(Newspapers of California)

Misc. California Newspapers
1845-1856 Articles

Sutter's Fort, New Helvetica -- before the Gold Rush

1845-1856   1857-1859   1860-1899   1900-1979

NYMX Dec 13 '45    Cal Aug 15 '46     Cal Aug 22 '46
Cal Aug 29 '46     Cal Sep 05 '46     Cal Sep 19 '46
Cal Sep 26 '46     Cal Oct 17 '46     Star Jan 01 '47
Cal Jan 09 '47     Star Jan 09 '47     Cal Jan 23 '47
Star Sep 18 '47     Star Oct 02 '47     Star Jun 10 '48
Alt Jan 11 '49     Alt Jul 12 '49     Alt Aug 16 '49
Alt Dec 04 '49     Pratt Jul 13 '52     LAS Nov 17 '53
MDm Mar 24 '55     SFB Nov 09 '55     WSt May 03 '56
SFH Jun 08 '56   WSt Jul 24 '56   WSt Aug 23 '56
Alt Sep 05 '56

Articles Index   |   1850s Utah newspaper articles


SATURDAY, DEC. 13, 1845.

To Emigrants.
We have now on our books the names of about three hundred saints who wish to go by water, and it grieves us that only about sixty out of that number will have means sufficient to carry them through. If some of our wealthy brethren who are now dwelling at ease in the world, would but step forward and plant this company of poor saints, (that have not the means, nor likely to have,) upon the western soil, how soon would it be before they would have it in their power to return four fold? And how sweet would be the reflections of that mind capable of performing such a noble act. Where is the magnanimity of God's people? Alas, it is in the poor and meek of the earth.

The passage for each person will be fifty dollars, children over five and under fourteen, half price. Each one will need from twenty to twenty-five dollars worth of provisions; the whole amount, seventy five dollars. If we obtain two hundred passengers, in all probability there will be a deduction.

We have been looking for some assistance from another source. A merchant of this city who is now engaged in the Pacific trade, has made us the following propositions: that if he can obtain the government freight consisting of naval stores, to be carried into the Pacific, he will take two hundred of us at sixteen dollars per ton for the room we occupy and fifty more for nothing. As yet this arrangement has not been made, and it remains uncertain whether it will be.

We do not feel to place much dependence on it, lest we are unhappily disappointed. If the arrangement is affected the saints will receive timely notice.

WE do not wish any person to give us their names to go by water, and when the time comes for departure to be found missing; by doing so they will bring us into difficulty, and we shall have to be responsible and pay their passage as much as though they went. We have selected out all the names of those who have subscribed sufficient (at the rate of seventy five dollars) to take them through, and we shall depend on their going. And all who wish to join the company will send in their names as soon as possible, so that we may know the exact number going and provide them with births two or three weeks previous to the day of sailing, we wish all to hold themselves in readiness to send in a part of their means to furnish all the outlays necessary to be made before sailing.

We have placed the names of some who fell short in subscription on the list of those going. And the amount short will be made up by others who have more than they have need for. The following are their names, Wm. Stout, J. Joyce, J. Hairbaird, Wm. Mack, Wm. Atherton.

Note: Although the above "Extra" was issued in New York City, it was published on the same press that Elder Samuel Brannan brought with him to San Francisco for his intended printing there of the California Star. Brannan was able to secure passage for his colony of New York Mormons on the ship "Brooklyn," which left New York harbor, bound for Honolulu, on Feb. 4, 1846. See the Honolulu Friend of Mar. 14, 1846 and subsequent issues for more on the sailing of the Brooklyn to Honolulu and from there on to San Francisco.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, August 15, 1846.                            No. 1.


The Brooklyn, with one hundred and seventy mormon emigrants on board, arrived at San Francisco, on the 3rd instant, in thirty days from Honolulu. These emigrants are a plain industrious people, most of them are mechanics, and farmers.

Note: See the Honolulu Friend of July 1, 1846 for more information on the ship Brooklyn, her passengers, and the leader of the Mormon emigrants, Elder Samuel Brannan.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, August 22, 1846.                            No. 2.


THE MORMONS. In making some extracts from the "Friend," a paper published at Honolulu, we feel it our duty to state some facts, which have occurred within our circle of acquaintance. We lived in Illinois, not far from the mormons at the time of the last mormon war, there was a great many hard things said against them, probably much of it true, though many things may have been highly colored. At all events, they landed here; this is to be their home; those of us who have preceded them, have not the right to prevent their settlement, but we must join heartily with the "Friend" in wishing whatever errors of Government or of conduct may have led to their former troubles, will be corrected here; that they may see the vital importance of pursuing such a course as to insure their harmony with others. May God rule their conduct in wisdom.

"Their present Condition and Prospective plans. -- As has been already stated, they estimate their numbers by hundreds of thousands, very many of whom have come off from other denominations. This is true of the company on board the "Brooklyn." Some have come from the Baptists, others from the Methodists, a few from the Presbyterians, while almost every denomination has its representatives among them. So far as we are able to learn, California is now to be their grand central rendezvous, while the beautiful region around San Francisco Bay is the chosen spot where the latter-day-saints propose to settle. Abating much from the highly colored descriptions which we have always heard respecting that region, it must still be regarded as a most enchanting spot, and the most desirable location for a colony to be found upon the long line of the North and South American sea coast. The natural facilities of the country and bay conspire to render it certain, that many years cannot elapse before flourishing cities and villages will diversify the scene. The watchword of the Mormons now is "California." The few scores of emigrants on board the "Brooklyn" are but a fraction of the immense numbers already on their way thither. The difficulties in which these people found themselves at Nauvoo, and other parts of the states, have led to the resolution to "break up" and "be off" for California. From various reports, we conclude that about 25,000 have left Nauvoo and other parts of the states for California; while the report has reached us, that a vessel with Mormon emigrants has already left Liverpool, and that others will soon follow, all bound for California.

Whatever views different classes of christians and politicians, may form of the dogmas and tenets of this people; one thing is certain, that this general movement in the four quarters of the globe, and rush for California, opens a new chapter in the colonizing and peopling of a sparsely inhabited and fruitful region of our globe. The influence which their arrival and settlement must have upon the present condition of California, is quite uncertain; but should the tide of emigration continue to flow in, (as it undoubtedly will) California must very soon become a very different country from what it has been, -- civily, socially, morally and religiously. We cannot but hope for a brighter day, and most certainly we are far from taking a dark view of the subject.

Before closing our remarks, we feel ourselves in duty bound to give publicity to the testimony of Capt. Richardson, master of the "Brooklyn" in regard to the general character of the emigrants as it has been developed during a long voyage round Cape Horn, Of their general behavior and character, he speaks in the most favorable manner. They have lived in peace together, and uniformly appeared to be quiet and orderly. They are going with the full determination of making a settlement, and have brought ploughs, carts, scythes and all kinds of husbandry implements and tools for ship and house building. They have not lost sight of the means for promoting education and schools. Many of the emigrants coming from New England and the middle states are inclined to transplant some of the noble institutions of their native regions. Capt. R. informs us that during most of the passage they have maintained orderly and well conducted daily religious exercises, which still continue while lying in port.

During the passage of the "Brooklyn" there have occurred 10 deaths, (4 adults and 6 children,) and 2 births. A male child born before doubling the Cape, was called Atlantic, and a female born this side is called Pacific.

This numerous company of emigrants are soon to leave for their new home; may it prove more powerful than the one they have left. So far as their minds may have been led to embrace error, may it be renounced. That we differ upon many essential points of doctrine and practice is clearly manifest, yet our best wishes and prayers go with them. May the fostering smiles of a kind and benignant Providence rest upon them. They are to lay the foundations of society, and institutions, social, civil and religious. O, may they be such that coming generations shall rise up and call them blessed."

Note: The above excerpt was taken from the Honolulu Friend of July 1, 1846. No doubt a copy of that Hawaiian newspaper was carried to Monterey aboard the ship Brooklyn.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, August 29, 1846.                            No. 3.


EMIGRATION TO CALIFORNIA. -- A large party of settlers propose leaving Arkansas for California next May. The chairman of the committee of arrangements gives notice in the Little Rock Gazette, "that the Californians will rendezvous at Fort Smith, Arkansas, on the first Monday in April next, preparatory to taking up the line of march for the Pacific coast. Every person starting is expected to be well armed with a rifle or heavy shot gun, 16 pounds of shot, 2 lbs. of powder, &c."

Two hundred Mormons residing in Wayne, Oakland and Lapeer counties, Mich., have lately left to join their brethren now about emigrating to California.

THE MORMONS FOR OREGON. -- The following curious letter has just been received by Col. Wentworth of Ill., member of Congress.

NAUVOO, Ill., Dec. 17, 1845.      

SIR, -- On the event of an act passing Congress for the erection of those forts on the Oregon route, suggested in the President's Message, we should be pleased if you would exert your influence in our behalf, as we intend to emigrate west of the mountains in the ensuing season. Our facilities are great, and we are enabled to build them at a lower rate than any other people. I have written the Secretary of War on the subject, and shall be pleased by your co-operation -- also, for transportation of the mail.

Yours, &c.,
                 BRIGHAM YOUNG,

                                        President of the Church of Jesus Christ of
                                        Latter Day Saints.

Note: The above Brigham Young letter was first printed in the Honolulu Friend of July 1, 1846. No doubt a copy of that Hawaiian newspaper was carried to Monterey aboard the ship Brooklyn.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, September 5, 1846.                            No. 4.


YERBA BUENA, Bay of San Francisco. -- Arrivals since hoisting American Flag, July 9th, 1846. American whale ship Jeanette, Atkins, N. W., 600w, 150 sperm for Chili. Paladian, McLane, do. 1600w. for Chili. Abigail Barnard, 1100 sperm to cruise. The above refreshed and sailed previous to 14th August. July 31st American ship Brooklyn, 230 passengers from New York via S. Islands, landed passengers and freight, and sailed for Bodega, and will touch at Monterey...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, September 19, 1846.                            No. 6.

PORT OF MONTEREY -- Sept. 19th, 1846.

Arrived 15th, U. S. Frigate Congress, from San Pedro, commander Stockton. French whale ship Narwal, of Havre, from north west coast, G. Radon, master, 2300 bbls oil. 17, Ship Brooklyn, of N. Y., from Bodega, with a cargo of lumber for the Sandwich Islands, Richardson, master.

Note: In the years to come, Hawaii would supply California with "cargoes of lumber," the most important of which furnished railroad ties for building the Central Pacific line during the 1860s.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, September 26, 1846.                            No. 7.

PORT OF MONTEREY -- Sept. 26th, 1846.

Arr. 22d, Hawaiian brig Keone Ann, fm St. Barbara, trading on the coast, Capt. Jeapas. 22d, American barque Moscow, Capt. Phelps, trading on the coast. Cleared, 26th, U. S. Store Ship Erie, Capt. Turner, for Panama. 21st, Ship Brooklyn, for Honolulu...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, October 17, 1846.                            No. 10.


We have just received a very interesting letter from a friend of ours, who has just arrived from beyond the mountains. It is too long for publication entire, but we give some extract which embodies most of the news. He is a gentleman we have long known personally, and we hail his arrival in California with joy, his talents and great energy of character will do much for our adopted country.

"It may not be uninteresting to you to know that emigration by land, the present season, far exceeds the expectation of the most sanguine. Not less than two thousand human souls are now in the interior, and within two hundred miles of the settlement, winding their way over the rugged mountain's top to 'El Dorado' of the western world. Many have already arrived at Mr. Johnson's farm, and are now preparing to examine the country for themselves, with a view of selecting permanent locations. This emigration introduces into the country a large proportion of talents, wealth and industry, all of which, as you are well aware, are indispensable requisites in this our infantile state. Governor Boggs was undecided as to his destination for a time, but has finally given California the preference, and is now near the settlement. The Governor comes with a determination to make California his future home; he is accompanied by his family, and a large and very respectable connexion. T. J. Farnham, Esq., is also on his way to this country, he is of the company which is said to have left Arkansas, in the month of April last, and which is said to have consisted of one thousand armed men. The presumption is, however, that the number of armed men of this company is somewhat exaggerated, yet it is certain that a large company did set out from Arkansas, at the time above stated.

Various reports are in circulation in reference to the Mormon emigrants, now on their way to this country; the number of wagons is variously estimated at 500, 600, 700, and 1000 now en route for Oregon and California. As many of them are now located temporarily, on the Missouri river, and many are on their way to Oregon, while others are coming to this country, their final destination is still among the hidden mysteries of the future; but that many, if not a majority of them, will locate permanently in California, there is very little doubt. A Mormon company of 40 wagons is said to be immediately in the rear of the emigration which is now arriving, and many others are said to be at the Salt Lake, where, it is thought, they will remain during the winter; but those things are unknown to all except the Mormons themselves."

Note: For more on ex-Missouri Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, see Sam Brannan's account of an interview with this infamous foe of the Mormons in the California Star "Extra" of Jan. 1, 1847.


EXTRA                             San Francisco, January 1, 1847.                           EXTRA


Yerba Buena, San Francisco, Jan. 1, 1847.       

Beloved Brethren,-- Feeling sensible of the anxiety of your minds to become acquainted with the state of affairs in this country, induces me, at this late hour, to communicate to you this short and feeble epistle. Our passage from New York to this place was made in six months; since our arrival, the colony generally has enjoyed good health. In relation to the country and climate we have not been disappointed in our expectations; but, like all other new countries, we found the accounts of it very much exaggerated; so much so, that we would recommend to all emigrants hereafter to provide themselves with thick clothing, instead of thin. There has been no arrival in the country this fall, from those coming by land; but we are anxiously waiting for them next season. They will in all probability winter on the head waters of the Platt, where they can subsist upon Buffalo meat. We are now all busily engaged in putting in crops for them to subsist upon when they arrive: I said all, but I should have said all that love the brethren, for, about twenty males of our feeble number have gone astray after strange gods, serving their bellies and their own lusts, and refuse to assist in providing for the reception of their brethren by land. They will have their reward. We have commenced a settlement on the river San Joaquin, a large and beautiful stream emptying into the Bay of San Francisco; but the families of the company are wintering in this place, where they find plenty of employment, and houses to live in; and about twenty of our number are up at the new settlement, which we call New Hope, ploughing and putting in wheat and other crops, and making preparations to move their families up in the spring, where they hope to meet the main body by land some time during the coming season. Since our departure from New York we have enjoyed the peculiar care of our Heavenly Father, every thing in a most miraculous manner has worked together for our good, and we find ourselves happily situated in our new home surrounded with peace and prosperity. The Spaniards or natives of the country are kind and hospitable; but previous to our arrival they felt very much terrified from the reports that had been circulated among them by those who had emigrated from Missouri, which have proven to be false, and they have become our warmest friends. Governor Boggs is in this country, but without influence even among his own people that he emigrated with. And during an interview I had with him a few days since, he expressed much dissatisfaction with the country, and spoke strongly of returning back in the spring. He says nothing about the Mormons, whether through fear or policy I am not able to say. As soon as the snow is off the mountains we shall send a couple of men to meet the emigration by land, or perhaps go myself. The feelings among the foreigners in the country are very friendly, and I have found, even among the emigration from Missouri some of the warmest friends. We shall commence publishing a paper next week, which will be the government organ by the sanction of Colonel Freemont, who is now our Governor, and is at the present time on a campaign to Lower California to subdue the Spaniards, who have lately taken up arms. We arrived here about three weeks after the United States' Flag was hoisted, and the country taken possession of by the Americans, which exempted us from paging a heavy bill of duties, which would have amounted to about twenty thousand dollars. Capt. Montgomery of the sloop of war Portsmouth, at that time held the command over this district, and to whose gentlemanly attention we were under many obligations. A few of the passengers on our arrival endeavored to make mischief and trouble, by complaints of the bad treatment they had received during the passage, which induced Capt. M. to institute a court of enquiry, before which the larger portion of the company were cited to appear, for private examination. But the truth was mighty and prevailed! and every effort that has yet been made to bring disgrace and reproach upon the cause, by cunning and wicked men, has been frustrated, and they have had to learn that the warfare was useless. Four persons were excommunicated from the church during our passage, for their wicked and licentious conduct.

Elder E. W. Pell, Orren Smith, A. T. Moses and Mrs. Lucy Eager. The conduct of the above-mentioned two, who were Elders, was of the most disgraceful character, and could they have succeeded in carrying their sway, and successfully gained the ascendancy with their doctrines, we must have every soul of us perished.

The captain of the ship became very much alarmed, and was continually urging some decided step to he taken in relation to them, which we delayed to do until we left the Sandwich Islands, when a council was called and the matter investigated, and a list of evidences given in of the most disgusting character. And since our arrival three others have been excommunicated; Elisha Hyate, Jas. Scott, and Isaac Addison; the latter having returned to the United States, and others who deserved to share the same fate; but at the present our attention is more particularly called to temporal affairs, if we might so term it, than spiritual -- by making every exertion in our power to provide for the arrival of our brethren over the mountains.

Provisions in the country are very high, owing to the arrival of so many emigrants, and provisioning the Army and Navy; and without doubt will be very scarce next season, from the unsettled state of affairs in the country, politically, which has a very bad influence upon the agriculturist. Good mechanics are very much needed in the country, and in great demand. None need go idle for the want of employment, and being well paid. Merchandise and groceries demand a heavy price, and emigrants coming to the country, should come well supplied, which can be done only by coming by water. Wheat is now selling for one dollar per bushel, and flour for twelve dollars per hundred, owing to the scarcity of mills.

We have received no intelligence from our brethren at the Society Islands, and conclude that they have not yet learned of the warfare and pilgrimage of the Saints, or they would be wending their way to California. We are every day anxiously looking for the arrival of another ship load of emigrants. Two have been reported here to have sailed -- one from New York and the other from Boston.

We will now bring our epistle to a close by a few words of kindly advice to those wishing to emigrate to this Eldorado of the West, and that is, by all means to come by water in preference to land, the advantage you will appreciate for years to come.

Yours truly, in the bonds of the everlasting Covenant,             
                                 S. BRANNAN, President.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, January 9, 1847.                            No. 22.

From late United States papers.

MORMON PUNISHMENT OF THEFT. -- Two or 3 weeks ago, while the advance guard of the Mormons was passing through Iowa, one of their number stole a bag of grain from a farmer. The farmer went into the camp, pointed out the thief, and proved the crime on him. The Mormon authorities sentenced the thief to be whipped, and the farmer went off satisfied. The Mormons then made their man put on a pair of overcoats and administered the punishment with a wisp of straw.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                     Yerba Buena, January 9, 1847.                                    No. 1.


The undersigned in common with the rest of the citizens of the United States, having experienced the good effects of the Press in diffusing early and accurate information on all important subjects, in advocating and defending the rights of every class of the people, in detecting, exposing and opposing tyranny and oppression -- and being anxious to secure to himself and the citizens of his adopted country, the benefits of a free, fearless and untrammeled Newspaper -- Purchased and brought with him to California a press and all the materials necessary to effect that desirable object. Contrary to our original intention, but being fully convinced that the present crisis in the affairs of the country demands it, we have resolved to commence AT ONCE the publication of a paper to be styled "THE CALIFORNIA STAR."

The peculiar situation of our country, and the absence of all sinister motives forbid the idea of the intrusion into our columns of party politics -- the bane of liberty, the usual door to licentiousness, and which defeat the true and noble objects of the press. It is our fixed purpose to advocate and defend to the utmost of our abilities the best interests of California; to which end we shall at all times speak truth of men and measures, regardless of the fame we may win or lose or how it may effect our individual enterprise.

We will endeavor to render the "STAR" pleasing and acceptable to all classes of readers by collecting and publishing the latest news from all parts of the world. It will communicate from time to time all the information that can be obtained, touching the commercial, agricultural, mechanical and mineral capabilities of the country; and will eschew with the greatest caution every thing that tends to the propagation of sectarian dogmas.

The STAR will be an independent paper uninfluenced by those in power or the fear of the abuse of power, or the patronage of favor.

The paper is designed to be permanent, and as soon as circumstances will permit will be enlarged, so as to be in point of size not inferior to most of the weekly papers in the United States.

It will be published weekly on a royal sheet at six dollars per annum. As soon as a suitable persona can be employed, all articles of general interest will be published in Spanish as well as English.     S. BRANNAN.

Note: Elder Samuel Brannan's Jan. 9, 1847 "Prospectus" promises a newspaper that "will eschew with the greatest caution every thing that tends to the propagation of sectarian dogmas." It is not likely that this stance on religious matters was quite what LDS President of the Quorum of the Twelve, and acting President of the Church, Brigham Young, had in mind when the Brannan-Brooklyn project was first envisioned. As things worked out, Brannan quickly fell away from the LDS faith and apparently did his best to keep the Star out of religious advocacy and controversy.


Vol. I.                            Monterey, Saturday, January 23, 1847.                            No. 24.


THE PRESS. -- We have received the first two numbers of a new paper, just commenced at Yerba Buena. It is issued upon a small but very neat sheet, at six dollars per annum. It is published and owned by S. Brannan, the leader of the Mormons, ho was brought up by Joe Smith himself, and is consequently well qualified to unfold and impress the tenets of his sect.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                     San Francisco, September 18, 1847.                                    No. 37.

Interesting from the Emigration

Mr. S. Brannan. publisher of this paper, after an absence of nearly six months, arrived at this place on Friday morning last, 28 days from Fort Hall.

By him we learn that the emigration to this country, this year will not exceed ninety wagons. An advance company of about twenty-five wagons is supposed to be now on Truckey's lake, while the most tardive [sic] are in all probability at least 150 miles from the sink of Mary's River. The backward wagons, without brisk travel, may find their mountain road obstructed by the snows, fear is already entertained for their safe arrival.

Mr. Brannan informs me that the emigration to Oregon was still "rolling on;" that up to the 18th day of Aug., seven hundred and seventy wagons had passed Fort Hall, and before the expiration of the month, many more were expected.

Of the "Mormon emigration," there had arrived at the great Salt Lake, up to August 7th, 480 souls. This body, for the most part [reales], is but an advance of an extensive emigration soon to follow, and there was expected in one week's time, an additional caravan, consisting of four or five hundred wagons.

Here they have laid off and commenced a town, planted large crops, which are described as being forward and flourishing, and have at hand eighteen months' provisions to be used in the event of a failure of crops.

They contemplate opening an entire new road through to this country, in connection with the present rendezvous, and which completed, they move en masse to the valleys of California.

The "Mormon Battalion," of about 200 men, had been met in the mountains of California, many of whom were returning to winter here. Of this Battalion, 150 whom sickness detained at Santa Fe, had joined the emigration at Salt Lake, their term of enlistment having expired' Col. Cook had been sent by Gen. Kearney to discharge them.

Mr. Brannan gives the general health of the emigration good, few deaths having occurred throughout the travel

Note: While Elder Sam Brannan may have wanted to view the new Mormon town of Salt Lake City as a temporary affair, similar to the Saints' encampment at Winter Quarters, it must have occurred to him by this time that very few of Brigham Young's group were actually destined for a permanent home in California. Brannan's disaffection from Brigham Young's Mormons followed quickly upon the heels of his 1847 visit to the Great Basin.


Vol. I.                                     San Francisco, October 2, 1847.                                    No. 39.


SAN FRANCISCO, Sunday Sept. 19th, 1847.       

Sir, In your editorial yesterday, I noticed the remark that "The Mormon Battalion," of about 200 men, had been met in the mountains of California, many of whom were returning to winter here. Of this Battalion, 150 whom sickness detained at Santa Fe, had joined the emigration at Salt Lake, their term of enlistment having expired."

This report, arising probably from misunderstanding, gives a most incorrect view of the movements of the above mentioned corps. Having myself been connected with, and a spectator of all its movements, I wish to make a brief, true statement of the affair.

The Battalion on its organization, mustered five hundred and one rank, file and official. At the crossing of the Arkansas river, eight of the command were detached to the Puebla near the source of the Arkansas, as an escort to a few families who designed wintering there. At Santa Fe, the scarcity of transportation made it necessary for the number of our command to be reduced. Capt. Brown, Lt. Ludington, and about eighty men were ordered back to join the families at the Puebla; of this number about fifty were sick or feeble. About one hundred and fifty miles south of Santa Fe, on the Rio Grande Del Norte, the weakness and incompetence of our transportation. as well as the prospect of much fatigue and hunger over an undiscovered country, rendered it expedient to still lessen the number of our force. Lt. Willis was detached to SantaFe from there in command of about sixty men; one third of whom were either worn down with fatigue, or rendered unfit for service through sickness.

The remainder, with the exception of two who died on the way, arrived at San Diego under the command of Lt. Col. Cook. Their movements since that time must be well known to almost every one in the country. About a hundred re-volunteered to garrison the town of San Diego. The party met in the mountains, I presume were those who left the Angeles, intending to join their families in the emigration.   Respectfully, yours.
                                  SANTIAGO DE IRLANDA.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                            San Francisco, June 10, 1848.                            No. ?

The excitement and enthusiasm of
Gold Washing still continues -- increases.


Many of our countrymen are not disposed to do us justice as regards the opinion we have at different times expressed of the employment in which over two thirds of the white population of the country are engaged. There appears to have gone abroad a belief that we should raise our voices against what some one has denominated an “infatuation.” We are very far from it, and would invite a calm recapitulation of our articles touching the matter, as in themselves amply satisfactory. We shall continue to report the progress of the work, to speak within bounds, and to approve, admonish, or openly censure whatever, in our opinion, may require it at our hands.

It is quite unnecessary to remind our readers of the “prospects of California” at this time, as the effects of this gold washing enthusiasm, upon the country, through every branch of business are unmistakably apparent to every one. Suffice it that there is no abatement, and that active measures will probably be taken to prevent really serious and alarming consequences.

Every seaport as far south as San Diego, and every interior town, and nearly every rancho from the base of the mountains in which the gold has been found, to the Mission of San Luis, south, has become suddenly drained of human beings. Americans, Californians, Indians and Sandwich Islanders, men, women and children, indiscriminately. Should there be that success which has repaid the efforts of those employed for the last month, during the present and next, as many are sanguine in their expectations, and we confess to unhesitatingly believe probably, not only will witness the depopulation of every town, the desertion of every rancho, and the desolation of the once promising crops of the country, but it will also draw largely upon adjacent territories — awake Sonora, and call down upon us, despite her Indian battles, a great many of the good people of Oregon. There are at this time over one thousand souls busied in washing gold, and the yield per diem may be safely estimated at from fifteen to twenty dollars, each individual. —

We have by every launch from the embarcadera of New Helvetia, returns of enthusiastic gold seekers — heads of families, to effect transportation of their households to the scene of their successful labors, or others, merely returned to more fully equip themselves for a protracted, or perhaps permanent stay.—

Spades, shovels, picks, wooden bowls, Indian baskets (for washing), etc., find ready purchase, and are very frequently disposed of at extortionate prices.

The gold region, so called, thus far explored, is about one hundred miles in length and twenty in width. These imperfect explorations contribute to establish the certainty of the placera extending much further south, probably three or four hundred miles, as we have before stated, while it is believed to terminate about a league north of the point at which first discovered. The probable amount taken from these mountains since the first of May last, we are informed is $100,000, and which is at this time principally in the hands of the mechanical, agricultural and laboring classes.

There is an area explored, within which a body of 50,000 men can advantageously labor. Without maliciously interfering with each other, then, there need be no cause for contention and discord, where as yet, we are gratified to know, there is harmony and good feeling existing. We really hope no unpleasant occurrences will grow out of this enthusiasm, and that our apprehensions may be quieted by continued patience and good will among the washers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, January 11, 1849.                            No. 2.


Elder Orson Hyde, the Chief of the Mormons, left St. Louis on the 3d inst., for Council Bluffs, and carries with him a printing press, type and materials for the extablishment of a newspaper to be devoted to the support and propagation of the Mormon faith and doctrine.

Note: The above report was evidently reprinted from a St. Louis paper of early October, 1848.


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, July 12, 1849.                            No. 28.

Placer Intelligence.

We have nothing direct of a later date than quoted in our last paper. But from the Placer Times of the 26th ult., we take the following:

"Our intelligence from the Placer is of a most meagre and unsatisfactory nature. All that we hear from any source comes in the 'questionable shape' of rumor. On the North and Middle Forks we learn that the daily average per man is about an ounce to an ounce and a half...

Near Mormon Island, last week, three men with machines took out $4,848 in three days. These mines are undoubtedly the most productive that are now being worked... 'Mormon island' is about thirty miles distant, and nearly due east, from Sacramento City; a few miles off the main road leading to the Culloma or saw mill washings, where, it will be recollected, the discovery of gold was made in April last. The above Island, or properly, Bar, was visited by a party of Mormons shortly after this event, who commenced a search for the valuable metals, which resulted in finding gold, and the complete success of their labors spread from this point throughout California. The bar deriving from these men its present name, has since been worked with continued, though varied good fortune...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, August 16, 1849.                            No. 33.


RELIGIOUS. -- Several denominations have organized churches within the last few weeks. The Baptists dedicated their church, (the first Protestant church ever erected in California,) on Sunday the 5th inst. The Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Methodists, are making the necessary preparations for erecting houses of worship. The Catholics have a church at which service is administered every Sunday, and Rev. T. D. Hunt officiates at the chaplaincy; and Mr. Lyman, one of "the twelve" of the Mormon Church, has preached at the Institute for the last three Sabbaths.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, December 4, 1849.                            No. 49.


MORMON COIN. -- The monetary notions of the Mormons at their Great Salt Lake settlement are no less peculiar, it appears, than their ideas of society and religion. We have a very curious coin in our possession, which is manufactured and exclusively circulated among that remarkable people, and quite to the disparagement, travellers tell us, of every other species of gold currency. Of all the fanciful forms into which our golden wealth is wrought, this sainted shape excels in singularity. Its weight is about 15 pwts. Troy, its current worth, among the Mormons, twenty dollars. Its circumference is that of a Spanish half doubloon. One side bears the inscription "Holiness to the Lord," with the All-seeing eye, surmounted by a prophet's cap; on the reverse appears the initials G. S. L. C. P. C.; the grasp of fellowship, with the date (1849) and value of the piece. It is clumsy, and in execution without merit.

Note: This report was reprinted in various eastern newspapers -- see the Gettysburg Adams Sentinel of Jan. 28, 1850 for one example.


"Mormonism!" "Plurality of Wives!"

[Parley P. Pratt]                            San Francisco, July 13, 1852.                            [Broadside]

An Especial Chapter, for the Especial Edification
of certain inquisitive News Editors, Etc.

A certain Editor in this town, (San Francisco,) in reviewing our late Spanish and English Proclamation, complains sorely of our neglect of our own countrymen, the Americans, in our religious instructions. He also enquires, with all the seeming anxiety of a penitent man at the anxious seat, as to his excellency Gov. Young's family matters, and whether "Mormonism" allows a man more wives than one!!!

We inform him, that "Mormonism" is not in a corner, nor its light under a bushel, in the United States. Its books and ministry have long been within the reach of every reader in the English language. If the Americans wish information let them read the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and our other works, and seek the truth at the hand of God, and at the hand of our Apostles and Elders. And let them repent of their priestcraft, errors and folly, and humble themselves as in the dust, and learn to speak and publish the truth.

In regard to Gov. Young's family matters, we never had the curiosity to inform ourselves, although we have been a near neighbor of his for many years. This much we do know, -- that his morality is above all suspicion in the circles where he is known, and we presume the number of his family does not exceed the late estimates, which have been the rounds of the American Press. At any rate his family are respectable and virtuous; and as patterns of faith and piety, and good works, they are honored in every department of society. Marriage, in nearly all countries is regulated by civil legislation, and is therefore beyond the jurisdiction of our Apostleship, or ministry. Some governments allow to each man one wife, some two, some four, and others as many as they can obtain and support.

Every person who reads the Bible must know that the commission is to preach the Gospel to every creature in all the world, and to baptize all who believe, and repent. The Lord, in giving this commission, made no exceptions to the exclusion of any particular family organization growing out of the varied civil institutions.

It is also known, or ought to be, that this commission, without variation has been renewed to the Latter Day Saints, and that every baptized penitent, is a member of the church in good standing, while he observes the laws of God and his country Whether these laws legalize to him one wife or "sixteen."

Our instructions to all nations are that they believe in Jesus Christ, and repent and be baptised. And then serve God and obey the laws and civil institutions under which they live, or a country whose institutions are more congenial to their faith.

But, in all cases to be sure and love, sustain, honor, and cherish every soul of the family which the laws of God or man has given them, and to abstain forever from all unlawful intercourse between the sexes. For all unlawful intercourse of this kind is adultery, or fornication, and by the law of God is punishable with death.

Is it possible there is still in "Christendom," (after so many years of Mormon progress,) a man, or even an EDITOR so ignorant as to suppose that the eternal principles of the Priesthood, Ordinances and Kingdom of God, sent forth as a Standard of Universal Restoration for the Tribes of Israel, and for all nations, would narrow itself down to the petty prejudic

es, local superstitions, and narrow views of that small minority of mankind known as "Christendom!"

And thus exclude Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the kings, patriarchs, and prophets of old from the kingdom of God, and three quarters of the present generation of mankind from all participation in the Gospel ordinances, merely because their family is so large!!!

Nay, more! The narrow, ignorant legislation of some Churches and States, would imprison, for years the Patriarch Jacob, turn his four wives, twelve sons and a daughter into the street, without father or husband, dishonored and rendered illegitimate; and then, if possible, demolish the very gates of New Jerusalem; because the names of the sons of Jacob, by Rachel, Leah, Bilhah, and Zilpah were found engraven on the gates.

This done and the family of Israel broken up, all the good citizens, law makers, judges, and lawyers who had thus shown their indignation against "vice" and their zeal for "virtue" might by the laws of the same State, seduce and ruin as many females as they pleased, by merely paying a fine, and a certain amount of damages!

Or, in other words: so much disease, shame, dishonor, ruin, death and damnation, of our fair daughters for so much money. So much gold for so much blood! -- murder! No -- Editors! -- this is not "Mormonism!"

Should the United States, or any other nation ever rise from the degradation into which a false "Christianity" has plunged them: should they ever ascend to the level of the heathen nations of ancient Egypt or Babylon, and like a Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzer, or a Cyrus, engage a Prophet or an Apostle to teach them; a Joseph or a Daniel to give them wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of God, and in the science of government, -- then "Mormonism" will teach their Senators wisdom and their Judges justice; and the latter day Apostles and Prophets restore to them the laws of God. As it is written by Isaiah, Chap 2d, verses 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th.

"And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow unto it.

And many people shall say, come ye, and let us go unto the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths, for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people, and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

O house of Jacob, come, and let us walk in the light of the Lord."

The law of God, from Zion, in the top of the mountains, when taught to the nations, will provide the means for every female to answer the end of their creation; to be protected in honor and virtue; and to become a happy wife and mother, so far as they are capacitated and inclined. While every man who stoops from his Godlike majesty to a level with the brute creation so far as to trifle with the fountain of life, (female virtue) will atone for the same with his blood.

And thus adultery, and fornication, with all their attendant train of disease, despair, shame, sorrow and death will cease from our planet, and joy, love, confidence, and all the pure kindred affections, and family endearments be cherished in every bosom of man.

Note 1: The above broadside was issued by Parley P. Pratt, in slightly different format than is represented above, on July 13, 1852, in anticipation of the official LDS announcement of polygamy, as a sanctioned doctrine, on Sept.14, 1852. Apostle Pratt published the broadside with a time-table in mind. For the following four weeks he could stir up publicity and offer something like an answer to regional newspapers, like the San Francisco Alta California, which had been criticizing the Mormons' barely secret "spiritual wifery." About the same time that the copies of responses in the California papers reached the East, the copies of the official polygamy announcement in the Deseret News would only be a week or two behind in the mails. Thus, editors at a distance could begin to discuss the topic, based upon reprints and reports of Pratt's July 13, 1852 broadside, and just as that discussion commenced in the eastern papers, the Church's official announcement would arrive, to reveal and explain the entire matter.

Note 2: Editors in cites like Philadelphia took "the bait" and published Pratt's letter, creating responses like Elder Isaac Sheen's rebuttal in the Oct. 9, 1852 issue of the Saturday Evening Post.


Vol. ?                            Los Angeles, November 17, 1853.                            No. ?


Messrs. Noland, Banning, Crane, and Stewart, arrived at the Monte (San Bernardino last Tuesday, and from them we gather the following particulars in regard to the fate of Lieut. Gunnison, who was prosecuting one of the Government surveys for the line of the Pacific Railroad. The route he was surveying is that favored by Col. Benton.

Lieut. Gunnison, with a train of eighteen wagons, came up the Arkansas river, and passing Bent's fort crossed the Rocky and Wahsatch mountain, into the Beaver Valley of the Salt Lake region. Arrived here, Lieut. G. with eleven men, including R. H. Kern, the chief draught-man, and Mr. Chrysfeldt, the [ornithologist?] of the expedition, left the camp for the purpose of exploring the country about Sevier Lake. On the 26th of October they were attacked by a branch of the Utahs, called Parvahs -- a babd of murdering thieves, well known by all emigrants -- and all of the party killed. Some days afterwards the Indians sent in a messenger, bearing the minutes of the surveys, together with the instruments, who gave intelligence of the destruction of the party, and stated that the attack was made in revenge for the recent defeat of the tribe at Cedar Springs, by the Hildreth party, in which eleven Indians were killed and several wounded.

Messrs. Noland, Banning, Crane, and Stewart, left the camp with one wagon to bring in the intelligence. In this wagon they came on as far as Bitter Springs, 45 miles beyond Mohave and 175 miles from this city. At Bitter Springs their animals gave out, and they were obliged to abandon them. They then started on foot, and arrived at the Monte on Tuesday, much woen down with the fatigue of their journey.

Mr. J. W. Ross, of Iowa, arrived in town yesterday. He came through over the Gunnison route, and reached the main camp of the expedition two days after the occurance. He gives us additional particulars, which in some respects conflict with the above. When he arrived at the camp, a party which had been sent out with one of the survivors as a guide had just come in, and reported they were unable to bury the dead from fear of the Indians. Capt. Morris, who succeeded in the command after the death of Gunnison, and whose party numbered about sixty men, then sent a dispatch to Fillmore city, six miles distant, for assistance.

A party of seven Mormons took a guide and went to the scene of the massacre, about 24 miles from the main camp; and, without molestation, recovered all the animals, save one, that had been killed, together with the arms, instruments, and minutes of the survey party. All that remained, of the murdered men were the disjointed bones picked clean by the wolves. The only parts that could possibly be identified were, a thigh bone belived to be that of poor Gunnison, and the skull of Potter, Gunnison's Mormon guide. These remains were all carefully collected and buried, and the party returned and forwarded the property of the expedition to camp. The conduct of Capt. Morris is severely commented upon, for allowing the bodies of his comrads to be eaten up by wolves; as, it is said, his force was sufficient to have whipped all the Indians in the valley.

Mr. Ross remained eighteen days in that region, and had frequent interviews with the chief of the Paravans, Jesus. The whole tribe, he thinks, does not number forty men. The chief often expressed great regret at the death of Gunnison; the attack was made without his knowledge by his people, who had become enraged at the indignities practiced upon them by parties of emigrants. We hope to be able to give more full particulars next week.

Note 1: The initial report of the Gunnison massacre appeared in the Nov. 12, 1853 issue of the Salt Lake City Deseret News.

Note 2: Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858) was an old enemy of the Mormons. Benton's son-in-law, John C. Fremont (1813-1890) explored the valley of the Great Salt Lake in 1843 -- his favorable report of the area helped convince Brigham Young to settle the Mormons there three years later. In 1848 Fremont led a nearly disastrous expedition to locate a route for a transcontinental railroad, from the east, through Utah, and terminating in California. Fremont's father-in-law, Senator Benton, favored a southern route for the railroad, running near Fillmore, and bypassing Salt Lake and the Mormon headquarters altogether. Gunnison was surveying just such a possible southern route, when he and his party were massacred near Sevier Lake. Although Benton was one of the most powerful leaders among the Democrats, his son-in-law Fremont ran as the Republican candidate for the U. S. Presidency in 1856, (and lost to James Buchanan, supporter of military action against the Mormons in Utah). Had Benton and Gunnison lived a few more years, the Union Pacific Railroad might have been built along the contemplated southern route. And, had Fremont been elected in 1856, "Johnston's Army" might never have been sent to subdue the Mormons in Utah.


Vol. II.                                 Placerville, March 24, 1855.                                 No. 5.


==> The Mormon Herald, a new publication, devoted to spiritual wifeism and the peculiar doctrines of the Mormon church, is about being established in the Bay city, by Parley Pratt. Parley is a vigorous writer and will be apt to make the Herald a readable paper.

Note: As it turned out, Apostle Pratt's San Francisco newspaper took the name of "The Western Standard" and did not attempt to present a continuing polemic in the defense of Mormon polygamy. Although the paper did survive Parley's 1857 murder, it soon fell victim to the 1857-58 "Mormon War" and ceased publication.


Vol. ?                            San Francisco, November 9, 1855.                            No. ?

Later  from  Utah.

A man named Poorman arrived in Sacramento the day before yesterday, bringing accounts from Salt Lake City, to 11th Oct. He says: --

There is not a flake of this year's snow, either on the Sierra Nevada, or the ranges of mountains east of Carson Valley.

MEN KILLED BY INDIANS. -- A man named Hunt was killed an Indian, in Elk Mountains. The Indians are said to have killed two other men, named Wm. Behunin and Edward Edwards, and to have burned the hay and turned the water off from the Fort. The thirteen Mormons who remained in the fort, finally fled, leaving the cattle and property in the hands of the Indians. After they had proceeded some distance on their way, an old chief and his two sons met them, and told them they should get back their cattle. After some time he overtook them with eight cattle, and gave them some beef to last them on their journey. He promised to bury those who were killed.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, May 3, 1856.                            No. 11.

Mormons and Mormonism, and their Opponents.

In the last issue of the Golden Era, we notice another article of the series of editorials on "Mormonism and the Mormons," in which the writer states, in answer to our retort requesting more than mere assertion for their statements, that "having assumed the privince of building up religions, they will not devote themselves to the task of pulling them down." "Religion," he says, "can neither be substantiated nor contradicted! Enshrouded in mystery at its origin, time but exaggerates its virtues and obliterates the doubtful circumstances of its birth." The Mormon doctrine, however, he thinks, is of such recent origin, that its progress is not su much a matter of history as of remembrance; and his idea is, that all the tricks resorted to by Joseph Smith in the working of miracles -- in resurrecting the dead by burying live men in coffins, with tubes through the earth for supplying the subject with air -- in walking on the water by ingeniously arranging a plank platform two inches below the surface -- the finding of the Book of Mormon, the coinage of a poetical lunatic, with its alterations and elaborations by the prophet -- are still fresh in the minds of many. He is of the opinion that it is useless to attempt to sum up the evidence of these tricks against it; Mormonism, he says, can not be proven to be false, although much, very much, may be told to favor such a position.

In their second article on this subject they threateningly said, because we presumed to dispute their assertions made in a previous article, "that they were prepared to acquaint the world with many facts bitterly unpalatable to Mormonism generally." Not wishing by our silence on the subject to tacitly admit the existence of such facts, and desirous also of defending ourselves against the wicked and unfounded calumnies to which they give utterance, we called for these facts so butterly unpalatable, if they really were in their possession, and wished them to give these things publicity; but all that has been produxed are what has been alluded to...

Note: The story of the Mormon leaders having once buried a living person, with the expectation of performing a fake "resurrection miracle" was repeated in Arthur B. Deming's 1888 Naked Truths About Mormonism, as well as in an article, entitled "Joe Smith's Miracles" which was published in the Apr. 4, 1888 issue of the Illinois Decatur Daily Review. Deming's ultimate source for this unique account may have been the 1856 Golden Era.


Vol. VII.                            San Francisco, June 8, 1856.                            No. 8.

From  Salt  Lake.

From Col. L. A. Norton, who has just returned from Carson Valley, says the Placerville American, we obtain much interesting information from the Valleys of Western Utah. The great immigration of Mormons, of which we have made mention heretofore as being on the way from Salt Lake, consisting of one hundred and ten families and nearly as many wagons, with large numbers of cattle, even thousands, were within three days' drive of their places of destination, the beautiful Valleys of Wash-ho and Truckee, when Col. Norton left the Valley. Orson Hyde is erecting a new saw and grist mill in Wash-ho Valley, to be propelled by an overshot wheel on one of the mountain streams that in such number and great beauty are found ever full and leaping to the Valleys. Wellington Fredericks, a well-known mechanic of this County, is employed upon the mills, and the whole business is under the immediate supervision of Mr. R. Kelley, late of Lake Valley, on the summit of the Sierras. Both mills will be in operation in a very few weeks. No country can be more charming than these magnificent and fertile Valleys, and none can excel them in advantages for stock-growing; while the accession of so large a number of people to their permanent homes in our immediate vicinity, all dependent upon this city as their only point of trade with California, cannot but tend greatly to increase the now rapidly improving trade of this city [Placerville, Calif.]

From  Salt  Lake.

On Friday last, says the Placerville American, four wagons and the following persons arrived in town from Salt Lake. Isaac Miller, went from Sacramento to Salt Lake last Fall, to bring away his two sisters from the Mormons; but the Church prevailed upon them to remain. They are unmarried. Mr. Miller brings through A. Garlic and wife. Mr. Jacob Carr brings through Mrs. Tanner, a widow lady, and two children. James Robinson, another immigrant, lost his wife in Lake Valley; she died in child-bed. With the fourth wagon is Mr. Marsden, wife and five children. All the above were destined for Sacramento and the lower valleys. From Mr. Miller, we learn that Gilbert & Gerrish, in attempting to winter 700 head of cattle at Fort Hall, lost all but seventy by cold and starvation. Thomas Williams & Co. brought through last fall 200 head as far as Weaver [sic] river, forty miles the other side of Salt Lake; was there overtaken and shut in by snow, and every animal but three, and one of the three men in attendance upon them perished.

Note: The precise date of these two reports is not certain -- they may have actually appeared in the San Francisco paper on June 3, 1856.


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, July 24, 1856.                            No. 20.


SALAMANDERS. -- The Salamander is an animal believed by the ancients to have the property of existing unhurt in fire; and among the miners of Cornwall, England, a superstition prevails that if a fire be kept for a century, continuously, a salamander will arise from the flames, as Venus rose from the sea, or Minerve from the brain of Jupiter. Hence they invariably cause all their engine fires, which otherwise are kept continuously burning, to be put out every few years.

A French consul in the island of Rhodes in 1780, gravely relates that while sitting in his chamber there he heard a loud cry in the kitchen, whither he ran, and found his cook in a horrible fright, who informed him that he had seen the devil in the fire. M. Pouthonier (the consul) then states that he looked into a bright fire, and there he saw a little animal with open mouth and palpitating throat. He took the tongs, and endeavored to remove it. At his first attempt, the animal, which, he says, had been motionless up to that time. (two or three minutes) ran into a corner of the chimney, having lost the tip of its tail in escaping, and buried itself in a heap of hot ashes. In his second attempt the consul was successful, and drew the animal out, which he describes as a sort of lizard, plunged it into spirit, and gave it to Buffon, the naturalist. Pliny, the old Roman naturalist, says: "Of all venomous beasts, there are not any so hurtful and dangerous as are the salamanders. As for other serpents, they can hurt but one at once, neither kill they many together; to say nothing how when they have stung or bitten a man, they die for verie grief and sorrow that they have done such a mischief, as if they had some remorse of conscience afterwards, and never enter they againe into earthe, as unworthy to be received here."

Note: Unfortunately Editor Parley P. Pratt adds no latter day apostolic comments concerning this magical animal, which, like certain angels, could survive within the flames of a raging fire.


Vol. I.                            San Francisco, August 23, 1856.                            No. 26.

Mother Lucy Smith.

(see the NY Mormon of July 12, 1856 for article)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                            San Francisco, September 5, 1856.                            No. ?

True Cause of the Indian Troubles.

A late number of the Oregon Times, speaking of the prospect of continued difficulties with the Indians in that Territory, gives utterance to the following observations as to the cause of those constant troubles, which, if well founded, are sufficient to cause the commencement of a war of extermination against their authors. We can scarcely, however, believe them to be true:

We have the most reliable information that these Indian hostilities have been well planned, and that they extend from the Missouri river to Oregon and Washington Territories; and that the Mormons are aiding and abetting the Indians, and are cognizant of all their hostile movements. That the Mormons furnish them powder is manifest from the capture of twenty-five pounds by the Volunteers, whom the Indians owned up that they got of the Mormons.

In support of our conjecture that the Mormons are giving "aid and comfirt to the enemy," we have reliable information that, over a year ago, an express messenger came to Brigham Young, at Salt Lake, from a leading chief of one of the Rocky Mountain tribes, stating that this chief had been travelling all summer endeavoring to unite the different tribes against the Gentiles (whites). Soon after, another express messenger came in from a chief of a powerful Rocky Mountain tribe, saying to Brigham Young "that he and his people were to pass through Salt Lake City, on a visit to Humboldt river, and that he need have no fears of injury to any of his (the Mormon) people; that they could all travel in safety in his country by giving the secret signs of the Mormons."

This shows that the Mormons and Indians understand each other; that they protect and advise each other; and there is good reason for believing that the Mormons are aiding and abetting the savages in a war of extermination of what they designate Gentiles.

With such facts and other information as we have before us, we reasonably conclude that the war is not ended yet; and we are more and more confirmed in our opinion heretofore expressed, that, "these savages must be whipped in a way that they will stau whipped.

Notes: (forthcoming)


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