(Newspapers of California & Nevada)

Misc. Nevada Newspapers
1858-1899 Articles

Mark Twain at the Territorial Enterprise

1858-1899   1900-1999

TEn Apr ?? '59    TEn Jun 16 '60    TEn Feb 02 '61    TEn Nov 17 '63    CSR Feb 12 '71
NSJ Feb 24 '72    PDR Sep 20 '72    PDR Sep 22 '72    PDR Sep 27 '72    PDR Oct 05 '72
PDR Oct 08 '72     NSJ Nov 13 '74     NSJ Nov 21 '74     NSJ Nov 25 '74     NSJ Jan 09 '75
NSJ Apr 10 '75     NSJ May 15 '75     NSJ Jul 24 '75     NSJ Jul 27 '75     NSJ Jul 29 '75
NSJ Aug 14 '75     NSJ Nov 23 '75     PDR Dec ?? '75     NSJ Dec 17 '75     NSJ Jun 26 '77
WRG May 29 '79     PWR Jul 22 '81     NSJ Dec 06 '84

Old Newspaper Articles Index   |   Utah Newspapers   |   Salt Lake Tribune



Vol. I.                          Carson City, U. T., Saturday,  April ?, 1859.                          No. ?

The Man for the Emergency.

Emergencies have recently arisen in Mormondom which called for the energies of one who could act boldly and fearlessly, with a conscientious sense of right; one who would not succumb to Gubernatorial dictation or cower under his command, and such an one has been found in his honor, Judge Cradlebaugh.

We have on more than one occasion endeavored to defend his Excellency Gov. Cumming, against the accusation of Mormonism, but his recent action in opposition to Judge Cradlebaugh, manifested by his efforts in conjunction with the Mormos for the removal of the necessary military protection from the court at Provo convinces us that his sympathies at least are with that immortal association of patriotic and loyal American citizens.

Shake a measure of corn, and the large grains will rise to the top. So it is with a community. Agitate it and great minds, which might have slumbered on in obscurity, unconscious of their own might become conspicuous.

Judge Cradlebaugh of the U. S. District Court of Utah, may be cited as an example. He is making his mark in that Territory, if half that is written of him be true. Six months ago he was known as a young man of fair abilities but of years too few to successfully manage the important change in trusted to him; but he has shown himself the man for the emergency. Satisfied that many of the leading Mormons had taken part in, or instigated, the Mountain Meadow massacre, and the murder of Jones, Porter, Forbes, Parrish, and a dozen others during the past two years, he determined to bring them to punishment.

On the 8th of March he organized his court in Provo city. As there was no jail in the city he made a requisition on Gen. Johnston for a detachment of troops to guard the prisoners and give protection to the court. The local authorities and Mormons strongly objected to the presence of the troops and petitioned for their immediate removal, but without effect.

Governor Cumming who is represented as an admirer of Brigham and a tolerably good Mormon was prevailed upon by some mysterious influence to join in the request.

The judge however, did not feel disposed to gratify his Excellency, but on the contrary considerably augmented the military force around Provo. Grand and petit juries were sworn in but as the majority of their members were Mormons, they refused either to indict or convict. In his charge to the grand jury, the Judge, although his words fell like bombs among the Saints and shook Mormondom to its centre, openly accused elders and bishops of participating in the butchery of one hundred and forty immigrants at the Mountain Meadows, and mentioned the names of Mormons who had perpetrated other murders and robberies, and where witnesses might be found to establish their guilt. He spoke and acted with the fearlessness and resolution of a Jackson, but the jury failed to indict, or even to report on the charges, while threats of violence were heard in every quarter, and an attack upon the troops was intimated if he persisted in his course. Finding that nothing could be done with the juries, they were discharged on the 21st, with a scathing rebuke from the Judge. Sitting as a committing magistrate, he began the task alone. He examined witnesses, made arrests in every quarter and created a consternation in the camps of the Saints, greater even than was occasioned by the first arrival of the troops within the walls of Zion. At last accounts terrified elders and bishops were decamping to save their necks and developments of the most startling character were being made, implicating the highest church dignitaries in the many murders and robberies committed upon the Gentiles during the past eight years. All honor to the young Judge!

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                          Carson City, U. T., Saturday,  June 16, 1860.                          No. 19.


THE TERRORS OF THE LAW. -- It is noticeable that for the last week we have not had a murder or shooting scrape in our city; while within the same period several desperate and disreputable characters have quietly slipped off to California. On Monday last, Judge Cradlebaugh opened the Court, and there are those having casuality largely developed, who think they can detect in this series of events the relation of "cause and effect."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                          Virginia City, N. T.,  February 2, 1861.                          No. ?


On Monday last Judge Cradlebaugh opened the U. S. District Court in Carson. There being no business to transact, he adjourned for three weeks. Before he adjourned, however, he remarked to the bar and audience, that there was another person here claiming to be District Judge for this District. He denied his authority, although Judge Flenniken had been appointed, confirmed and assigned to this District. He said the President had no right to remove a Judge; that he intended to resign on the 4th of March next, and until that time he would hold court. That it was due to his friends who had accommodated him with money do to do. That for the reason of the Government failing to honor his drafts for nine months since, his friend Wm. M. Lent, seeing his great necessity, had advanced him money upon his salary up to the 4th of March, and he intended to serve that time out. He said further, that any attorney who wished to withsraw his suit from his court in which answer had not been filed, he would permit him so to do; in other cases, papers could bot be transferred from his court elsewhere, unless by consent of counsel on both sides.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                          Virginia City, N. T.,  November 17, 1863.                          No. ?


A massacre, in which no less than a thousand human beings were deprived of life without a moment's warning of the terrible fate that was in store for them. This ghastly tragedy was the work of a single individual -- a man whose character was gifted with many strong points, among which were great benevolence and generosity, and a kindness of heart which rendered him susceptible of being persuaded to do things which were really, at times, injurious to himself, and which noble trait in his nature made him a very slave to those whom he loved -- a man whose disposition was a model of mildness until a fancied wrong drove him mad and impelled him to the commission of this monstrous crime -- this wholesale offering of blood to the angry spirit of revenge which rankled in his bosom. It is said that some of his victims were so gashed, and torn, and mutilated, that they scarcely retained a semblance of human shape. As nearly as I can get at the facts in the case -- and I have taken unusual pains in collecting them -- the dire misfortune occurred about as follows: It seems that certain enemies ill-treated this man, and in revenge he burned a large amount of property belonging to them. They arrested him, and bound him hand and foot, and brought him down to Lehi, the county seat, for trial. And the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him, and the cords that were upon his arms became as flax that was burnt with fire, and his bands loosed from off his hands. And he found a new jaw-bone of an ass, and put forth his hand and took it, and slew a thousand men there with. When he had finished his terrible tragedy, the desperado, criminal (whose name is Samson), deliberately wiped his bloody weapon upon the leg of his pantaloons, and then tried its edge upon his thumb, as a barber would a razor, simply remarking, "With the jaw-bone of an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the jaw of an ass have I slain a thousand men." He even seemed to reflect with satisfaction upon what he had done, and to derive great comfort from it -- as if he would say, "only a mere thousand - Oh, no I ain't on it, I reckon."

I am sorry that it was necessary for me to furnish you with a narrative of this nature, because my efforts in this line have lately been received with some degree of suspicion; yet it is my inexorable duty to keep your readers posted, and I will not be recreant to the trust, even though the very people whom I try to serve, upbraid me.
MARK TWAIN.       
P.S. -- Now keep dark, will you? I am hatching a deep plot. I am "laying," as it were, for the editor of that San Francisco Evening Journal. The massacre I have related above is all true, but it occurred a good while ago. Do you see my drift? I shall catch that fool. He will look carefully through his Gold Hill and Virginia exchanges, and when he finds nothing in them about Samson killing a thousand men, he will think it is another hoax, and come out on me again, in his feeble way, as he did before. I shall have him foul, then, and I will never let up on him in the world (as we say in Virginia). I expect it will worry him some, to find out at last, that one Samson actually did kill a thousand men with the jaw-bone of one of his ancestors, and he never heard of it before.

Note: A parody of the Mountain Meadows massacre by Mormons?



Vol. ?                          Carson City, Nevada,  Feb. 12, 1871.                          No. ?

Lee and the Mountain Meadow Massacre.

"...John D. Lee is dead... at Grapevine Springs... by Brigham Young..."

(under construction)

Note: The above report quotes from an article published in the Feb. 11th issue of the Utah Reporter, not yet found.


Vol. II.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Feb. 24, 1872.                          No. 14.

Death of Gen. John Cradlebaugh..

General John Cradlebaugh, a well known and prominent pioneer of this State, died at Eureka a few days since of congestion of the lungs. The Carson Register of a late date, in announcing the sad news, says: Mr. Cradlebaugh was a native of Pickaway county, Ohio. He was appointed United States District Judge of Utah Territory by President Buchanan. In Salt Lake he became obnoxious to the Mormon authorities in consequence of his attempt to sift out the leaders in the Mountain Meadow Massacre, and by a ruse, was transferred to this District. Desceased was sent as delegate to Congress, and whilst there, on the breaking out of the late war, went to his county in Ohio, where he raised a regiment, was elected Colonel and fought bravely, until at the battle of Vicksburg, in which he was severely wounded in the mouth, and was taken off the field for dead. On returning to this Territory he was appointed Adjutant General, in which capacity he served until the office became part of the Secretary of State. General Cradlebaugh owned a farm on Carson river, on which he resided for two or three years, when he disposed of his ranch and left for the eastern part of the State. Deceased was a fine scholar, a good lawyer, an incorruptible Judge and a truly noble gentleman -- one of the old school. His death will be sincerely lamented by his many warm friends and ardent admirers.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Sept. 20, 1872.                          No. ?

Mountain Meadows Massacre.

...The [Klingensmith] affidavit gives particulars, and carries conviction of its truth...

(under construction)

Note: According to Anna J. Backus' 1995 Mountain Meadows Witness, p. 220, "The news of Philip [Klingensmith]'s confession caused quite a stir, A report of Philip exposing the massacre and giving names of those connected with the massacre was made public for the first time in the Cedar City Record." -- This is an inaccurate statement -- the Iron County Record did not begin publication until 1893. Possibly some mention of Klingensmith's confession was printed in the Pioche Record of 1871, but the first known appearance of the text of his Apr. 10, 1871 affidavit was its publication by the New York Tribune, on Sept. 11, 1872.


Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Sept. 22, 1872.                          No. ?

More about Smith's affidavit

PIOCHE, Sept. 20, 1872.    
Editor Record: I was present at the time when Philip Klingon Smith made his affidavit concerning the massacre at the Mountain Meadows. That affidavit is sealed with the seal of our District Court. Smith's statements were straight-forward, and from his manner it was evident that he intended them to be the truth and nothing but the truth. The affidavit, though in narrative form, was taken by question and answer.

The Salt Lake "Herald," in a late issue, in evident alarm, calls for the arrest and punishment of Smith. That call is not sincere. They dare not face Philip K. Smith in Court. He is ready to go at any time that he is wanted. From that affidavit we learn, among other things, that Brigham Young was Governor of Utah and Superintendent of Indian Affairs at the time and a long time after the massacre, and that John D. Lee was his Indian Agent for Southern Utah; that the force sent against the emigrants was a regular military expedition -- a part of a regiment of the militia of Utah Territory, regularly called out, and armed and equipped, officered by the proper regimental officers, and marching with regimental baggage wagons and a regular military outfit, except artillery; that it was understood by the rank and file that the expedition had been ordered by Gov. Young; that Major John D. Lee, who was in immediate command, had invited the Indians within his superintendency to join the expedition, which they did; and finally, that Gov. Young never court-martialed Major Lee for his action in that bloody affair, nor called him to account as Indian Agent, nor as a fellow member of the Mormon Church. These, Mr. Editor, are some of the ugly facts contained in that affidavit, and neither the Salt Lake "Herald" folks nor Brigham Young dare face them and Philip Klingon Smith in open court.   CITIZEN.

(The writer of the foregoing is a pioneer of Lincoln County. He knows of what he writes, and the public may rely upon the correctness of his judgment as well as the reliability of his statements -- Ed. Record.)

Note: This statement was quoted in the Salt Lake Tribune of Sept. 28, 1872, as having appeared the the Pioche Record of the 21st -- possibly it printed twice, two days in a row, in this paper.



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Sept. 27, 1872.                          No. ?


(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Oct. 5, 1872.                          No. ?

News  Items.

The Gentile papers indorse ex-Bishop Smith, who made affidavits relative to the Mountain Meadow Massacre and deny the assertion that he is either a murderer or perjurer. The Mormon press do not contradict the truth of the affidavits.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Oct. 8, 1872.                          No. ?

A Warning to Philip Klingen Smith.

       [to Mr. Pat Holland]
Dear Sir: As you probably know the whereabouts of Smith, who made the celebrated affidavit respecting the Mountain Meadows massacre, I wish you would caution him about a man named Springmyer, alias McFarlane, alias McPherson, alias Missouri Bill, who is reported to me to be in Nevada for the purpose of making [away] with Smith. When last heard from he was in Eureka. He is 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high; rather round headed; 35 to 38 years of age; blue eyes; brown hair; nervous and disconnected in his talk; fond of telling his Indian adventures, and easily pumped. The Mormons here say he has gone to fix Smith, and they brag that the affidavit will never do any good, as he will never testify. I have reason, good reason, to beloeve that Mr. Smith should take more than ordinary care of his person. Will you see that he gets a hint?

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Nov. 13, 1874.                          No. 38.


Brigham Young -- Mountain Meadow Massacre -- Lascivious Cohabitation Causes.

Salt Lake, Nov. 12.    
Brigham Young has arrived at St. George, Utah.

John D. Lee, now in prison at Beaver, charged with being connected with the Mountain Meadow massacre of 1857, when 120 Arkansas emigrants were murdered, it is said will give a true history of the whole affair and the names of parties interested.

In the Third District Court to-day Geo. Q. Caniron gave bail in $5,000 to answer from day to day on a charge of polygamy. The former indictment against him has been found under the Territorial law for lascivious cohabition.

Thos. E. Ricks, now in the Penientiary, under indictments for lasivious cohabitation and murder, made an effort to get released on bail to-day, but unsuccessfully. It will be remembered that Ricks was member of the Grand Jury.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Nov. 21, 1874.                          No. 6.

Mormon Bishop Arrested -- Illegal Voters.

Salt Lake, Nov. 18.    
A telegram from Beaver, Utah, to-day, says Bishop Wm. H. Dame was arrested at his residence in Parowan, Iron county, Utah, to-day, by a Deputy United States Marshal on an indictment for murder, in connection with the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Two more men, Mormons, appeared before the 3d District Court to-day and paid their fines for illegal voting in the last election.

Note: Elsewhere in this same issue, under the heading of "News of the Week," the paper also printed: "Willaim H. Dame, a Mormon Bishop, has been arrested on an indictment for murder, in connection with the Mountain Meadows Massacre."


Vol. II.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Nov. 25, 1874.                          No. 48.


Salt Lake, Nov. 24.    
Bishop Dame lately arrested in Southern Utah and confined at Beaver is being brought to this city for safe keeping. He is charged with being connected with the Mountain Meadow Massacre.

Two more- persons were fined to-day by the 3d District Court for illegal voting they, like others, having voted on naturalization papers issued by the Probate Court.

Work is progressing rapidly on the Utah Southern and Utah Western Railroads.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Jan. 9, 1875.                          No. 13.


There is a strong probability of the speedy trial and conviction of some of those most prominent in what is generally known as the Mountain Massacre. This subject has an unusual degree of attention of late, and the principals have been interviewed again and again. The latest is an interview with the noted Rachael, wife of John D. Lee, by a reporter of the Salt Lake Herald, to whom she relates the story of the massacre and paints the scene in somewhat different colors to those heretofore used by word artists. Still the fact remains that the Mountain Meadow Massacre [was] one of the most inhuman butcheries that ever took place on this continent; and at last there is a prospect of bringing some of the parties, at least, to punishment. The massacre took place in 1857, and was perpetrated by a force of Mormons under the lend of the villain, John D. Lee, whose arrest we chronicled, a short time since. The victims were a company of one hundred and thirty immigrants from Arkansas, on their way to California. The place of the massacre has become historical, excending that of the "Massacre of Glencoe" in brutality. Mountain Moadow is a small valley about three hundred miles from Salt Lake; and here the party had camped to recuperate for a few days. The company was composed of men, women and children, with stock and valuables -- it is said the party had $130,000 in gold coin. While encamped, they were attacked by what purported to be a band of savages, against whom they successfully defended themselves for five days. At the end of that time a large party of armed Mormons appeared on the scene, the Indians having suddenly disappeared. These Mormons, as it now comes out from some of the children who were spared in the massacre, after treacherously inducing the emigrants to disarm and start back toword Salt Lake, murdered all the men and women, and spared none but the smaller children. The leader of the band of Mormons was the notorious Lee, who is now in custody to answer for the crime. Others are implicated, and will soon be brought to trial in the United States District Court at Salt Lake.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Apr. 10, 1875.                          No. 25.


Many years have passed since an innocent party of men, women and children were cruelly and deliberately murdered at Mountain Meadow and this outrage on the rights of humanity and American citizenship has not yet been avenged. The guilt is traceable directly to the Mormons, and with the most conclusive certainty. This matter was allowed to rust without investigation until the press took it up and demanded that the murderers be brought to justice. And now only one, Lee, has been arrested, while it is well-known that every one, from that hoary-headed sinner, Brigham Young, down, were interested. Judge McKean no sooner evinced a detormimition to execute justice than he is removed: Governor Axtell is a pliant tool in the hands of Brigham, and there seems to be no hopes for justice. Had any community of American citizens been guilty of one half the outrages that the Mormons are, every one of them would have been hung. Why are their enormities thus winked at? It is well known that this sect is composed of the vilest people of Europe, who look upon this community as place where their licentious, lawless passions can have full scope. If strict justice is done in the Mountain Meadow massacre case, to say nothing of the rest, the fate of Mormondom is sealed.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  May 15, 1875.                          No. 30.


John D. Lee, of Mountain Meadows massacre fame, had an epileptic stroke in prison, at Beaver, Utah, on Tuesday, the 20th ult. He is not expected to survive through the Summer.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  July 24, 1875.                          No. 40.


An epitome of Lee's confession is furnished by telegraph. He gives at great length a detailed, concise and alleged perfect statement of the acts and facts connected with the massacre, giving the names of persons, dates and places. He claims to fully expone all classes of men, and every man connected with the outrage. He starts with his first knowledge of the immigrant train, following through their unfortunate experiences and conflicts up to the termination of their sad career. He described all that was done by the murderers after the commission of the crime, and the action of all connected with it. Also, the action of Brigham Young and the priesthood. The disposition of the children saved, and all the particulars concerning their delivery to Doctor Forney, the agent, of the Government, who removed them to Missouri. In fact, the statement of Lee fully explains why, for what reason and how the the tragedy was accomplished, and states the justification relied upon by the participants for the commission of that fearful crime. The details fix the crime upon Isaac C. Haight and John M. Higbee, commauding officers, the former standing on an eminance and giving the signal agreed upon for the slaughter after [the] immigrants had been decoyed out of their stronghold by the flag of truce. The wounded had first been hauled out and were dispatched. There were engaged thirty white men and a large number of Indians. The details of killing men, women and children surpass in horror all that has ever been written concerning the massacre, and are more terrible, atrocious and bloody than the most vivid imagination can conjure. St. Bartholomew's day and the utmost barbarity of human beings absolutely pale before the sickening tale.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  July 27, 1875.                          No. 112.


From the Salt Lake Herald of the 24th we clip the following account of the confession or statement of Jno. D. Lee, procured through the kindess of W. W. Bishop -- brother of Dr. Bishop of this place -- who is acting us attorney for the defense:

It now becomes my painful though imperative duty to chronicle the circumstances that led to, and fully describe that unfortunate affair known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre, in Utah history, which has been shrouded in mystery for the last fifteen years, causing much comment, excitement and vindictive feeling throughout the land. The entire blame has rested upon the Mormon people in Utah. Now, in justice to community I feel it my duty to show up the facts as they exist according to the best of my ability, though I implicate myself by so doing. I have no vindictive feelings whatever against any man or class of individuals. What I do in done from a sense of duty to myself, to my God and to the people at large, so that the truth may come to light and the blame rest where it properly belongs.

I have been arrested on the charge of being engaged in the crime committed at the time and place referred to; I have been in close confinement over eight mouths since my arrest; I was in irons three months of the time during my confinement; for the last seventeen years, in fact, since the commission of the crime, I have given this subject much thought and reflection. I have made the effort to bear my confinement with fortitude and resignation, well knowing that most of those engaged in this unfortunate affair were led on by religious influences, commonly called fanaticism, and nothing but their devotion to God, and their duty to him, as taught to them by their religion and their church leaders, would ever have induced them to have committed the outrageous and unnatural acts, believing that all who participated in the lamentable transaction, or most of them, were acting under orders that they considered it their duty -- their religious duty -- to obey. I have suffered all kinds of ill-treatment and injury, as well us imprisonment, rather than expose these men, knowing the circumustances as I do, and believing in the sincerity of their motives, as I always have done; but I have a duty to perform, and have, since I was arrested, become convinced that it was not the policy of the government or the wish of the court to punish those men, but rather to protect them and let the blame rest on their leaders, where it justly and lawfully belongs.

After much thought and meditation I have come to this conclusion, that I cuuld no longer remain silent on this subject, but no far as I can bring to the light the circumstances connected therewith and remove the cloud of mystery that has so long obscured the transaction and seemed to agitate the public mind, believing it to be my duty as a man -- a duty to myself, to my family, to my God, and humanity to cast aside the shackles so long holding my conscience in silence, and in pursuance of the disinterested advice of my attorneys I now submit the facts so far as I know them, stating nothing from malice or for the purpose of revenge, holding that I can state of my own knowledge, willing that the world may know all that was done and why acts were committed, I submit the following as the exact unvarying statements of facts and circumstances connected with the crime known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

At this point the pages of the confession relating to the details of the massacre were refused to reporters for the present, but their character was permitted to be stated us follows:

Lee gives at great length a detailed, concise and alleged perfect statement of the acts and facts connected with the massacre, giving the names of persons, dates and places. He claims to fully expose all classes of men and every man connected with the outrage. He starts with his first knowledge of the emigrant train, following through their unfortunate experiences and conflicts up to the termination of their sad career. He describes all that was done by the murderers after the commission of the crime, and the action of all connected with it; also the action of Brigham Young and the proesthood; also the acts of those in authority, the disposition of the children saved, and the particulars of their delivery to Doctor Forney, the agent of the government, who removed them to Missouri.

The statement of Lee fully explains why, for what reason, and how the tragedy was accimplished, stating the justification relied upon by the participants for the commission of that fearful crime.

The details fix the responsibility for the crime upon Isaac C. Haight and Jno. M. Higboe, commanding officers, the former standing on an eminence and giving the signal agreed upon for the slaughter. After the emigrants had been decoyed out of their stronghold by a flag of truce, the wounded were hauled out and dispatched. There were engaged in the massacre thirty white men and a large number of Indians. The details of the killing of the men, women and children surpass in horror all that has ever been written concerning the massacre, and are more terrible, atrocious and bloody than the most vivid imagination can conjure.

In conclusion he writes as follows:

A few day after the massacre I was instructed by Major Isaac C. Haight, next in command to W. H. Dame, in Iron military district, to carry a report of what had been done to President Brighum Young, at Salt Lake. Haight directed me to give my report and stand up with manly courage, and shoulder as much of the blame as possible, he saying to me that if I did so I should receive a celestial reward. It is my nature never to bind burdens on others, that I am not willing to bear myself. I went to Salt Lake and reported to Brigham Young the exact facts connected with the transaction, shouldering a greater degree of responsibility than justly belonged to me.

In justice to Brigham Young I must say that when he heard my story he wept like a child, walked the floor and wrung his hands in bitter anguish and said it was the most unfortunate affair, the most unwarranted event that had ever happened to the Mormon people. Ha said this transaction will bring sorrow and trouble upon us in Utah. I would to God it had never happened,

After hearing this I returned home with a drooping heart and reported the result of my mission to those in authority over me. Lee says that seventeen children were saved and were all delivered to Dr. Forney, who promised to take them to their friends in Missouri and Nebraska. None of them were killed after the massacre. He sets out that the massacre was the result of military orders, Utah then being under martial law, under command of Brigham Young as governor. Johnston's army being on the east in Echo canyon, and an invasion being expected from the west by way of California, the Mormon people were in a state of excitement, and acted as desperation dictated.

Attorney Bishop alleges that Lee offered to give the prosecution the names of twenty-five of the murderers and where they could be found, as he believes.

Note: This article was also published in the weekly Nevada State Journal of July 31st.


Vol. III.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  July 29, 1875.                          No. 114.


Perhaps the strangest fact about the Mountain Meadows massacre is that eighteen years should have elapsed before a judicial inquiry was made into tho nature of the transaction, or a single individual was put upon his trial charged with complicity in that deed. During all these years the principal facts have been known. It was known that more than one hundred men, women and children were murdered; the time, place and manner were well known. A great number of revolting particulars were known -- facts which went to show one of the most brutal massacres in the history of this or any other country. The perpetrators, or a majority of them, were disguised white men, who it was reported and generally believed, acted under orders from the Mormon authorities.

Whoever were the perpetrators, it is evident that they used all possible means to suppress inquiry into the facts. They were successful for eighteen years. Had this massacre occured in any other part of the country, the facts would have been disclosed before a year would have elapsed. When the Sioux Indians, residing in Minnesota, massacred, some ten years ago, less than half as many persons as were killed at Mountain Meadows, an investigation followed at once. Every Indian on whom any suspicion of guilt rested was apprehended. Twenty seven Indians were executed on one scadfold; others had lighter punishments. Dreadful as was the deed they committed it was less atrocious than that perpetraled at Mountain Meadows. There was no white flag in the former case, and the murders were not committed through any religious fanaticism. If a wild tiibe of Indians were to murder a hundred whites, they would simply invite extermination. The Apaches are hunted down because here and there they waylay and kill a citizen.

If Lee's evidence stood alone it would not make out a case. He is a Mormon, who is more interested in telling half truths than whole ones. But his testimony is corroborated by Smith [sic - Klingensmith?], who was commander of the Nauvoo Legion, and it is intimated that it will be confirmed by others, The defense, it is said, rely on certain technical information for the acquittal of the defendants. But the facts [are] established, there will be no acquittal in the larger sense. The public will then trace these facts out in all their relations. If the authorities are found to be responsible for the massacre, it is almost certain that an end of Mormon power at Salt Lake will speedily come. No community can preserve the integrity of its social and civil polity which can be made responsible for such a dreadful crime. In this aspect of the case, the trial is one of great importance. Heretofore we have had recriminations -- the old story of the massacre has been reported in various forms. Now, for the first time, the case is subjected to judicial scrutiny.

It is worthy of note that a majority of the jury are Mormons. It is doubtful of any conviction will follow, except in Lee's case, who being a Mormon and having admitted his own guilt, may get little sympathy from either Mormon or Gentile. The public is not so much concerned about the jury as the facts. Forty millions of people will constitute the jury as soon as the facts are developed. The most important work the Court now sitting can perform is to develop the facts. The country will take care of the results. Up to this time most of the testimony has been given by Mormons who have been disfellowshipped, or, in the language of the Saints, cut off from the Church. This testimony may yet be impeached. But taken us it now reads it goes to confirm the leading declarations of Gentiles for years past.

It is to be remembered also that not one adult person was left alive in that company of immigrants to tell the story. Only the small children were preserverd who would outgrow the recollection of the tragedy. The facts can only be got from those who were eye-witnesses, and these are all implicated in the guilt of the transaction, The Mormon polity is at stake in this trial. But with all the efforts at suppression, a part of the terrible tale has probably been disclosed.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. VI.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Aug. 14, 1875.                          No. 43.


Under this head the Pioche Record deals with the Mountain Meadow Massacre in no uncertain manner. We copy a portion of the very sensible article, and regret that we have not room for it all:

Brigham Young is the murderer, his the brain that planned the diabolical massacre, Lee and his attendant demons the hands that strangled the innocent babe and drove the knife to the hilt in the heart of the unfortunate emigrant defending his own life and his family's honor. To a murderer, lying is easy, and the accursed lips that gave the order to do the dreadful deed of rapine and blood, hesitate not, after eighteen years, to perjure themselves and say he "heard nothing of it till after it happened." That Brigham Young is the real murderer has been proven beyond the shadow of a doubt, in court and out of court. Let us look at the facts recorded in history. In 1857 Brigham Young was, as he is to-day, the great "I am" of the Mormon Church. He was also Indian agent and Governor of the Territory of Utah. As Chief Mogul of the incestous brood of vipers who knew no God but lust and no prophet but Brigham; he was the keeper of their consciences and the arbiter of their fates; as Indian agent he was the supplier of the Indians and their visible and contingent ruler; as Governor his power was comparatively supreme and unlimited. In the early Fall of '57 the ill-fated emigrant train arrived in Salt Lake City, and viewed with jealous and vindictive eye, were refused provisions. They left there and stopped a week at Provo, but were ordered to leave there by the Mayor of the town under strict orders from Brigham. This train was the richest and best equipped that ever crossed through that country. Here was the incipient commencement of the most devilish scheme over conceived by mortal brain. The emigrants were to be discouraged and annoyed, the Indians were to be incited against them and made to attack them. At that time Utah was a three mouth's journey from Washington, and in the report that Brigham would send to Washinjton in relation to the massacre by "the Indians" he would receive orders to make reprisals, and by killing the Indians destroy all evidence of his guilt or his creatures' complicity, and enjoy the plunder. The poets of every age and country have portrayed villains, and the great German metaphysician Goethe has depicted Mephistophcles as the incarnate fiend of lust when he tempts Faust to seduce Marguerite, but the saint of crime, the apostle of beastliness, the exponent of foul thoughts and the living embodiment of corruption, surpasses in his action the wildest flights of the poet's fancy. This is the murderer, this the man by whose orders poor little infants with the light of heaven in their eyes and the smile of innocence on their lips, were seized by tho heels and their brains dashed out on cart wheels, this the wretch by whose command the grey-haired pioneer, happy in the thoughts of a peaceful home in sunny California, was stabbed to the heart and his long white hair made the ornament of a savage girdle, this the malignant villain who in the name of the Lord caused pure maidens in the first blush of conscious womanhood to be violated and made suffer a thousand deaths, this is the lying hound who, Judas like, hugged and kissed his executioner Lee on meeting him, told him to "say nothing about it even among yourselves," and now from his Salt Lake harem sends the pitiful falsehood "I knew nothing about it." On the day of the massacre he, after declaring martial law in the Territory, issued a proclamation forbidding any person to pass or repass through the Territory. this with special reference to the emigrants, and after ordering the deposition of the booty and giving most minute directions as to what to do with the plunder, he exerted all his tremendous religious and temporal influence in smothering and concealing the facts. 'Twas death to disobey his orders, 'twas death to reveal what he declared to be secret. For fourteen years 'twas death to whisper a suspicion that the Mormon serfs or leaders had aught to do with the massacre. Brigham's injunctions were fearfully carried out. The emigrants were reported "lost" and W. H. Hooper stood up in his seat in the Congress of the United States and, with his hand raised to high heaven, he solemnly swore in the name of the Most High that the facts which were then coming to light were false. Such was Brigham's power, and to-day he stands the debauched devil, who, if there is any truth in the tales of future punishment, has a hot corner for him.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Nov. 23, 1875.                          No. 50.


An attempt was made to take the life of Phillip Klingensmith at Mineral Park last week. He is one of the Mormons who confessed the secrets of the Mountain Meadow massacre, and it is supposed that the attempt upon his life was made by Brigham's Destroying Angels.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  Dec. ?, 1875.                          No. ?


Assassination attempt on Philip Klingensmith at Mineral Park
(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Dec. 17, 1875.                          No. 70.


The Pioche Record publishes a rumor that Philip Klingensmith, one of the principal witnesses for the prosecution in the case of John D. Lee, was assassinated near the Colorado river on the 25th of last month. Assassination is one of the principal tenets of the Mormon Church.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  June 26, 1877.                          No. 74.


There is a neglected grave on the hillside west of Eureka. There is a spot where lies waiting for the solemn summons of that awful day when

      Heaven and earth shall pass away,

all that is mortal of as brave and true a man as ever honored humanity. And that spot is neglected, unnoticed and unmarked. On a bleak hillside in the State he helped make and which he shed his blood to defend, lies, in a grave overgrown with weeds, and without even a headstone to record his name, the body of the best judge who ever presided in Nevada, the first delegate who represented Nevada in Washington, the first soldier from Nevada who ever drew his sword in defense of the Union. The Republican, further commenting says:

To recount in detail Judge Cradlebaugh's services to his country and his State is unnecessary. As United States District Judge of Utah he was the first man who dared to lift his voice and exercise his authority against the crying evil of polygamy in the very citadel of its devotees; he was the first man who, under the authority of law, redeemed from chaos and fierce lawlessness of the early days of Washoe; and when the alarm of war sounded and the tramp of armed men was heard in the land, he was among the first to rush to the front, where he fell gallantly fighting at the head of his regiment, three times desperately wounded in the deadly assault on Vicksburg.

He had sacrificed all for his his country. His property, deprived of his persinal supervision, dwindled away; his wounds incapacitated him from resuming the practice of his profession; and five years ago he died in a lone cabin on Diamond Mountain, a poor man. The forlorn condition of his grave is no reflection upon his memory, but it is a disgrace to the people of the State. It is a burning shame that he who honored the State should sleep his last sleep unhonored by the State.

      Nor mound, nor monument, nor stone
      Tell where he lies.

It would cost but a few hundred dollars to erect a simple monument, briefly recording his name and his services. It behooves Nevadans to move in this matter. It is not the province of Eurekans alone. Every man in the State of suffient means should contribute a few dollars toward doing this act of tardy justice. We call upon the citizens of Eureka, particularly upon the old soldiers and pioneers, to take the first steps toward starting a subscription, and our word for it the response will be hearty, and John Cradlebaugh will no longer rest in a neglected grave.

Note 1: The newspaper quoted above was the Eureka Daily Republican. Although several sources document the fact that Judge Cradlebaugh died on Feb. 22, 1872, in Eureka, most accounts also say that his body was eventually buried at Forest Cemetery in Circleville, Ohio. See the Weekly Reno Gazette of May 29, 1879 and the History of Pickaway County, Ohio, which states: "After the lapse of six years, the remains were brought to Circleville, May 29 1879, and on the following day, Decoration Day, were laid to rest, beside the remains of his wife (who died in Columbus...) in the lot in Forest Cemetery under the imposing monument placed there years before. The exercises attending the re-interment were of a suitable and patriotic character."

Note 2: See also the Salt Lake City Deseret News of March 3, 1871 and the San Francisco Bulletin of March 2, 1872.


Weekly  Reno  Gazette.

Vol. III.                                Reno, Nevada,  May 29, 1879.                                No. 9.

Removal of Judge Cradlebaugh's Remains.

The remains of Judge Cradlebaugh, who died in Eureka in 1872, were disinterred yesterday, by request of his brother, who arrived recently, and will be sent to his former home in Ohio. The Judge, it will be remembered, was territorial delegate to Congress, from Nevada, and was also United States District Judge of Utah, while Nevada was a portion of that territory. He was the first man who attempted an investigation of the Mountain Meadows massacre, and was first on the ground where it occurred. During the war he commanded an eastern regiment, and during an engagement he received a sabre wound that was ultimately the cause of his death. At the close of the war he removed to Oregon; he returned to Nevada, and arrived in Eureka early in 1871, and prospected the surrounding country. Although holding federal and other positions for years, he saved nothing from his salary, and was in reduced circumstances at the time of his death. His son still resides in Genoa, Douglas county, in this state.

Note: John H. Cradlebaugh who began the Genoa Journal a few months after this (and later edited various papers in Oregon), was the son of Judge John Cradlebaugh.



Vol. ?                          Pioche, Lincoln Co., Nevada,  July 22, 1881.                          No. ?

The Destroying Angels
Accomplish a Mission They are sent to do.

News has reached Pioche that Bishop Philip Klingon Smith, at one time a man of high standing and great influence in the Mormon Church, and the exposer of the Mountain Meadows Massacre, and the names of the men who participated in the bloody deed, is dead. His body was found in a prospect hole in the State of Sonora, Mexico, and a letter from there, which was received in the vicinity of Pioche, states that the mystery surrounding the body indicates that Smith had been murdered. Smith died just as he expected, for on his return from Beaver in 1876, after testifying in the trial of John D. Lee, we met Smith in town, in a sort of secluded spot, and during the conversation Smith remarked: "I know that the Church will kill me, sooner or later, and I am as confident of that fact as that I am sitting on this rock. It is only a question of time; but I'm going to love as long as I can." Immediately after Smith's return from Lee's trial, as his wife at Panaca refused to have anything to do with him, being so ordered by the Church, he started southward, and loved in Arizona for some time, following prospecting. During his residence in the mountains of that Territory two attempts were made upon his life, and by whom he was never able to discover. Smith made the exposure of the butchery at Mountain Meadows more for self protection than anything else. In the early days, when Hiko was the county seat of Lincoln and the flourishing and only prominent mining camp in this southern country, the Mormons used to haul all the freight from Salt Lake to Hiko. Smith was engaged in freighting. Smith was engaged in freighting, and his son, Bud Smith, was assisting him. During one of these trips father and son had a quarrel, and Bud went to Hiko and obtained employment. It was during the winter of 1867-68, when Klingon Smith arrived in Hiko with a load of freight, his son pointed him out to the people, and told them that just after the massacre his father pointed out a young girl to him and ordered him to kill her, saying that if "he (Bud) did not kill her he (his father) would kill him." Bud told his father that he would not kill the girl and that he might kill him. Then Bishop Smith turned upon the poor girl himself, and knocked her brains out with a club. This was the first inkling to anything authentic in connection with the massacre, and caused considerable excitement among the settlers of Hiko. Wandell, one of the county officials at that time, informed Bishop Smith what his son exposed, and hurried him out of town. After that, while engaged in handling freight, upon his arrival at Panaca, Smith would always hire some one to drive his team over to Hiko. In 1871 Bishop Smith made affidavits before the Clerk of Lincoln county, making the exposure of the massacre and the names of those connected therewith, which was published in the Record and made public for the first time. Mrs. Smith is now living at Bullionville, and is married to a man named Dolf Laundrich. Mrs. Smith is an intelligent old lady, and is the mother of seventeen children by Smith, the last two being twin girls, who are now about sixteen years of age. Most of the Smith family reside in Lincoln county.

Note: The above text has not yet been proof-read, and may be incomplete. For an edited version of the original report (in which "Klingon Smith" is revised to read "Klingensmith," see the Salt Lake Daily Tribune of Aug. 4 and 23, 1881.


Vol. XIII.                          Reno, Washoe Co., Nevada,  Dec. 6, 1884.                          No. 104.

Nevada  History.

Here's a bit of early Nevada history from the S. F. Post: "Judge Cradlebaugh, the first delegate in Congress from Nevada territory, was one of the Associate Justices of Utah when Nevada was a portion of that territory. Before the expiration of his term of office he was removed by President Buchanan, and Judge Flenniken, of Pennsylvania, appointed in his place. Ctadlebaugh refused to acknowledge the right of the President to remove him, and continued in the discharge of the duties of his office until the organization of the territory of Nevada, when, on his election to Congress, he forwarded his resignation. In a murder case, in Carson City, an appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of Utah, on the ground that Cradlebaugh, having been removed by the President, had no right to act as the judge in the trial of the case. The higher tribunal ruled against the point, and decided that Cradlebaugh was legally exercising the duties of his office. After this decision Flenniken never attempted to hold court or exercise any judicial functions in that district. He contented himself with drawing his pay, returning to his eastern home on the organization of the territory of Nevada, Cradlebaugh tried many important civil and criminal cases after his removal. Some of the mining cases involved large amounts, but no appeal was taken, but in the instance before mentioned, made on the ground of his incompetency by the President's action of removal."

Notes: (forthcoming)


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