter, as a people, are far superior to the former in enterprise, intellect, industry and everything that goes to make up and sustain a prosperous community. The Danes will remain for years in the place upon which they have settled in the same "dug-out" or old tumble down log shanty, making no improvements and content to remain in that condition until they die.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Saturday, October 3, 1868.                           No. 151.

The  Truth  about  Mormon  Immigration.

The Salt Lake City Reporter of Sept. 25 says:

Another Mormon bull train came into town this morning, loaded with the faithful and some freight. This is the last Mormon train of the season and winds up the emigration business for this year. The number of people emigrated has been far less than was first estimated by the Mormon authorities, and shows either an intentional exaggeration upon their part, or else a great decrease in the results of their missionary enterprises. It may be that all of the credulous, ignorant and superstitious people in the European nations, where Mormon elders are proselyting, have been "gathered out" and brought to Utah. The rank and file of Brigham's army is composed of just such material, with smart men enough among the officers to control and keep the masses in subjection.

Notes: (forthcoming)


nsVol. V.                           Philadelphia, Thursday, October 8, 1868.                          No. ?


Nevada, Sep. 1868.               


These were few and far between. Now and then we lighted upon a man, perhaps two making choice of a purely hermit life. The history of such, were it written, would perchance exceed fiction. A few families were found -- one a father, mother and six daughters; the eldest married -- not long from Utah; weary, or perhaps disgusted with the domestic notions of Brigham Young. How they got here, why they stopped, what they were doing, and how they lived were all secrets to us. I talked to the children about school and to the parents about church, and they seemed to them as unmeaning terms. A grandchild had died the day we called and was lying on a pallet, ubshrouded, and uncoffined, awaiting the coming of their nearest neighbor woman, for whom they had sent, and who lived a dozen miles away...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Friday, October 30, 1868.                           No. 174.


The Mormon currency issued by Brigham Young is of various denominations the larger, from one dollar upwards, corresponding in size and general appearance with tha Washington issues. As it circulates freely all through Utah Territory, and appears to be quite plentiful, Brigham must find his banking system highly advantageous. He has handsome balances to his credit in a New York bank and in the Bank of England.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Friday, November 6, 1868.                           No. 180.

The  Mormons.

The Salt Lake Reporter of Oct. 27th discusses the recent action of the Mormon Conference against the Gentiles, and speaks as follows of the "persecutions" of which Brigham Young claims to be the victim:

The simple fact is all this talk about "persecution" by such men is the most barefaced and shameless untruth. When the complete history is known it will be found that the Brighamites have committed ten outrages for every one that they have suffered. Look at the long array of massacres and assassinations proved by undoubted testimony to have been the work of secret minions of the one-man power. In view of the testimony of such unchallenged Mormons as Joseph Smith, Jr., and others as to the way this one-man power was first obtained, and then strengthened, is it not exhibiting a degree of effrontery truly sublime, to now come forward and whine about "persecution?" We have no quarrel with Mormonism, so-called, as a religion, but as for this corrupt hierarchy who have introduced every possible abomination into the land, and declared war against all who dissent from them, we never can fight them enough. And what is to be the result of the present struggle? Sooner or later punishment must come to those who have been guilty of these crimes, but as for the people in general we can have no quarrel with them. And what is all this talk of "persecution," this studied effort to incite popular passion, but part of desperate attempt to hold this territory against all outsiders? It is the wildest folly for any one class of men to imagine they an hold this valley against all the rest of mankind. There is too much here that the world wants. The railroad is coming and with it will come a revival of trade, on influx of visitors, and new ideas and a new populatlon will soon fill the upper part of this valley. Shall all this be done paceably in accordance with the secular laws of trade and settlement, or will you insanely butt against manIfest destiny and insure your own destruction? Have you, laboring Mormons, anything to lose by the settlement of a hundred thousand Gentiles in Utah, even if the one-man power should be weakened thereby? That they will come and that soon, and that they will bow to the behests of no man or church is so certain as fate. You may make it to your advantage if you will. Will you have them as peaceable neighbors or dangerous enemies?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Tuesday, November 10, 1868.                           No. 183.


The Mormons recently held a conference in their temple [sic - tabernacle?] at Salt Lake City, the principal object of which appeared to be to enable the leaders to establish a policy of absolute non-intercourse between the Saints and the Gentiles. This was insisted upon in the most urgent manner, and by threat and entreaty the Mormons have been induced to refuse to hold any communication whatever, in social or mercantile life, or in any other manner, with the unfaithful. Co-operative stores, factories and work-shops are to be started, and a community formed so exclusive that it will refuse to recognize even the existence of its neighbors.

The object of this new movement was not specifically announced, but it is entirely perceptible. Brigham Young is afraid of the Pacific Railroad. Driven forth from the society of decent men, the Mormons thought to hide themselves securely in the wilderness. But the advancing tide of emigration is now beating upon their shores, and, knowing that there is no other refuge for them, they are coming closer together, shutting their eyes, and refusing to face the evil. If Brigham Young dared, he would doubtless use force, as he did in the earlier days of the settlement, against his enemies. But they are too powerful, and he perceives that the exercise of violence would ensure his swift destruction. He can only attempt to build up a wall between his people and the Gentiles, and struggle desperately to make it impassible. That he should succeed by any such shallow device is not possible. His little empire is in the very highway of the travel and traffic which will shortly sweep across this continent. The iron arteries will carry the healthy blood of a pure civilization into this foul excresence, and it must wither up and die. The Gentiles will increase and multiply in the territory, and will eventually wrest from Brigham Young his autocratic power. The discontented women who languish under his hideous system of polygamy will find husbands among a population which has a large majority of males; there will be rapidly increasing prosperity on the one hand and the blighting effects of narrow exclueiveness upon the other; proselytism will be frequent among Mormons who find their interests leading them to the Gentile ranks, and there will be that general demoralization which must ensue when bigotry and despotism come in daily contact with liberality and perfect freedom. If there is not collision and bloodshed, it will not be for want of provocation and precedent.

After all, this is the best way to rid ourselves of the "twin relic of barbarism." Sending armies across a desert to crush out an entire people and their religion, is an expensive -- and as experiment has proved -- a very ineffectual undertaking. Persecution only united them, and raised up new friends for them. It was inevitable that Mormonism must perish of its own innate corruption, and the time of the dissolution is close at hand. Brigham Young has signified his perception of its approach by adopting this policy of non-intercourse; and he acknowledges his inability to prevent the final catastrophe by his selection of such ineffectual means.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                       Philadelphia, Saturday, November 28, 1868.                         No. 198.

Mormonism  and  Polygamy.

The Salt Lake Reporter publishes the following interesting article:

We have made the wholesale charge that the Brighamite leaders are not law-abiding citizens, and do not teach their followers to be so. This is a grave charge, one requiring positive proof. We purpose to show from time to time that in all their acts the Brighamites are only influenced by policy and really care nothing about the law itself. This morning we wish to touch upon their history a little. And to avoid cavil and dispute we will not take the word of outsiders but of Mormons now in good standing. They claim that the revelation authorizing the plurality of wives was given to Joseph Smith in the year 1843, but Brigham says that; the first copy of it was burnt by Emma Smith, Joseph's wife, and that a copy was preserved by one Whitney! (Deseret News, September 14th, 1852.) By the way is it not rather odd that an All-wise Being should allow one of his most important revelations to be burnt by a woman -- an inferior creature according to Brighamism? If polygamy be right then it was right on and after July 12th, 1843. Why was it not practiced then? Orson Pratt says:

"Would it be right for the latter-day Saints to marry a plurality of wives in any of the States or Territories or nations where such practices are prohibited by the laws of man? We answer, No! it would not be right for we are commanded to be subject to the powers that be." -- The Seer, Vol. I, page 3.

It was not right then, Orson says, to violate the laws of Illinois in force on that subject. Why then did a just God give a revelation authorizing his people to break that law; and that too without alluding to the law itself? But here there seems to be more evidence, for a year or two afterwards it was expressly declared in the Doctrine and Covenants that the Saints ought to obey "all the laws in force" and that "every, man should be honored in his station, rulers and magistrates as such," and no exceptions whatever were made as to any law which was against conscience. According to Orson Pratt and the whole Church in Nauvoo it was not right in '43, '44, '45 and '46 to violate the law of Illinois against polygamy, or any other law. But here come Brigham and his present compeers and claim that they did practice polygamy all those years in Illinois. On the 29th of August, 1852, when the revelation was first read to the people of this city, Brigham stated in his sermon that the favored few had known it and long practiced it, and that the fact of Joseph Smith being a polygamist before his death was as well known as any other fact. Thus their own evidence proves them guilty of violating that very law which Orson Pratt and the Nauvoo Church tells them it was their duty to observe. But after all there seems to be nothing certain about their testimony, for as late as 1850, at Boulogne, in France, doctrine of polygamy as follows:

"We are accused here of polygamy and actions the most indelicate. These things are too outrageous to admit of belief. But leaving these things I shall content myself by reading our views of chastity and marriage from a work published by us containing some of the articles of our faith." -- Taylor's discussion at Boulogne, page 8.

Here he followed with the extract from the Doctrine and Covenants; which condemns polygamy.

Which shall, we believe? Taylor of 1850 or Taylor of 1868? Call the next witness!

Joseph Smith was the founder of Mormonism. Brigham says he was also of polygamy, and that the revelation was given early in 1843, and that Joseph violated the law of Illinois in following it. On the 1st of February, 1844, the following appeared in the Church paper published at Nauvoo:


"As we have lately been credibly informed that an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, by the name of Hyram Brown, has been preaching polygamy and other false and corrupt doctrines in the county of Lapeer and State of Michigan:

"This is to notify him and the Church in general that he has been cut off from the Church for his iniquity, and he is farther notified to appear at the Special Conference on the 6th of April next, to make answer to these charges.
     Joseph Smith,
     Hyrum Smith,
     Presidents of the Church."
-- Times and Seasons, Vol. V. page 423.

This was seven months after Brigham says polygamy was established! Six weeks later Hyrum Smith wrote:

"Nauvoo, March 15, 1844. -- To the brethren of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, living on China Creek, in Hancock County, greeting:

"Whereas, Brother Richard Hewett has called on me to day, to know my views concerning some doctrines that are practiced in your place and states to me that some of your elders say that a man having a certain priethood may have as many wives as he pleases, and that doctrine is taught here; I say unto you that that man teaches false doctrine, for there is no such doctrine taught here, and any man that is found teaching privately or publicly any such doctrine, is culpable, and will stand a chance to be brought before the High Council, and lose his license and membership also; therefore he had better beware what he is about! Hyrum Smith."

Is there any true follower of Joseph Smith who will believe after this that that Prophet established polygamy? First, Joseph Smith says he did not violate the law of Illinois; then Brigham says he did, then Hyrum says he didn't, then Orson Pratt says he ought not even with special revelation, then Taylor in France says he didn't, then Taylor in Utah says he did, then Brigham says he himself did, which closes the evidence. Don't take our word for it. Look at your own histories and papers! Whom shall we now believe? It is a rule in all courts of law that when a witness has contradicted himself his evidence may be used to convict himself, but cannot be used against others. Wherefore on the evidence we find Brigham and Taylor guilty, and exculpate Joseph and Hyrum Smith.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                      Philadelphia, Wednesday, December 30, 1868.                        No. 224.

A few weeks ago Brigham Young declared his intention to enforce, as nearly as possible, absolute non-intercourse between the Mormon people and the Gentiles of Salt Lake City. Now he has devised a new alphabet and a new language, in which the Saints are to be instructed that they may forsake all fellowship and kindred with the interlopers and set themselves aside as a peculiar people. Both of these movements are parts of Brigham Young's scheme of defence against the expected incursion of outside barbarians when the Pacific railroads are completed. The prophet is at bay. He led his people out into the depths of a remote wilderness, and thought himself forever secure in his isolation. But civilisation was an over match for his barbarism, and it is surrounding and permeating his community. He cannot flee away further; and so he has undertaken a task that is a confession of desperation. It is too wildly impracticable to have been resorted to but in an extremity. Mormons are very much like other men. If they can trade profitably with Gentiles, even Brigham Young's threats will not keep them from it. The railroads will fill Utah with merchants at whose enterprise, Saintly shopkeepers will be amazed and dismayed; and from whose counters the impecunious Mormons will choose to buy goods at competitive prices. The bargains will be made, too, in the English language. More despotic power than that of Brigham Young would fall to teach an entire people a novel, uncouth tongue. The inevitable tendency, even of those who already speak a foreign language, is to learn the common language of the country; and an attempt to lead a multitude in precisely the opposite direction, away from the language of their fellows, cannot result in anything but failure. It would not succeed with a body of highly intelligent men and women; and the mass of the Mormons are grossly; ignorant. It would fail even if non-intercourse could be enforced, but this already is proved impossible.

There is something heroic in such an attempt, but it will hardly excite much admiration when we remember that it is the last struggle of a selfish, bad man to perpetuate a sensual and fanatical creed that is hurtful to its disciples, and disgraceful to the country. The healthy tide of civilization will soon flow in upon these people, and Brigham Young and his theories will be swept away before it. Mormonism will have its death knell rung by the bell of the first locomotive that thunders through Utah. It may be a lingering death, but it will be sure. Let us hope it will be bloodless.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Thursday, January 21, 1869.                           No. 241.


A Clergyman Taken from his Pulpit
in Salt Lake City.

A correspondent of the Salt Lake Reporter of the 12th says:

Please allow me the use of your columns to comment upon one of the grossest outrages ever perpetrated upon the rights of a free people. A clergyman of the Episcopal Church, well known and respected in this city, upon a Sunday morning, while engaged in the religious service of his church, is compelled to leave the altar to the interruption of the services, and listen to the reading of a warrant issued upon a trumped up charge, by minions of a despotic power. It has been the boast of the foul-mouthed despots of Utah that the ministers of every religious denomination would find toleration here. But it is such toleration as the Gladdenites, Morrisites and Josephites have experienced. A toleration that the Brighamite emissaries surround with persecution and death. What are the facts in the present case? The clergyman rides from his house, situated at a considerable distance from his church, and passing the municipal hall, the majestic proportions of which were reared with the proceeds of whiskey, sold in the corporation whisky shop, and each stone of which marks a drunkard's grave, some of the lazy pensioners upon the City Treasury, lolling upon the doorstep of the Hall of Justice, deem it a fine opportunity to charge a minister of the gospel with the breach of city ordinance. The Justice is sought for, and in an hour's time the warrant is ready. The occasion is a rare one. Here is a fine opportunity for interrupting the services of a Christian Church. The "damned Gentiles" must be made to feel the power of the despotism which sways the destiny of Utah, and the clergyman is summoned from the altar to hear the warrant read! Why is he not arrested? Because the object is accomplished, the services are interrupted and the "Gentiles" are made to feel that they are still in Utah, the land of the Saints. The execution of the warrant could not be postponed until Monday, although the clergyman is a resident of this city and could be found at any time when wanted. Such forbearance would not suit the purposes of the vile emissaries ever ready to do their master's bidding. How long are the rights of citizens of the United States to be trampled upon here in Utah! Will it be until the government protects them or will they be their own protectors and show the tyrant of Utah that a power exists right here sufficient for his overthrow. Midnight assassins and murderers! beware the aroused justice of an outraged and indignant people!   JUSTICE.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                             Philadelphia, Friday, January 22, 1869.                               No. 242.


He has a Vision about a Canal.

A correspondent, writing from Salt Lake City, says of Brigham Young: -- He is no longer young, and the Mormons will soon have to look out for a new prophet. Brigham has, it is said, lately had another revelation to the effect that the Lord desires a canal dug from Salt Lake City to Salt Lake Valley. It is to the following effect:

"Get thee up, Brigham, and dig a canal in the valley that it may be more fertile; that there may be fish; that the sun may be strong enough to ripen the cotton-plant, and give raiment as well as food to my saints on earth." The Lord has spoken. He has said unto His prophet, brethren willing to aid God's work should come to me before the bishops' meetings, from which it would appear that Brigham is going to try irrigation and cotton growing. Of course the fathful will furnish all the teams, barrows and laborers necessary to perform the work. It is wonderful what an eye to enterprise in Utah the Lord has. Just now, however, Brigham is said to be in trouble; having contracted to build a portion of the Pacific Railroad, he did not tnink the enterprise would be pushed so fast, and was waiting until next spring to do up the job. Now the Railroad King, Durant, is among the Mormons, asking them to grade and lay the ties in mid-winter. Brigham has sworn to have the road ready when needed, and is in a pucker to know how to fulfil his oath. The big gun of Durant can almost, already, be heard in the Mormon capital, and the great railroad man is coming, with his five thousand teams and army of men, tearing a trail of iron behind him. The rails are now being put down in Weber Canyon, beyond Owen's Ranch. The ties are bedded and the grading done to within forty miles of Ogden, where Brigham's contract comes in. The end of the line, on that side, will probably be, this winter, at Echo City, though Durant says there will be no halt. In the valley beyond, the grading is heavy, the ground frozen hard, and there are three feet of snow. Brigham says they must wait until spring, but Durant tells him to remove the snow, dig up the frozen earth and put down the ties. We shall see presently who is the prophet in railroad matters, Brigham or Durant. The former will probably have a revelation of snow scrapers soon, and the Lord will deliver the faithful from trouble by enabling them to fulfill their contract.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                         Philadelphia, Thursday, January 28, 1869.                           No. 247.

A Bill for the Suppression of Mormonism.

The Washington correspondent of the Herald writes:

Some time has been devoted in committee to the discussion of Senator Cragin's bill to regulate the social, judicial and political affairs of Utah Territory. The bill provides that only citizens of the United States shall be competent to act as grand and petit jurors; that no man shall take unto himself more than one wife; that all commissions and appointments, both civil and military, granted by Brigham Young, shall cease and have no effect after the first of next year; that it shall be unlawful for the officers or members of the Church of Latter Day Saints to grant divorces or eolennize marriages, and that all the acts and ordinances of Brigham's government done in the name of the Church as trustee, granting lands and streams of the Territory, and which in any way interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States, are disapproved and annulled, and that no restriction of any kind shall be placed on the free use of the ballot nor any arts practiced to mark the votes of citizens. The bill is very long, and is deemed by some members of the committee rather too despotic in some of its provisions. The clause prohibiting tbe granting of United States lands by Brigham Young in trust for the use of the church to his friends and relalives is considered eminently proper, but it is thought better to treat these matters affectingn the religion of the Mormons with as much delicacy as possible. Several amendments on this head will be made on Saturday in committee, and in the meantime Mr. Cragin will prepare an elaborate speech on the whole vexed question of Utah and its peculiar institutions, for delivery in the Senate after the presentation of his bill.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                               Philadelphia, Monday, March 15, 1869.                                No. 285.


Items from Salt Lake City.

From late numbers of the Salt Lake City Reporter we clip the following:

The disgusting feature of the Mormon system is the utter want of charity. Let a man leave their church, or differ with them in doctrine, though he do so ever to honestly and conscientiously, he at once becomes a target for all the abuse a foul-mouthed priesthood can heap upon him, while every epithet a vile fancy can suggest is applied even to his wife and children. We would naturally think that woman's character would be spared in a Christian country, that a Church would at least keep a decent silence where it could not approve. But let any woman withdraw from their communion, or exercise her own God given judgment as to her faith and associations, and the hounds of the Hierarchy will leave no words unsaid to blast her reputation forever. No words in the English language are harsh enough to fitly characterize the meanness of such warfare as this; and yet it is just what is done in the case of every young Mormon lady who thinks for herself. In one case within our knowledge, a lady of unblemished life and purity, whose many virtues and excellencies are undoubted, has been pursued for years with this malignant slander, till half of the young Mormons of her former acquaintance are led to believe that she was ruined from the day she began to associate with the Gentiles. The Mormon teachers have it in their power to ruin the reputation and often to blast the prospects of almost any young woman brought up among them; and that they use this power cruelly, basely and unjustly is one of the darkest stains upon their social system.


Salt Lake City, Feb. 22, 1869. -- Editor Reporter -- It seems to me important to communicate to you a revelation just received by one of my Mormon friends. The man told me in all sincerity, that Joseph Smith appeared to him to a vision and declared, with emphatic words that Polygamy should be carried on henceforth and forever on the female side also; that is, that any Mormon woman can take or have sealed to her by the High Priest of the Latter-day Saints, as many husbands as she can support, &c. This new revelation seems to be on the principle that what is sauce for the gander is sauce for the goose, and, for my part, I believe it consistent with the Mormon religion. Why not a woman have a dozen husbands as well as a husband a dozen wives?
Yours inquiringly, ____.                  


(Brigham Young has compelled store-keeping saints to paint an eye and a motto, "Holiness to the Lord," over their shop doors.)

We do not believe in profaning the holy name of God for the sake of filthy lucre. To paint a representation of the Deity in the form of a man, holding the lightnings in his right hand and a dumb-watch in his left, is in our opinion almost as bad as to stick "Holiness to the Lord" over cheap calico and decayed codfish. But the former has this redeeming quality, it was put up for amusement, it was meant to deceive nobody. It was a thoroughly honest "take off," while the "bull's eye" sign is a profane swindle, a daring attempt at blasphemy, cheating, hypocrisy and petty meanness all in one. If God does interfere in the moral order of this world the proprietors of those swindling signs, will certainly be cursed for such use of his name. It is said in fable that the pot occasionally calls the kettle "a black thing." On the same principle our Mormon friends were quite indignant over the new sign over the way. Several wished to tear it down at once, but Bill Hyde forbade it, and his word seemed to be law with them. "We are informed the matter was laid before Brigham and the Council on Monday evening, and after a full and rather savage discussion, it was decided "to let the d__d thing alone, for it was probably put up to cause a fuss." We gladly hail this evidence of returning reason on the part of the Hierarchy.


The editor of the Reporter thus describes Connor City, a city of the Saints.

The location of Connor City is high, dry, healthy, and at the "head of navigation" on Bear river, or where the head will be when the railroad bridge is built. Whether the company will lay out a town there is quite another question; the public are referred to the "brethren" who have the gifts of "divination" and "speaking in tongues." The refinements have made little progress at Connor; they have no bishop, and consequently no licensed saloon, theatre or harem. There is no news-stand, post-office or barber shop. The citizens wash in the river and comb their hair by crawling through the sagebush. A private stage is run from this place to Promontory, passing through Connor. The proprietor calls it a Try-Weekly, that is, it goes out one week and tries to get back the next.


"The combat thickens; on ye brave!" On Sunday evening last the Saints were not a little startled at the command from the Bishop of the First Ward to supply themselves with arms. The Bishop said: "The President is anxious that every man should have a firearm of some kind, and plenty of ammunition. And he wants you to take out new naturalization papers at once! Them old ones you took out with Pat Lynch wasn't according to law, and, ain't no account. Go right off and get good ones at once." What's in the wind, now? Do "the brothering" purpose to shoot "civilization," or are they all to be sworn in as "special police?" Do they think of fortifying Echo Canyon again? Or are they going to march on Premontory? Oh, we have it now; they are to be enrolled to swell the ranks of nominal soldiers in the great "Indian war," announced in such flaming despatches a few days ago. A thousand soldiers (on paper) give a better showing to ask an appropriation from Congress, than the six first announced. But they are to have "votin' papers," too. Is it to out-vote the Indians or the Gentiles? Or is it so they can take up land near the railroad? It is good thing to be an American citizen sometimes. We learn that there has been quite a raid on the gun stores; old Camp Douglas muskets are suddenly in great demand, and a dozen that we know of have been sold for twice what they were offered at last week. Verily this groweth amusing. The Saints are of "Beecher's opinion when he advised the Eastern emigrants to Kansas "to take Sharp's rifles and a good supply of Schiedam Schnapps." With ''Valley Tan" and condemned muskets they will do great execution -- backwards if not in front. As great perhaps as the Mormon bey in 1857, in Echo Canyon, who shot his companion through the head to see if his gun would "carry to the top of the rock." When "Zion" is supplied with muskets, let the ungodly tremble.


As to the social evils growing out of polygamy, incest for example -- it is not even denied, it is rather advocated. We fling down this charge fair and square to the Mormon papers and speakers and dare them, to the proof. .And to put the matter fairly in issue, we will not argue, but ask these questions:

1. Are there not many instances in this Territory where a man is married to the mother and one, two or three daughters?

2. Are there not several men here, each of whom is married to two or three sisters?

3. Did not one of the foremost men of the Church marry a widow, then get her oldest son sent on a mission and marry that son's wife while he was gone? His step-son's wife?

4, Did not a well-known individual in this city marry his half sister, with the consent of Brigham Youing, and live with her as his wife several years?

5. Has not Brigham Young openly justified such marriage in the pulpit, saying '"the time might come when brothers would marry their own sisters in order to raise up a pure priesthood?

6. Did he, or did he not, make substantially the same statement to Hepworth Dixon, as set forth in the latter's work on this country, adding, however, that he "kept that doctrine to himself just now -- it was too strong doctrine for the people?

7. Have not men here married their daughters-in-law, directly contrary to God's word, as laid down In Deuteronomy xxii?

Has not the President of the "stake" at Brigham City two of his brother's daughters for wives?

These are a few of the questions to be answered. If they are "slanderous," it will be easy to show it. If denied, we will proceed to offer some proofs.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXII.                               Philadelphia, Monday, June 7, 1869.                                No. 50.


The Danite Band and Its Murderous Work.

The Salt Lake Reporter gives the following account of Brigham Young's band of cut-throats:

A certain number, said to be twelve, of the most desperate characters in the church, were selected from among the Danites to commit such assassinations as might be found necessary by the prophet for the "welfare" and "advancement" of his holy cause. The murder of Governor Boggs, and many others, was planned in the secret conclaves of the Danites, and executed by the chosen "twelve." The attempt to murder Governor Boggs fortunately failed, and at least one of the would-be murderers is now known to live in Utah. Both of these secret societies now exist in Salt Lake City. The discipline is more perfect under Brigham Young than under Joe Smith, and consequently the aims more sure, the objects more certainly accomplished. No sooner does a Gentile enter Salt Lake City than he is placed under the surveillance of the secret police. A member of the Danite organization is deputed to watch him from the time he comes until he leaves. His habits, words and careless expressions of opinion are noted and reported, that the Mormon authorities may determine whether he is a friend, a secret enemy, or an open and avowed opposer of Mormon iniquity. The day has been when expression of opinions inimical to the Mormon leaders would result in assassination to the bold offender, and sometimes even the mere suspicion that a Gentile was opposed to Mormon rule would produce such a result.

The true secret of Brigham's great success in controlling the discordant elements of which his church is composed is due to fears of the Danites. The Mormons know that certain death by assassination awaits a violation of their oaths, and that althugh the day of their doom may be postponed, it is sure to come with the opportunity. It is true that many apostates have escaped assassination, but this was owing to the fact that they used subterfuge to place themselves beyond Brigham's power, but even these instances are not wanting of Danites having followed apostates into different cities of the United States, hoping for a favorable opportunity to assassinate. Others escape, because for a time it is deemed inexpedient to kill them. Recent mysterious deaths of Gentiles near Salt Lake City have for a short time excited comment, but finally they have been forgotten. No coroner's inquests have investigated facts and circumstances, and no inquiry has been made by the authorities into the cause of their deaths. But such a system cannot be perpetuated. The Government must, sooner or later, throw her protecting banner over her citizens in Utah, and not allow it to be scoffed at and spit on by a vile and lecherous priesthood.
"Of that saintly, murderous brood,
    To carnage and the Koran given,
Who think through unbelievers' blood
    Lies the directest path to Heaven.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                                 Philadelphia, Friday, July 9, 1869.                                No. 162.


The Powell Exploring Expedition --
Latest Advices from it.

CHICAGO, June 8. -- The Tribune of this morning publishes a despatch from Mrs. Powell, wife of Major Powell, dated at Detroit, in answer to an inquiry from the editor of The Tribune as to whether the John Sumner, to whom the story of the disaster is attributed to the Omaha Republican, belonged to the expedition. Mrs. Powell says Sumner was a member of the expedition, but she does not believe the story, and evidently does not not believe that it came from Sumner. Nothing direct has been heard from Major Powell since the letter published in The Tribune on May 28, and the question has narrowed down to this, Has John Sumner actually returned from the expedition reported lost on Green river late in June, and which story, attributed to Sumner, Risdon got hold of, appropriated, and boggled, or is the story attributed to Sumner only?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                   Philadelphia, Thursday, July 15, 1869.                                   No. ?


Important Interview Between Senator Trumbull and
Brigham Young -- The Prophet Threatens to
Expel Government Officers from Utah --
One of the Enactments of Congress
to be Nullified.

From the Chicago Tribune.

Salt Lake, July 11. -- Yesterday morning ex-Governor Oglesby, Senator Trumbull, and several other gentleman of the commercial party, called on the Governor of the Territory, Mr. Durkee, and paid their respects. The other Territorial officers called on our party and placed their services at our disposal.

At eleven o'clock we called on Brigham Young, at his residence, when the spokesman, Colonel James H. Bowen, made a brief address, saying, in substance, that we congratulated him upon the auspicious completion of the railway, which has relieved the Mormons of their profound isolation, brought them in contact with the Gentiles, cheapened the cost of their goods, and increased the purchasing power of their labor.

He referred to the assistance they rendered in building the road, and the commercial objects of the visitors, complimented the Mormons on their material prosperity, and acknowledged the value of the important art of irrigation, which they had taught the Gentiles, whereby the great American desert was made to blossom as the rose, and to yield rich fruits in their season. The Prophet, in behalf of himself and disciples, briefly welcomed the party, spoke warmly of the aid the Mormons had given in building the railroad, and said their aim was to press on diligently to perform the part allotted to them in the drama of life, having ever in view the rights of man and social independence. Colonel Bowen then introduced the gentlemen of the party, and a general conversation ensued, lasting an hour. As Senator Trumbull was bidding adieu to Mr. Young, the latter remarked that, on returning to Congress he might hear of some persons being put out of the Territory, and, if done, he might be sure it would be for just and good reasons. If such Federal officials are sent here as sometimes have come, they will be guilty, and in an orderly way put out of Utah, for good cause.

Senator Trumbull -- Before you take any step of that kind, allow me to request that you make known your grievances to President Grant. He is a just man, intending to do justice to all; but he will not permit a violation of law to go unpunished. It will not be Safe to molest public officers in the discharge of their duties.

Brigham Young -- What more will he do for us than Johnson did? General Grant has removed the only officer here who was a Mormon, and for no reason save that he was a Mormon. The United States judges who were here some time ago acted badly. I told them what I thought of them, and they left.

Senator Trumbull -- You will promise obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the Union?

Brigham Young -- Adherence to the Union, certainly. One enactment of Congress, however, we shall not obey -- that is the one forbidding poly-gamy. It is not right to interfere in that matter, it is much better for a man to have several wives, support, honor and cherish them, than it is for a man to deceive one, and cast off, disown and refuse to support her.

Senator Trumbull -- That is a matter about which we must differ. We think the national government and the States can rightfully pass laws against bigamy, and justly punish the offense. All the States make a plurality of wives a criminal offense.

Brigham Young -- Yes; all the States have laws on the subject, and Utah, when a State, will have an equal right to make laws protecting polygamy. Until we came here the subject of polygamy was not broached. It was not until we had a revelation on the subject. We think we ought not to be interfered with in this matter, as it is nobody's business but our own. We have about 70,000 people. Congress thinks we are unable to take care of ourselves as a State. When we number 300,000, as we soon shall, I think we shall be admitted into the Union.

Senator Trumbull concluded the dialogue by remarking that the laws, at all events, must be obeyed and upheld, and that the Chicago party was here on a commercial, and not on a political errand.

Mr. Young's remark about expelling Federal officers from the territory who do not please him, and his declaration that Mormons would not obey the law of Congress against bigamy, created considerable sensation among the members of the party.

In the afternoon the excursionists visited the four Walker brothers, ex-Mormons, and the leading merchants in the Territory. We received a princely entertainment. Toasts and speeches were in order for a couple of hours. Most of the Federal officers were present, besides many leading Gentile citizens. There was some plain talk, and all agreed that the national railway renders it now entirely within the power of the Government to enforce the laws and protect American citizens here, which has not hitherto been the case; and that Grant is just the man to enforce the laws of the land.

To-day we all went to the tabernacle, where Brigham Young preached. He delivered an elaborate discourse in defense of Mormon doctrines and practices, but made no threats against the Government.

Brigham Young has not returned the visit of the excursionists, or called on any of the eminent gentlemen in it; nor do his disciples seem to care about cultivating trade relations with the Gentile merchants. They treat the excursionists with cold and distant politeness, and repel rather than invite advances.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. X.                               Philadelphia, Friday, August 27, 1869.                               No. 50.


Joseph F. Smith Proves His Uncle and Father
Liars -- The Old Mormon Polygamists -- The
Soul of Emma Smith Reeking with Blood
The Schisms in the Mormon Church.

The Corinne (Utah) Reporter has further accounts of the difficulty in the Mormon camp. A meeting was held in Salt Lake City on Aug. 8. We give a portion of the account of the meeting:

"Brother Coray then gave way for the regular speaker, Joseph F. Smith. He is my favorite among the preachers; but I never remember having him so excited and nervous as he was on this occasion, and well he might be, for the case was one to try the son of Hyrum Smith, the nephew of Joseph, and the cousin of young David. He had a heavy task to perform. Be it remembered that the date of this pretended revelation in favor of Polygamy is as early as July 12, 1843, but that it was never published until September, 1852; that in February, 1844, Joseph and Hyrum Smith published a card in the Times and Seasons, at Nauvoo, denying that they ever received any such revelation; that in April, 1844, Hyrum Smith made an address to the elders starting on a mission, in which he emphatically denied the doctrine and forbade their preaching it; that about the same time he wrote a letter to the mission in Lapeer county, Michigan, again denying that such was a doctrine of the Church, and that all these t