(Newspapers of Iowa, Wisconsin & Minnesota)

Misc. Iowa Newspapers
1836-1844 Articles

Across the River from Nauvoo: Fort Madison, Iowa, (mid 1840s)

1836-1844  |  1845-1849   |  1850-1899

January 1836-June 1838
(part of Wisconsin Terr.)
OVs Jul 27 '36  |  IaTG Jul 10 '37  |  IaN Jul 22 '37  |  IaTG Jul 27 '37  |  IaN Sep 09 '37  |  IaN Oct 07 '37  |  IaN Oct 14 '37  |  IaN Nov 18 '37
IaN Dec 02 '37  |  IaTG Jan 13 '38  |  IaN Feb 24 '38  |  IaTG Mar 10 '38  |  IaN Mar 31 '38  |  FMP Apr 04 '38

July 1838-December 1840
(Iowa Territory)
IaS Aug 04 '38  |  IaN Nov 10 '38  |  IaTG Nov 17? '38  |  IaTG Dec 08 '38  |  IaTG Dec 15 '38  |  IaN Jun 01 '39  |  IaP Jun 06 '39  |  IaN Jun 15 '39
IaP Jun 20 '39  |  IaN Jun 22 '39  |  IaS Jun 22 '39  |  IaP Jul 18 '39  |  IaP Jul 25 '39  |  Hawk Oct 17 '39  |  Hawk Oct 24 '39  |  Hawk Jul 02 '40
IaS Aug 22 '40  |  BlmH Nov 20 '40  |  Hawk Dec 31 '40

January 1841-June 1842
(Iowa Territory)
IaTG Feb 13 '41  |  Hawk Mar 18 '41  |  Hawk Apr 15 '41  |  BlmH May 14 '41  |  Hawk Jun 03 '41  |  BlmH Jun 04 '41  |  Hawk Jul 08 '41  |  BlmH Ju1 25 '41
BlmH Aug 13 '41  |  Hawk Aug 26? '41  |  BlmH Aug 27 '41  |  IaStd Sep 03 '41  |  DGz Sep 16 '41  |  Hawk Sep 30 '41  |  Hawk Oct 07 '41  |  IaStd Oct 08 '41
Hawk Oct 14 '41  |  IaStd Nov 12 '41  |  FMC Nov 13 '41  |  FMC Dec 04 '41  |  BlmH Dec 10 '41  |  Hawk Jan 06 '42  |  Hawk Jan 27 '42  |  BlmH Feb 11 '42
LeeD Apr 16 '42  |  BlmH Apr 29 '42  |  BlmH May 06 '42  |  LeeD May 14 '42  |  IaStd May 19 '42  |  Hawk May 26 '42  |  DGz Jun 12 '42  |  Hawk Jun 23 '42
Hawk Jun 30 '42

July 1842-December 1842
(Iowa Territory)
BlmH Jul 08 '42  |  Hawk Jul 21 '42  |  DGz Ju1 21 '42  |  Hawk Jul 28 '42  |  BlmH Aug 05 '42  |  DGz Aug 11 '42  |  DGz Aug 18 '42  |  DGz Aug 25 '42
CStd Aug 27 '42  |  DGz Sep 08 '42  |  Hawk Sep 29 '42  |  LeeD Oct 08 '42  |  BlmH Oct 21 '42  |  DGz Oct 27 '42  |  Hawk Nov 03 '42  |  Hawk Nov 10 '42
DGz Nov 10 '42  |  BlmH Dec 02 '42  |  LeeD Dec 17 '42  |  IaStd Dec 29 '42

January 1843-December 1843
(Iowa Territory)
Hawk Jan 05 '43  |  Hawk Jan 19 '43  |  DGz Jan 19 '43  |  DGz Feb 02 '43  |  Hawk Mar 16 '43  |  BlmH Mar 17 '43  |  LeeD Mar 18 '43  |  DGz Mar 23 '43
DGz Apr 06 '43  |  DGz Apr 13 '43  |  DGz May 18 '43  |  DGz May 25 '43  |  Hawk Jun 01 '43  |  LeeD Jun 03 '43  |  IaTG Jun 24 '43  |  Hawk Jun 29 '43
BlmH Jun 30 '43  |  LeeD Jul 01 '43  |  BlmH Jul 07 '43  |  IaTG Jul 08 '43  |  DGz Jul 20 '43  |  Hawk Jul 27 '43  |  BlmH Aug 04 '43  |  DGz Aug 10 '43
BlmH Aug 11 '43  |  DGz Aug 17 '43  |  BlmH Aug 18 '43  |  DGz Aug 25 '43  |  Hawk Aug 31 '43  |  DGz Aug 31 '43  |  DGz Sep 07 '43  |  LeeD Sep 02 '43
LeeD Sep 09 '43  |  Hawk Sep 09 '43  |  DGz Sep 21 '43  |  Hawk Oct 05 '43  |  IaStd Oct 05 '43  |  DGz Oct 12 '43  |  Hawk Oct 19 '43  |  IaStd Oct 19 '43
Hawk Oct 26 '43  |  BlmH Oct 27 '43  |  DGz Nov 16 '43  |  DGz Nov 23 '43  |  Hawk Dec 07 '43  |  DGz Dec 07 '43

January-June 1844
(Iowa Territory)
Hawk Jan 11 '44  |  LeeD Jan 20 '44  |  Hawk Jan 25 '44  |  DGz Jan 25 '44  |  Hawk Feb 08 '44  |  LeeD Feb 10 '44  |  Hawk Feb 15 '44  |  DGz Feb 15 '44
IaStd Feb 16 '44  |  LeeD Mar 02 '44  |  DGz Mar 07 '44  |  BlmH Mar 08 '44  |  IaStd Mar 14 '44  |  BlmH Mar 15 '44  |  BlmH Mar 22 '44  |  LeeD Mar 16 '44
DGz Mar 28 '44  |  IaStd Apr 04 '44  |  Hawk Apr 11 '44  |  LeeD Apr 27 '44  |  Hawk May 02 '44  |  LeeD May 04 '44  |  BlmH May 08 '44  |  BlmH May 15 '44
IaStd May 23 '44  |  IaTG May 25 '44  |  LeeD May 25 '44  |  DGz May 30 '44  |  Hawk Jun 06 '44  |  DGz Jun 06 '44  |  IaStd Jun 06 '44  |  Hawk Jun 13 '44
BlmH Jun 14 '44  |  LeeD Jun 15 '44  |  Hawk Jun 20 '44  |  DGz Jun 20 '44  |  IaStd Jun 20 '44  |  BlmH Jun 21 '44  |  LeeD Jun 22 '44  |  Hawk Jun 27 '44
DGz Jun 27 '44  |  IaStd Jun 27 '44  |  BlmH Jun 28 '44  |  LeeD Jun 29 '44  |  ICRep Jun 29 '44

July-December 1844
(Iowa Territory)
BlmH Jul 05 '44  |  Hawk Jul 11 '44  |  IaStd Jul 11 '44  |  LeeD Jul 14 '44  |  DGz Jul 17 '44  |  Ensign Aug '44  |  DGz Aug 01 '44  |  BlmH Aug 02 '44
DGz Aug 08 '44  |  DGz Aug 15 '44  |  DGz Aug 22 '44  |  DGz Sep 05 '44  |  BlmH Sep 06 '44  |  Hawk Sep 12 '44  |  IowSt Sep 12 '44  |  DGz Sep 12 '44
Hawk Sep 19 '44  |  DGz Sep 19 '44  |  BlmH Sep 20 '44  |  IaTG Sep 21 '44  |  Hawk Sep 26 '44  |  DGz Sep 26 '44  |  BlmH Sep 27 '44  |  LeeD Sep 28 '44
IaTG Sep 28 '44  |  Hawk Oct 03 '44  |  BlmH Oct 04 '44  |  DGz Oct 10 '44  |  Hawk Oct 10 '44  |  BlmH Oct 11 '44  |  LeeD Oct 12 '44  |  DGz Oct 17 '44
Hawk Oct 17 '44  |  LeeD Oct 19 '44  |  LeeD Oct 26 '44  |  Hawk Oct 31 '44  |  DGz Nov 21 '44  |  Hawk Dec 12 '44  |  Hawk Dec 19 '44  |  DGz Dec 26 '44

Articles Index  |  Illinois newspapers  |  Michigan Newspapers  |  Wisconsin Newspapers

Vol. I.                             Du Buque, (Lead Mines), W. T., July 27, 1836.                           No. 12.


Our readers have all, no doubt, heard much of a singular sect which sprung up some five or six years since, in the western part of New York and eastern part of Ohio, called Mormons; and of their difficulties with the people of Missouri. It will be recollected, that the citizens of Jackson county, in that state, about a year since, drove them destitute and homeless from their section, for alleged crimes and irregularities. In this situation, the citizens of Clay county gave them temporary shelter, of which the tribe took advantage, and endeavored to make permanent residences among their protectors. -- But the people of Clay are getting tired of their company, and are casting about for ways and means to get rid of them. The "Far West' newspaper, (printed at Liberty in that county,) of the 30th ult. contains the proceedings of a meeting, held in that place on the day previous, for the purpose of inducing the Mormons to remove quietly and thus avert the horrors of a civil war; which they say must inevitably be the consequence of their longer stay. So much for the Mormons -- now for the impudence:

The people who composed the meeting, not content with attending to their own business, and providing for the riddance of their own county, have the audacity to advise the wandering fanatics to seek a home in Wisconsin. After many other complaints against the Mormons, the people of Clay charge them with "keeping up a constant communication with the Indian tribes on their frontier," calculated to induce a savage war, and then advise them to explore Wisconsin; for a home! We cry you mercy, gentlemen. What with your runaways and those you manumit on account of infirmity we expect to be abundantly pestered with your negroes. Do not we pray you, make our territory the general receptacle of all your nuisances. Or if, as you would make appear, you are only actuated by a desire for the population of our territory by "a people whose habits, manners, and customs, are consonant to our own," (thank you for the compliment, gentlemen,) we beg you not to take any further trouble on our behalf. Our country is populating very rapidly without the aid of your kind attention, and at any rate, we stand in no particular need of a class of people to rouse the Indians of our frontier to another war.

And gentlemen Mormons, we pray you to be assured, that your "promised land" is not in Wisconsin; and although we are in a tolerably northern latitude, we very much fear, should you follow the advice of your friends in Clay, you might find the climate too hot for you.


A recent discovery seems to afford strong evidence that the soil of America was once trodden by one of Alexander's subjects. A few years since there was found, near Monte Video, in South America, a stone with the following words in Greek upon it: -- "During the reign of Alexander the son of Philip, King of Macedon, in the 62d Olympiad, Ptolemy" -- the remainder of the inscription could not be deciphered. This stone covered an excavation, which contained two very ancient swords, a helmet, a shield, and several earthen amphorae of large capacity. On the handle of one of the swords was a portrait of a man, and on the helmet there was sculptured work representing Achilles dragging the corpse of Hector round the walls of Troy. This was a favourite picture among the Greeks. -- Probably this Ptolemy was overtaken by a storm in the Great Ocean, (as the ancients termed the Atlantic,) and driven on the coast of South America. The silence of Greek writers in relation to this event may easily be accounted for, by supposing that on attempting to return to Greece he was lost, together with his crew, and thus no account of his discovery ever reached them. -- United Service [sic] Journal.

Note 1: The Visitor's "Mormons" article was reprinted in the Liberty, Missouri Far West of Aug. 18th. Despite editor John King's heated warning, the Mormons soon moved to a site a few miles south of DuBuque (following the creation of Iowa Territory) and, not long after that, a sizeable portion of them migrated to southeastern Wisconsin.

Note 2: John McIntosh, in his 1836 The Discovery of America, commented: "How these Greek antiquities came to America, we cannot at all conjecture; and it is equally dubious, whether such things have been discovered or not..." Donald N. Yates, on pp. 163-64 of his 2012 Old World Roots of the Cherokee..., lists other, similar 19th century claims for "Greek antiquities in America."

Vol. I.                             Burlington, W. T., Monday, July 10, 1837.                           No. 1.


The farming lands in the Half Breed Tract, between the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers, Wisconsin Territory, are now offered for sale, at the office of the Des Moines Land Company, at Montrose, (formerly Fort Des Moines) head of the Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi river. The terms of payment are one fourth cash at the time of sale, and the balance, half in two, and half in three years, with interest at six per cent per annum. There will be a public sale of lots in the towns of Keokuk and Montrose, commencing at Keokuk, on Wednesday, September 6th, and closing at Montrose.

Persons with families, wishing to purchase lands and settle on the Half Breed Tract, can be accommodated with rooms, or dwelling houses, and stabling for horses and cattle, at Montrose, without charge of rent, for a reasonable time, to erect buildings on such lands as they may purchase.
              JOSEPH AIKEN,
              ROBERT E. LITTLE,
Office of the Des Moines Land Co. } ss
                 Montrose, July 6, 1837. }

ANIMAL MAGNETISM. -- Horne Tooke once went incognito to animal magneism. After various actions, "Do you begin to feel anything particularly new?" said the operator. "Nothing in the world," said Tooke, with the most perfect sang froid: more delusions were tried. Still, "no, no, no!" At length, summoning all his art, "now," said the operator, "I am sure you must be perceiving something." "I do, I do," exclaimed Tooke, most clearly and distinctly, so that you are a cheat, and your operation an imposture!"

Note 1: The Des Moines Land Co. ad also appeared in Thomas Gregg's Montrose Western Adventurer, at about the same time.

Note 2: Excerpt from B. L. Wick's "The Struggle for the Half-Breed Tract," in Annals of Iowa, VII:1, Apr. 1905: "A number of companies were organized to deal in halfbreed lands, the most important being the New York Land Company, and the St. Louis Land Company, the latter company being finally absorbed by the former. Henry S. Austin, an attorney of New York, located at Montrose in 1837, and with Dr. Isaac Galland as agent, looked after the interests of the New York Company. -- The territorial legislature of Wisconsin on January 16, 1838, passed an act requiring all persons claiming land under the half-breed tract to file their respective claims with the clerk of the District Court of Lee county, within one year, showing the nature of the title upon which they relied. The same act provided that Edward Johnston, Thomas S. Wilson and David Brigham were appointed commissioners to take testimony as to the titles claimed by the respective parties at a per diem salary of $6.00. -- Lands not thus disposed of were to be sold and the proceeds to be divided among such half-breeds as could properly establish their claims and had not otherwise been fully paid in lands."

Note 3: European experiences with hypnotism were becoming generally noticed in American publications during the mid-1830s. Reports of the phenomenon on American soil were often coupled with references to the "delusion" of Mormonism. See the Iowa News of Dec. 2, 1837 for a typical example.



Vol. I.                               Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, July 22, 1837.                             No. 8.

FORT DES MOINES. -- This name has ceased to exist. The United States troops, formerly stationed here, have been ordered elsewhere by Government, and the Des Moines Land Company have possession of the Fort, where a new town will soon be laid out, to be called MONTROSE. The Land Office of the Company has been opened at this place. Montrose is one of the most delightful situations on the Upper Mississippi. It is situated at the head of the Lower, or Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi river, opposite Commerce, in Illinois. It is distant fourteen miles from Fort Madison, about twelve from Keokuk, at the foot of the Rapids, about fifty miles from Burlington, and sixty from Quincy, in Illinois. -- Western Adventurer.

... we have received the first and second numbers of the "ADVENTURER," published at Montrose, late Des Moines, W. T., by TH. GREGG, Esq. The Adventurer is a large and well executed paper, and the editorial columns exhibit much talent and ability. The Adventurer partakes much of the the literary character, and will be a great helpmate to its brethren in sending forth descriptions of our new, and as yet unknown, Territory.

Note: The Montrose Western Adventurer and Herald of the Upper Mississippi was founded by Isaac Galland and edited by Thomas Gregg, both of whom soon became involved with the advent of the Mormons in Lee County, Iowa -- Gregg as a Warsaw editor and Galland as a land dealer converted to the new religion. The Adventurer lasted only for a short period, before its resources were turned over to James G. Edwards, to become the Fort Madison Patriot, later the Iowa Patriot and Hawkeye, and, finally, the Burlington Hawk Eye, which facilitated John C. Bennett's rise to fame as an exposurer of Mormonism.

Vol. I.                             Burlington, W. T., Thursday, July 27, 1837.                           No. 3.

PROPOSALS for publishing at Montrose, (late Fort Des Moines,) Wisconsin Territory, a Monthly Periodical, to be entitled CHRONICLES OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SAVAGES.

Containing Sketches of their ancient and modern history, religion, traditions, customs and manners, laws and regulations, language and dialects, medicine, biography, &c.; together with Topographical sketches of the country west of the Mississippi and north of the Missouri rivers, by I. GALLAND, M. D.


This work will be published monthly, in pamphlet form, containing sixteen octavo pages to each number, and will be forwarded to subscribers as soon as their names and places of residence shall be returned to the editor, at Commerce, Illinois, or the publisher,

         TH. GREGG, Montrose, W. T.
Note. -- Five numbers of the 'Chronicles,' were published some time since, at Cincinnati and consequently, new subscribers can immediately be furnished with all the back numbers, (1,2,3,4 and 5,) as soon as their names are received by the present publisher.

Note: A sample excerpt from Isaac Galland's "Chronicles" can be found in Benjamin Drake's 1849 Black Hawk: The Great Indian Chief of the West. See also notes attached to the Sept. 7th Iowa News clipping.



Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, September 9, 1837.                         No. 15.

MORMONS. -- Those crazy fanatics have their grand tabernacle at a place they call Kirtland, 5 miles from the shore of Lake Erie, and 20 miles from Cleveland, and count no less than 4,000 persons under their leader, Joe Smith. -- They have been lately joined by a shrewd literary person named Sydney Rigdon, formerly a preacher of the doctrine of Campbell. He is the Grand Vizier to Smith; and under their decision a banking house has been established, of which Smith is president and Rigdon cashier. They have several mills on their property. The houses are small, including the prophet Joe's. The temple is a beautiful building of rough stone, three stories high, and 70 to 72 feet square. Each of the two principal apartments holds 1,200 persons. The joists of the interior are supported by six fluted columns. Each apartment contains six pulpits, arranged _gradatim,_ three at one end of the "Aaronic Priesthood," and three at the other end of the "Priesthood of Melchisedic." The slips are so constructed, that the audience can face either pulpit, as may be required. In the highest seat of the "Aaronic Priesthood," sits the reverend father of the Prophet; the next below is occupied by "Joe," and his prime minister Rigdon. The attic story is occupied as school rooms, five in number, where the various branches of English, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages are taught to a large number of students. The actual cost of the temple is not known, but it is estimated to have cost not less than $60,000.

Smith, from the account of a late visit, published in the Miami of the Lake newspaper, is represented as a placid looking knave, with passionless features, and perfectly composed in the midst of the heterogeneous multitude who have become the victimized dupes of his imposture. Rigdon is described as the reverse, with a face full of fire, a tenor voice, and of eloquent speech. The subject of his sermon was the pressure: his discourse mild and persuasive. Rigdon is the wire-puller or screen of Joe's inspirations. The followers are, many of them, upright men, and tolerant towards other sects.

WESTERN EMIGRANT AND HISTORIAN OF TIMES IN THE WEST, is the title of a monthly periodical of 16 pages, published at Montrose, W. T. by Th. Gregg, Esq., the first number of which we received a few days since. This periodical, as its title indicates, is devoted to the interests of the emigrant and contains many selections of incidents in the West, as well as geographical descriptions. The terms are two dollars per annum in advance, with liberal deductions to clubs. Mr. G. has had considerable experience of the toils and troubles incident upon settling upon the Western prairies, and from his knowledge, taste and acquirements as a writer, we think his Magazine will be well worthy the patronage of the public.

It is proposed to publish at the same office, in addition to the Western Adventurer, Chronicles of the North American Savages, containing sketches of their Ancient and Modern History, Religion, Traditions, Customs and Manners, Laws and Regulations, Language and Dialects, Medicine, Biography, &c., together with Topographical Sketches of the country west of the Mississippi and north of the Missouri Rivers. Edited by I. GALLAND, at two dollars in advance.

Note 1: The first part of the above "Mormons" article originally appeared in the Perrysburg, Ohio Miami on the Lake newspaper near the end of June, 1837. It was reprinted in the Washington National Intelligencer of July 4, 1837 and in the New York City Evening Star at about the same time. -- cf New-Yorker, July 8, 1837; Saturday Courier, July 22, 1837; and the Illinois Sangamo Journal of Aug. 5, 1837.

Note 2: The first issue of the Montrose Western Adventurer appeared on June 28, 1837 and, according to its prospectus, was to be devoted to "history, geography, mineralogy, geology, climate, soil, production, farming, commerce, mechanics, education, improvements, and Indian traditions and remains of the West." In the columns of the Western Adventurer, Isaac Galland proposed a monthly publication to be entitled Chronicles of the North American Savages, continuing an 1835 Cincinnatti run of the same publication. Five issues of he T.H. Shreve & Co.'s Ohio edition are available online in the Gale "American Periodical Series, 1800-1850." It is not known if any issues of the Montrose "Chronicles" or "Western Emigrant" have been preserved. For background information see The Palimpsest, XX (March 1939) pp. 70f). See also Galland's 1840 Iowa Emigrant; Containing a Map and General Description of Iowa Territory, published in Chillocothe, Missouri by William C. Jones.



Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, October 7, 1837.                         No. 19.

MATTHIAS THE HAIRY PROPHET. -- The Peru (Indiana,) Forester, gives an amusing description of this individual. His beard is two feet long by measurement, and grey as a badger's. His moustachios three inches long, added to other hairy appendages, would have entitled him altogether to rank as a veteran grenadier of Napoleon's Imperial guard. Over his broad shoulders also, a profusion of smoothed currled [black] locks. His costume exhibited a toilette of the most recherche character. A large red bandanna encircled his waist. While preaching lately at Magnolia, in Ohio, he "many a time and oft" industriously plied the comb to his head [sic - beard?]. His oration was two and a half hours long. He was seated astride a chair "dos-a-dos" to the audience. He said the New Jerusalem was to be "by the margin of Erie's fair waters," when and where he was to be second in power to the Messiah. After the sermon, when twitted of his trial at Sing Sing, for murder, by poison, he got into a terrible huff and made tracks.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, October 14, 1837.                         No. 20.

We see by an extract from the Western Adventurer, published by the Illinois Patriot, that the proprietor of the Adventurer has tendered to the editor of the Alton Observer the use of his office, for printing the Onserver till his office can be re-established. This is paramount to an invitation to come to Wisconsin for the disseraination of his odious doctrines. We are as much opposed to mobism as the proprietor of the Adventurer, but we are opposed to bringing upon us a curse that the people of Alton were so reluctantly compelled to break the laws to rid themselves of. The heroes of the Revolution broke the laws of the land to secure this happy union, established laws of justice, and now it looks like their laws will have to be broken to preserve in peace, that union.

THE LOST TRIBES OF ISRAEL. -- M. M. Noah, in an able lecture on the subject of the North American Indians, has advanced many facts and fragments in support of the hypothesis that they are the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. It is undeniable that many of their customs and religious ceremonies exhibit a marked affinity with the Jewish doctrines. From the remote period at which these peculiar tenets must have been inculcated, and from the necessary wane of customs and language in so great lapse of years any striking similitude between the two races can not be supposed still to remain. But such as they are, many coincidences have been adduced favoring the supposition, and other facts of the same tendency may he drawn from sources which have not been so fully investigated. --

The Jews passed over into this continent, established their worship here, and probably originated the present race of Indians, may be affirmed on several grounds -- the identity of some of their words with the Hebrew the similarity of many of their religious practices with those of the Jews the resemblance in the physiognomy; and other equally conclusive facts and coincidences; which all tend to show that the Jews at a very remote period have inhabited this country.

That the present race of Indians are descendants from them, may be strongly averred from their Asiatic cast of features the tawny complexion, dark eyes, black straight hair, high cheek bones, &c. are remarkable in all the North American tribes. But we can go no further, unless we reject the idea that they are to be "brought together." Where are the Jewish practices so strictly preserved by all the remnants of this people wheresoever situated? In the centre of Asia a body or community of Jews exist, who believe themselves a remnant of the ten tribes, and have never so fully mingled with their neighbors, but they still maintain most of their religious rites, preserve their trafficking character, and are in fact the sole merchants of the Asiatic inhabitants in that vicinity.

Whatever may be the case, we think that the investigations on this subject should be made more generally public. A spirit of inquiry would thereby be awakened among the people, which might lead to some important results. Our whole country is fertile in the remains of a people, "long since passed and gone away" every foot of our land is rich in the secrets of departed years wherever we tear open the bosom of the 'storied' earth, we are repaid by the addition of some fragment of history to the accumulating mass which is ultimately to reveal to us the origin and fortune of the most ancient inhabitants of America. We have once or twice adverted to this subject; but it is to be regretted that those who are fully capable of doing it justice, will not devote their attention to it more particularly. -- N. Y. Sun.

We see by an extract from the Western Adventurer, published in the Illinois Patriot, that the proprietor of the Adventurer has tendered to the editor of the Alton Observer the use of his office, for printing the Observer till his office can be re-establilshed. This is paramount to an invitation to come to Wisconsin for the disscraination of his odious doctrines. We are as much opposed to mobism as the proprietor of the Adventurer, but we are opposed to bringing upon us a curse that the people of Alton were so reluctantly compelled to break the law to rid themselves of. The heroes of the Revolution broke the laws of the land to secure this happy union, established laws or justice, and now it looks like their laws will have to be broken to preserve in peace, that union.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, November 18, 1837.                         No. 22?.

JAMES G. EDWARDS, of Jacksonville, editor of the late Patriot, in that place, is about establishing a newspaper at Fort Madison, in this Territory. We are always glad in witnessing the rapid advance which our Territory is making towards bringing to light her natural advantages and resources through the establishment of public presses in her prosperous villages, yet from a sincere wish that the periodicals of our Territory may maintain that character both at home and abroad, which a generous public are pleased to bestow upon the Wisconsin press, we regret to see one established of the character of the one heretofore conducted by that editor. In politics he is brawling, without political honesty or a regard for truth, and no other recommendation to his party than that he clings close to his leaders, lauds every federal man and measure, and denounces every principle of the democratic party. On the subject of abolitionism, a little more prudence only prevents him from going hand in hand with the late editor of the Alton Observer, Beecher, and others that compose the Abolition club. In principle he is equally as strolling an abolitionist as any that have disgraced themselves and the cause of the religion which they profess, and we fear that he is only changing his place of operations, in hopes to find a place where the promulgation of abolition doctrines will be tolerated, to supply the place of the Observer. Knowing his principles, and that he came from Boston a year or two since, with the intention of establishing an abolition paper, having before abandoned the publication of a scurrillous political paper, because its many untruths, his inconsistency and hypocricy were exposed; he being a member of the church, he considered his religious character assailed, and feelings wounded, as he said, it was unpleasant longer to engage in polical strife; we cannot welcome him into the Territory and bid him god speed.

Note: See John King's follow-up editorial remarks in the "News" of March 31, 1838.



Vol. I.                               Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, December 2, 1837.                             No. 24.


Col. Stone, of the New York Commercial, has become a convert to the Animal Magnetism humbug, and has written a book in its support. We are surprised that a man of his abilities should permit himself to become the dupe of such a gross and ridiculous imposture; and we are still more astonished that at this enlightened period, it should become necessary to enter into a serious argument to refute and expose such aa palpable imposition. Yet this has also been done, by somebody, in the form of a book of two or three hundred pages; and some of our brother editors are talking gravely of making extracts from both to give their readets an opportunity of judging between them! Surely, this is the "age of oddities let loose."

Those who pretend to practice this necromatic art [ought] to be tried by the old code of "Blue Laws;" and we know not what better could be done with their converts, than to send them to Bedlam.

The Col. must be a strong advocate for science, without penetration sufficient to detect imposition. We think Jo. Smith might derive some benefit from a visit to the city, and lecturing to the converts of Animal Magnetism, and would, in all probability, enlist the Commercial in his service. Such an acquisition would soon be felt with an organ in the city of New York, the cause of Mormonism would spread further, as the Col. is not the only one easily to be humbugged.

Note 1: Colonel William Leete Stone (1792-1844) was a proprietor and the editor of the New York Commercial Advertiser from 1821-44. He was interested in the origins and history of contemporary Mormonism (see the "More of Imposture" article in his paper's issue for July 26, 1836) -- In his 1837 Letter to Doctor A. Brigham, on Animal Magnetism, Stone said: "I pray you not write me down as a believer in the charlatanerie of Mesmer and Deslon." Still, Stone appears to have accepted the reality of "mesmeric somnambulism" and the theraputic potential for hypnotherapy (even given limitations caused by the primitive understanding of those times). See reporting on the mysterious case of Joseph Howard, in the 1818-19 Palmyra Register, as well as the 1880 reminiscences of the Sidney Rigdon family's nursemaid.

Note 2: The New Haven Quarterly Christian Spectator for Dec. 1837 featured an article comparing Col. Stone's "animal magnetism" interests to "epidemics of unquestionable madness... the instance of the Irvingites, of the Mormons, of the followers of Matthias..." In the same volume, the editor pondered "the success of fanatical leaders of sects, like Anne Lee and Joseph Smith -- not to mention many less conspicous impostors." -- A late Jan. 1842 issue of the Louisville Gazette contained a lengthy article, entitled "Animal Magnetism and Mormonism," but the writer left out any mention of Col. Stone's investigations into those phenomena. -- The New Orleans Picayune of June 2, 1839 reported: "The editor of the New York Commercial Advertiser intimates his intention to write a "History of the Mormons." He says: "So far as we are enabled at present to speak, Mormonism is the baldest and most disjointed, incomprehensible, stupid, unmeaning, ridiculous, and silly, of the isms of the age." While the Colonel is about it why can't he put in a small dose about animal magnetism?

Vol. I.                           Burlington, W. T., Saturday, January 13, 1838.                         No. 27.


Jacob Huner, pl'tff vs. Isaac Galland, def't. Public noice is hereby given to the said Isaac Galland, a writ of attachment issued out of the Clerks office of the District court in and for the county of Lee, and Territory of Wisconsin, dated the 18th day of December, A.D. 1837, returnable to the March term of said court, at the suit of Jacob Huner against the effects of the said Isaac Galland for the sum of three hundred and thirty-seven dollars and sixty-nine cents, which said writ has been returned by the sheriff of said county of Lee, served by levying on the personal property of the said Isaac Galland. Now, unless the said Isaac Galland, shall personally appear before the judge of the District court on the first day of the next term thereof, to be holden in the town of Fort Madison, on the last Monday of March next, give special bail [and] plead to the plaintiff's action, judgment will be given againt you in favor of the said Jacob Huner, and the property so attached will be awarded to the plaintiff to satisfy his demand with costs.
       Attest JOHN H. LINES, D. C. C.
       Jan. 13, 1838.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, February 24, 1838.                         No. 36.

The Adventurer, at Montrose, after a nap of a few months, has waked up, and is to make its semi-monthly appearance simultaneously at Montrose and Commerce, Ill., and professes to be an "Advocate of Free Discussion," or in other words, to uphold the Abolition doctrines. Dr. I. Galland is the proprietor; and if we can guess with any degree of accuracy, it will not last long, as the doctor will find it rather a sinking business.

Note: There may have been the final issue of the Adventurer, run through the press as a "proof sheet," just before James G. Edwards began printing his Montrose Patriot on that paper's press. This could explain the oddity of an association of "Dr. I. Galland" with an imaginary "Commerce, Illinois" continuation of the old Adventurer.

Vol. I.                             Burlington, W. T., Saturday, March 10, 1838.                           No. 35.

AN ACT for the partition of the Half-Breed Lands, and for other purposes. Whereas, it is expedient, in order to the settlement of that tract of land lying between the Mississippi and Des Moines rivers, commonly called the “half breed lands," which was reserved for the half breeds of the Sacs and Fox tribes of Indians, by a treaty made at Washington city, between the United States and those tribes, on the fourth of August, 1824, which was released to said half breeds with power to convey their rights, &c. by act of congress approved the 30th of June, 1834, that the validity of the titles of the claimants should be determined, and partition of said lands among those having claims should be made, or a sale thereof, for the benefit of such valid claimants...

SEC. 12. Immediately after judgment shall have been given, as aforesaid, upon all the claims presented, the following named persons, to wit: John Walsh, of St. Louis, Jeremiah Smith and Antonie LeClaire, of Wisconsin, Samuel Marsh, of New York, and Isaac Galland, of Illinois, or a majority of them, are hereby authorized to proceed to make sale of said lands, from time to time, according to the judgment or order of the court, and to make surveys and do all things under the direction of the court necessary or proper for making such sales as they shall report their proceedings from time to time to the court, and shall, on receipt of the consideration of such sales, and on ratification of the report of them, make, execute, acknowledge, and deliver to the purchasers, proper deeds for the lands purchased, which shall be effectual to vest in the respective purchasers the absolute title in fee simple, in severalty of the lands so sold and conveyed, free and clear of all right and claim, of all persons under said treaty and act of congress....

SEC. 24. Nothing in this act shall be so construed as to give any power or authority to any of the commissioners appointed under this act to exercise any authority over any lands excepting those included within the line now known and designated as the half breed lands, and which terminates on the Mississippi river near the town of Fort Madison.
              Approved January 16, 1838.
                                          HENRY DODGE.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Du Buque, W. T., Saturday, March 31, 1838.                         No. 41.

Through the politeness of a friend, we have had a sight of the first number of the Fort Madison Patriot, by James G. Edwards. It is a large and neat looking sheet, printed on the materials of the late Western Adventurer. The editor accuses us of telling crooked stories on him as an editor, during "his absence," (despicable words of late). If brother Edwards will brush the dust from his spectacles and read the article spoken of, he will find more truth in it than he would like to acknowledge.

Note: John King, of the Democratic "News," became well acquainted with Edwards when the latter was still in Illinois, operating as a Whig editor of the rival "Patriot" there. King no doubt sensed that this new evolution of the Adventurer would prove to be more troublesome than the previous, low-circulation publication operated by Galland and Gregg. The Patriot was successful in its new Iowa home, and eventually gave rise to the prominent Burlington Hawkeye.


Vol. I.                           Fort Madison, W. T., Wednesday, April 4, 1838.                         No. 2.

TROUBLES AMONG THE MORMONS. -- The Cleveland Gazette of the 25th inst., says: "We learn from a source to be relied on, that the Mormon Society at Kirtland is breaking up. Smith and Rigdon, after prophesying the destruction of the town, left with their families in the night, and others of the faithful are following. The 'Reformers' are in possession of the Temple, and have excluded the Smith and Rigdon party. An exposure of the proceedings of the Society is in course of preparation by one Parish, the former confidential Secretary of the prophet Smith. He has the records, &c. in his possession."

Note: This article came from the Washington National Intelligencer of Feb. 9, 1838. Thus, the "25th" spoken of was Jan. 25, 1838.



Vol. I.                               Davenport, I. T., Saturday, August 4, 1838.                             No. 1.

...Of all the places in this territory, or in the world, for the loveliest of all cities, the spot on which we write is, beyond all comparison, the most beautiful... The country around Rock Island, is, in our opinion, the most charming that ever the eye beheld. Here Nature has clearly intended that the queen city of the Far West should be built. Rock Island is, of itself, one of the greatest natural beauties on the Mississippi. The 'old fort,' -- not to speak of its military associations -- is, in truth, an object on which the eye delights to dwell. The large, enterprising, and flourishing town of Stephenson, on the opposite shore, adds greatly to the attractions of the scene; and Davenport, with its extended plains and sloping bluffs, completes one of the most splendid pictures that ever delighted the eye of man. The interior of the territory is all rich, and beautiful, and productive from end to end. Sober and industrious farmers may flock in from all quarters, and find a rich reward for pleasant and moderate toil. The interior of the territory is healthy, and every section of land admits of easy cultivation....

Note: Without a doubt, this number and those published by other Iowa papers during the summer of 1838, contained detailed news of the ongoing "Mormon War" in western Missouri. Unfortunately only scattered issues (or individual clippings) survive from this early period. Iowa became a separate territory on July 4, 1838 and some contemporary sources quoted descriptions of celebrations up and down the territory's Mississippi shore -- but, of course, nothing therein was said of the Mormons, who had not yet begun their migration into western Illinois and eastern Iowa.



Vol. II.                             Du Buque, I. T., Saturday, November 10, 1838.                          No. 21.

MORE DIFFICULTIES WITH THE MORMONS. -- We have only time to give a brief and condensed statement of the depredations committed by these poor, ignorant, infatuated -- or in other words, the refuse scoundrels and impostors of earth. The latest date from St. Louis contains a letter dated near Jefferson Barracks, Oct. 29th. They have burnt almost every house in Daviess county, and laid in ruins the county seat. Captain Bogard's company, consisting of 80 men, was attacked and cut to pieces, except 3 or 4 who escaped. They have threatened to destroy Richmond. Gov. Boggs has issued orders for 3000 men to repair to the scene of difficulty. -- We further understand that their numbers have been increased by arrivals from Ohio and Canada, which may partly account for their boldness. We trust that these self-willed and self deluded beings may be routed and dispersed, for their unwarrantable aggressions demand it. And if they gather together again, may they be scattered, and the name of Mormon sink with its last survivor to the grave. Infamy will be their tombstone.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Burlington, I. T., Saturday, November 17, 1838.                        No. 18?

MORMON WAR. -- The blow so long anticipated has at last been struck, and, there is no telling how it will end. We gather from the Palmyra Courier of the 3d inst. some further particulars of the massacre, which are as follows: The Mormons on their departure from Carroll county, solicited from the military authorities a sufficient guard to protect them from any attack that might be made upon them by the citizens of that county; and Capt. Beauregard [Bogard?], with a company of fifty men, was detailed for that purpose. The Mormons, as soon as the distance justified them, turned upon the guard, seized their arms and murdered all except four! Incensed at the treachery, the citizens of the surrounding counties have made common cause against them. Last Thursday week was the day appointed for marching against their principal town, Far West, which, by this time, is most probably a heap of smouldering ashes. -- The Governor has ordered the militia of several parts of the state to the spot; and Gen. Willock left Palmyra on Monday last with 500 men. -- The murderers, it is to be hoped, will be surrendered to the civil authorities, and recourse to hostile measures be thereby, prevented.

Note: The above article may have actually appeared in the Gazette on Nov. 24th. A clipping with a reliable date has not yet been located.


Vol. II.                           Burlington, I. T., Saturday, December 8, 1838.                        No. 21.

We learn, from the Missouri papers, that Jo Smith, and the Mormon leaders, are to be put on trial in Ray county. They deny the story that the Mormons are to be sent out of the state forthwith. They are allowed to remain for the present, with distinct understanding that they are not to raise another crop in that state. Whither they will turn their face is not mentioned.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Burlington, I. T., Saturday, December 15, 1838.                        No. 22.

==> A specimen number of the Burlington Patriot, by James G. Edwards, was yesterday left at our door. It is a large and handsomely printed sheet, and is to be devoted to the inculcation of whig, or as we generally speak, federal principles. The editor says it is uncertain when regular publication of the paper will be commenced... [an excerpt] "Hitherto they (the Whigs) had no organ except the Fort Madison Patriot, which was discontinued purely for the want of patronage, and the obscurity of its location." -- Specimen no. Patriot.

This is the unkindest cut of all. How our neighboring town of Madison has fallen off within the last few months!...

Note: The Burlington Iowa Patriot "specimen number" was printed on Dec. 13, 1838.



Vol. II.                               Du Buque, I. T., Saturday, June 1, 1839.                             No. 50.

The Mormons, who, when driven from their New Jerusalem in Missouri, sought shelter among the people of Illinois, are again gathering together at Commerce, Illinois. Many have purchased property and settled there, and others have squatted on the Half Breed Lands in this Territory, immediately opposite. Jo Smith and Sidney Rigdon, their leaders, who were confined in jail to await their trial for an offence against the laws of Missouri, having made their escape, are again among them, enjoying their liberty. These deluded people have suffered so much persecution for their wickedness, that the sympathies of the people, under the belief that this persecution has been for opinion's sake, have become strongly enlisted in their favor, which has been evinced by their offers of protection. We are truly glad to see them extend a helping hand to human beings in distress, but we regret to find them holding out inducements for the settlement of these beings on our borders. It cannot be that the great opposition which grew up against them in Missouri was based alone upon the abhorrence of their religious opinions, but their conduct must have been such as to merit the condemnation of the people among whom they had settled, and justified the means used to bring them to subjection. While our sacred and inimitable constitution guarantees to us all liberty in the enjoyment of our own religious opinions, it grants to no sect the power to so change the forms of administering the laws as to shield trespassers of any certain belief from the penalties of a violated people, and the Mormons, by the election of one of their faith, which they had the strength to do, could hold the administration of the laws in their own hands, and judging from their faith, who would doubt that Jo Smith could order the discharge of every Mormon, charged with stealing, and his orders be strictly obeyed.

In this way they can prove a curse to any country. The mass of the Mormons are a deluded people, and their leaders are managing knaves, whose object is to use their followers as mere tools to carry into execution their unholy schemings. So far they have succeeded very well, save a few months imprisonment. Smith and Rigdon live in opulence at the expense of their starving followers, and this is as much as they should wish. All bow obedience to their commands, believing that they are inspired from on high, and possessed of power, at some future day to dispense blessings at their pleasure. What safety, then, have the people who live in the neighborhood with them? Neither their lives nor their property are safe, and a resort to force is the only means which has yet been found sufficient to protect themselves from the pilferings of these people.

Such is the character of these people, that their settlement in a country not entirely remote from other settlements is sure to produce dissatisfaction, contention, and litigation, so destructive to the peace of neighborhoods so essential to happiness.

Note: In his May 27, 1839 issue, the editor of the Louisville Journal noted: "Yesterday we received a letter dated Fort Madison, Iowa, May 10, which says: 'The Mormons are congregating in great numbers in the half breed tract, situated in our county. About 500 are already here.'"


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 6, 1839.                             No. 1.

We understand that the Mormons have bought up many of the Half Breed claims, and that a gentleman, well acquainted with the subject, is attempting to secure for them all the genuine claims, to this beautiful tract of country. If this can be done, the Mormons can partition it among themselves and a great amount of litigation may thus be avoided. We understand that many of the Mormons are now making farms on this tract and that Rigdon has bought the beautiful residence of Dr. Galland, opposite Montrose.


The Boston Recorder of last week contains the following singular development of the origin and history of the Mormon Bible. It accounts most satisfactorily for the existence of the book, a fact which heretofore it has been difficult to explain. It was difficult to imagine how a work containing so many indications of being the production of a cultivated mind, should be connected with a knavery so impudent and a superstition so gross as that which must have characterized the founders of this pretended religious sect. The present narrative, which, independently of the attestations annexed, appears to be by no means improbable, was procured from the writer by the Rev. Mr. Stow [sic], of Holliston, who remarks that he has "had occasion to come in contact with Mormonism in its grossest forms." It was communicated by him for publication in the Recorder -- Boston Daily Advertiser.

(see original article for remainder of text)


A friend and fellow-citizen has favored us with an interesting historical sketch of the first settlement of this town by white inhabitants. The rapid growth of this city is almost without a parallel. This delightful spot was occupied but a few years ago as a solitary trading point, and as a burial place for the Indian, whose remains are frequently dug up in making excavations on the bank of the river. It is situated on the west bank of the Mississippi, about equi-distant from St. Louis and Du Buque. During the present high stage of water, Front or Water street is about fourteen feet above the level of the river. This elevation extends to a width of about 400 or 500 feet, at which point a gentle ascent commences, which reaches to the top of the "bluff," affording delightful locations for private resdences. The buildings on this eminence can be seen on the Illinois side for a distance of fourteen miles. Burlington suffered very much during the winter before last, in consequence of an extensive fire, which destroyed several handsome buildings, among which was the State House. The Legislature, during the last winter, held its session in the New Brick Methodist meeting house. The improvements that have been made during the last year are creditable to the enterprise of our fellow-citizens; among; them may be mentioned a block of three story brick buildings, erected by Messrs Lamson, Ladd and Rorer. During the present season two new wharves have been constructed by the contributions of the citizens, and we soon expect to see the whole length of Front street handsomely graded. There are inexhaustible quarries of limestone within the Corporation limits, affording excellent facilities for building materials and macadamizing roads. A steam ferry boat runs regularly from this place to Montreal, and we have not seen it return once this season, without being literally crowded with passengers, mostly immigrants to Iowa.

Although Burlington has grown up so rapidly, it is very evident that it has grown no faster than the excellent farming settlements by which it is surrounded, would warrant. With the trade of an extensive and wonderfully rich back country, which must enivetably centre in this place, we cannot well see what should prevent Burlington from becoming a city of considerable importance; and when our citizens realize the large amount that will accrue from the sale of town lots, there will be nothing to prevent them making it one of the most handsome towns on the Mississippi river.

The above brief and crude sketch was suggested by reading the communication of a "Citizen of Burlington," who has promised us a continuation of his interesting reminiscences.

Note 1: The St. Louis Daily Evening Gazette of June 10th published a report complementary to Editor Edwards' brief Burlington notice: "We learn that the Mormons, besides their purchase of lands in the 'half breed' tract in Iowa, have bought out the town of Commerce, on the Illinois shore, where they mean to publish a newspaper. Some of them had a difficulty lately with their neighbors in Iowa, and a Mormon was shot and his leg broken." A month later the St. Louis Missiuri Republican published correspondence from a recent traveler on the Mississippi, who said: "The village of Keokuk, at the foot of the Des Moines rapids, brought us to the first impediment in our journey, which, however, we overcame very well. At the town of Commerce, at the head of the rapids, I was informed that the infamously notorious Jo Smith was residing within a mile and a half of the town. Passed Madison... reached Burlington..." -- In late 1838, regional newspapers as far away as Peoria published news of the Mormon plan to occupy Lee Co., Iowa. The enterprise appears to have been first announced to the general public in a discourse given by Parley P. Pratt, in New York City, at the end of November, 1838.

Note 2: The Boston Daily Advertiser article evidently appeared in its issue for April 22nd or 23rd, 1839. While J. G. Edwards may have copied the text from a later western reprint, it seems more likely that he obtained his copy directly from Boston. Edwards had close personal and professional ties to that city and he frequently featured quotations from contemporary Boston newspapers in the columns of the Patriot. He was obviously familiar with the contents of the Boston Mercantile Journal, since its editor called him "our friend," and reprinted the above "Burlington" article from this very issue of the Patriot (see number for July 25th). Had Elder Sidney Rigdon seen his 1839 reply to the "Mormon Bible" origin claims published in the "Boston Journal" (as LDS writers have often claimed), Edwards almost certainly would have made mention of such a development (see "The Book of Mormon" follow-up article in his issue for June 20th). As it turns out, no 1830s or 1840s source ever mentioned a Rigdon rebuttal appearing in the Boston Journal, and no such text has ever been discovered in a Massachusetts periodical of that era.

Note 3: Compare the above "Burlington" description to similar writing in John Bailey Newhall's 1841 Sketches of Iowa, or the Emigrant's Guide. While Newhall's contributions to early issues of the Patriot went unsigned, his later articles were generally subscribed "J. B. N." or "Cho-Mo-Ko-Mon." See, for example, his description of the Mormon evacuation of Nauvoo, in the Sept. 24, 1846 issue of Edwards' Burlington Hawkeye.



Vol. II.                               Du Buque, I. T., Saturday, June 15, 1839.                             No. 52.


(view original article from Boston Recorder)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 20, 1839.                             No. 3.

THE BOOK OF MORMON. -- Our readers noticed in the Banner and Pioneer, not long since, an article giving an account of the author and origin of the Book of Mormon. There is an error in that statement which should be corrected, otherwise the Mormons will take occasion to condemn and deny the whole statement. Sidney Rigdon had no hand in copying that book. He was not a Mormon when that was printed, but joined them, with a portion of his congregation, afterwards. Rigdon was first a Baptist preacher; then adopted the peculiarities of Alexander Campbell; was re-baptized to get his sins pardoned; and subsequently became a Mormon; was baptized the third time into that faith.

Oliver Cowdery was Joe Smith's amanuensis, and did his copying. It is evident -- and that we published in 1833, and again in 1835 -- that Solomon Spaulding wrote the main portion of the Book of Mormon as a wild, historical romance; but portions of that book were written by Cowdery, or some of Joe Smith's cronies. When we can command a little more leisure we intend to give a more particular sketch of this singular and extraordinary delusion. We have the means to furnish a correct exposition. In 1833 we wrote a series of articles, which were published in the Sunday School Journal, and in the early part of 1835 we wrote and published a little tract, at our own expense, and circulated in Illinois to expose the delusions of Mormonism; and we will again satisfy the inquiries of those who "ask for information"about Mormonism as soon as we can get time. -- Baptist Banner and Pioneer.

Note 1: Rev. John Mason Peck's 1833 series of "Mormonism" articles in the Rock Spring Pioneer and the Utica Baptist Sunday School Journa have not survived, unless, perhaps, some of their contents were reprinted in rare old periodicals such as Bennett's New-York Baptist Register. Peck's 1835 "little tract" was entitled Mormonism, One of the Delusions of Satan, Exposed. A single copy survives (bound with other, unrelated material), in the files of the St. Louis Mercantile Library. -- The Exter, NH, Christian Journal, of May 28, 1835 reprinted Peck's 1835 Pioneer article, which included Spalding authorship claims paraphrased from Howe's 1834 volume. Elder Oliver Cowdery avoided confronting Howe directly and instead chose to respond to the remote and obscure Pioneer piece in the April 1835 issue of his Latter Day Saints'Messenger and Advocate.

Note 2: Elder Peck should have been able to collect first-hand information regarding Sidney Rigdon from a fellow Baptist minister, Elder Charles Wheeler of Washington, Pennsylvania. Peck visited with Wheeler in 1826 and would have enjoyed ample opportunity to hear all the local Baptist gossip, including Wheeler's interactions with the recently departed Sidney Rigdon, previously Pastor of the nearby Pittsburgh Regular Baptist congregation. A couple of years later another Pittsburgh Baptist Pastor, Elder Joshua Bradley, moved to Illinois and worked there in close association with Peck. All in all, John Mason Peck was the man best situated to relate Rigdon's early history prior to becoming a Mormon. That matter evidently did not capture his interest: perhaps because it would have involved looking into Rigdon's passage through Campbellism into Mormonism -- a topic generally repugnant to Baptist sensibilities of that early period. Peck's Illinois paper later evolved into the Louisville Western Pioneer and Baptist Standard-Bearer. The "Baptist Banner and Pioneer" was one of its several transitional masthead titles.



Vol. III.                               Du Buque, I. T., Saturday, June 22, 1839.                             No. 1.

LYMAN WIGHT, one of the Mormon leaders, has addressed several letters to the editors of the Quincy Whig, and which have been published in the same, charging the persecution of the Mormons in Missouri, to the Democratic party, and at the same time charging several of the officers engaged in the expedition against the Mormons with belonging to that party, while the reverse is the case. Sidney Rigdon, Jo Smith, Jr. and Hiram Smith have also addressed the editors, denying that their persecution was a party measure. They say that those who were out against them, were "composed of all parties, regardless of all differences of opinion, either political or religious," and express a desire that the letters of Wight may be viewed as his sentiments alone, and not the sentiments of the Mormons, whose faith he professes.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Davenport, I. T., Saturday, June 22, 1839.                             No. 40.


We learn from the Boston Recorder that Mormonism has found its way into a church in Massachusetts and led to the excommunication of some of its members. This circumstance has induced the publication of a letter by Mrs. Davidson, a lady of unimpeached veracity resided at Monson in that State, giving an account of the origin of the Mormon Bible. It was written by her first husband, the Rev. Solomon Spaulding formerly a resident of [C]herry Valley in this State, and subsequently of New Salem in Ohio, sometimes called Connecticut [sic] from the name of the creek on which it is situated. His impaired health excluding him from active labors he amused himself by the composition of a historical romance being a sketch of the lost race who constructed the numerous ancient mounds and forts which abounded in the Western country and some of which are in the town of New Salem. In this production he imitated the style of the Old Testament. -- This was about the year 1812. The work purported to have been written by one of the lost race and to have been dug up from the earth by portions of the narrative, as he advanced in it he was in the habit of reading to his friends in the neighborhood.

From New Salem Mr. Spaulding removed to Pittsburgh, Pa. where he joined with Mr. Patterson, in editing a newspaper to whom [he] loaned the manuscript for a perusal. Connected with Mr. Patterson['s] printing office was Sidney Rigdon, who has since figured largely in the history of the Mormons; as one of the leaders and founders and who had ample opportunities to become acquainted with the manuscript and to apply it. -- Spaulding died in 1826 and the manuscript to which we refer was preserved by his widow.

When the Book of Mormon appeared a copy of it was taken to New Salem where a female preacher undertook to expound its mysteries. The work was immediately identified by some of the inhabitants who had heard it read by Mr. Spaulding and particularly by his brother who is still a resident of New Salem. The circumstances produced so much excitement that the inhabitants of the place had a meeting and deputed one of their number, Dr. Halbert (sic) to repair to Monson and obtain the original MS. of Mrs. Spaulding for the purpose of comparing it with the Mormon Bible to satisfy their own minds and prevent their friends from embracing this monstrous delusion. This was in the year 1835.

This statement of Mrs. Davidson accounts most satisfactory for the origin of the book and is of a character not to be disputed. The narrative from which we have gathered the [a]bove facts was procured from the writer by the Rev. Mr. Stow (sic) of Hollisyon, Mass., who states that he [h]as often had occasion to come in con[tact] with the Mormonism in its grossest forms. The narrative is accompanied with the highest testimonial of the character of the writer and there is no question of its entire correctness. -- N. Y. Courier.

Note: At about the same time that the "Spalding-Rigdon" story was being published abroad, newspapers were also mentioning Elder Rigdon, in quoting the Missouri Jeffersonian Republican on the following contemporary development: "... Gov. Boggs, of Missouri, has called upon the proper officers for the necessary papers, with a view of making a demand from the Governors of Illinois and Iowa or Wisconsin, for the persons of Joseph Smith, jr., Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight and others of the Mormons who are now fugitives from justice."


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 18, 1839.                             No. 7.


The Columbia Patriot of the 6th says that Parley P. Pratt, Morris Phelps and King Follett, three of the Mormon prisoners, escaped from the jail of this county on the evening of the 4th inst. The Deputy Sheriff, however, retook the last and brought him back to confinement. -- Pursuit is still made after the other two. Another, Lyman Gibbs, chose to remain, although he might easily have gotten out.

Note: The Patriot editor copied the above report from the St. Louis Missouri Republican of July 11th. Steamboats carried news along the Mississippi more quickly than it generally traveled by land routes; thus the riverfront Iowa papers could reprint communications from St. Louis, Alton, Quincy, etc., while they were still "hot."


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 25, 1839.                             No. 8.

(Written for the Patriot.)

Burlington, Io., July, 1839.        
My Dear Friend

If you should have turned your thoughts toward migrating here, or if you have only a general interest from your curiosity for geographical information, you will equally desire to have some account of the towns and cities of this territory.

About three years ago the U. S. government directed that four towns be surveyed and laid off in our limits; allowing preemptions to certain residents in the purchase of lots. These towns were Fort Madison, Burlington, Dubuque and Peru on the Mississippi, two at the south and two at the north part of the territory.

Fort Madison was first occupied by government as a military station in 1808, having been selected by Gen. Pike a few years previous. This post was then far in advance of the white settlements. The garrison being reduced to extremity, abandoned the fort which had been built, and set fire to the buildings in 1813. The town was laid off in 1835 and lots were sold the succeeding year. It now contains about 500 inhabitants. It is the seat of justice for Lee county, and is about 25 miles above the confluence of Des Moines and Mississippi rivers. It has a good position for a flourishing town, being the river depot for the most populous part of the territory next to that behind Burlington. The lower street is 25 feet above high water mark and the town has a gradual rise thence to the bluff. It is handsomely laid out in wide and regular streets...

The old site of Fort Desmoines at the head of the lower rapids has a few families who occupy the old barracks and officers' quarters, and have called their-ex-military position Montrose...

The approaching election for Delegate to Congress from Wisconsin seems to be the engrossing topic of discussion in the papers of that Territory. The candidates now are Messrs. Burnett, Kilbourn and Doty...

We know of no better way of effecting the recommended change in the name of this town, than by quoting the language of our friend, the Editor of the "Boston Mercantile Journal"... BURLINGTON, IOWA. We find in the first number of the Iowa Patriot, the following interesting description of Burlington, the capital of Iowa Territory. We wish the original settlers had selected a better name. Not that the name itself is objectionable -- but there is a great want of originality about it. There being already a Burlington in almost every State in the Union. We hope that our friend, the editor of the Patriot, will look after this matter, and use all his influence with the powers that be, to change the name of the capital into something less hacknied. High-sounding Indian names, in abundance, are at their service -- and if they can find no better, let them call it Ketallocomminee, or Nemokindargusque, or Graghlingkanagoldeca -- anything -- provided it is original...

Note 1: Regarding the serialized "Sketches of Iowa" articles, the see comments about John Bailey Newhall, appended to the June 6th Patriot clippings. -- The village of Montrose was just coming into popular recognition in 1839 and the "few families" mentioned included Brigham Young and other Mormons. On Isaac Galland's 1840 map it is shown, just opposite Nauvoo, on the Iowa side of the river, and labled Mt. Rose (for "Mount of Roses"). -- Galland and Gregg's 1837-38 newspaper, the Western Adventurer, was published there when the place was a mere hamlet, recently platted by David W. Kilbourne (a Montrose store owner and postmaster).

Note 2: The Kilbourn running for "Delegate to Congress from Wisconsin" was not David Wells Kilbourne of Montrose (though they may have been relatives). The Kilbourne in Iowa once sought public office there but was not elected. In 1839 he was still operating a general store in the increasingly Mormon-populated village of Montrose. He was Postmaster there and, among other hobbies, occupied his free time in writing letters to eastern newspaper editors. The New York Journal of Commerce of featured one of his missives, written from Montrose on Dec. 4, 1839, in which Kilbourne identified two of his neighbors as Mormons: Oliver Granger and Lucinda Morgan Harris. On Feb. 13, 1840 he wrote again, stating that "Twelve Elders went from this neighborhood last summer to preach the Mormon faith to the 'Gentiles' in Europe. Three of the number were from this place." His letter of Apr. 26th mentioned that "a gentleman from the East" (Rev. Caswall) had visited Joseph Smith at Nauvoo and conversed with him regarding "the mummies" kept by the Mormon leader. About a month later Kilbourne wrote again -- this time conveying the mistaken news that Martin Harris, "one of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon," had been murdered near Nauvoo. (See also information relayed by Kilbourne and published in the Alexandria Gazette on July 11, 1840 and Sept. 24, 1842, his 1841 letters to the HawkEye, etc.


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 17, 1839.                             No. 20.


All who feel interested in the prosperity of this infant Terrirory cannot be otherwise than gratified to see the great number of emigrants who are rushing into it from all quarters. Every steamboat that stems the great Father of Waters to this and the points above us, comes laden with this kind of produce from other countries and from other states. They are pouring in upon us, by the way of northern and eastern Illinois, in such numbers that the shore opposite this place almost continually presents the appearance of a large army with its prancing steeds and heavy baggage wagons, notwithstanding the steam ferry-boat is continually thinning its ranks. We are informed by travellers that the leading roads from Ohio and Indiana are crowded with emigrants, all bound for Iowa. Had we no other than selfish feelings, we should bid them welcome -- for their coming will add not only to the numerical strength, but to the wealth of the Territory. But we welcome them on another account. We sincerely believe that their condition, and the condition of their families, will be bettered. -- There is land enough and to spare, at government price; and if they should not be able to purchase immediately, they can avail themselves of the laws of the settlers, by selecting unclaimed land, and feel as secure in its possession as they would be if a pre-emption had already been granted them by the government -- provided they stand prepared to enter it according to the requirements of the Land Office.

The whole Territory is now full of strangers. Our city has become a perfect Gotham -- as Emigrants from every State, and, in fact, from every civilized country on the globe, are flocking in clouds to our place. Here is the staid and plegmatic German -- the enterprising and industrious New Englander -- the ardent and chivalrous Kentuckian -- the hospitable and accomplished Virginian -- the persevering and energetic Ohion and Hoosier, all congregating upon our shores and each furnishing his quota of the future character as well as the prosperity of our Territory... This city is really becoming one of the most interesting places within our knowledge. One can here learn some instructive lessons. Human nature in every shape and variety can be seen, "without money and without price." We see exhibitions of every grade of humanity from the highest to the lowest.

Of Public Land Sales ordered at Burlington, in the
Territory of Iowa.

Notice is hereby given that the public sale of lands ordered to take place at Burlington, in the Territory of Iowa, commencing on Monday, the the fourth day of November next, by Proclmation of the President of the United States, bearing date the second day of July last, is declared to be postponed until, and will commence on, Monday, the NINTH day of MARCH next.

Notice is also given that the sale of the following described lands, ordered by the same Proclamation, to commence on Monday, the twenty-first day of October next, is declared to be postponed until, and will commence on Monday, the TWENTY-THIRD day of MARCH next, viz.

North of the base line and west of the fifth principal meridian.

Fractional section six, in fractional township seventy; fractional townships seventy-one, seventy-two, seventy-three, and fractional section thirty-one. in townships seventy-four of range one.

Fractional townships sixty eight, sixty-nine and seventy; township seventy-three. and fractional townships seventy four, seventy-five, and seventy-six, of range two.

Fractional townships sixty-eight, townships seventy-one, seventy-three, and seventy-four, of range three.

Fractional township sixty-seven and townships sixty-eight seventy-four, seventy-five, seventy six, and seventy-seven, of range four.

Given under my hand, at the City of Washington, this 27th day of Septemer, 1839.
M. VAN BUREN.          

Note: The "Our Territory" article was reprinted in the St. Louis Missouri Republican of Oct. 28th.


Vol. I.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 24, 1839.                             No. 21.

BORDER WAR. -- We are looking with considerable anxiety for news from Van Buren County. According to the threat of the Sheriff of Clark County, Missouri, it was apprehended that he would appear on Monday last with an armed force, to compel the citizens of Van Buren Co. to pay taxes to Missouri. In fact we learn by a gentleman who came through Clark County on Friday or Saturday last, that the Militia of Clark and Lewis Counties, Mo., were ordered out. Gen. Swasey of Van Buren Co. came here for instructions from the Governor last week and left for home on Sunday. He intended to meet the militia of Missouri on the line on Monday; and they may have had some warm work by this time, although we still hope the authorities of Missouri have not yet gone so far, as to resist, with an armed force, the citizens of the U. States in our Territory. The Militia of Van Buren have been drilling for the last week, and are in a state of preparation to meet their beligerent neighbors. If any thing important transpires between this and our next publication, we shall issue an Extra.

Note: For the destitute Mormons who poured into southeastern Iowa earlier in the year, the 1839 border dispute that subsequently arose between Missouri and Iowa Territory must have felt very unsettling indeed. Had the northern Missouri border been extended all the way up to "the rapids of the Des Moines River" (at the latitude of Keosauqua, rather than just to the northern head of the Des Moines rapids of the Mississippi River), their contemplated "Zarahemla Stake" would have ended up under the hungry eyes of the "invading "pukes," and potentially subject to the eventual jurisdiction of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs and his successors -- not a pleasant thought for those refugee Saints. See the Hawkeye of Dec. 26th for a latter day depiction of that 1839 "war."


Vol. I.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, December 26, 1839.                          No. 30.

The book of Lemuel the scribe concerning the history of the
HAWK-EYES, and their war with the PUKES.

1. And it came to pass in those days, after the war with the Chief Black Hawk was terminated, and the people with their families, and flocks, journeyed in large companies towards the setting of the sun. And they travelled and came to a great water, even the mighty river Mississippi; and here they set themselves to work, and hewed to themselves canoes, and made to themselves all kinds of water-craft, on which they placed their wives and their children, and their flocks in abundance, and they crossed over to the other side.

2. And behold! the land was exceeding rich, and beautiful to look upon. The trees of the forest were stately and good; and large tracts of cleared land were found covered with choice grass, on which their cattle did feed; for in former times the whole country had been the bed of a great ocean, but a great earthquake happened which divided the land on the south, and thereat the water passed out. And the land was now covered with all kinds of vegetables to administer to the wants, and happiness of man; and of wild animals fit for food, turkeys, buffaloes and deer, not a few. The most choice springs, and streams of water were found in all the land; hills and dales and beautiful prospects in every direction, cheered and made glad the heart.

3. And the people were delighted with their change of residence and spread in all directions, as seemed right to every man in his own eyes, some to the south, some to the north, and some to the interior, for the Sacs and Fox had fled from the country, and each one took to himself of the land, that which he liked.

4. The country was bounded on the east by the great river Mississippi; on the north by the country inhabited by the Sioux; on the west by the new residence of the Sacs and Fox; and on the south by the river Des Moines, and the country of the Pukes; its length was 250 miles and its breadth from east to west, of equal width all the way through, was 50 miles.

5. And the peeple called they had settled upon Iowa, which being interpreted signifies sweet home; and they were known by the name of Hawk-Eyes, for the keenness of their eyes, and their skill in the use of the tomahawk and rifle.

6. And it came to pass, that about six years after the people had settled in the country an irruption was made on their southern border by the Pukes; and it was on this wise. there was a certain head warrior among the Pukes, named Allen, a son of belial, who delighted in strife and wrong; and he blew a trumpet and assembled the nation of Pukes at one place; thereupon he arose in their midst and said unto them, hearken ye people, it is not for the brave to till the soil, nor for the warlike to remain at peace; behold the land of the Hawk-Eyes, which teems with wealth, and has every thing desireable; the people of the country are indeed warlike, but are few in number, and we are many, even as numerous as the stars; arise and let us invade the country, and seize on the goodly things therein, and reduce the inhabitants to bondage; he that is for war, let him gird on his sword, and armour, and make ready to go up. And the whole assembly answered him with one tumultuous shout, as the roaring of mighty waters; and they came and pitched their tents at a place called Waterloo. Then they sent spies before them to report the weak places, who after ten days returned, and said, we visited the country to which you sent us, and, lo! the people dwell in quietness, every man attending to his own concerns; arise, and go forward, for you shall easily subdue the land. And they arose and invaded the country, and spread themselves over it, and took of the property of the Hawk-Eyes, their horses, and their cattle, and their chamber furniture, and whatever else they desired. But the Hawk-Eyes met in arms, and set themselves in battle array [against] the Pukes, and chased them to the going down of the sun, and took one of their head men captive, and set a watch of men over him to guard him.

7. Then was Allen, the head man of the Pukes, exceedingly wrought, and he again blew a trumpet, and despatched couriers in all directions, to call together the whole body of the Pukes.

8. But now the Hawk-Eyes throughout all their land, were made aware of the invasion of their brethren at the south, and made haste to assist them and they came and pitched their tents near the borders of the enemy; and they had a leader of lion heart, and well skilled in all matters of arms.

9. Then the Pukes committed many depredations on the strangers, and sojourned in their land; detaining them in custody, not permitting them to depart till they paid grog money to their chief officers, who were fond of wine and strong drink; and otherwise despoiling them of their property.

10. And it came to pass, when the army of the Pukes heard the army of the Hawk-Eyes were drawn out and prepared for battle, their hearts became faint, and they desired to return to their homes. Then arose Allen in their midst, and he said unto them, the Hawk-Eyes truly did come upon us unawares, and surprised some of our men, and took captive others, but still we brought off much booty, and they [--- --- ---]; be of stout heart, and we shall [---- ----] despoil the whole country. Remember how in former times we fought the Mormons and took from them their lands and their houses, and their cattle, and their household goods not a little. But the most righteous among the Pukes answered, and said, what wrong have the Hawk-Eyes done us that we should despoil them of their goods? and the wiser part said, what matters the possession of lands and much property, if it is the worth of our lives to obtain them! and every man departed to his own home.

11. Thus ended the war between the Pukes and Hawk-Eyes; as for the many great exploits performed in the Army of the Hawk-Eyes, by the officers and men; behold they are written in the chronicles of Iowa.
       Fort Madison, Dec. 21st, 1839.

Note 1: The Lehite-sounding title, Book of Lemuel, intuitively summons up visions of latter day nativist chronicles -- see, for example, Brian Thomas' parody of that literary genre.

Note 2: "we fought the Mormons and took from them their lands" -- The popular perception of the innocent Mormons being viciously persecuted in Missouri, led to a generally optimistic initial reception and welcome in Illinois and Iowa. Note the rather positive editorial sentiment published in the Patriot of June 6, 1839, expressing hope that the incoming LDS refugees could partition the land in Lee County "among themselves," thus avoiding a "great amount of litigation" between contending real estate buyers. Over the following months this originally positive view of the sect faded among the "old settlers" living on both sides of the Mississipi.


Vol. II.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 2, 1840.                             No. 5.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Davenport, I. T., Saturday, August 22, 1840.                         No. 49.


(from the Iowa News.)

It was stated in the Quincy Whig, of the 18th ult. that some of the citizens of Tully, Mo., having missed several articles and suspecting the Mormons living opposite at Nauvoo, Ill., to have committed the theft, crossed the river in the vicinity of the Mormon settlements, where, after searching, they found several of the stolen articles. Shortly after meeting a party of three or four Mormons they were charged with the theft, forcibly taken across the river and severely lynched at a public meeting of the Mormons was afterwards held at Nauvoo at which resolutions were passed denouncing the people of Missouri in no measure...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, November 20, 1840.                             No. 4.

The Liverpool Chronicle says, that the New York packet ship North America, sailed from that port with 19 cabin passengers and 200 in the steerage, the latter of which belong to the sect called "Latter Day Saints," and bound for Quincy, Illinois, on the borders of the Mississippi, where a settlement has been provided for them by one of their sect, who has purchased a large tract of land in Illinois. we understand that upwards of 2000 are to embark early in the spring for the same locality.

We have seen various other accounts of their spread in England and intention of coming across to their settlement in this country. On our return from a trip down the river last fall, there were several Mormons on board the boat, from whom we learned that they now number about 10,000, in and about Nauvoo, Illinois, and expect their number to be greatly increased in the spring. Nauvoo, the head quarters of Jo. Smith, is but another name for Commerce, which place they purchased entire. There are several fine houses in the village, but the greater number are very indifferent, and are scattered over quite an extensive tract, displaying but little taste.

From citizens of Montrose, we learned that they are paraded for military training weekly, when they are taken through all the exercises in the use of arms. Their purposes for training are not openly avowed, but those who have had much intercourse with than are of the opinion that it is to avenge themselves on Missouri, so soon as their increasing strength will warrant a hope of success. Let their object be what it may, [they] cannot long live in peace with the neighboring country, [is] certain, and our southern neighbors may anticipate trouble with them. Their numbers already give them an impudence that freeman cannot long quietly submit to and it is increasing in a remarkable degree. In political matters, they all go as one man -- just as Jo. Smith bids them. Already have they changed the political complexion of Adams county, and will soon have Hancock under their control, and as many factions as the Whig party is composed of, we cannot expect it to act harmoniously with a sect so closely linked together as are the Mormons.

One of Smith's confidentials, Mr. Law, admitted, aye, boasted that every Mormon was opposed to Mr. Van Buren for the simple reason that he did not send a force to protect them in the peaceable possession of their lands in Missouri, and because he would not call the attention of Congress to their grievances, and recommend the adoption of measures for their redress. A sect so completely under the control of a dishonest and ambitious man, never can live in peace with an intelligent community, and we deeply regret their location on the borders of our Territory, to disturb and annoy our citizens.

Note 1: The Bloomington Herald, was established at Bloomington (later Muscatine) Iowa on Oct. 27, 1840 by John B. Russell and Thomas Hughes. The editors carried on a longstanding publication of news items (rarely positive ones) concerning the Mormons. The above initial paragraph was probably copied from the Warsaw Western Messenger of Nov. 4, 1840, which reprinted it from the Oct. 21, 1840 New-York Spectator.

Note 2: The Herald editors do not name the "citizens of Montrose" who provided them with information about the Iowa Mormons, but it seems likely that the Kilbourn brothers contributed to some of that locally collected intelligence.

Vol. II.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, December 31, 1840.                             No. 31.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Wednesday, February 13, 1841.                      No. 21.

From the New Yorker.


One of the greatest literary curiosities of the day is the much abused 'Book of Mormon.' That a work of this kind should be planned, executed and given to the scrutiny of the world by an illiterate young man of twenty -- that it should gain numerous and devoted partizans, here and in Europe and that it should agitate a whole State to such a degree that law, justice and humanity were set aside to make a war of extermination on the new sect, seems scarcely credible in the nineteenth century, and under this liberal Government; yet such is the fact.

The believers in the Book of Mormon now numbering well nigh 50,000 souls in America, to say nothing of numerous congregations in Great Britain. They style themselves Latter Day Saints, as it is a prominent point in their faith that the world is soon to experience a great and final change. They believe and insist upon believing, literally the Old and New Testament, but they also hold that there are various other inspired writings, which in due season will be brought to light -- Some of these, (the Book of Mormon for example) are even now appearing, after having been lost for ages. They think that in the present generation will be witnessed the final gathering together of the true followers of Christ into one fold of peace and purity -- in other words, that the Millennium is near. Setting aside the near approach of the Millennium and the Book of Mormon, they resemble in faith and discipline the Methodists, and their meetings are marked by the fervid simplicity that characterizes that body of christians. It is believing the Book of Mormon inspired that the chief difference consists; but it must be admitted that this is an important distinction.

This is their own declaration of faith on that point. A young man named Joseph Smith, in the western part of New York, guided, as he says, by Divine inspiration, found, in 1830, a kind of stone chest or vault containing a number of thin plates of gold held together by a ring on which they were all strung, and engraved with unknown characters. The characters the mormons believe to [be] the ancient Egyptian, and that Smith was enabled by inspiration to translate them -- in part only, however, for the plates are not entirely given in English. This translation is the Book of Mormon, and so far it is a faint and distant parallel of the Koran. In much the same way Mahomet presented his code of religion to his followers, and on that authority the centre sword of Islamism now sways; the riches and widest realms that ever bowed to one faith. But the Mormons have a very different career before them: their faith is opposed to all violence and from the nature of their peculiar doctrines, they must soon die of themselves, if they are wrong. If the appointed signs that are to announce the Millennium do not take place immediately. The Latter Day Saints, must, by their own shewing, be mistaken, and their faith fall quietly to the ground. So to persecute them merely for opinion's sake is as useless as it would be unjust and impolitic.

The Book of Mormon purports to be a history of a portion of the children of Israel, who found their way to this continent after the first destruction of Jerusalem. It is continued from generation [to generation] by a succession of prophets, and give in different books an account of the wars and alliances of the Lost Nation. The Golden Book is an abridgment by Mormon, the last of the prophets, of all the works of his predecessors.

The style is a close imitation of the scriptural, and is remarkably free from any allusions that might betray a knowledge of the present practical or social state of the world. The writer lives in the whole strength of his imagination in the age he portrays. It is difficult to imagine a more difficult literary task than to write what may be termed a continuation of the Scriptures, that should not only [avoid] all collision with the authentic and sacred work, but even fill up many chasms that now seem to exist, and thus receive and lend confirmation in almost every body.

To establish a plausibly sustained theory, that the aborigines of our continent are descendants of Israel without committing himself by any assertion or description that could be contradicted, shows a degree of talent and research that in an uneducated youth of twenty is almost a miracle of itself.

A copy of the characters on some of the golden leaves, was transmitted to learned gentlemen of this city, who of course [were] unable to decypher them, but thought they bore resemblance to the ancient Egyptian characters.

If on comparison it appears that these characters are similar to those recently discovered on those ruins in Central America, which have attracted so much attention lately, and which are decidedly of Egyptian architecture, it will make a very strong point for Smith. It will tend to prove that the plates are genuine, even if it does not establish the truth of his inspiration, or the fidelity of his transaction.

In any case our Constitution throws its protecting aegis over every religious doctrine. If the Mormons have violated the law, let the law deal with the criminals; but let not a mere opinion, however absurd and delusive it may be call forth a spirit of persecution. Persecution, harsh daughter of cruelty and Ignorance, can never find a home in a heart truly republican. Opinion is a house-hold god, and in this land her shrine is inviolate. --   JOSEPHINE.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                            Burlington, I. T., Thursday, March 18, 1841.                          No. 42.

(under construction)

...Nauvoo Legion the western wilds ...martial atmosphere of the times... city council... ordinance requiring all men between the ages of 18 and 25 to serve in the Legion...

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                            Burlington, I. T., Thursday, April 15, 1841.                          No. 46.

...Nauvoo Legion army...

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, May 14, 1841.                             No. 29.

... The Mormons are increasing rapidly this spring. Three hundred from England landed at Nauvoo from one steamboat. They have lately, with great pomp, and show, laid the corner stone of a temple to be built in that city. If they continue to increase with their present rapidity for a few years longer, they will be able to defend themselves against the Suckers, and may feel themselves strong enough to obtain revenge of Missouri for the chastisement she gave them a few years since.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 3, 1841.                      No. 1.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, June 4, 1841.                             No. 32.


The Misouri Republican, upon the authority of an officer of a steamboat, states that Gov. Carlin of Ill. has joined the Mormons. This must be a hoax, credited by the Republican more from a wish that it was a fact than a belief in the statement. The Warsaw Signal, in speaking of this sect of fanatics, says:

"We understand that great dissatisfaction exists at Nauvoo, amongst those who have lately arrived from England. It is said that many have determined to leave -- and that letters have have been sent to England, warning their friends, who had designed to emigrate, of the sad state of things in the City of the Church. Mr. Rigdon, on the contrary, informed us last week, in general the new comers were well satisfied. Be it as it may it is certain that some have left both the city and the church -- not believing, on the one hand, in the mission of the Prophet, and on the mission of the Prophet, and on the other, dissatisfied with the temporal government which is exercised over them."

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 8, 1841.                      No. 6.


On Saturday the 3d inst. we, in company with a very large parly of ladies and gentlemen in this city, took passage on board the Steamer Nauvoo, Capt. Guthrie, for the city of Nauvoo.

As you approach Nauvoo from the river, and reach the bank, which is not very high, you begin to ascend a gentle slope of prairie, interspersed with a few scattering oaks. The ascent is so gradual for nearly a mile as to cause no more inconvenience than in walking over a plain. The face of the whole town site for a mile up and down the river does not vary much from this description. About three quarters of a mile from the landing we saw a large concourse of people, apparently engaged in listening to some one addressing them. When we came near we discovered a large crowd. Most of the Mormons could be distinguished by their militiary dresses. We do not know how they appeared on parade, but as we saw them, they presented the appearance of having searched the world over, and all the armories to boot, to obtain their military dresses and equipments. They seemed in truth a motley crew. Some with one pistol, some with two; others with a pike or harpoon; and we even saw some with a brace of horse-pistols, a gun and a sword. The cavalry or cohorts remained on their horses, and surrounded the stand, so that it was difficult to get near enough to hear Rigdon's speech to any advantage. Shortly after arriving we were obliged to disperse with the crowd, when we wended our way towards the dinner table. -- On the way we took a look at the foundation of the temple, which, with the help of one tenth of all their labor, which we are informed is required, is progressing tolerably fast. Before going to the dinner-table we visited the "ox shed." Here we found the "front half" of twelve oxen as large as life, carved from wood. Some of them were in such a state of forwardness as to look quite natural. When finished they are to be gilded and placed within the temple, as the base of a great baptismal laver, according to the Mosaic ritual, we suppose. We then visited the table, but were not allowed to come very near it on account of the guard. It was situated on a second bench of the prairie before mentioned, and was stretched along the plain for upwards of a thousand feet. After waiting a short time, the cannon -- they had several on the ground -- announced the approach of the procession. "Jo Smith," his body guard having retired, was now seated in a barouche at the head of the procession, with what we took to be his family. He was dressed in a splendid uniform from top to toe. After he alighted and took the head of the table, the procession passed on, consisting of men, women and children, to their respective places at the table. The crier informed the surrounding multitude, that there was sufficient room for five hundred more, but few took advantage of the information. We waited to see the "Prophet" carve a large fat turkey, and distribute it to the ladies around him; after which our company left the ground. Thus ended our visit to the Mormons. A statement of the impressions we received and the reflections growing out of them, will be reserved to some future number.

Note 1: The above text was taken from a copy published in the Indianapolis Indiana Journal of July 23, 1841. Compared with other known reprints, it appears to best preserve the contents of the original Hawkeye article. It is not known whether Editor James G. Edwards composed the entire report -- his well-written articles were sometimes crafted by associates. The narrative should be contrasted with that published in the New-York Tribune of Aug. 6th (see note 3, below), which was very likely written by one of his Burlington traveling companions (perhaps by John Bailey Newhall). Yet another of Edwards' literate friends wrote to him from Galena, Illinois, in 1847, mentioning one of his former descriptive contributions to the Hawkeye's precursor, and adding, "Seven years ago I saw Nauvoo in its infancy. I saw the unfortunate, deluded followers of the Mormon Prophet, then burning with fever, reposing houseless, beneath the shade of trees. It grew to be a city -- it numbered its thousands, and "superstition’s gloomy fane" loomed aloft its massy dome. I returned -- its first builders had gone -- all was changed."

Note 2: The Cleveland Daily Herald of July 19th summarized Edwards' Nauvoo report in these words: "Joe Smith's disciples celebrated the 4th at Nauvoo with great pomp. It was a kind of military celebration, accompanied with an oration and feasting. Mr. Rigdon delivered the oration, and a table one thousand feet long was provided for the faithful. Joe Smith it seems wore 'flaming regimentals' as commander in chief of the 'Nauvoo Legion.' The editor of the Burlington Hawkeye was present, and thus describes the appearance of the Mormons, &c."

Note 3: The New-York Tribune of Aug. 6th featured a letter from "A Hawk-Eye," written at Burlington (home of J. G. Edwards' Hawkeye and Patriot) on July 6, 1841, containing the following paragraph: "I was an eye-witness, among thousands of spectators, to their Grand Celebration on the 4th of July -- Independence Day. The 'Nauvoo Legion' was out in all their Military glory. 'Joe Smith' was mounted on a splendid charger, the 'observed of all observers.' The pageant'was no less novel than imposing; and in variety of uniforms they were in truth 'a motley crew." I should suppose every regiment in Europe, Asia, Africa and America had been levied upon as contributors. Indeed I doubt if Sir John Falstaff's regiment, of olden time, was a 'circumstance' to the 'Legion' of 'Saints' rallied under the gracious presence of 'Brother Joe.' The General, Lieut. General and many other of the principal officers, were dressed a la Militaire not inferior to your City Militia Officers. The Dinner Table was a magnificent affair, being one thousand and ninety-six feet in length! covered with an arbor of green forest trees the entire length. When the Procession formed to march to the table, 'Joe Smith' rode, in state, in a barouche, accompanied by two ladies and surrounded by his 'Body Guard' of mounted men in the uniform of Lancers..."


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, July 25, 1841.                             No. 39.

...The Whigs of Lee county have put a Mormon in nomination for the House of Representatives, the more successfully to carry these deluded fanatics to the support of their party. They must love power when they can condescend to honor such a people for the sake of their suffrages.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 13, 1841.                             No. 42.

BASE INGRATITUDE. -- As we have before stated, the whigs of Lee county nominated a Mormon for the House of Representatives, for the purpose of securing the undivided support of that sect of deluded fanatics, hoping thereby, to return a full whig representation in the House upon an exposition of the unholy alliance, the Hawkeye enquired, if in this land of freedom, a man was to be condemned on account of his religious belief! Well, the election came and the mongrel ticket was defeated by the true democracy of that county. In the last number of that paper, published on the fourth day after the election, the only notice taken of their defeat is in the following words: "The news from the Mormon count; looks rather equally, as brought by Gen. Dodge and Johnson."

How sudden a change has come over the spirit of his dreams, where it was found there were not enough of the dear Mormons to defeat the Democracy. If this is not ingratitude, it [must] be acknowledged that the editor of the Hawkeye is capable of possessing one grateful feeling.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, August 26 ? 1841.                      No. ?

...two superb horses, belonging to the Messrs. Kilbourn, at Montrose, were poisoned a few days since. They have strong apprehensions, that some of the Mormons did the deed. About the time this transaction took place, the Messrs. Kilbourn had been taken by some of the Mormons to Nauvoo, on the opposite shore, on a charge of conspiracy. After examination they were discharged, notwithstanding they requested that they might be taken to Carthage, the county seat of Hancock, to be tried there. -- When they came back they found their horses poisoned. There is considerable excitement in that county, and fears were entertained that the Missouri scenes will be reenacted there. The Kilbourns have lost a considerable amount of property within a few months...

...Jo Smith, the prophet, was very much intoxicated at Montrose, the day after the horses were poisoned...

Note 1: The full text and exact date of the above article have yet to be determined. The Hawkeye report was summarized in the St. Louis Missouri Republican of Sept. 2, 1841 ("Messrs. K. were under an examination on a charge of conspiracy against the Mormons") and in the New-York Tribune of Sept. 11th ("Jo Smith was... completely intoxicated"), but few newspapers reprinted any details from the incident. The Kilbourn brothers' first letter to the Hawkeye, published on Sept. 30, 1841, mentions their two poisoned horses, but says only a little about one of the brothers being "taken by some of the Mormons," to face charges of "conspiracy" with a certain "young man." The Kilbourns give a vague report about this "young man from Ohio," being arrested by the Nauvoo authorities (for possessing "counterfeit coin," rather than any involvement in sales of "ardent spirits") and his later being "discharged."

Note 2: The Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Nov. 15, 1841 reported that a public "nuisance" had been addressed by the town authorities tearing down a grocery store which had violated "the temperance ordinances of the city." Whether or not the "certain young man" operating that demolished store was in any way associated with the recent arrest of one of the Kilbourn brothers, the Nauvoo article does not say. However, the Mormon reporter took that opportunity to allege the villainy of "Kilbourn and his junto," -- a notion which the Mormon leaders would subsequently revisit, and which lived on in LDS folklore as late as 1888 -- when George Q. Cannot asserted: "John C. Bennett and David and Edward Kilbourn conspired to kidnap Joseph and get him into Missouri..."


Vol. I.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 27, 1841.                             No. 44.

...The Hawkeye gives a poor apology for having called Lee the "Mormon" county, and takes back all it said prejudicial to her fame. It says -- Lee county is still to be known as the "Empire county." Wonderful! 'Spose he thought unless he withdrew the odious title he had given it, that county was ever afterwards to be called by that title. Great opinion of his own importance. ...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Iowa City, I. T., Friday, September 3, 1841.                             No. 40.

From the Times and Seasons, July 15.


By the annexed extract of a private letter from a highly respectable gentleman residing near the Mormon city (Nauvoo,) it appears that the scenes which a few months since were enacted in Missouri, are in danger of being repeated in Iowa. There is a tract of 120,000 acres of beautiful land lying directly opposite the Mormon settlement on the Mississippi River. This Tract was given to the Half Breeds of the Sac and Fox Nations by the United States, and has been purchased from them by the whites. Proceedings have been had in the Equity Court of Iowa to partition these lands, and Commissioners appointed by the Court to survey and divide them among the lawful claimants. Some months since the title being then unsettled, Jo. Smith received a revelation from God to the effect that the Latter Day Saints should go in and possess this fair land, and enjoy the fruits thereof. Accordingly there are said to be now about 2000 of these people residing on said lands, who claim by the highest possible title, -- a title direct from the Creator; and they seem determined to set all human decrees at defiance. In addition to despoiling the lands of much valuable timber, they now forbid the Commissioners and Surveyors, on pain of death, to attempt a survey and partition. The arrest of their leader, it is to be hoped, will prevent the execution of their threat.

Extract of a letter from the vicinity of Nauvoo. -- "The excitement on both sides of the river against the Mormons is increasing very fast. The conduct of Jo. Smith and the other leaders, is such as no community of white men can tolerate. It is the entire absence of all moral and religious principle, that renders them so obnoxious to the Gentiles of all denominations, wherever they reside.

"Jo Smith was yesterday arrested, between Nauvoo and Quincy, by the authorities of Illinois, on a requisition from the Governor of Missouri. May justice be meted out to him for his villainy.

"Martin Harris, who was one of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon, and who has been for some time lecturing in Illinois against the Mormons, was found dead last week, having been shot through the head. He was no doubt murdered."

Note 1: The Times & Seasons editor copied the above reports from a mid-June, 1841 issue of the New York Journal of Commerce. -- At that time the Nauvoo editor commented: "The statement with regard to the murder of Martin Harris, is the climax of iniquity, and gives evidence of corruption the most foul, and a heart as black as sin and the devil can make it. It is utterly false." As later reports confirmed, a different "Mr. Harris" had been lecturing in the Nauvoo area. After the death of the lecturing "Mr. "Harris" in that vicinity was reported, a rumor passed into general circulation that Martin Harris had spoken against the Nauvoo LDS and was subsequently murdered. This was the mistaken "news" that was passed on to the columns of the Journal of Commerce.

Note 2: The "highly respectable gentleman" corresponding with the New York Journal of Commerce was evidently David Wells Kilbourn (Kilbourne), of Montrose. Several early reports concerning the Nauvoo Mormons, as published in the eastern papers, originated with him and/or his brother Edward. -- At about this time an incident occurred which marked the beginning of longstanding conflict between those two brothers and LDS authorities. The Warsaw Signal of Wednesday, Sept. 15, 1841 reported it thusly: "We understand that on Monday last at Montrose, there was a military training at which the Mormons and citizens united indiscriminately. After the troops were paraded Joe Smith and Gen. Bennett came over from Nauvoo and attempted to inspect them. Upon this Mr. Kilbourn invited the citizens to withdraw from the ranks -- which was accordingly done. The Mormons then insulted them, causing much excitement, and at the time our informant left a row was anticipated. --- Now what right, we ask, has Joe Smith to go into Iowa Territory and attempt to order the citizens of that territory as a military officer? Is this not proof positive that he wishes to organize a military church? Else why should he take so much interest in the military improvement of his followers who live out of this State? We see in this thing the essential spirit of Mormonism, which is -- treason to the Government. Joe Smith, in the government of his followers wishes to place his authority above that of the State. He is not content therefore that the laws of Iowa should regulate the parades of the saints; but he a citizen of Illinois must interfere his authority, and threaten violence because his authority is disregarded by those not members of his church."

Note 3: See also the Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Oct. 1, 1841, wherein the mistaken Harris death report was resurrected and purposely juxtapositioned with the more recent Montrose militia news. Obviously the LDS leaders had concluded that the Iowa Kilbourns were to blame for both of these recent affronts.


Vol. I.                         Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 16, 1841.                         No. 4.


We understand that one day last week, they had quite a pageant at Nauvoo. The Indian Chief Keokuk, with about warriors, squaws and papooses -- took occasion to pay a special visit to their brother, the Revelator and Prophet, to smoke the pipe of peace with him in his wik-ke-up -- and discourse on the wonders of the New Jerusalem.

The distinguished strangers were received with marked attention. The Nauvoo Legion, -- ever ready to honor the great ones of the earth, who come to pay homage to the Prophet -- escorted them from the landing to the temple, where, in the august presence of the twelve Apostles, and the twelve oxen, these mighty Chiefs held social converse, for the space of half an hour.

They were both dressed in uniform -- the Prophet in the splendid and brilliant uniform of the Nauvoo Legion, which he commands -- and the Chieftain in the less dazzling habiliments of the wilderness -- a dirty blanket and a pair of moccasins.

The Prophet made a speech to the warrior in the presence of the assembled multitude, in which he depicted in glowing colors, and enthusiastic strain the wonders of the Great Temple, the mysteries of the book of Mormon, and the glorious times that they will have together, in these latter days, in the latter day city which they are going to inherit.

All this was perfectly unintelligible to the sage chieftain, who, meanwhile, looked unutterable things. He replied in a very effective speech of twenty minutes, which brought tears to the eyes of a number of gallant soldiers, of the Legion, and the squaws and papooses in attendance. He said he was surprised at the mighty things which been accomplished by his brother on this side of the big river. As to the New Jerusalem, to which they were all going to emigrate, so far as he was concerned, it depended very much whether there would be any government annuities -- and as for the 'milk and honey,' which was to flow over the land, he was not particular -- he should prefer whiskey! In short, it was quite an imposing and interesting spectacle -- the meeting of those two men -- and when next so remarkable an event takes place, in the language [of the] historian John Gilpin:

                  "May we be there to see."

Note 1: The newly established Gazette, at Davenport, Iowa, evidently copied this report from the Warsaw Signal of August 25th, as did the New York Courier & Enquirer, and other papers at a distance.

Note 2: According to LDS historian B. H. Roberts (writing in The Contributor of May 1887) Chief Keokuk was accompanied in his visit by "Kiskukosh, Appenoose and about one hundred chiefs and braves of the Sac and Fox tribes." While in Nauvoo he informed the LDS leaders, "I have a Book of Mormon at my wigwam..." etc. -- Roberts provided no source for these half-century old Mormon recollections.


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 30, 1841.                      No. 18.



Mr. Editor -- It is with extreme reluctance that the undersigned are induced to intrude upon the public, what will probably by many of your readers be considered merely as private grievances; but the indignities and injuries which we have suffered at the hands of the deluded followers of that wretched impostor, Joe Smith, have been so many and frequent, that forbearance long since ceased to be a virtue; and a sense of duty to ourselves and others, impels us to make the following statement -- which may be the means of preventing some individuals from making shipwreck of their fortunes and character, by embracing this miserable scheme of humbug and delusion.

It may be proper here to remark, that we shall state facts -- facts that can be neither gainsayed nor denyed; and if half the truth is told, it will convince the world that "truth is stranger than faction," and will act like the spear of Ithuriel, in exposing in all their deformity, some of the atrocious features of an imposture, a ridiculous and silly as the designs of its authors are dangerous and treasonable.

That there are not some worthy men and good citizens who sincerely believe in the mission of Joe Smith as a Prophet, we should be sorry to believe, but in speaking of a community like this, we speak of them collectively and of the general features of their system.

They have now been in our midst for more than two years; they came among us in a destitute and suffering condition, a condition that called into lively exercise all the benevolent feelings of our natures; we believed that they had been persecuted for their religious sentiments, that a majority of them were honest, and we were disposed to give them an opportunity to live down -- if false -- the evil reports that have followed them, whenever they have been compelled to make a removal. In proof that a kindly disposition has been exercised, we may point to the fact that until very recently not a newspaper in their vicinity has published a harsh remark in reference to them [or] their Prophet. How has the kindness thus extended been requited? they have rung the [charges] on their "persecutions in Missouri" till it no longer possesses the power to bind together the discordant elements of Mormonism, and abuse of the men that have opened their doors to them and ever treated them kindly, has become the order of the day; the events of the past year have forced the conviction upon us, that in relation to their troubles in Missouri, there are "two sides to the story."

Three years since, we could retire at night without that painful feeling of insecurity which now exists; then it was unnecessary to lock our buildings to secure our property from robbers; now, nothing is safe however strongly secured by bolts and bars.

The undersigned having been somewhat in the way of the fulfillment of a pretended revelation relative to the building up a city at Montrose -- which being interpreted into the unknown tongue of Mormonism means 'Zarahemla' -- have been the greatest sufferers by these depredations. No less than thirteen Robberies, amounting in value to more than one thousand dollars, having been committed on our property since the Mormons came here; and though we have offered rewards for the detection of the thieves and the recovery of the property, we have never in a single instance succeeded in accomplishing either; a case in which we made an attempt to ferret out the thieves and were thwarted by the direct interference of Joe Smith will presently be mentioned.

We subjoin an account of the various robberies:

Robbery 1st. -- Store robbed of a general assortment of goods, a Mormon bishop at the time living over head with only a thin floor between.
Robbery 2d. -- Ware house broken open and robbed of one barrel of pork, two barrels sugar, and five kegs lard.
Robbery 3d. -- Smoke house entered by breaking the lock and robbed of 33 hams and 11 shoulders.
Robbery 4th. -- 14 barrels salt stolen from the building where it was stored.
Robbery 5th. -- 1 barrel salt.
Robbery 6th. -- 1 saddle, bridle and martingale stolen from stable.
Robbery 7th. -- 1 wagon wheels stolen from wagon standing in front of the house.
Robbery 8th. -- 3 saddles, bridles, and martingales stolen from stable.
Robbery 9th. -- 60 bushels wheat, in sacks, stolen from Granary.
Robbery 10th. -- Ware house again entered by breaking lock and robbed of 6 boxes glass, 150 pounds bacon, (together with 2 boxes axes belonging to C. Peck, Esq.)
Robbery 11th. -- 6 barrels salt, the salt taken from the barrels and the barrels left.
Robbery 12th. -- 300 to 400 bushels of corn stolen from the crib during the past summer at various times.
Robbery 13th. -- 1 wheel stolen from a chariot standing in the enclosure of the undersigned.
These are the principle robberies to say nothing of petty, every day stealing of trifles which is annoying enough. The character of the articles stolen precludes the idea that they were taken to any considerable distance from Montrose or Nauvoo. The robbery last mentioned must have been from sheer malice, as one wheel of a carriage could be of no benefit to any one.

The premises from which our conclusions are drawn that the greater part of this mischief is done by Mormons are, that in every case of robbery, the silly story is at once raised by them and circulated with the greatest industry that we have secreted our own property for the sake of [making] an excitement against the Mormons; or the robbery is justified and surprise expressed that we don't lose more than we do, because we oppose the swindling schemes of their Prophet. As before stated the stand taken by us to prevent the building up of Montrose by the "Latter days," had rather thwarted their plans and the Prophet himself proclaimed that "he did not care how much was stolen from K----s," thus giving full license to his followers to go on and plunder as much as they pleased, often indeed in his discourses justifying theft, by citing the example of Christ while passing through the corn field; on one occasion said the world owed him a good living and if he could not get it without he would steal it, "and catch me at it" said he, "if you can." This is the doctrine that is taught "not to be caught -- stealing." -- It has for months been the common talk among the understrappers of Joe Smith that we should be driven from the place; the various robberies of which we have given a history show the means by which such a result is to be brought about.

We come now to a circumstance which goes clearly to show the hollow hearted character of the scoundrel prophet and the other leading Mormons, and which convinces us that all their pretended zeal for the destruction of villainy, and the punishment of offenders, is a mere ruse to give persons abroad a favorable opinion of their morals, and is a piece with the farce exhibited in the enactment of a law by the City Council of Nauvoo, that no ardent spirits should be sold within the corporate limits of Nauvoo under severe penalties, yet winking at the establishment of a drunkery at the very portals of the Temple, and in full view of the mayor's office. The morning after robbery No. 10, convinced by traces in the sand on the bank of the river that the property stolen had been taken across the river, with a view to obtain of possible a further clue to the robbers, one of the undersigned accompanied by a young man from Ohio, went to one of the leaders of the society (Stephen Markham) at Nauvoo, and solicited his aid in ferreting out the thieves which he appeared quite willing to render; we examined several skiffs along the river bank, and at length came to one belonging to J. C. Annis, an Elder. Markham observed that he believed that James Dunn (a son-in-law of Annis,) was the thief, and added "Old Annis is, in my opinion no better;" pointing to the skiff he continued "if that skiff could speak it would tell you where your goods are." Some further conversation was had, as to the best place of making some discoveries of the [robber], and he (Markham) have the names of James Dunn, an Elder, -- D. B. Smith, a relative to the Prophet Joe, -- O. P. Rockwell, _____ Stevens, -- J. D. Parker, Elder and Capt. Nauvoo Legion, -- H. G. Sherwood, City Marshal and Elder, as being very suspicious characters, at the same time remarking that he did not believe Sherwood would be concerned in committing any of the robberies himself but that he would probably be willing to share the plunder.

The young man that accompanied the writer observed that he formerly knew D. B. Smith in Ohio, and he thought he could gain his confidence, and by stratagem obtain information of the place of concealment of the stolen goods. This by the advice of a magistrate and a legal gentleman he undertook; to gain their confidence he found an easy matter and he soon had an interview with Dunn, Smith and Rockwell, who he avers proposed to him to aid them in robbing the store of the undersigned; to this he assented, and the arrangements were made on their part to commit the robbery and on ours to take them in the act. It is believed that up to this moment Markham was desirous that the guilty should be caught, but he with other leaders, found the matter was going too far, that if we succeeded in catching so many of their elders it would raise an excitement against them, and show the world their true characters; here too was a fine opportunity for the gratification of those vindictive feelings by which it is well known Joe Smith is ever actuated. The Prophet therefore causes the young man to be arrested, orders him to give up every thing he has on his person, cocks and presents his rifle and threatens to shoot -- to use his own language on the occasion -- "quicker than hell can scorch a feather;" the young man was taken before the Mayor's Court consisting of officers of the Nauvoo Legion as follows: -- Major General Bennett, Mayor, &c., Lieut. Gen. Joe Smith, Prophet, seer, revelator, merchant, &c. &c., Col. Fuller of the Legion and another officer of the Legion, the six individuals above named were then called as witnesses, and though they appeared to rejoice at their narrow escape through the firmness of their leaders, they showed a spirit of vindictiveness towards the young man who from a sincere desire that justice might be done, consented to watch their movements: they testifyed that he had counterfeit coin in his possession. On the part of the defence it was proved that the coin was loaned to him by the Magistrate before alluded to, and the writer for the purpose of showing it, to induce them to believe that he could supply any quantity and to inspire them with confidence in him, yet with all this testimony going to show his good intentions, that the coin was given to him for a specific purpose, that he was engaged in a laudable endeavor to bring the guilty to justice, this Mormon Court Martial bound him over for his appearance at Court. And where was Stephen Markham the Mormon leader who could in one moment have set the matter in its true light? The moment the young man was arrested he mounted his horse and started for Quincy, and thus avoided giving testimony that would at once have set the young man at liberty.

With this matter, is closely connected the conspiracy as the Mormons please to call it. A young man living with Joe, a relative of the elect lady (Joe's wife) by the name of Lorenzo D. Wassen & O. P. Rockwell complained that the undersigned had conspired, &c., to unlawfully procure an indictment.

The same six witnesses that appeared in the former case, were sworn on the part of the prosecution. The undersigned viewing the whole proceedings with that contempt which they merited, asked the witnesses no questions, and introduced no witnesses themselves, yet with all their efforts, the complaint was unsustained by a shadow of proof; to have done any thing with us under such circumstances, would have been too barefaced even for a Mormon Court Martial, and we were of course immediately discharged. That this malicious prosecution was instigated and set on foot by Joe Smith, it is useless for him to deny; he said previously that he would have us arrested, and afterwards boasted that he had; as for his tool Lorenzo D. Wassen, we have only to say that, he did not even make his appearance in court, it was sufficient for him to please the "money-digger" he had perjured himself for the purpose of injuring one who never saw him or heard of him before.

The evening that these proceedings took place, and during our absence, a valuable horse was poisoned, and the evening subsequently another was poisoned; these two horses were standing in a stable with their heads to open windows, three other horses not thus exposed escaped.

Would it be taxing our credulity too much to believe, that a man who could conceive a murderous plot to assassinate a man that opposed his designs, and that has had -- if he has not now -- a "Danite band" to "haul his enemies into the brush" and "Destroying Angels," commissioned to kill their cattle, burn their buildings, poison their wells, and destroy their lives, if necessary to the accomplishment of his infamous designs, would for a moment hesitate to employ desperadoes to commit any or all the acts of outrage with which we have been visited?

Allusion has been made to a pretended revelation which conflicts with the interests of the undersigned and others. Our object being to strip from this impostor the "silver veil" that covers his hideousness, we shall in a future article give a history of the revelation, and the interests with which it conflicts. It may appear to some that our remarks about this bold Blasphemer are harsh in the extreme, but a moment's reflection will convince any one, that he is either what he claims to be, a Prophet of the Lord, or a scoundrel with out one redeeming quality, and capable of doing any deed of darkness.
                        D. W. & EDW. KILBOURN.
Montrose, Iowa, Sept. 20, 1841.

Note 1: Montrose merchants David and Edward Kilbourn must have been personally acquainted with Hawkeye editor J. G. Edwards. His newspaper began in the neighboring town of Fort Madison, published on the press of the recently discontinued Montrose Western Adventurer. However, no matter their previous acquaintance, it was probably Mr. Edwards' publication of his Fourth of July visit to Nauvoo that first caught the brothers' attention. Although the Hawkeye's initial depiction of the Mormon community at Nauvoo was rather neutral in tone, the Kilbourns must have found it (along with subsequent reporting) sufficiently censorious to introduce that paper's readers to the brothers' own dispiriting opinion of the LDS newcomers and their leaders.

Note 2: The Hawkeye offered editorial support to the 1841 local Whig candidates for the Territory's 4th Legislative Assembly (one of whom was LDS). With the spring departure of Apostle Lyman Wight (a prominent, commanding Mormon "Locofoco") from the Iowa shore, a successful Lee County Whig campaign must have appeared within reach. Surely the hundred Mormon voters in Lee would come out against the party of Martin Van Buren. But the August election produced only Democratic winners (Patterson, McCulloch and Campbell) -- an outcome which must have freed the hands of the Hawkeye's Whig editor, J. G. Edwards. Henceforth he would exhibit a sterner attitude regarding both the Iowa Mormons and their Illinois brethren.


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 7, 1841.                      No. 19.



It is generally known that a tract of land, containing 110,000 acres, lying in the extreme southern part of our Territory, which from its form, -- bounded as it is on the east by the Mississippi, and on the south and west by the Des Moines river -- may not inaptly be termed the Delta of Iowa, was in 1821 reserved by treaty for the use of the 'Half-Breeds of the Sac and Fox Nation of Indians; they holding it by the same title that other Indian lands are held,' -- i. e. -- possession -- the United States retaining a reversionary interest -- or the right to purchase it. In June, 1831 Congress relinquished to the 'Half-Breeds of the Sac and Fox Nation of Indians,' this reversionary interest, and authorized them to transfer their portion thereof, by sale, devise, or descent.

By an unaccountable oversight, the names of the individuals intended to be benefitted by this reservation of land, were neither introduced into the Treaty or in the act of Congress alluded to, and the term 'half breeds' of the Sac and Fox Nations, was so indefinite, that a wide door was at once opened for the introduction of spurious and doubtful claims, and from forty or fifty in number, they soon increased to one hundred and sixty.

In the summer and fall of 1836, a company of gentlemen from New York, made extensive purchases of Half-Breed shares. On account of the intimate knowledge that Dr. Galland was supposed to have of the 'Half-Breeds,' he was admitted as a member of this company, and was constituted one of their five trustees. The confidence however in his integrity was of short duration, and as a majority of the trustees controlled the affairs of the company, his power to injure them was of short continuance.

In the winter of 1837-8, a law was passed for the partition of the Half-Breed Tract; commissioners were appointed to receive testimony, &c.; -- the succeeding Legislature, however, repealed the law, and left the matter -- if possible -- worse than before. Every attempt that had been made to adjust the title, had not only signally failed, but seemed to increase the difficulties that clustered around it, and the public mind had settled down into the conviction that any further effort of the kind would be entirely fruitless.

The ingenuity of Dr. Galland, however, found in this state of things, a fine field for the exercise of his peculiar talents, -- and in the year [1839], he matured the plan of a stupendous fraud. He wrote to Joe Smith, who was then most righteously imprisoned in Missouri, on charges of High Treason, Burglary, Arson, &c. -- inviting him to purchase his land at Nauvoo (47 acres). Smith, after making his escape, complied, and brought on his half-starved followers, a large number of whom settled on the 'Half-Breed Reserve,' in Iowa. Dr. G. then commenced selling half-breed lands, giving therefor, warentee deeds, which of course, could convey no title while the lands remained undivided. He at first asserted that he was the owner of seven-tenths of the Tract, and finally claimed to be the sole proprietor.

That he might the more successfully carry out the scheme of swindling thus commenced, he attached himself to the Mormon Church! became a confederate of Joe Smith, and in order to dupe persons daily arriving among them, he deeded to Mormon Bishops and Prophets, thousands and tens of thousands of acres of the reservation alluded to, and they are daily deeding by warentee deeds the lands thus acquired, and receiving therefor a valuable consideration.

By a recent judicial decision, it is ascertained that the interest to which this man Galland is entitled, is but a small, undefined, undivided portion of the Half-Breed reservation.

Our object is not so much to draw the portrait of Galland -- for his character is too well known to require an extended notice here -- as to show the connection between him and the swindling leaders of the Mormon Society. With a full knowledge of all the facts here stated, he is sent out with a 'proclamation to the Saints abroad -- Greeting;' signed by Joe Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Hiram Smith -- the two latter of whom the Times and Seasons informs us 'have been appointed by revelation, Prophets, Seers, and Revelators,' -- in which it is said that 'He (Galland,) is the honored instrument the Lord used to prepare a home for us when we were driven from our inheritance, having given him control of vast bodies of land, and prepared his heart to make the use of it, the Lord intended he should.'

Many instances might be mentioned, of individuals at the East, who have exchanged with the 'Agents of the Church,' their valuable possessions, for their worthless land titles; and there are cases of suffering -- of families reduced to beggary -- by these villains, which would cause them, were they other than the heartless wretches they are, to relent, and desist from their cruel purpose.

Do these Prophets share in the plunder? If the reader has thrown the mantle of charity over them thus far, it will require enlarging, to cover a pretended 'revelation' upon matters and things in general, published in their paper of June 1st, in which -- speaking of the Nauvoo Boarding House -- the following passage occurs: -- 'Let my servant Isaac Galland put stock in that house, for I the Lord loveth him for the works he has done, and will forgive all his sins, therefore let him be remembered for an interesr in that from generation to generation.'

When it is known that one of these Prophets acts in the absence of Galland, as his Agent for the sale of these lands, what farther evidence, we ask, is wanted, of the baseness and rascality of himself and his confederates?
                  D. W. &. E. KILBOURN.
Montrose, Iowa, Oct. 6, 1841.

Note 1: The above statements make it obvious that the Kilbourn brothers held no favorable views concerning Dr. Isaac Galland. In July of 1839 Galland sold David and Edward some lots in the center of Montrose village, next to land he had just offered to Joseph Smith's church. These transactions brought the Kilbourns and the previously transitory Iowa Mormons into very close (and seemingly permanent) proximity. David W. Kilbourn and Dr. Galland subsequently engaged in a war of words (and actions) in which Galland's dubious claim to ownership of "thousands and tens of thousands of acres" of southeastern Iowa land was fiercely contested -- as being nothing other than "a stupendous fraud."

Note 2: The Warsaw Signal of Oct. 13, 1841 provided some supplemental news items which fit chronologically between the Kilbourn brothers' first two "Latter-Day-ism" letters. The Signal editor paraphrased this additional information from the Kilbourns thusly: "The Affair at Montrose: -- In the last 'Times and Seasons' we observe a communication over the signature of 'W. Waterman Phelps,' charging us with deliberate and wilful falsehood, in relation to the military parade at Montrose.... We mentioned that Joe Smith and General Bennett attempted to inspect the troops of Iowa Territory. Now the matter turns out, according to the Mormon statement, that Joe did not attempt to inspect the troops; but that he, in conjunction with Gen. Bennett, and some of the staff, (the latter being in military dress,) did go into Iowa. Why, we ask, were any of them in military dress, if they did not go as military officers? ... --- Another Robbery at Montrose.... in the early part of last week. The [Kilbourns'] clerk... found that the store had been broken open, and about $300 worth of goods taken out. -- Now, we ask, in the name of common sense, if there was not concerted action among the Mormons, how could such a robbery have been committed, so early in the evening, in the town of Montrose? -- It is useless to lay it upon individuals; for the circumstances show that there was concert, and the frequency of the robberies, manifests a design to drive the Kilbourns from the place."


Vol. I.                               Iowa City, I. T., Friday, October 8, 1841.                             No. 45.


The First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, anxious to promote the prosperity of the Church, feel it their duty to call upon the Saints who reside out of this county, to make preparations to come in without delay. This is important and should be attended to by all who feel an interest in the prosperity of Zion. Here the Temple must be raised, the University be built, and other edifices erected which are necessary for the great work of the last days; and which can only be done by a concentration of energy and enterprise. Let it therefore be understood, that all the stakes, excepting those in this county, and in Lee county, Iowa, are discontinued, and the Saints instructed no settle in this county as soon as circumstances will permit.
                                    JOSEPH SMITH.
Nauvoo, Hancock Co. Ill.,
[May?] 24, 1841.

More humbug has come up to New York. A sect, calling themselves "Physical Ablutionists," are trying to sec what they can do, a la Jo Smith and associates, by way of deception and imposture. They claim to be descendants of ancient Israel. They have descended, probably, a long way. A woman preacher leads off -- well, the women lead a great many people whithersoever they go -- that's a fact.

Note: It was, no doubt, significant that the LDS leaders promoted the establishment of an organized stake across the river from Nauvoo, in Lee County, Iowa. This instruction was given (in the June 1st Times and Seasons) just two months after the April 6th ceremony to lay the corner stone of the planned Nauvoo Temple. Considering the land divisions the LDS leaders had incorporated into their new plat for Montrose, Iowa, it appears likely that they envisioned a future, second temple across the Mississippi on its western shore. If so, no corner stone was ever laid for this hopeful Zarahemla Stake Temple.


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 14, 1841.                      No. 20.



... It is perhaps unnecessary to say that in these numbers it is not our purpose to enter into any controversy with the 'Mormons' relevant to their religious belief. It is sufficiently humiliating to be compelled, by a strong sense of duty, to expose their nefarious conduct. Confining ourselves strictly to facts, we shall leave them for others to draw their own inferences. That there may be no mis-apprehension as to the individuals meant, we shall freely make use of their names, and should injustice be done them, they can resort to their legal remedy, assuring them that if a single statement of ours is denied, we stand prepared to establish its truth by a host of witnesses.

In a previous number we gave a brief history of the 'Half Breed Reservation,' and stated that 'a company of New York gentlemen made extensive purchases of Half Breed claims.' The same gentlemen, by their agents, were placed in possession of the barracks at Camp Des Moines, on their abandonment by the United States dragoons in June, 1837, and soon after caused a town to be surveyed, to which the name of 'Montrose' was given, and the name of the post-office was changed, at the request of the citizens, from 'Fort Des Moines' to 'Montrose.'

In addition to the numerous difficulties surrounding the 'Half Breed title,' an old 'Spanish claim' was raked up from the oblivion of a former age, and a patent issued in 1839 to the claimants under it for a tract of land one mile square, including the town site of Montrose.

The gentlemen in possession, however, having 'nine points of the law' in their favor, could, of course, hold the premises against the world, till a final adjudication of the whole matter. This the 'Spanish claimants' well knew, and recognized them as being in peaceable possession by instituting suit in our courts, which is still pending.

The parties interested flattered themselves that when their conflicting claims should be settled, all obstacles to the improvement of the place, and its becoming -- what, from the beauty of its situation, it was intended for by nature -- a large and flourishmg town, would be removed; but, alas! how vain and delusive are all human hopes and expectations. A third claimant appears in the person of Joe Smith, with a title purporting to be Heaven derived. Early one morning in March last, the quiet citizens of Montrose were surprised by a visit from some of Joe Smith's scullions from Nauvoo, -- who to all appearance had but recently made their escape from a steel trap, -- headed by Alanson Ripley, a Mormon Bishop, who says that 'as to the technical niceties of the law of the land, he does not intend to regard them; that the kingdom spoken of by the prophet Daniel has been set up, and that it is necessary every kingdom should be governed by its own laws.' With compass and chain they strided through gates and over fences to the very doors of the 'Gentiles,' and drove the stakes for the lots of a city which, in extent at least, -- four miles square, -- should vie with some of the largest cities of the world. They heeded not enclosures; why should they? is not the earth the Lord's, and the fulness thereof? and shall not his 'Saints' -- of the Latter Day -- inherit and possess it forever?

'The kingdom spoken of by the prophet Daniel' having been set up, its 'laws' authorized this Mormon Bishop to threaten personal violence to one of the undersigned, for removing a stake which had been driven within the bounds of his enclosure, without his consent and contrary to his wishes, and to hold a club over the head of Mr. A. M. Bissell, while one of his 'steel trap' comrades drove a stake within the enclosure of Mr. Bissell, directly before his door, after having been forbidden by him to do so.

A few days subsequently to these occurrences, it was ascertained that the exterior line of this 'four mile' town had been run by order of Joe Smith, and a plot of it made and recorded, to which he gave the name of Zarahemla.

And who figures as proprietor of this renowned city? Joe Smith, to be sure, 'the Agent of Doctor Galland,' -- a worthy agent for a worthy principal!

Having sold to his dupes a large portion of the Half Breed tract, a happy thought strikes him that they can yet be 'bled;' he orders them by 'revelation' to leave their fine farms and move into the 'city,' sells them lots and conveys them by deeds. There would be some excuse for these proceedings had they taken place under any color of title, but he had not the shadow of a shade to found a right upon. In this view of the case, was there ever a more barefaced attempt at swindling than this?

On the 6th of April, at a conference held at Nauvoo, a Mormon leader publicly read a pretended 'revelation' that the city of Zarahemla should be laid out and built up by the 'Latter Day Saints!' Joe Smith then stated that, 'in accordance with this revelation,' a city had been surveyed, and the Saints desirous of purchasing lots could now do so. 'The people over there,' said he, 'are very much opposed to it, but they must know -- if they know any thing -- that it would be for their interest to have 5000 inhabitants come in with back loads of money; why, I sometimes think they don't know beans when the bag is open; they needn't be scared; we don't want their improvements without paying them for them; we expect to pay them a good price for their possessions, and if that don't satisfy them, we'll have them any how.'

Are the people of Iowa prepared to submit to such treatment from an Impostor as vile as ever disgraced humanity? Are we to be told that 'if you choose to sell, we will buy your possessions, if not, we will have them any how'? Is the title to land hereafter to be settled by revelation through Joe Smith? Has the time indeed arrived when 'the kingdom is to be set up by forcible means if necessary,' and when the riches of the Gentiles are to be consecrated to the true Israel? Such were the teachings of the leaders of this society in Missouri, and the facts here stated show conclusively that such are their teachings and practices now.

Have we not some reason to believe that their Missouri troubles were not solely for righteousness' sake, but that they there, as here, disregarded all law, human and divine, and by their conduct brought down upon their own heads the vengeance of an outraged and insulted people? Robbery and theft with them are called 'consecrating the property of the Gentiles.' Since the publication of the second number of these articles, we were called from home by business, and during our absence our store was broken open in the early part of the evening of Wednesday, the 6th inst., before the young man who slept in the store retired for the night, and robbed of goods to the amount of between three and four hundred dollars, to wit:
42 pieces dark prints, (entire,)
5 or 6 pieces dark satinets,
1 piece black circassian,
and a considerable quantity of cambric book muslins, jaconet, sarsenet, &c. &c. This stands on our list as robbery No. 14.

The undersigned, however, are not the only sufferers; this our 'Gentile' neighbors know by sad experience. The four wheels of a new farm wagon were stolen from the yard of Harman Booth, Esq., a few nights since; and the week previous, all the tools of the blacksmith shop of Mr. S. H. Burtis, with a fine two-horse wagon, were taken. Is it not a singular fact that the enclosures of the 'Gentiles,' and their buildings even, are entered, and property stolen, while the wagons and farming utensils of these 'Latter Day Saints' stand exposed in the open street, far from any dwelling, and yet are perfectly secure?

Why is it that those who oppose this swindle are the principal, if not the only, sufferers?
             D. W. KILBOURN,
             EDWARD KILBOURN.
Montrose, Iowa, October 13, 1841.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                               Iowa City, I. T., Friday, November 12, 1841.                             No. 50.

Last week a body of Mormons, numbering about seventy individuals, passed thro' this city on their way to Nauvoo, Illinois, to join their fellow fanatics in that settlement. They were from Gloucester, England, and arrived at Quebeck in the Collins. They appeared to be quite inoffensive people, and possessed of some means. They call themselves the "Latter Day Saints," or Mormons, from having adopted the book of Mormon as a part of divine revelation. They believe in the efficacy of prayer as a means of curing all diseases. One of their children, when at the immigrant sheds, was seized with tooth ache, and two of them laying their hands on her head, prayed that the Almighty would be pleased to receive her. -- We do not know whether the deluded creatures had their delusion strengthened or weakened by the result. -- Montreal Herald.

Note: See also the Fort Madison Courier of Nov. 13th.



Vol. I.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, November 13, 1841.                       No. 17.

Last week a body of Mormons, numbering about seventy individuals, passed through this city on their way to Nauvoo, Illinois to join their fellow fanatics in that settlement. They are from Gloucester, England, and arrived at Quebec in the Collins. They appeared to be quite inoffensive people, and possessed of some means. --

Note: The above report originated in the Montreal Herald of early October. The Fort Madison Courier editor extracted it from a lengthier text published in the Oct 29, 1841 Missouri Republican.



Vol. I.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, December 4, 1841.                       No. 20.

Another accession of Mormons. -- The steamboat Gen. Platte [sic, Pratt?], says the St. Louis Pennant, of the 22d ult., brought up Friday last, 250 Mormons, all of them are from England, and are bound for Nauvoo, Illinois, the "Promised Land" and city of the "Latter Day Saints."

Note: The Fort Madison Courier continued, beginning Dec. 11, 1841, as the Lee County Democrat.


Vol. II.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, December 10, 1841.                             No. 7.


St. Louis papers of a late date state that 250 Mormons, from Europe, left that city for Nauvoo on the steamers Ione and Eliza, and from papers in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, we learn that companies of from thirty to fifty souls are frequently seen passing on their way to the New Jerusalem (Nauvoo) by land. From every quarter they are coming at a rapid rate, and if nothing transpires to hinder the progress of delusion and emigration, the city of Nauvoo will soon become the most populous city in the west. So great has been the emigration to it during the past season, of all ages, sexes and conditions, that employment and means of subsistence have become inadequate, consequently store and warehouses, barn yards, and cow-pens have suffered frequent losses of late.

From the Warsaw Signal of the 24th ult. we learn that depredations, have so frequently [have] been committed upon the property of citizens living adjacent to that place, by Mormons without families, who had located in the bottom, ostensibly with object of trapping and cutting wood, that they met, and went to their shanties, and requested them to leave, which they promised to do. It also states that is rumored that it is rumored that at Montrose, Iowa, the citizens had given them notice to leave, and if they do not obey, they are pledged to drive them.

From testimony taken at a trial of one for stealing a cow, as published in the Signal, we have no doubt that the Mormons are ready and willing to swear their brethren clear of crimes of which they may be guilty and that [-----] to convict any of the Belleview robbers and counterfeiters, or the horse thieves of Rock river.

From all appearances our southern citizens, and those of Hancock county, Illinois, will soon experience the same difficulties with them that caused their banishment from Missouri, with but a slim prospect of less rigid means relieving them. We, however, hope for the best, but fear the worst.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 6, 1842.                      No. 32.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 27, 1842.                      No. 35.

"Jo Smith" has issued a formal proclamation calling on his followers in Illinois to vote the locofoco ticket for Gov. &c., in August next. If nothing else would have done it, this alone -- this palpable union of Church and State -- would make the Suckers go for honest Jo Duncan.

Note: The above transcript may be incomplete -- it is taken from reprints of the article, published in rival newspapers.


Vol. II.                  Bloomington, I. T., Friday, February 11, 1842.                   No. 16.


It is stated that the Mormons are making a location in the very heart of Philadelphia, having taken a room in the assembly buildings, which they are about to fit up for their own use.

Note 1: The Bloomington editors were a bit tardy in conveying this news. Notices in Philadelphia newspapers, as early as 1839, identified the local Mormons' initial meeting place as being "at the Commissioners' Hall, Southwark." The "Assembly Building" was located at the corner of 10th and Chestnut in that city. The Philadelphia Public Ledger of Jan. 1, 1842 advertised the LDS branch's new location there. -- Philadelphia Alderman John Laws probably arranged for Mormon access to these public buildings in the city: his daughter Mary Ann was a member of the Philadelphia LDS branch. For additional details see Walter W. Smith's 1918-1920 series, "History of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Branch" in the RLDS Journal of History and Stephen J. Fleming's 2004 MHS paper, "Discord in the City of Brotherly Love: The Story of Early Mormonism in Philadelphia."

Note 2: On July 21, 1841 the Philadelphia Public Ledger published a defensive letter from Elder Isaac Galland, under the heading "Mormonism! Mormonism!" This communication was dated just six days after he completed his 1841 Reply to Various Falsehoods -- published in Philadelphia, but intended for a wide readership. Since the pamphlet's contents made frequent references to the Iowa Mormons and their land dealings, it seems likely that the Bloomington Herald's editors were aware of "Elder" Galland's recent sojourn among fellow Mormons in the eastern city. For additional insight into the contemporary situation in the Philadelphia branch, see Alderman John Law's letter, submitted for publication in the Aug. 1841 Public Ledger, as well as his Oct. 18, 1841 letter to Joseph Smith, Jr., sent from Philadelphia, to enquire about Mormon land dealings in the west.



Vol. I.                        Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, April 16, 1842.                      No. 39.


"This city of the Saints -- this nucleus of a Western Empire," is daily increasing in population. It is said that there are now 8000 inhabitants, within the limits of the corporation. A large number of workmen are engaged in raising the walls of the Temple, which, if ever completed, will be a magnificant structure. The "Nauvoo House" is also in rapid progress. Many excellent dwellings and business houses are scattered throughout the city, and the citizens all appear to be busily employed in various avocations. The increase by immigration is principally from England and some of these neophytes are reputed to be very wealthy -- All such, it is said are required to hand over a portion of their surplus revenue to the Prophet. This we opine is slander, but if it should be true, Smith's situation in the church doubtless makes it a profit-able business.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Bloomington, I. T., Friday, April 29, 1842.                          No. 26.

...Wm. Smith, brother we believe, to Jo Smith, the Mormon prophet, has commenced the publication of a weekly sheet, of medium size, at Nauvoo, Ills. It is devoted to the news, &c. of the day, but most particularly to the doctrines of the church.

Nauvoo is said to contain about 10,000 inhabitants, and almost weekly receives additions of from 100 to 200 from England.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, May 6, 1842.                           No. 27.


The Mormons have sent a missionary to enlighten the people of New Orleans. At one of his meetings he pretended to have the gift of tongues, and being addressed successively in French, Spanish, and German, answered readily in those languages. His triumph was soon cut short: for a son of the Emerald Isle addressed him in pure Irish, and bothered him entirely. Amid roars of laughter, the gifted prophet put off.

Note: The above was obviously reprinted from an eastern exchange paper. Earlier copies read "in pure Milesian;" that being the supposed language of Ireland's mythical ancient people. If the story has any truth in it, the problematic "address" was most likely given in Irish Gaelic.



Vol. I.                           Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, May 14, 1842.                         No. 43.

...Nauvoo Legion parades ...Gentile apprehension

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                               Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, May 19, 1842.                             No. 24.


It is said that Jo Smith, the Mormon prophet, is about to purchase that National Theatre, Chestnut street, Philadelphia, and convert it into a tabernacle for the latter Day Saints.

Mormonism is spreading in the east as well as the west. In the vicinity of Boston there are several regularly ordained preachers whose circuit embraces Chelsea, Salem, Medfield, Medway, Peterboro, Gibson, &c. In some of these towns, fifty of their converts have been baptised in a day, with a view of joining their brethren in the west at some future day.

Note: See comments appended to the Bloomington Herald issue of Feb. 11, 1842 for information regarding the Philadelphia LDS branch.

Vol. III.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, May 26, 1842.                          No. 52.


The stage driver brought us the following letter last Friday evening in advance of the mail. It appears that "Jo Smith" has made several threats against Missouri recently, and a short time since he stated that he was ready to fight Missouri. Every one knows how bitter the Mormons are against the people of Missouri, and this well known hostility has led many to suppose that the attempt to kill Gov. Boggs must have been the work of a Mormon, although there appears to be no positive proof that this was the case. By our last accounts Boggs was still living but no hopes were entertained of his recovery. He was sitting at his table reading a newspaper, when the murderer fired through the window. Three balls entered his head and neck.

KEOKUK, May 14 1842.
Dear Sir: -- Information has reached me by a Mr. Tracy of the house of E. & A. Tracy, St. Louis, that Lilburn W. Boggs, ex-Governor of Missouri, was murdered in his house in Jackson county, Mo., on the 9th inst. There is no mistake of the matter whatever. There was a suspicious stranger seen lurking around for several days before the murder was perpetrated, and that stranger is supposed to be a Mormon. They were in hot pursuit of him when the steamboat that brought the word to St. Louis left. The scoundrel had but two hours the start of his pursuers. I hope to God they will catch him, for I am as well satisfied that he was murdered by Smith's directions, as though I had Smith's confession to that effect.

Boggs, although so strongly accused by these renegades, was one of the most inoffensive men I ever knew. I knew him well and for years and I did not know with the exception of the Mormons, that he had a personal enemy on earth.
Your friend, &c.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. I.                            Davenport, I. T., Thursday, June 12, 1842.                             No. 43.

It is stated that Jo Smith the Mormon Prophet and the saints, Sidney Rigdon and Hiram Smith have made application for the benefit of the bankrupt Law. The Prophet's debts amount to $100,000. His assets are of trifling value.

Note: See also the Nauvoo Wasp of June 25, 1842.

Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 23, 1842.                          No. 4.

Trouble among the Mormons. -- We understand by a private letter from Montrose, that Jo Smith has had a quarrel with Rigdon and Bennett, and that he has turned both of the latter out of the synagogue. Some hard swearing passed between these saints during the quarrel. Bennett threatens to write a book, for the purpose of exposing the rascality of the pretender to a spirit of prophesy. We hope the schism is incurable, as it is said to be.

Note: John C. Bennett responded to editor James G. Edwards' news item in a letter published in the next issue of the Burlington Hawkeye.


Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 30, 1842.                           No. 5.

                                                    NAUVOO, ILL., June 27, 1842.
MR. EDWARDS: -- In your paper of the 23d you alluded to the "Trouble among the Mormons," and expressed a desire or hope that "the schism is incurable," and I assure you that it is really so. The holy Joe fears the consequences of my disclosures, and has threatened to take my life, and has ordered some of his Danite band to effect the murder clandestinely -- but he shall be exposed. If he murders me others will avenge my blood, and expose him; If I live, I will do it to the entire satisfaction of all. Just suspend your judgment for a few days until you see my expose in the "Sangamo Journal" of next week, or the week following, over my own name. In haste.

Yours, respectfully             
              JOHN C. BENNETT.

Note 1: John C. Bennett's letter of June 27, 1842 was addressed to James G. Edwards, editor of the Burlington, Iowa Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot, in response to a news item mentioning him, which had appeared in that paper on the 23rd. Bennett's response was reprinted in various western newspapers in early July. See, for example, the Sangamo Journal issue of July 8, 1842 and those of the weeks following. See also the July 14th St. Louis Bulletin and the July 27th Louisville Journal for related items from the pen of John C. Bennett.

Note 2: The published letter is date-lined "Nauvoo." Bennett apparently wrote this letter while visiting his old Mormon acquaintances George W. Robinson and Nauvoo Postmaster Sidney Rigdon, in that place. Rigdon probably saw that the letter was sent speedily to Burlington, while Bennett just as speedily fled Nauvoo for the last time. After a residence in the east, during which he published his History of the Saints,M Bennett returned to visit the Nauvoo region a few months later. See his second letter, published by Edwards in the Dec. 7, 1843 issue of the Hawk-Eye.


Vol. II.                             Bloomington, I. T., Friday, July 8 1842.                             No. 36.


John C. Bennett, Lieut. Gen. of the Nauvoo Legion, and Mayor of the City of Nauvoo, has been excommunicated by Jo. Smith, and ten or a dozen of the authorities of the church. Bad conduct, and heedlessness to their advice to mend his ways, are the reasons assigned for the act. Bennett says the schism is incurable, and promises to expose Smith. He says Jo has threatened to take his life, and has ordered some of the band to do it clandestinely.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 21, 1842.                          No. 8.

The Mormons. -- We permit our columns to be occupied by Gen. Bennett's second letter, to a large extent, as our readers are generally interested in reading these developments. In addition we have seen Martha E. Brotherton's letter [to] Gen. Bennett, as published in the St. Louis Bulletin of last Saturday. It details some most horrid and blasphemous transactions on the part of "Jo Smith" and one Brigham Young of Nauvoo. Such men deserve the severest penalties of Lynch law applied to them, if no other can reach their case.


... I am now in this place, in order to attend to some of my official duties, as Master in Chancery; and having some leisure time, I shall proceed with my history of Joe Smith and his Saints...

(view original article in Illinois paper)

Mormon  Disclosures.
[introductory paragraph missing]

Carthage, Illinois, July 7th, 1842.          
To the Editor of the Hawkeye,
      Dear Sir: I am about to repair to the east to publish the full history of "Jo Smith" and the Mormons. Will you be so good as to forward to me at "Flat Bush P. O. Kings Co., N. Y., with as little delay as possible all the papers in your possession containing the publications of Messrs. Kilburn's of Montrose, Iowa. They will afford me some valuable materials. You will see my expose in the Sangamo Journal.
In Haste,                       
Yours respectfully,
                    JOHN C. BENNETT.

Note: The above typescript is incomplete. Along with John C. Bennett's requesting copies of the Montrose, Iowa Kilbourn brothers' 1841 letters to the editor, a paragraph occurs in which Bennett's July 13th letter to the St. Louis American Bulletin, was summarized and paraphrased. Part of this missing text reads: "Upon his return to Nauvoo, Rockwell displayed sudden affluence, jingling gold in his pockets and riding about in an elegant carriage..."

Vol. I.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, July 21, 1842.                           No. 48.


Considerable excitement prevails in Illinois, following a State's evidence disclosure by Gen. Bennett, of the plots, intrigues, villainies and murders of Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet. If one tythe of the enormities alleged to have been committed by him be true, he should be hung as high as Haman. The statements of Gen. Bennett appear to have been elicited from him by offense taken at Joe Smith for having issued a bull of excommunication against him. As customary the papers are making political capital out of the disclosures, and well they may, as from testimony given, the Mormons appear to have been bought up by the Locos of Illinois. All good Mormons abide the fiat of Joe Smith if he be seduced from truth, the citadel stormed surrenders at descretion. But to the leter we would not publish it entire as there are some parts unfit for the public eye. Gen. Bennett has held several high offices in the Government, -- Mayor of Nauvoo and Commander of the Legion, etc., besides having been appointed by Judge Douglass Master in Chancery for Hancock County. The following synopsis of Gen Bennett's first and second letters [is] from the St. Louis New Era: --

He accuses Jo Smith of having extracted from him an affidavit, under threats of murder if he did not comply with his request -- denounces Jo as seducer of single and married females, 'in the name of the Lord and by his authority and permission' -- gives the names of his victims, and refers to witnesses -- promises to expose frauds which will save Jo Smith's creditors thousands of dollars, and states that the prophet has recently directed the People of Nauvoo to give 'all their property to the Lord and lay it at [his] Apostle's feet," (about which command there is much confusion in the city.)

In the second letter, the ex-General publishes an affidavit of Col. Higbee, that Smith recommended the murder of Bennett for the good of the church and he was followed about by Danites with the intent to kill him. Details, names, places, and [arits facts?] are given, of many of Joe's enormities; and Col. Higbee is requested to tell how 'a certain prisoner in Missouri' was murdered by Jo's command, and the General says he will visit Missouri, and reveal the dreadful story. In this letter, we have the following reference to the attempt to assassinate Gov. Boggs --

THE FULFILLMENT OF PROPHECY. -- In 1841, Joe Smith predicted or prophesied in a public congregation at Nauvoo, that Lilburn W. Boggs, ex-Governor of Missouri, should die by violent hands within one year. From one to two months prior to the attempted assassination of Gov. Boggs, Mr. O. P. Rockwell left Nauvoo for parts unknown to the citizens at large. I was then on terms of close intimacy with Joe, and asked him where Rockwell had gone? "Gone," said he, "GONE TO FULFILL THE PROPHECY!" Rockwell returned to Nauvoo the day before the report of the assassination reached there, and the Nauvoo Wasp remarked, "it yet remains to be known who did the noble deed!"

Rockwell remarked to a person now in Nauvoo, and whose name I forbear to mention for the present, from motives of prudence and safety to the person, but which shall be forthcoming in due time, that he had been "all over Upper Missouri, and all about where Boggs lives," and this was communicated to me by that person before I withdrew from the church, and we had considerable conversation on that daring act. Rockwell is a Danite. -- Joe's public memory is very treacherous on this subject, I presume, but his private memory is so good that he has a guard around his house every night, with the State cannon and a full supply of small arms, for the protection of his person against any attempted arrest.

This Gen Bennett is, no doubt, a great scamp, but it is equally certain that Jo. Smith should no longer be suffered to exercise the influence which he does over the infatuated people that surround him. His crimes are of the deepest dye, and condign punishment should be inflicted upon him. Jo. Smith stands indicted upon various high crimes in this state, and was once demanded by the Governor, delivered up by Gov. Carlin, and then discharged (by Judge Douglass, we believe) and it is now said that the Mormon vote is so important in lllinois as to prevent any further measures on the part of the two Loco Foco Governors to bring him to Justice, at least until the election.

The St. Louis Bulletin of the 16th inst., contains a letter from Mrs. [sic] Martha M. Brotherton, substantiating the disclosures of Joe Smith's perfidy as connected with himself. Also, another from Gen. Bennett stating that he is about to repair to the East for the purpose of publishing a work entitled a "History of the Mormons" or important disclosures in relation to Joe Smith and the Mormons.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 28, 1842.                          No. 9.

The  Mormons.

The time has come when the rank corruption of this Sect (the Mormons) should be exposed and we would not dare for the sake of securing every vote they had to give, to cover up their rascality. On our outside will be found the letter of Miss Brotherton, which confirms the most important statements of Gen. Bennett. Whatever may be thought of General Bennett as acting the part of Benedict Arnold, [his] astounding disclosures may be as valuable to the cause of truth as would have been those of the traitor of the Revolution to the cause of the British. Bennett may be considered a traitor by the Mormon party but his treason may be nevertheless highly beneficial in stopping the progress of one of the most rotten Sects that ever sprung into existence. After the election of the locos themselves will denounce the Mormons, and the loco foco Governor of Mo., will demand the body of "Jo Smith." We understand almost every town has in it some of "Jo's" secret emissaries of Danites. They know each other by signs and are sworn to protect their leaders, so look out.

Note: The above transcript may be incomplete -- it is taken from reprints of the article, published in rival newspapers.


Vol. II.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 5, 1842.                           No. 40.


Two or three weeks ago we saw it stated in the papers that Gen. Bennett had gone to Missouri to induce the governor to make a second demand on the Governor of Illinois for the person of Jo Smith, to be tried [from] divers offences against the laws of that State, Bennett declaring that he would see that Jo should be forthcoming. In a late Warsaw Signal, we find the following:

HEADING BENNETT. -- We are informed that Joe Smith & Co. have procured the requisition of Gov. Carlin and Gov. Reynolds of Missouri for the person of General Bennett, who is charged by said Smith & Co. with high treason against the State of Illinois. We have not learned what are the particulars of the charge, but in our opinion unless they have indisputable grounds, they had better let the matter alone.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. I.                         Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 11, 1842.                         No. 51.


Gen. Bennett, it will be recollected we stated, made an effort to induce the Governor of Illinois to make a second demand for Joe Smith, which he promised to serve in person. We learn by the Warsaw Signal that the tables have been turned, Joe Smith having procured the requisition of Gov. Carlin and Gov. Reynolds of Missouri, for the person of Gen. Bennett, who is charged by said Smith and co. with high treason against the State of Illinois.

The Signal adds, "We have not learned what are the particulars of the charge, but in our opinion unless they have indisputable grounds, they had better let the matter alone."

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. I.                         Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 18, 1842.                         No. 52.

THE MORMONS. -- Hancock county will give about a thousand majority for Ford. At Nauvoo the vote stood, Ford 1037, Duncan 6; at Le Harp, Ford 413, Duncan 61; at Warsaw, Ford 98, Duncan 122; at Carthage, Ford 111, Duncan 133; at Montebollo, Ford 8, Duncan 32. A few other precincts to hear from. -- Gal. Gaz.

Note: Even though their eastern shore was literally minutes away from Illinois, the weekly Iowa newspapers were always at a disadvantage in learning the election news from the neighboring state. What little they could accurately report was generally either outdated or too preliminary to be of much use. The Galena papers' "extras" and dailies from St. Louis provided the typical sources for such reporting.

Vol. II.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 25, 1842.                           No. 1.


We see it stated that Gov. Reynolds of Missouri has demanded Joe Smith and Orin P. Rockwell of the Governor of Illinois. Joe is said to be among the missing -- when last heard from he was in Iowa.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                             Iowa City, I. T., Saturday, August 27, 1842.                           No. 40?

TROUBLE AT NAUVOO. -- Joseph Smith and Mr. Rockwell have been ordered arrested by the Governor. Sheriff Jasper attempted to serve the warrent but was thwarted, a second attempt was made by the two men were nowhere to be found.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 8, 1842.                           No. 3.


Gen. Bennett is now in New York, and engaged in preparing for the press his book, which is to be a complete expose of the Mormons, public and private.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 29, 1842.                       No. 18.

GEN. BENNETT. -- We heard this expositor of Mormonism for a short time on Friday night. The General is not fitted to make a very deep impression, either by the intellectual or moral qualities which he exhibits. A considerable portion of what he stated was written on detached sheets of paper, and read rather poorly; and the gross facts which he stated were interspersed with eloquent reflections and quotations in prose and poetry. His stories of the lewdness which he says was practiced by Joe Smith and the other leaders of the Mormons, were told with a particularity, and a lear and laugh occasionally, which showed that the lecturer's mind was in a vulgar and debased condition, and totally destitute of that serious and stern disapprobation of crime which should characterize a reformer. If Gen. Bennett's statements were correct, Mormonism must be a clumsy copy of Romanism as it existed at the time of the reformation, and as it exists now in some European countries. But we do not think that the General carried any very strong convictions to the minds of his audience, that what he said was conclusive evidence of the real state of things at Nauvoo. It is, however, a strange place, without trusting to Bennett's testimony; and the scenes which he relates are very like those which almost always occur in such assemblages of imposture and fanaticism.

Note: The Hawkeye editor quoted from the New York Journal of Commerce issue of Sept. 5, 1842, but it has not been determined whether he reproduced the entire Journal article. When a reliable copy of this clipping is located, the above text may have to be adjusted.


Vol. II.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, October 8, 1842.                    No. 12.

John C. Bennett... urges Gov. Boggs... swear out a warrant against Smith and Rockwell...

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                        Bloomington, I. T., Friday, October 21, 1842.                         No. 51.

It is stated in the last "Quincy Whig," that Jo Smith has been arrested at Carthage, Illinois and is to be brought before Judge Douglass who is there holding court, on a writ of habeas corpus, for the purpose of trying the validity of the Governor's writ of arrest.

...[Mormons are using the Nauvoo charter]... to serve their own ends and to help them defy the laws of the land...

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 27, 1842.                         No. 10.


An Iowa correspondent of the Linn Freeman relates the following anecdote illustrative of Mormon faith.

Mrs. ____ is the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer of Manchester, England. She left England last fall. Having the outline of her history, my curiosity became sufficiently excited to call at her cabin, which was about ten feet square. On approaching the threshhold, I was saluted by Mrs. ____ and her two daughters, with all that graceful ease that characterizes the lady whether found in hovel or in palace. On expressing my surprise that she could reconcile herself to her apparently unhappy lot:

"Unhappy?" said she, with a look of withering scorn; "do you think that I could revel in all the splendor and wealth of England and lose my precious soul?"

"But could not your soul have been saved in England as well as here?" said I.

"What! having received light and then not come to Zion, to be baptized from the Holy Fountain, I should have been lost."

"How could your parents reconcile themselves to your departure?" said I.

"Father [pled] and begged me not to come," said she, "and said if I would renounce the faith and remain at home, he would give me £20,000."

"But," says I, "father my own soul and the souls of my children, are more precious than your gold," and says she, "I am happier in this miserable cabin without any floor, than ever I was in my life, surrounded by all the comforts Manchester could bestow."

Here, thought I, was faith amounting to heroism; yes, to frenzy, and I could not but admire, as well as pity her misguided zeal. It was another among the thousand instances of woman's devotion.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, November 3, 1842.                       No. 23.

Joe Smith preached at Nauvoo last Sunday to an immense concourse of the brethren. He said in one of his late discourses that Governor Carlin was afraid that he (Smith) wanted to be Governor, but no fears need be entertained on that point, as he considered himself even now in a better situation than he would be if he was Governor or President, being Lieut. General for time and Prophet for eternity, either of which he considered preferable to being Governor or President. He also said if there were any who did not believe in him, they might leave him, and, to use his own expression, "go to hell and be damned."

Note 1: The Quincy Whig of Nov. 26th quoted the above paragraph and added: "Extraordinary as it may seem, after the scathing expositions of the utterly profligate conduct of this pretended Prophet, which have been so widely spread, his doctrines are spreading far and wide. Indeed, it appears that they have recently taken fresh hold in that part of Northern Ohio which was the scene of his religious impostures and swindling banking operations prior to the hegira for Missouri."

Note 2: The validity of the "Joe Smith" discourse claim is questionable. If the date is correct, it conflicts with Smith's own personal record (which names John Taylor as the speaker in Nauvoo on that particular Sunday).

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, November 10, 1842.                       No. 24.

We have received by Mail, a copy of "History of the Saints," or An Expose of Jo Smith and the [Mormons] by John C. Bennett." This book charges the Mormons [with] all sorts of rascality and fully confirms all the evils that have been spoken concerning them. As a narrative of facts the book is quite interesting, although many parts of it are obnoxious to purity and delicacy of feeling. If the half of Gen. Bennett's statements are true -- and we have no reason to doubt them -- then we have within thirty miles of us a class of individuals more diabolical, more dangerous and more deserving of destruction than any that can be found in the darkest dungeon in the land. We may hereafter give some extracts.

Note 1: The above transcript may be incomplete -- it is taken from reprints of the article, published in rival newspapers.

Note 2: "If the half of Gen. Bennett's statements are true..." -- Hawkeye Editor J. G. Edwards' conclusion, regarding the reliability of John C. Bennett's "narrative of facts" was widely voiced by editors and book reviewers across the nation. Few of them were ready to accept all of Bennett's accusations as being truthful -- but, on the other hand, few of them (other than Mormons) were ready to dismiss the entire "narrative" as a total fabrication. The Davenport Gazette of July 21, 1842 said, "...Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet. If one tythe of the enormities alleged [by Bennett] to have been committed by him be true, he should be hung as high as Haman." -- The Cleveland Herald of July 19, 1842 printed a similar response: "...if the half Bennett states be true, Joe, richly deserves the Penitentiary instead of reverence and obedience from his deluded followers."

Vol. II.                      Davenport, I. T., Thursday, November 10, 1842.                       No. 12.


Gen. Bennett is lecturing on the above theme in Boston. As he charges 12 1/2 cts. each admission, and as his room generally crowded, it can be presumed that in conjunction with his speculations upon the book new in the course of publication, he will make a handsome fortune for these hard times.

According to his statement, it is the determination of Joe Smith to establish a government independent of the laws of the United States. What sheer nonsense, when he himself is amenable to those laws.

Note: "What sheer nonsense..., etc." -- One can only wonder whether the Gazette editor later paid any attention to Elder Rigdon's LDS Conference discourse of April 6, 1844 -- or to subsequent disclosures regarding the secret political goals of the Nauvoo Council of Fifty, etc.


Vol. III.                         Bloomington, I. T., Friday, December 2, 1842.                         No. 5.


We learn from the late English papers that the number of these deluded followers of Joe Smith, is greatly on the increase in Great Britain. -- Thousands are preparing to embark for this country, to join their leaders at the Head Quarters of Mormonism -- the city of Nauvoo.

It is supposed that upwards of five thousand converts to Mormonism have already emigrated, and that quite as many more will leave England for America before spring. -- Sangamo Jour.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, December 17, 1842.                    No. 22.

In another part of our columns will be found a succinct account of "Mormonism," taken from the Boston Bulletin, on a review of the work recently published at New York, by Gen. Bennett, giving a history of the rise and progress of the "Latter Day Saints," and its licentious and evil propensities. We presume that many of our readers [have] already been made acquainted with the story of this doctrine, now preached and promulgated [throughout] the United States, as well as that of England, by a deluded set of followers of Joe Smith; yet there appears still a large number, who to the present day, are strangers as to how this mysterious doctrine first originated; by giving it a careful perusal the reader will be made acquainted with its origin.


The discovery of the book of gold is thus related: -- "He repaired to the place of deposite and demanded the book, which was in a stone box, and so near the top of the groud that he could see one end of it, and raising it up took out the book of gold; but fearing some might discover where he got it, he laid it down to place back the top stone as he found it; and turning round, to his surprise there was no book in sight. He again opened the box, and in it saw the book and attempted to take it out, but was hindered. He saw in the box, something like a toad, which assumed the appearance of a man and struck him on the side of the head. Not being discouraged at trifles, he again stooped down and strove to take the book, when the spirit struck him again and knocked him three or four rods, and hurt him prodigiously."

The "Golden Bible," or Book of Mormon, was first published in 1830, being written much in the style of the Old Testament, and giving an account of the departure of the Lost Tribe of Israel from Jerusalem under command of Nephi and Lehi -- their journey by land and sea, till they arrived in America -- their quarrels and contentions until the Nephites were entirely destroyed by the children of Lehi, who afterwards dwindled in unbelief, and became a dark, lothsome, and filthy people -- to wit, the American Indians.

The first Mormon Church consisted of six members; and after a number of converts the prophet received a revalation [sic.] from Heaven, that the "Saints" should remove to Kirtland, Ohio, and there take up their abode. Many obeyed the command -- selling their possessions, and helping each other to settle in the spot designated. The place was the Head Quarters of the church and the residence of the Prophet until 1838.

The leaders in this comunity having become deeply involved in debt, by trading and their efforts to erect a Temple, in 1837 the far famed Kirtland Bank was put into operation without a charter. When the notes were first issued, they were current in the vicinity, and Smith took advantage of their credit to pay off with them the debts, he, and the brethren had contracted in the neighborhood for land, &c. -- The eastern creditors, however, refused to take them. This led to the expedient of exchanging for the notes of other banks. -- Accordingly, the elders were sent off throÕ the country, to barter off Kirtland money, which they did, with great zeal, and continued the operation, until the notes were not worth twelve and half cents to the dollar. As might have been expected, this institution, after a few months exploded, involving Smith and his brethren in inextricable difficulties. The consequence was, that he and most of the members of the church, set off in the spring of 1838, for Far West, Mo., being pursued by their creditors, but to no effect.

Previous to the breaking up of the community at Kirtland, a portion of the faithful had emigrated to Missouri, where having become very arrogant, claiming the land as their own by a title directly from the Lord, and making the most haughty assumptions -- they had so exasperated the citizens, that in several places where they attempted to locate, mobs were raised to drive them from the country. Smith and his associates from Kirtland, brought them to a stand. His Apostles and Elders were instructed to preach that it was the will of the Lord, that all his followers should assemble in Caldwell county, Mo., and possess the kingdom -- that power would be given them to do so, and the children of God were not required to go to war at their own expense. It was estimated that the Mormons now numbered in this country, and in Europe, about 40,000. The scenes of depredation which brought on the Missouri war -- struggle between the Mormons and civil authorities of the state -- are matter of history. The result was their entire expulsion from the state -- and the capture of Smith and several of the ringleaders, who after several months' imprisonment, found means of making their escape to Illinois, whither their comrades had been driven.

The Mormons, as a body arrived in Illinois in the early part of 1839. At this time they presented a spectacle of destitution and wretchedness, almost unexampled. This, privation, wrought powerfully upon the sympathies of the citizens, and caused them to be received with the greatest hospitality and kindness. In the winter of 1840 -- they applied to the legislature of this state to charter the City of Nauvoo, which is situated on the Mississippi River at the head of the Lower Rapids -- a site equal in beauty to any on the river. -- They asked also, for other and peculiar chartered privileges, and such was the desire to secure their political favor, that they were granted for the asking. The progress of the church, from this time to May, 1842, was rapid; the city of Nauvoo having reached a population of 10,000 in number -- the legion, consisting of 2,000 soldiers, well drilled and disciplined; and the whole Mormon strength, as has been publicly stated, being about 100,000 souls. The Prophet has in frequent communion with Heaven taught that his Nauvoo was a resting place only, that there was to be a great gathering of all the Saints, to conquer Missouri, and rear the great Temple in Zion, from which they had been driven, and build the new Jerusalem there.

The story of the attempted assassination of Gov. Boggs, and the several rumors of the arrest of Joe Smith and Rockwell, together with the revolting tales of the prophet's "Amours," &c., are familiar to our readers.

The true origin of the Book of Mormon, is this: Solomon Spaulding, of Conneaught, Ohio, during his leisure hours, wrote for his own amusement, a historical romance, which he read in manuscript to several personal friends, who testify to its identity. He came to Pittsburgh in 1812, with the view of getting the book printed, and it was left at the office of Mr. Patterson. He was never heard from again, but how Joe Smith got possession of the manuscript found remains a mystery.

Note: The opening paragraph of the Boston Bulletin article is taken from the 1833 Willard Chase account. John C. Bennett reproduced many such old anti-Mormon statements in his 1842 book. The remainder of the article appears to be original reporting, based in part upon Bennett's account.


Vol. III.                            Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, December 29, 1842.                          No. 4.


...Much feeling exists upon the subject of the extraordinary powers granted to the Mormons; and a strong effort is on foot to bring about a repeal of the Nauvoo Charter; but the brother of Joe Smith, who is a member of the House, rehearsed to the locofocos the great help they have derived from Mormon votes, and it is thought the charter will be sustained.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Across the River from Nauvoo: Keokuk, Iowa, (late 1840s)

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 5, 1843.                       No. 32.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 19, 1843.                         No. 34.


A friend of ours visited Nauvoo on Monday last. Jo Smith was bragging of his recent release, and the Mormons seemed as fond of him as ever. The story in the eastern papers about the completion of the temple is all a hoax. Our informant with others, went into some of the cells under the temple which are separated by walls several feet thick. Some think these are intended as sleeping rooms for obdurate anti-Mormons.

Note: This item has not yet been located. The text is a composite of various reprints, including one from the Milwaukee Sentinel of Feb. 8, 1843. The Rochester Daily Democrat of Feb. 9, 1843 reprinted the same item, prefaced with another short quote from the Iowa paper: "the Hawkeye thinks that with 'Bill Johnson at the North, Abner Kneeland at the South-west, Jo Smith at the extreme South,' Iowa must yet become a great country!"

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, January 19, 1843.                           No. 22.


Joe Smith was arrested a few days since, at Springfield, Ill., and taken for examination before Judge Pope, of the U. S. District Court on a writ of habeas corpus, in the Boggs' case, the trial resulted in his discharge.

Gen. Bennett, is at Chicago lecturing on Mormonism. He proposes to lift the curtain a little higher than usual, and endeavor to make a little more money by so doing.


We learn from the Peoria Register, that the Nauvoo Temple, the most spacious building in our State, is completed. It is said the Prophet has ordered a Tavern equally costly and splendid to be erected, which is to be called the "Nauvoo House." This is the building in which Joseph Smith and his heirs, by an act of the Legislature, are to hold a suit of rooms by "perpetual succession."

It is stated, in the Cleveland (O.) Plain Dealer, that the Mormon temple at Kirtland, has lately been dedicated anew, and that three of Joe's specially commissioned and followers, from from Nauvoo, on the 30th ult.,baptized 206 persons in a branch of the Chagrin river, at two shillings a head! Old converts were re-baptized, and their sins washed away for the same price as the young ones, making no distinction between old sheep and the lambs of the flock.  (Alton Tel.)

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, February 2, 1843.                           No. 24.


The ship Emerald from Liverpool brought a batch of 148 Mormon emigrants to the city yesterday. We wish than a safe arrival at Nauvoo, and hope they may meet with no detention to prolong their stay in this region. -- N. O. Picayune.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, March 16, 1843.                           No. ?

EDGING ALONG. It is reported that a colony of Mormons will immediately commence a new settlement at Shok-o-kon. three miles below this town, on the opposite side of the river. We understand that they have purchased several sections of land in that vicinity.

SUSPENSION. It becomes our unpleasant duty to announce to our readers, that we are now compelled to suspend the publication of the Hawkeye for a few weeks. We are out of paper, and there is none in town of the size we use for sale; and if there was any -- owing to the backwardness of our subscribers -- we have no money to pay for it.

Note 1: Shockoquon (or Shokokon Landing), lies on the western edge of Carman township, Henderson County, Illinois. It is depicted on Mitchell's 1838 map of Illinois as hosting the intersection of roads converging on the ferry crossing (over the Mississippi) to Burlington. Apostle Amasa M. Lyman was residing there at the time James G. Edwards published the above news report. The Hawkye editor evidently knew something more than sparse gossip placing Joseph Smith, Jr. at that riverside village a month previous (see Iowa Territorial Gazette report paraphrased in Davenport Gazette of May 18, 1843). Smith's personal history for Feb. 16, 1843 reads: "After breakfast we proceeded towards Shokoquon... After dinner, at McQueen's Mills, we went to Shokoquon; viewed the place, and found it a very desirable location for a city..." (Deseret News, Apr. 30, 1856). His entry for on March 4th contains a fragment of failed prophecy "...There is a wheel, Nauvoo is the hub, we will drive the first spoke [i. e. LDS "meeting house" and congregation] in Ramus, second in La Harpe, third in Shokoquon, fourth in Lima, that is half the wheel; the other half is over the river, we will let that alone at present; we will call the saints from Iowa to these spokes, then send elders over [to Iowa] and convert the whole people..." (Deseret News, May 28, 1856). -- However, Apostle Lyman soon moved away; no chapel was built; no "elders" sent across the river to convert the Hawkeye Gentiles -- and "Shok-o-kon" failed to blossom into a notable "colony of Mormons."

Note 2: The Mormon company's "dinner, at McQueen's Mills," was evidently had at Robert McQueen's residence, only a few minutes travel south of Shockoquon/Shokokon. No record survives to indicate Mr. McQueen ever becoming a Mormon, however. It must have been late in the day when the Mormons finally toured their hopeful colony grounds. Their tour was evidently a short one and there is no mention of Apostle Lyman's family hosting the Nauvoo visitors. If Smith thought it was a "very desirable location for a city," he must have not taken the time to inspect the shallow waters of the inadequate steamboat landing very carefully.

Note 3: Edwards' suspension of the Hawkye and Patriot ran from March 23rd to May 25th. He resumed publication on June 1, 1843 with Vol. IV: 42, as a "new series no. 1." His Vol. V. commenced on Aug. 10th, with a masthead bearing the shortened title of "Hawk-Eye."



Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, March 17, 1843.                           No. 20.

The Missouri Reporter of the 7th instant says, "O. P. Rockwell, who has been charged with having attempted to [assassinate] Ex-Governor Boggs, of that State, last summer, was arrested in this city yesterday. He had just returned from the east, and entered his name at the stage office for Jacksonville, Illinois, intending to leave as soon as possible for Nauvoo. He is said to be one of the band of Danites who are employed by Jo Smith to execute vengeance on all who assail the Church of Latterday Saints. Gen. Bennett has pledged himself to prove that Rockwell is the person who endeavored to assassinate Ex-Governor Boggs, and that the Mormon prophet was the instigator of the deed. It is reported that he will be taken to Independence, where the crime was committed, there to await a judicial investigation of the charge made against him. He had been travelling under the assumed names of French and Riley."

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, March 18, 1843.                    No. 38.

ARREST OF ROCKWELL. -- The St. Louis Republican, of the 7th inst., says, "Our readers will recollect that Ex-Gov. Boggs, of this State, was shot at, last fall at his residence in Jackson county. Fortunately the ball did not produce death, but the assassins escaped undetected. Governor Reynolds having obtained information, which induced the belief that it was the work of Orrin Porter Rockwell, of Nauvoo, offered a large reward for his apprehension. Joe Smith was also supposed to instigate the affair -- Rockwell being the instrument employed by Smith to effect his diabolical purposes. The officers of justice have kept a sharp look out for Rockwell since the Proclamation was made, but all efforts for his apprehension have proven unavailing until Sunday last, when he was taken in this city. Sufficient proof[s] of his identity were made, and he has been taken to Jefferson City to be delivered to the State authorities. He will, no doubt, be dealt with as he deserves, if his guilt is sufficiently established. His trial will take place, we suppose, in Jackson county, the place where the attempted assassination was made. We hear that he has been paying a flying visit to the Eastern States since a reward has been offered for him. If he be guilty, too much praise cannot be bestowed upon those who have been instrumental in apprehending him and bringing him to a just and well deserved punishment.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, March 23, 1843.                          No. 31.

ORRIN PORTER ROCKWELL, who stands charged with an attempt to assassinate ex-Governor Boggs, last summer, was yesterday arrested in this city, shortly after the landing of the steamboat Utica. He is from the East, where he passed, and up to the time of his arrival here, by the name of French. Yesterday he entered his name at the stage office for Jacksonville as Riley. We learn that a passage has been taken from in the stage for Independence, when the crime was committed, and that he will leave on Wednesday next. Rockwell is one of the Mormons to whom Jo Smith is said to extend his countenance [sic - confidence?] and protection, and by whom he is employed in such acts of crime as the one whereof he stands charged. -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, April 6, 1843.                            No. 33.


Joe Smith the prophet of the Mormons, has addressed the following impious epistle to his disciples through the columns of the Nauvoo paper. Millerism can hide its diminished head so far as it is upheld by this arch deceiver's disciples: --

To the Editor of the Times and Seasons:
      Sir: Among the many signs of the times and other strange things, which are continually agitating the minds of men, I notice a small speculation in the Chicago Express, upon the certificate of one Hiram Redding, of Ogle county, stating that he has seen the sign of the son of man in heaven, as foretold in the 24th Matt. The slanderous allusion of a "seraglio," like the Grand Turk, which the editor applies to me, he may take to himself, for "out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." Every honest man who has visited the city of Nauvoo since it existed, can bear record of better things and place me in the front ranks of those who are known to do good for the sake of goodness and show all liars hypocrites and abominable creatures, that while vice sinks them down to darkness, and and woe; virtue exalts me and the saints to light and immortality.

The editor as well as some others "thinks that Joe Smith has his match at last," because Mr. Redding certificates that he has seen the sign of the son of man. But I shall use my right, and declare, that notwithstanding Mr. Redding may have seen a wonderful appearance in the clouds, one morning about sunrise, (which is nothing very uncommon in the winter season) he has not seen the sign of the son of son of man, as foretold by Jesus, neither nor any man, nor will any men, till after the sun shall have been darkened and the noon bathed in blood, for the Lord hath not shown me any such sign, and, as the prophet saith, so it must be: Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets. (See Amos 3:7) Therefore, -- hear this, O earth, the Lord will not come to reign over the righteous, in this world, in 1843, nor until everything for the bridegroom is ready.        
JOSEPH SMITH.                 

Note 1: The above item was either copied from the St. Louis Evening Gazette, or, perhaps from the Nauvoo Times and Seasons itself. The Gazette reprint included this wry comment: "The Second Advent believers may now shut their mouths in silence else their 'labors will be in vain,' and those who have been so much alarmed by their doctrines, cannot but be under lasting obligations to the prophet for relieving them from this dread suspense." The "Chicago Express" version of the report has not been located, but it was probably that paper's editor who (having published various items from John C. Bennett, earlier in the year) applied the polygamous "seraglio" accusation to Joseph Smith's domestic life.

Note 2: Hiram Redding of "Daysville, Ogle Co., Illinois," appears to have been a Millerite. His professed vision (reported in the Saint Charles Patriot and Fox River Herald of Jan. 29, 1843) was "certified" to have occurred "on Friday morning, the 20th inst." [of January, that is] "between 4 and 5 o'clock."

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, April 13, 1843.                          No. 34.

NAUVOO ABOLISHED.-- In the Illinois legislature the Senate has repealed the law creating the Nauuvoo Legion military corps. They also repealed the charter of the Mormon City of Nauvoo. The vote in favor of the latter was 22 to 11.

Note: The Davenport editor seems to have fallen for an April Fool's joke -- see the April 1, 1843 issue of Niles Register

Vol. II.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 18, 1843.                            No. 39.


This announcement at a time when the world of news appears at a stand, will perhaps occasion surprise, but we merely wish the cap to title a delusion which has broken out near the western part of this county. A Mr. Hinkle, who is said to have been formerly a Mormon, but has left them, has located himself near Blue Grass and begun propagating a new religion. Four have already been baptised into this man's opinionswhich are after this manner: After baptism he lays his hands upon their heads when they receive power from on high to prophecy, cure the sick, heal the lame, and perform miracles as did the Apostles. In their meeting they give the holy kiss, wash one enother's feet, &c. This delusion throws that of Joe Smith's into the shade. If the above are not Mr. Hinkle's opinions we trust that he will inform us, as we obtain the information from the most undoubted source.


The Burl. [Iowa Territorial] Gazette notes as an interesting circumstance a visit from a party of Mormon ladies and a gentleman. Among them was Joe Smith, who so excluded himself that but a few got sight of this august person. The object of their visit, it appears, was to view the sight of Shockokon -- some six miles below Burlington on the Illinois side -- which they had purchased, with the intention of building a town there. The editor of the Gazette describes the persons composing the party as "Fine-looking fashionable and apparently refined and accomplished as any one of good taste would wish to see on a summer's day."

Note: Robert Bruce Flanders, in his 1965 Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi, offers these remarks: "On February 10, 1843. a possibility for further [Mormon church] expansion opened when the Prophet was visited by a Mr. Cowan, emissary from the citizens of Shokoquon (or Shokokon), a place twenty miles up river in Henderson County. They wanted Smith to send 'a talented Mormon preacher' to reside among them; they would provide him a good house and support, and "accord him liberty" to invite as many Saints there as he would. A brother John Bear was dispatched to preach, and Smith began to consider the possibilities of a new Mormon town there, especially when 'Mr. Cowan proposed to give me one-fourth of the city lots in Shokoquon.' Six days later Smith, Orson Hyde, and others visited the place and 'found it a very desirable location for a city.' However, it failed to develop." -- According to Donald Q. Cannon, "a few Mormons" were still living at Shokoquon, as late as mid-July, 1846; but within a matter of weeks they had departed. -- For more on the failed Mormon colonization plans for Shokoquon, Illinois, see comments appended to the Hawkeye article for Mar. 16, 1843.

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 25, 1843.                           No. 40.

Singular Discovery -- Material
for another Mormon Book.

(view original article from Illinois paper.)

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 1, 1843.                           No. 42.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, June 3, 1843.                       No. 46.

Another New Doctrine. -- A new delusion has broken out, says the Davenport Gazette, near the western part of this Territory which will perhaps occasion surprise, and throw Joe Smith into the shades. A Mr. Henkle [sic], who is said to have been formerly a Mormon, but has left them, has located himself near Blue Grass and began propagating a new religion. Four have already been baptised in this man's opinions, which are after this manner: -- After baptism he lays his hands upon their heads when they receive power from on high to prophecy, cure the sick, heal the lame, and perform miracles as did the Apostles. In their meeting they give the holy kiss, wash one another's feet, &c. There most certainly [must] be some pleasure in belonging to this new doctrine, for one can't object [to] kissing a sweet and lively young Miss.

Note 1: For more on the fate of splinter group leader George M. Hinkle and his Iowa Saints, see the May 8, 1845 issue of the Buffalo Daily Courier.

Note 2: The infamous ex-Mormon, John C. Bennett, took enough interest in Hinkle's church to visit with that group later in the year. See the Hawkeye news reports for Oct. 26, 1843 and Dec. 7, 1843.

Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Saturday, June 24, 1843.                           No. ?

CITY OF NAUVOO. -- We paid a flying visit to this city of the Latter Day Saints on Saturday last. It is situated at one of the most beautiful points on the river, and is improving with a rapidity truly astonishing. Many of the houses are built in fine style, evincing wealth as well as taste. -- The city is daily receiving accessions to its population from the Eastern States, and from Europe, and it is estimated that it already numbers from 15 to 17,000 inhabitants. -- This is certainly a surprising fact when we recollect that it is but four years since the Mormons first made a settlement there.

The Temple, which is destined to be the most magnificent structure in the West, is progressing rapidly, and will probably be completed in the course of the present and succeeding summer. Its style of architecture is entirely original -- unlike any thing in the world, or in the history of the world -- but is at the same time chaste and elegant. It is said to be the conception of the prophet, Gen. Smith. It is being built by the voluntary labor of the members of the church, who devote a certain number of days in the year to the work. If the labor and materials were estimated at cash prices, it is supposed that the building would cost something like a million of dollars.

Note: The Gazette's editor's "flying visit" to Nauvoo, evidently occurred on June 17th. -- Some eastern reprints included these introductory words: "Few, we suspect, are aware of the rapid growth and present condition of the city of Nauvoo, the Jerusalem of the Latter day Saints."

Vol. IV.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 29, 1843.                       No. 45.

[...a rumor has been in circulation...  that the Prophet has been arrested at Ottawa] ... An Illinoian, to obtain the reward of $1,000, offered by the authorities of Missouri for Joe's apprehension, had joined the Mormons and become intimate with the Prophet. He extended to him an invitation to take a jaunt across the county of Ottawa, and there lodged him in jail.

Note 1: This Hawkeye report has not yet been located. The above excerpt was taken from a copy printed in the Rochester Daily Democrat of July 14th. That paper's reprint ended with: "the report was also prevalent here that an armed force of the Mormons had started from Nauvoo to liberate him."

Note 2: For a detailed, personal account, see the July 10th letter of Joseph H. Reynolds to the St. Louis Old School Democrat (partly reprinted in the July 31, 1843 New-York Spectator)


Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, June 30, 1843.                           No. 35.


We learn that Joe Smith was lately indicted in some of the upper counties in this State for treason and murder, growing out of the Mormon war. Immediately thereafter a writ was issued and a messenger despatched to Springfield, Ill., with a requisition from the Governor of Illinois for the arrest and delivery of Smith. It was intended to keep the whole proceeding a secret to procure Joe's arrest; but in some way or other the Mormons at Springfield got wind of what was coming on, and despatched a messenger to Smith at Nauvoo. We are told that Smith has left for parts unknown, or at least keeps himself so concealed that he cannot be arrested.

It is reported that Rockwell, who is in jail at Independence for the attempted assassination of Governor Boggs, has signified a willingness to turn States evidence and reveal the whole plot and actors. If this be true, it probably furnishes an additional motive for Smith to keep out of the clutches of the law. -- Mo. Repub.

It is rumored that Jo was arrested at Peru, on the Illinois river, and that a large number of Mormons, armed and [equipped], chartered the Maid of Iowa, and put out, as they said, to see justice is done him, but the supposition is that their object is to rescue him or assist him in making his escape.

Note: The June 31st issue of the Missouri Republican continued its reporting thusly: "Great excitement at Nauvoo! Arrest of Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet. -- News was brought last evening by the steamer Osprey that Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, has been arrested and placed in gaol at Ottawa; and further, that when the intelligence reached Nauvoo 200 horsemen of the Legion started immediately for Ottawa with the intention of liberating him. The steam-boat Iowa has also been chartered at Nauvoo by the Mormons, and is at present ascending Illinois river with 150 armed men to second the attack on Ottawa. Ottawa is situated up the Illinois, and is distant about 200 miles from this city. We believe Smith has been travelling in the northern part of the state, for the purpose of keeping from the arrest made under the requisition of the governor of this state, which accounts for his being lodged in gaol at Ottawa."


Vol. II.                           Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, July 1, 1843.                           No. 50.

rumor... Smith taken to Missouri... "[Mormons] up in arms and a civil war is about to commence"

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                    Bloomington, I. T., Friday, July 7, 1843.                     No. 36.

The last rumors concerning Jo. Smith are that he is enjoying [his] sweet liberty in Nauvoo, and that his captors, instead of getting Jo. among the hostile Missourians, are themselves in the lock-up.

Note 1: The St. Louis Bulletin of July 3rd reported: "The Mormons have conducted the false prophet to Nauvoo, where they will strengthen their military position, and wait the action of the state authorities. They are now too strong for any force Judge Lynch can bring against them."

Note 2: The Illinois Free Trader of July 7th attempted to clarify the situation: "It is not true that Smith has been lodged lodged at Ottawa, or that he was here at all; nor, we apprehend, is it true that 200 horsemen started from Nauvoo for Ottawa with the intention of liberating him; or that 150 armed men were ascending the Illinois river in the steamboat Iowa, second the attack on Ottawa; or that Smith, previous to his arrest, was travelling in the northern part of the state for the purpose of keeping from arrest... he was in the northern part of the state, on a visit to his sister [sic - sister-in-law?], at Inlet Grove, in Lee county... Gen. Smith... commenced a suit against the sheriff from Missouri for tresspass and held him to bail; which he was unable to procure..."


Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Saturday, July 8, 1843.                             No. ?

... Many of our citizens spent the fourth among the saints at Nauvoo. They returned much pleased with the visit. They were escorted by the military from the landing to the Temple, where seats had been reserved for them. Two boats, with five or six hundred passengers, from Warsaw, Quincy and St. Louis, also arrived about the same time, and thus swelled the number of invited quests to a thousand or more. The city itself of course turned out with its thousands, rendering the ceremonies of the day highly interesting. The prophet (General Smith) made a speech to the immense multitude...

Note: The Nauvoo Neighbor of July 5, 1843 offered these comments: "Yesterday was a happy day for Nauvoo... A constant accession of numbers swelled the congregation to 15,000, as near as could be estimated; and at 2 o'clock they were addressed by Elder Parley P. Pratt, in a masterly discourse; followed by President Joseph Smith, upon the subject of the late arrest and persecution, who clearly vindicated his innocence and showed up the corruption of his pursuers in a true light."

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, July 20, 1843.                           No. 48.


The editor of the Cuyahoga Falls True American says he conversed with a gentleman a day or two since, who had lately visited the Mormon Prophet, who states that there now at Nauvoo, congregated from all parts of the world, some 17, or 18,000 souls -- in a miserable, wretched, condition, subject to the order of Smith. While hundreds become dissatisfied with the represented "Promised Land," and leave for a better 'heritage,' their places are filling up by fresh converts in a wicked system of delusion. The great temple, estimated to cost half a million dollars, has advanced about 14 feet in the walls.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 27, 1843.                          No. 50.

Burlingtonians at Nauvoo. -- A party of nearly one hundred -- principally Gentlemen -- went to the celebration at Nauvoo on the 4th inst. -- "Joe's Life Guards" escorted Col. Devo and the Burlingtonians. We learn there were several thousand on the ground, and that the celebration had nothing very striking or interesting, unless a sight of the tag, rag and bob tail of all creation, be considered interesting. Our citizens were satisfied, we hope, with the honors conferred upon them by the celebrated humbug of a Prophet, "Jo Smith."

Note: The above transcript may be incomplete. -- Nauvoo Neighbor of July 5, 1843 printed a passing mention of these same Iowa visitors: "Yesterday was a happy day for Nauvoo... Joseph Smith [spoke] upon the subject of the late arrest... Three steamers arrived in the afternoon -- one from St. Louis, one from Quincy and one from Burlington -- beinging, altogether, about 900 visiting ladies and gentlemen..."


Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 4, 1843.                           No. 40.

ILLINOIS. -- The great battle is to be fought in the State on Monday next. The contest in the three northern districts will be warm and close. In the whole district, J. P. Hoge, Dem. is opposed by Cyrus Walker, Whig. -- As the Mormons hold the balance of power, which way they will conclude to turn the scale is a matter of doubt. Walker took a very lively interest in behalf of Joe Smith while under his late arrest, and may have made many friends among them by that manoeuvre, who, but for his apparent disinterestedness, would not have supported him.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 10, 1843.                          No. 51.


The fall election for Congressmen took place in this state on last Monday. It is impossible to tell so soon which party will elect its candidate, though we predict from Nauvoo returns that the Locos will have a large majority. The following minute came up on the Galena Tuesday evening: "At 12 o'clock Monday 700 votes had been polled at Nauvoo, 629 of which were for Hoge the Locofoco nominee." The passengers stated that the suffrage of the Mormons was given for Hoge in consequence of a pretended revelation received by that arch imposter, Sydney Rigdon, that Hoge would be elected. What blasphemy.

Note: The Davenport paper was evidently the first in Iowa Territory to break the news, concerning the outcome of the August 7th election in Illinois. The reference to Sidney Rigdon was obviously a mistake. Rigdon was Such "pretended revelation" can only be attributed to Hyrum Smith. The result, however, was a congressional victory for the "locofoco" Joseph P. Hoge (Hodge). Naturally the Whig newspaper editors felt stung by this development. Kenneth W. Godfrey (in his 1967 "Causes of Mormon Non-Mormon Conflict in Hancock County, Illinois") mentions that the papers "charged the Saints with meddling in politics and were very bitter in their denunciation of the entire affair." But the writer cites only the Davenport, Iowa Whig paper in this regard -- the Democratic editors in Illinois apparently saw nothing particularly "blasphemous" in this political support from the revelation-obedient LDS.


Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 11, 1843.                           No. 41.

Illinois. -- We have nothing definite from the Galena, or Northern district, which lies opposite us, but have enough, we think, to render certain the election of J. P. Hoge, Esq., the Democratic candidate for Congress. -- It has everbeen conceded by the Whigs that the Mormon vote would turn the scale, inasmuch as the other counties in the district were so nearly balanced. Indeed, Walker considered it so essential to his success, that the greatest efforts were made by himself and friends to secure it. But it was no go.

We have heard different reports from it, some that it had gone for Walker, others for Hoge; but we were yesterday morning informed by an old gentleman residing in Rock Island county, and a whig at that, that it was reported and generally credited that in the Nauvoo precinct, Hoge had received a majority of about 900. A gentleman from Galena, on the last boat which passed down, informed us that so far as heard from about Galena, Hoge was 200 ahead.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. II.                         Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 17, 1843.                           No. 52.


The dullest mental capacity can comprehend the ruse lately enacted at Nauvoo by Joe Smith to secure the election of Hoge the Local candidate. Walker, his opponent, had been Smith's counsel in the recent legal case wherein Joe was indicted for some of his villainies, and by his legal knowledge had succeeded in procuring the prophet's discharge. Joe, we suppose, felt under some obligations to reciprocate the favor, still as he desired to see the Local candidate elected, no doubt for some selfish aim, he played off the little ruse, which [in] his knavery forsaw, succeeded.

Joe voted for Walker soon after which his brother Hiram with unblanched cheek, proclaimed that he had received a revelation from God as follows: "The Lord has declared that it would be good for Hiram and his people to vote for Hoge!" When this pretended revelation had been proclaimed Joe, as previously designed, mounted the rostrum and after the usual balderdash terminated his speech with the important statement "That he had never known his brother Hiram to tell a lie!" The Mormons with their accustomed credulity heard, believed and en masse rushed to the polls with Hoge upon their lips and deception in their hearts. Who is as blind that cannot penetrate a veil so flimsy?


We learn, from good authority, that the Prophet has surrendered his office, and annointed his brother. -- Joe, for some time past, has been in deadly fear of the "Goths and Vandals" of Missouri, and he verily believes that his holy person will be more secure in performing a pilgrimage in Europe or the Rocky Mountains, than it will be to remain under the shadow of the temple, protected by that immaculate body, the Nauvoo Municipal Court. An appropriate text for the Prophet's valedictory, when he cast his mantle upon his brother, might have been found in the 109th Psalm, 6th verse -- "Set thou a wicked man over (them); and let Satan stand at his right hand." -- Alton Tel.

Note: "...performing a pilgrimage in Europe or the Rocky Mountains..." -- According to Elder Anson Call, a prophecy was voiced by Joseph Smith, at Montrose, Iowa, on July 14, 1843. The jist of this Iowa prediction to the Saints was something like: "You will go to the Rocky Mountains and you will be a great and mighty people established there." At least Elder John J. Roberts recalled hearing such words spoken in 1843. Whether the prediction was made in 1842 or 1843 (or in Iowa or in Illinois -- or in private or at a Masonic gathering) appears to be a matter of controversy. The Reorganized LDS long argued that no such prediction could be found among the church's publications, documents, private correspondence, etc. Perhaps they thought that a true predictive prophecy would have been better remembered -- and that it would have offered some explanation for Smith and his extended family never joining in such a westward migration. At any rate, the notion of Smith pondering an escape, from Gentile justice by fleeing to the Rockies, seems to have been current along the Iowa shore in mid-1843.


Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 18, 1843.                           No. 42.

ILLINOIS. -- We are not yet in receipt of official returns from but few counties in this State, but from gentlemen who have lately been at St. Louis, where returns from the entire State are received earlier than at any other point in it, we learn that there is little or no doubt that the Democrats have succeeded in electing their Congressmen in every district except the Springfield, or central district, where Hardin, the Whig candidate has beaten McDougal, Dem. by a small majority, it is supposed will be from 700 to 1000. In the Chicago district, Wentworth's vote has fallen far short of what was expected, in consequence of the ill feeling engendered against him among the Irish population during the time the name of Dr. Murphy, their countryman, was before the people as an independent candidate. His majority will be found not to exceed 5000. The Mormons in the Quincy district voting for Browning, the Whig candidate, Douglass's majority will be a small one. We regret to learn that on Saturday last, Douglass was lying dangerously ill from a billious attack, produced, no doubt, by the fatigue of the late campaign. Browning, his competitor had been very ill, but was said to be convalescent.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 25, 1843.                           No. 43.

Considerable excitement is said to exist in Hancock county, Illinois, against the Mormons. A meeting of the people of that county was to be held at Carthage, on Saturday last, and it is feared that a serious disturbance would take place.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. V.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, August 31, 1843.                           No. 4.

ANTI-MORMON CONVENTION. -- Delegates from several of the lower counties on the Military Tract will convene at Carthage on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday next to take into consideration the propriety of adopting defensive measures in relation to the Mormons. The late refusal on the part of Gov. Ford, to issue a new writ, in compliance with the Governer of Missouri, for Joseph Smith, has awakened a spirit which we fear may end in bloodshed. The Missourians, 20,000 in number, it is said, stand ready to cooperate with the Illinoians. It is expected there will be a great crowd at Carthage on the occasion.

Note: A "Notice" in the Warsaw Message of Wednesday, Sept. 6th announced this "convention," being held in neighboring Carthage that very same day. The following issue of the Message reported that event as the "Great Meeting of Anti-Mormons."

Vol. III.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 31, 1843.                           No. 2.


It would appear from a late publication in the "Times and Seasons" that Russia -- Far off Russia -- is to be no longer in darkness. It contains the recommendatory letters of Joe Smith, appointing G. J. Adams to accompany Elder Hyde on a mission to St. Petersburg, Russia, to be one of the messengers to introduce the fullness of the glorious gospel of the Son of God, to the people of that vast empire.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. III.                  Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 7, 1843.                   No. 3.

We learn by a gentleman from Warsaw that a meeting of the people of Hancock Co., to be held at Carthage, was called for to-day to take into consideration their relations with the Mormons. It is said that a good deal of excitement exists against them, and apprehensions of a serious riot and outbreak were entertained. The People of that section of the state are as heartily tired of the Mormons as ever the citizens of Missouri were, but they have suffered them to obtain so strong a foothold that no power exists which can deprive them their possessions, or induce them to abandon their present residence. -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, September 2, 1843.                    No. 7.

...Smith's opponents... decided to "take matters into their own hands" to prevent his lawlessness...

(under construction)

Note: Compare this sentiment to reflections published shortly after his assassination -- for example, in the Bloomington Herald of July 5, 1844: "It matters not what may have been the misdeeds of Smith, they cannot be offered in palliation of this horrid crime...


Vol. III.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, September 9, 1843.                    No. 8.


We have just learned that the great Anti-Mormon meeting at Carthage, Illinois came off on Wednesday last. Much excitement prevailed during the meeting, many speeches were made, and a number of resolutions adopted. Among other things it was resolved that there should be no more "revelations" about election times, or if so, that the Mormons must depart from the county. Indeed we have heard that a committee had been appointed by the meeting to warn them to leave. The meeting numbered about 500 to 600 persons. The Mormons can poll in Hancock county about 2000 or 3000 votes. Rather too great a number to be much alarmed by their Carthagenian brethren...

Note 1: The growing Mormon presence in Hancock County, Illinois and across the river, in Lee County, Iowa Territory, must indeed have then seemed "too great a number" to be threatened by hostile Gentiles. Nevertheless the great Carthage meeting of Sept. 6, 1843 proved to be a watershed moment in the evolution of the anti-Mormon backlash. The Saints at Nauvoo and the regions round about were not so cohesive, nor so formidable as outward appearances might have suggested -- within a matter of months they would be abandoning their New Jerusalem.

Note 2: An Iowa correspondent, writing to the New-York Tribune from Keokuk on Aug. 27, 1843 communicated well the mood of the times: "The Mormons have had a great accession to their numbers this Spring and Summer, mostly English. The City of Nauvoo has become the receptacle of many thousands of poor, deluded fanatics, who are deceived, robbed and oppressed by their corrupt and designing leaders, in a manner that is truly revolting to the Christian, Patriot and Philanthropist. I regard that people as combining the elements of an explosion that will, sooner or later, reduce them, as a sect or society, to a state of chaos and anarchy. There seems to be already the premonitory symptoms of a convulsion among them. Many are the spirits that hesitate not to manifest their disaffection and disloyalty to their prophet and leader."

Vol. V.                             Burlington, I. T., Saturday, September 9?, 1843.                           No. ?


We learn that a number of Delegates were in attendance at Carthage Wednesday last. The resolutions were of the strongest kind. They declared that if Gov. Ford would not surrender "Joe Smith" on the requisition of the Governor of Missouri -- which he has refused to do from political considerations -- that they would call in aid from other counties and other States, to assist them in delivering him up. [---] the rumors were prevalent that a number of citizens [had had] their lives threatened by the Mormons, the meeting resolved to avenge any blood that might be so shed. They agreed not to obey the mandates of the Mormon officers of the county, who have been put in power by the Mormons, the whole county treasury being now at their disposal. There is considerable excitement -- the crisis seems to be rapidly approaching -- and we greatly fear the consequences. All may be remedied, if the Mormons, as a religious body, will but eschew politics and amlgamate with our citizens -- but we fear it is too late to do even that.

Note: The St. Louis New Era of Tues., Sept. 12th reproduced the above Hawk-Eye comments, crediting them to a "Saturday" issue of that Iowa paper: so, the Burlington editor must have issued an "extra" on Saturday, and his preliminary report must have appeared on Sept. 9th.

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 21, 1843.                         No. 5.


At a public meeting of the citizens of Hancock county without distinction of party, held at Carthage on 7th inst., after a preamble stating the grievances sustained by the people from the Mormons, who as they say, "under the sacred garb of Christianity, assumed, as we honestly believe, that they may the more easily, under such a cloak, perpetrate the most lawless and diabolical deeds, that have ever, in any age of the world, disgraced the human species," a number of resolutions were adopted, from which we select the following, which show the feeling of the meeting and the people generally. We have long expected that the smothered indignation of the people in the neighborhood of Nauvoo would burst into flames, that the crisis is approaching.

A fearful state of society must that be, where the citizens are forced to take the law into their own hands. We trust that they will find the laws of their government strong enough without having to resort to violence:

That inasmuch as we honestly believe that the combination of people calling themselves Mormons, or latter-day saints, have given strong indications, in their recent movements, that they are unwilling to submit to the ordinary restraints of law; we are therefore forced to the conclusion that the time is not far distant, when the citizens of this county will be compelled to assert their rights in some way.

Resolved. That while we should deprecate anything like lawless violence, without justifiable cause; yet we do pledge ourselves in the most solemn manner, to resist all the wrongs, which may be hereafter, attempted to be imposed on this community by the Mormons, to the utmost of our ability; peaceably if we can, but forcibly if we mot.

Resolved. That in the event of our being forced into a collision with that People, we pledge ourselves, that we will stand by and support each other, in every emergency, up to the death. Resolved. That we believe that it is also in the interest of our friends in the neighboring counties; and also in the neighboring states, to begin to take a firm and decided stand. Against the high pretentious and base designs of this latter-day latter-day would-be Mahomet.

Resolved. That provided we must necessarily, for the well-being of this community; the protection of our dearest rights and the preservation of [our] excellent institutions, adopt measures to humble the pride and arrogance of that audacious despot; we therefore call upon all good and honest men without distinction of party or place to come to the rescue.

Resolved. That it has been too common for several years past, for politicians of both political parties, not only of this county, but likewise of the State, to go to Nauvoo and truckle to the head of the Mormon clan, for their influence, we pledge ourselves, that we will not support any man, in future, who shall thus debase themelves.

Resolved. That if the Mormons carry out the threats they have made in regard to the lives of several of our citizens, we will, if failing to obtain speedy redress from the law of the land, take summary and signal vengeance upon them as a people.

Resolved. That when the Government ceases to afford protection, the citizens of courage fall back upon their original and inherent right of self-defence.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 5, 1843.                   No. 9.  (ns 19)

On the road from Warsaw? to Ft. Madison, during our recent trip, we saw millions of army worms. They were travelling east and were coming from the direction of Nauvoo. -- They are not the only destructive emisaries from the direction of Nauvoo.

Note: The Davenport Gazette editor copied the above item into his issue for Oct. 12th. The last sentence may have been his addition.


Vol. III.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, October 5, 1843.                           No. 40.


The Sangamo Journal, Springfield, Illinois, says: "We learn from various sources, of an application by Gen. Joseph Smith to Gov. Thomas Ford, for orders to keep the Nauvoo Legion in readiness to meet an apprehended attack from Missouri upon Nauvoo, for the purpose of obtaining possession of Joseph Smith. To obtain these orders, it is understood that documents have been sent to the Governor, probably some letters from persons in the neighborhood of Independence, Mo. going to show, that an expedition of some thousands of men was in contemplation for the purposes specified."

It is not known if the Governor has granted the request.

Note: Evidently this report was taken from the Sangamo Journal of Sept. 28th. The original Illinois clipping has not yet been located.

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 12, 1843.                         No. 8.


The St. Louis New Era mentions the arrival in that city of a large number of Mormons, who took passage for New Orleans, whence, doubtless, they will proceed to England, "having become disgusted with Joe Smith and his revelries."

The Hawkeye says. -- "On the road from Warsaw to Ft. Madison, during our recent trip, we saw millions of army worms. They were travelling east and were coming from the direction of Nauvoo."

They are not the only destructive emisaries "from the direction of Nauvoo."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 19, 1843.                   No. 11.  (ns 21)

The Mormons. -- Although much complaint has been made about the Mormons, we saw on our late trip evidences of improvement on our prairies, which we consider highly creditable to the Mormons who made them, and without whom we doubt whether they would have been made for many years to come. All those who have travelled over the large prairie between fort Madison, Warsaw, and Carthage, remember how dreary it was a few years since. Now it is studded with houses and good farms. The English, who understand hedging and ditching far better than our people, have gone upon that prairie and have enclosed extensive fields in this manner. Along the old Rock Island Trace, which we travelled seven years ago, and which was then a dreary waste, we saw a field enclosed with a good sod fence, six miles long and one wide. We think such enterprise is worthy to be mentioned. As long as the Mormons are harmless and do not interfere with the rights of our people, we think they should be treated well. We shall never convince them that they are a deluded people, as far as their religious notions are concerned, in any other way.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, October 19, 1843.                           No. 42.


One of Joe Smith's holy clan, as we see by our southern papers, finding that the late disclosures of Mormonism by Bennett, had the effect of shaking the faith of his followers, determined to set his brain to work to invent a scheme how to recover the lost confidence of his congregation, cost what it may. For this purpose he procured a dove, and taught the bird to fly to him and eat from his ears, in which he placed the grain that served for his daily food. Having, as he thought, sufficiently trained the bird, he gave out that on the next Sabbath, after lecturing, he would prove by a miracle, that he was the prophet of God.

The time came -- the Meeting House was crowded -- one of Erin's unsophisticated sons had been procured under promise of eternal secrecy to hide himself in the garret, and to let the messenger of peace fly at the word of command. All was well arranged; with a countenance lit up with confidence of success, the Latter Day Saint began his exhortation; pronounced Bennett a scoundrel; a liar and imposter; and to prove his assertions, he with a loud voice, called on Heaven to send down its holy spirit in the form of a dove, as it appeared hovering over our Saviour when baptised in the river Jordan. A dead silence prevailed: -- each eye was fixed with a superstitious awe on the excited prophet, who with extended arms loudly called for the Holy Ghost. Again and again he called, but still no answer was made; at last, fearful that his Hibernian agent in the loft had not heard him, he fairly burst forth, as he frantically clapped his hands and stamped his foot. "Holy Ghost, appear!"

When lo! and behold, the Irishman's red phiz protruded through a crack of the ceiling and addressed the discomfited prophet in this wise:

"Arrah, your reverence, how can the Holy Ghost be [making] his appearance? Hasn't the cat ate him? -- Bee.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 26, 1843.                   No. 9.  (ns 22)

GEN. BENNETT, formerly the friend and confident of "Joe Smith," passed up on one of the boats last week. It is said that he has gone to join the Hinkleites in the northern part of this Territory. They are not much better than the Mormons, if we have been rightly informed.

Note: The Davenport Gazette editor copied the above item into his issue for Nov. 2nd, and added: "The same precisely, with the exception of the Mormon bible, "if we are correctly informed." How does it happen that Gen. Bennett has acquired knowledge enough of them to be converted [i. e. to Hinkle's sect] while so distant?" -- Elder Hinkle definitely professed the divinity of the Book of Mormon. There is no way that he would have been accepted into his subsequent association with Sidney Rigdon, had he not remained a believer.



Vol. III.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, October 27, 1843.                           No. 51.


When these deluded people were driven from their homes in Missouri, and sought shelter and protection in Adams county, Illinois, the people, without distinction of party, received them with open arms, sympathizing with them, and alleviating their distresses by liberal contributions of articles necessary for their comfort and support during the remainder of the winter. So cordially were they received and kindly treated, that all the scattered fragments of the New Jerusalem flocked thither, so that in a short time after the opening of the season, Jo. Smith found himself again in the bosom of his people, surrounded [by] kind and flattering friends. While we could but admire the generosity of hearts thus open to alleviate the distresses of an injured and persecuted people, we thought we could see, in their seemingly kind attentions, a motive not the most creditable to its [possessors], and that at no very distant day, some of the hands then open to supply them in such profusion, would be arrayed against them. -- Time was not long in developing the causes of such an unusual degree of sympathy and liberality on the part of the citizens. The Mormons began to locate themselves in [Adams] and the adjoining county of Hancock, having despaired of ever regaining their homes in Missouri. Thus seated, those who had rendered them assistance in their hours of distress, felt that it was time to make a movement towards getting a favor in return for their kindness. -- An election was approaching, and members of each of the two parties set themselves to work, in a manner as open as the circumstances would allow, to obtain their votes for their respective parties. The Mormons saw the game they were playing, and with as much cunning as was employed to ensnare them, evaded giving an answer which could be construed into a pledge to either party. A committee was appointed and sent to Washington, to lay their grievance before the President, and through him [before] Congress, asking redress. The President refused to make it the subject of a special message to Congress, and the committee returned greatly displeased with the President. Unable to smother their hostility to the man, they declared themselves to be Democrats, in State politics, and Anti-Van Buren in National. They had so equally divided the matter that both parties felt that they had something to hope from them, and feared to indulge in any disrespectful language towards them, lest they lose all assistance from them. The elections came, and they voted as above intimated. The democrats, at the presidential election, felt a little chagrined at seeing, them, as one man, vote for "Tip and Ty," thinking that the whigs had the best half of the bargain, but as the state was not lost to Van Buren by their votes, they took it pretty coolly.

With such a state of feeling towards them among their neighbors, with an occasional mutter at some outrage committed by a Mormon, and an occasional hug from an aspirant to office, matters passed with little variation until lately. In all the trials which their Prophet and leader has been compelled to pass, he has found friends in both parties, and upon his last arrest, had the assistance of a very learned gentleman, in the person of Cyrus Walker, the Whig candidate for Congress, who volunteered his services, and rode at a John Gilpin rate, to be present at his trial. He was acquitted -- the fact was heralded forth in company with the assertion that to Mr. Walker's efforts was he indebted for his deliverance. -- But all to no purpose -- the Mormons stood up a "compromise act," by voting for [Hoge].

This was too much to be longer borne in a good spirit by the Whigs. Meetings of the citizens of Hancock were soon after called, at which resolutions were adopted, threatening the Mormons with Lynch law in case another effort to arrest Jo. Smith should be resisted. -- Meetings continue to be held in their vicinity, and similar resolutions adopted.

That the Mormons, tied together as they are by false notions, should act together, is not the least surprising. It is an old adage that those who "lie down with hogs, may expect to [get up?] with fleas," so we think that those who have fondled with them, for political purposes, should not complain at being, occasionally, the sufferers from their delusion. They are a slandered, persecuted people, and unless they are treated with a more christian—like spirit than at present, persecution will increase until they will be possessed of a force sufficiently strong to give great trouble to their persecutors. We have no love for them -- we detest the principle, in any sect or denomination, which leads them to act in conceit in political metters-- equally destesting those who strive to obtain their support -- and in forming our opinions upon the merits of the Mormons, we are convinced that as a body, they are as worthy a people as their persecutors or flattering friends, yet we would as soon be co-inhabitants with the frogs and locusts sent into Egypt to torment Pharaoh, as with them, or, with any other sect of professed christiane, so acting us to [control] the political regulations of the country.

The last number of the Hawkeye says that the country around Nauvoo but a few years since a dreary waste, is now thickly settled by them, and bears the marks of industry and enterprise.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. III.                      Davenport, I. T., Thursday, November 16, 1843.                       No. 13.

"NOT MORMONS." -- Such was the novel placard on a mover's wagon that passed our office yesterday. The occupants had probably got tired of answering impertinent questions on the subject along the road, and had hung out the notification to satisfy the curious public.

By the way, a steady tide of emigration by land has been setting west the present season. Hardly an hour in the day passes without movers' wagons [in] sight, and the emigration by lakes and Rivers the present season is unusually great. Iowa and Wisconsin will soon become populous States, and new Territories will soon be organized farther removed towards the Rocky Mountains. -- Clev. Her.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. III.                      Davenport, I. T., Thursday, November 23, 1843.                       No. 14.

The St. Louis Gazette of last week remarks, that about 50 Mormons arrived in that city the day before, destined for Nauvoo. They were principally from Massachusetts.

Note: Other copies of the St. Louis item end with: "which state is already well represented at Joe's holy city." The Davenport Gazette editor did not include that line in his reprint.


Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, December 7, 1843.                   No. 18.  (ns 28)

Letter from Gen. Bennett.

The following was received several weeks since, during our absence. We now lay it before our readers, as we believe many of them are interested in every thing pertaining to the Mormons. Gen. B. it will be recollected, once belonged to that sect, and published a book in exposition of their doctrines and practices. We of course assume none of the responsibility of the statements contained in this letter; but give it as we received it.

                                          Moscow, Iowa, Oct. 28th A. D. 1843.
Mr. James G. Edwards, SIR:-- According to promise, I now address you a few lines in relation to the new doctrine of "MARRYING FOR ETERNITY," lately gotten up by the Holy Joe, the Rough He-Goat of Mormonism, for the benefit of his flock. Joe says that as "they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in Heaven," in eternity, it has been revealed to him that there will be no harmony in heaven unless the Saints select for their companions and marry IN TIME FOR ETERNITY!!! They must marry in time so as to begin to form that sincere attachment and unsophisticated affection which is so necessary to consummate in eternity in order to the peace of Heaven. So Joe Smith has lately been married to his present wife Emma, for eternity as well as for time. The doctrine is that a man may select as many wives for eternity as his devotion to the interests of the Mormon Church will entitle him -- and this is to be determined by revelation through His Holiness, the Prophet!

This "marrying for eternity" is not the Spiritual Wife doctrine" noticed in my Expose, but an entirely new doctrine established by special Revelation. The "SPIRITUAL WIVES," for time! and the "CELESTIAL WIVES," for eternity! The Mormons are now busily engaged in carrying out the doctrine.

There is another matter of more importance which I wish to mention. On the 16th inst., Governor Carlin informed me that he was informed by a conspicuous Mormon that it was susceptible of the clearest proof that MORE THAN TWENTY OF THE LEADING MORMONS WERE ENGAGED IN HIRING O. P. ROCKWELL TO SHOOT GOVERNOR BOGGS! This is a matter of much importance, as I was not before aware that any excepting Joe Smith was in engaged in paying Rockwell for the felonious deed. I hope that Missouri will respond to the call of the Anti-Mormon Convention of Illinois in relation to another demand for the Mormon Prophet, for I am now fully satisfied that the principal witnesses are afraid to, and will not, testify unless Joe is secured -- for they would do it at the sacrifice of their lives. I am now more fully satisfied than ever that if Joe is secured all the testimony both in relation to Smith and Rockwell will be forthcoming. The report here to-day is that Missouri has responded to the call, and that a new warrant will issue -- I hope it is true, for I will as fast as possible secure the testimony of material witnesses. In haste.   Yours Respectfully,
                                          JOHN C. BENNETT.

Capt. Marryatt's new book, entitled "Travels and adventures of Monsieur Violet," is said to be a complete plagiarism, made up principally out of Kendall's sketches, which have been published in the New Orleans Picayune.

Note: The town of Moscow is located on the Cedar River, a little west of the junction of Muscatine, Cedar and Scott counties' borders. This is the same "Blue Grass" area where Elder George M. Hinkle had been holding forth, promoting his new "Church of Jesus Christ, the Bride, the Lamb's Wife." The Hinkleites held their Nov. 1842 conference at Moscow. Evidently, John C. Bennett was at that same place, ten months later, to attend another conference of the tiny group. Some time before July of 1844 the Hinkleites moved a few miles south, to Buffalo, on the Mississippi; by that time John C. Bennett had long since disassociated himself from the tiny splinter group. But he apparently had not yet given up his interest in Mormonism. Before eventually joining J. J. Strang's sect, Bennett spent some time in Nauvoo and perhaps even attempted a reconciliation with Joseph Smith. At least Smith's business records from near the end of the year indicate that Bennett settled his old Mansion House boarding debts at that time. What conversation passed between Smith and Bennett then, history has forgotten -- but the former "Mayor of Nauvoo" could not have safely set foot in the saintly city without the Mormon leader's explicit permission.

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, December 7, 1843.                         No. 16.

JOE SMITH -- The following odd resolutions, among others, were passed at the opening of Joe Smith's tavern at Nauvoo, on the 3d ult:

Resolved, Gen. Joseph Smith, whether we view him as a Prophet at the head of the Legion, a Mayor at the head of the city Council, or as a Landlord at the head of his table, he has few equals and no superior.

Resolved, Nauvoo, the Emporium of the West, the centre of all centres, a City of three years growth, a population of 18,000 souls, (!) congregated from the four quarters of the globe, (!!) embracing all the intelligence (!!!) of all nations (!!!!) with industry, frugality, economy, virtue, and brotherly love, unsurpassed in any age of the world, a suitable home for the Saints. (!!!!!)

The last Warsaw Message gives an account of on interview between Prof. Casuel, late of Kemper College, and the notorious Joe Smith. It happened that the Professor had in his possession a Greek psalter, of great age. This book, to some of the Saints, who happened to see it, was a marvel and a wonder, and they importuned that "brother Joseph" might be afforded the opportunity of reading in it. Prof. C. assented, and, accompanied by the brethern, repaired to the Prophet. The book was handed him. Joe took it -- examined its old and worn leaves --and turned over its musty pages. 'This Book,' said he 'I pronounce to be a Dictionary of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics!' The brethren were astonished. After their exultation had subsided, the Professor coolly told them that their Prophet was a base impostor, and that the book was a Greek Psalter!

Note 1: Rev. Henry Caswall's City of the Mormons was published at the end of 1842, but its contents do not seem to have reached readers in the American west until later in the following year The Nauvoo Times and Seasons offered an oblique mention on Oct. 15, 1843, but that was probably meant as a response to British reviews of Caswall's newly released Prophet of the Nineteenth Century (see the London Literary Gazette of of Aug. 19, 1843). Thomas Gregg, in his Warsaw Message of Nov. 15th, said that he had "lately heard a story" of Rev. Caswall's visit to Nauvoo, but that same editor no doubt knew something about the 1840 event well before he published the anecdote of "the Mormon Prophet and the Greek Psalter." Writing a year earlier, the editor of the New York Sun mentioned that "Mr. K." was Caswall's host during the 1842 episode; and offered enough details from City of the Mormons to identify that "host" as being David Wells Kilbourn (1803-1876), the founder of Montrose, Iowa. Gregg, who had formerly edited a newspaper at Fort Des Moines (later Montrose), certainly knew the Kilbourn brothers and their interactions with the Mormons during this period.

Note 2: Since David W. Kilbourn was noticeably active in sending out reports regarding his new neighbors, the Mormons, the modern reader might wonder why he did not publicize Rev. Caswall's Nauvoo visit, by writing a letter to some eastern editor? As it turns out, he did -- see the Alexandria Gazette July 11, 1840. In that lengthy report the Gazette correspondent says: "It was a beautiful morning towards the close of April last, when the writer of the foregoing sketch, accompanied by, a friend, crossed the Mississippi River, from Montrose, to pay a visit to the prophet." The short trip was probably made on Kilbourn's own flatboat "ferry," which he began operating in 1839. -- On page 29 of his City of the Mormons, Caswall mentions "Mr. K. my hospitable entertainer" at Montrose, adding: "Mr. K. stated, that previously to the arrival of the Mormons, his only neighbours were the Indians." This description fits Mr. Kilbourn quite well, and he was obviously the person who accompanied Caswall on his 1840 Nauvoo visit (and who first informed Caswall about Joseph Smith's Egyptian mummies). For additional details see the interesting article titled "The Mormon Population of Montrose and Nauvoo," in the Boston Daily Evening Transcript of Jan. 15, 1844

W. W. Phelps Preaches Joseph Smith's Funeral Oration (Nauvoo, 1844)


Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 11, 1844.                    No. 33.  (ns 43)

Two Mormons were lately kidnapped from the neighborhood of Nauvoo by some Missourians. Gov. Ford of Illinois was requested to demand their release but refused. This we deem wrong, but as there are no elections at hand we suppose it will have to be so. As citizens'of Illinois these Mormons were entitled to all the privileges of her citizens and though they may, for what we know, have been the greatest scoundrels in existence, yet they had a right to the protection of the government under which they lived. We are no friends of the sect, but we are in favor of them enjoying the privileges guaranteed to them by the Constitution and the laws; and nothing more.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, January 20, 1844.                    No. 7.

...An express has just arrived here from the city of Mexico, bringing the important intelligence that Joe Smith, the celebrated Mormon Prophet of the latter day saints, has concluded a treaty with President Santa Anna for the purchase of Texas; for which he agrees to assume ten millions of the Mexican debt to England, and has hypothecated the State of Illinois as collateral security for the faithful redemption of said debt. Commissioners have already been appointed ro run the boundary line, &c... By a secret article in the treaty it is further stipulated between the high contracting parties that Santa Anna shall transport President Houston to the Feejee Islands, within the space of three months, and that all the negroes in Texas shall be delivered up...

Note 1: The above text has not yet been confirmed for the Lee County Democrat -- it is copied from an obvious satire published in a late Dec. 1843 issue of the New Orleans Bulletin.

Note 2: Although rumors of the Mormon leadership dealing in secret with the Mexican government were comically farfetched, they may well have originated in Nauvoo gossip about Joseph Smith's intention to spread Mormon influence and settlement into the American west and Texas. The Dec. 1843 appointment of James Semple to serve in Washington as an Illinois Senator probably sparked ideas in Smith's head about obtaining official permission for his hopeful LDS expansion. Smith's petition to Congress to make Nauvoo an independent territory went nowhere, but Semple himself presented Smith's "memorial" to the U. S. Senate, asking for authority to station "armed volunteers" (likely from the Nauvoo Legion) throughout the west. Since most of the land Smith hoped to thus militarize belonged to Great Britain and Mexico, his memorial was forwarded to a certain oblivion in the Committee on Foreign Relations.

Vol. V.                     Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 25, 1844.                    No. 35.  (ns 45)

The Warsaw Message of the 10th says, there was a great excitement at Carthage, on the 6th, "in consequence of the arrest of a citizen of that place by a possee of Mormons from Nauvoo, on a charge of basterdy." The citizens of C., would not permit the man to be taken to Nauvoo for trial. There was a great commotion but no blood shed.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, January 25, 1844.                         No. 23.

The Mormons have recently, held a meeting at Nauvoo, at which they resolved that "Joe Smith" is not guilty of any charge made against him by the State of Missouri. The city authorities have passed an ordinance, directing the imprisonment for life, of any person who shall come within the corporate limits of Nauvoo, with a legal process for the arrest of Joe Smith, for an offence committed by him in this State during the Mormon difficulties. The prophet Joe has also declared that he considers it his duty, as Lieut. General of the Nauvoo Legion and of Militia of Illinois, to enforce said ordinance. -- (Republican.)

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. V.                      Burlington, I. T., Thursday, February 8, 1844.                     No. 37.  (ns 47)

"Jo  Smith."

The Warsaw Message contains a most curious document from Smith, purporting to be an appeal to the Green Mountain Boys to come and assist him in subduing the Missourians. It is the most bombastic affair we have ever seen. He appeals to them on account of his having been born in Vermont, and urges them to do all sorts of things to avenge his wrongs. We will endeavor to give some extracts in our next.

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. III.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, February 10, 1844.                    No. 10.

There appears to be a great deal of hatred an animosity existing between the Carthegeneans and the "Latter Day Saints," which will, if not soon quelled, break out in a general rupture and cause some blood to be shed. A threat has been made by the latter to fire the town and lay it in ashes, while that of the former at their meeting passed strong and war-like resolutions to repel all attacks that may be made.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                 Burlington, I. T., Thursday, February 15, 1844.                 No. 38.  (ns 48)

Below we give copious extracts from Jo Smith's Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys. In addition, we have seen something of a piece with this in the shape of a correspondence between Mr. Calhoun and 'Jo.' The letter, in a brief epistle to Mr. Calhoun, enquires what Mr. C's course would be towards the Mormons, in the event he is elected to the Presidency.

Mr. C. replies as briefly, and in a very sensible manner, stating that government has no power to interfere in matters pertaining to his sect either for or against it. This nettles "Jo." who sends back a two or three column letter, in which he says all sorts of naughty things about Mr. Calhoun, giving him to understand that he cannot expect the support of his men, &c. &c. Smith seems determined, if possible, to obtain a redress of grievances, for the treatment his people received from Missouri, and he is right, if he will use nothing but fair and honorable means.

General  Joseph  Smith's
Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys.
To the Freemen of the State of Vermont,
"The Brave Green Mountain Boys," and Honest Men.

            I was born in Sharon, Vermont in 1805...

For this text see the Jan. 17, 1844 Warsaw Message

The Warsaw Message hits off Joe's pomposity and vanity, and pretentions to a knowledge of the languages, thus:

"The appeal to the Green Mountain Boys for aid to assist in "licking" the Missourians, made by Joe Smith a month or two ago -- will be found in another column. No doubt but all the Ethan Allens and Gen. Starks in the State of Vermont will soon be 'on their winding way,' to assist their esteemed brother!

To show our great learning, after the fashion of the 'Appeal,' -- were we a Vermonter, we would say: Boo woo waugh! Josephi. -- (You can't come it Josey!) Were we a Turk, we would say: Noah shah mahomet. (You can't act mahomet.) Or a Western Indian, we would yell: Che-mo-ko-mon, Jo-Smith-e-kuk hah ugh! (White man, Joe Smith, very unsartin.) But as we are, we shall only say: Some men are fools by nature; and others are fools for lucre.

Note 1: "Che-mo-ko-mon" -- According to Roger Launius, this was "the Sauk term meaning 'White Man.'" Thus, the Warsaw Message editor, Thomas Gregg, poked fun at "Jo-Smith." -- President Smith's own exhibition of his miraculous translation skills provided the example of: "A Western Indian: She-mo-kah She-mo keh ough-nepgab. (The white man, O the white man, he very uncertain.)" In fairness to Smith, he probably didn't know a word of Sauk, and probably didn't himself compose the florid prose of the Dec. 1843 Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys. -- "Che-mo-ko-mon" was also the pen name of one of the Burlington Hawkeye's occasional contributors, John Bailey Newhall (see his interesting description of the abandoned Mormon city, published in the Hawkeye of Sept. 24, 1846, as well as a brief report of his 1843 lectures in Massachusetts, regarding "the characteristics and appearance of the Mormon Prophet, Joe Smith," etc.)

Note 2: This issue of the Hawkeye also printed a short St. Louis item, relating how "the Rev. Le Roy Sunderland" (a hostile critic of Mormonism) could cause "persons a mile or more from the lecture room, without any previous agreement, to fall into a state of sleep, and come to him while proceeding with his [Animal Magnetism] lecture."

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, February 15, 1844.                         No. 26.


This troublesome personage is out with an appeal to the "Green Mountain Boys," of his native state. He wishes them "to rise in the majesty of virtuous freeman, and by all honorable means help bring Missouri to the bar of justice!"

Of all balderdash and absurdity we think this "appeal" does really cap the climax. How any of his followers, possessing the stock of intelligence which Providence usually vouchsafes to mortal, can peruse it and conscientiously acknowledge Joe more than a double-dyed hypocrite, is, to us, one of those unfathomable mysteries which are occasionally encountered in this corrupt world. Certainly, [certainly] his followers must be either the most deluded people or the greatest hypocrites that the nineteenth century has produced.

To carry on the pantomime the wise body called the "[Mayor] and Alderman of the City of Nauvoo," has passed a series of ordinances, some of them of rather a whimsical character, others of a conflicting nature. One, in relation to marriages, ordinances that boys of the age of 17 may be joined in wedlock to girls of 14, and that too without licenses. Another entails imprisonment for life upon any person who shall enter the confines of Nauvoo with the intention of arresting Joe Smith upon the Missouri difficulties.

On the 12th ult. the citizens of Carthage, Ill. met, and after denouncing Joe Smith as "the most foul-mouthed blackguard that was ever comissioned by Satan to vex and torment the children of men," and repeating the grievances which they have suffered, declare that "there is no alternative new left but the most abject and ignominous submission to positive tyranny and oppression, or a bold and fearless resistance."

They then pledged themselves, to repel every indignity or oppression offered by the Mormons, at the point of the bayonet; to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's warning, to any point to which they may be called; and to organize themselves into defensive bodies that they may be prepared for any emergency.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                                   Iowa City, I. T., February 16 ?, 1844.                                 No. 7.


The city [ ------ ] of Nauvoo have passed sundry very haughty resolutions touching the requisitions of the Governor of Missouri for Gen. Joseph Smith, and adopted an ordinance: "That hereafter, if any person or persons shall come with process, demand or requisition founded upon the aforesaid Missouri difficulties, to arrest Joseph Smith, he or they shall be subject to be arrested by any officer of the city, with or without process, and tried by the municipal court, upon testimony, and if found guilty sentenced to imprisonment in the city prison for life, which convict or convicts can only be pardoned by the Governor with the consent of the Mayor of the [said] city." Signed, [Joseph Smith], Mayor.

Note: The date of the above clipping is uncertain; it may have appeared a day or two earlier in the week.



Vol. III.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, March 2, 1844.                       No. 33.

Another candidate for the Presidency has entered the field. This important personage is the Prophet of the "Latter Day Saints," Gen. Joseph Smith. We have not learnt whether he intends to submit his claims to a National Convention, or whether he will run upon his own hook. We judge from the marks of his own organ, that he considers himself a [dull team?] for the whole of them.

Note: The Illinois Sangamo Journal of Feb. 29th published an equally beief announcement of this news: "Gen. Joseph Smith,of the Nauvoo Legion, is announced in the Nauvoo paper as a candidate for President of the United States. We also hear it stated that General Hyram Smith will be a candidate for Congress for the sixth district."

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, March 7, 1844.                         No. 29.

The Nauvoo City Council is becoming a little more liberal. In the last Neighbor is an ordinance of that body to the effect that other persons, (besides the mayor) not exceeding one in each ward in the city, may also sell liquor in small quantities, by obtaining license from the Mayor of the City; Gen. Joseph Smith, who keeps the principal liquor establishment himself without paying any license! -- Quincy Whig.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                    Bloomington, I. T., Friday, March 8, 1844.                     No. 18.

Jo Smith having written to, and received letters from all the prominent candidates for the Presidency, (except Van Buren, whose views he had received on a former occasion,) had determined, that as none of them think that the general government is unlimited in power, therefore he will not vote for any of then; nor shall his followers. Jo., therefore announces himnelf a candidate for the Presidency, and shows forth his views; in a circular an hour long. We have not seen this wonderful production, but it is a choice morceau, and like his late letter to John C. Calhoun, filled with statesman-like views. Jo goes for a [bank] and a high tariff. The following from the Nauvoo Neighbor is to the point.
"Who shall be our next President? Do you want to know? We will let it out soon. We have our eye upon the man, and when the proper time comes we will publish it from 'Dan to Beershebah,' and then as American citizens we will go it with a rush."

The Warsaw Signal, published at Warsaw, has been revived, in order to keep up the war against Jo [Smith, the Mormon].

Note: It might be argued that Thomas Gregg's leaving the editorship of the Warsaw paper, at the beginning of February, 1844, contributed greatly to subsequent sectarian tensions in Hancock County, and perhaps even led to the assassination of the Smith brothers not long thereafter. But Gregg, in his later Warsaw Message journalism, was not that much less strident an anti-Mormon than was his succcessor in the editor's chair. With or without Gregg, the Nauvoo Expositor incident would have "come to pass," and practically any non-LDS writer in the county might have demanded a drastic response -- saying, "Let it be made with Powder and Ball!"


Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., March 14 ?, 1844.                           No. 11.


The Quincy Herald of last Friday, states that four wagons passed through that place on Tuesday previous, on their way to the State Arsenal at Alton, for the purpose of procuring arms to be used against the Mormons. The difficulties and the prospect of an immediate breach between the citizens and the Mormons has been brought to the to the knowledge of Governor Ford, and he has been earnestly appealed to to maintain the peace and to protect the innocent.

The state of exasperation between the Mormons and the citizens is such that we will not be surprised to hear of actual hostilities at any time, quite as violent as formerly existed between them and a portion of our own citizens. -- Mo. Rep.

A strong vindictive feeling has boon excited against the Morzons, among the neighboring citizens, which will force them to more bearable conduct in future, or result in their expulsion.

Note: The date of the above clipping has not yet been confirmed -- it may have been published on Friday, March 15th.


Vol. IV.                    Bloomington, I. T., Friday, March 15, 1844.                     No. 19.

The Anti-Mormon excitement would seem to run very high in Hancock and some of the adjoining counties in Illinois. We notice by the papers that large meetings of the people are being held at which the most denunciatory resolutions are not unfrequently adopted. Below we give a specimen, taken from the proceedings of a meeting in Hancock, Co., which we find in a Warsaw paper. -- They look belligerent enough. -- Burlington Gazette.
Resolved, that those of us who may have farms to rent, will not let them to Mormons, nor will we furnish them employment, nor give them encouragement in any way to settle among us; and we earnestly recommend to all citizens, to act on the same principles.

Resolved, that those we recommend to the Militia of our Precinct, to form themselves forthwith into independent companies, in order to be better prepared in case of emergency, to maintain the freedom of our beloved country.

Note: Although the two excerpted resolutions are printed out of their original order, the source of the "meeting in Hancock, Co." report was obviously the Warsaw Message of Nov. 1, 1843 -- rather stale "news" for the readers in the eventful spring of 1844.



Vol. III.                        Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, March 16, 1844.                      No. 35.

"The Latter Day Saints" are determined to make an effort to complete their Temple this summer. The last "Nauvoo Neighbor" says: "It is in contemplation to devote all our energies to the completion of the Temple this season, and to let the Nauvoo House stand until the Temple is finished. By a unity of efforts, it is expected that the roof can be got on by next fall, and the building be enclosed."   At the head of its columns stands in bold relief the name of GEN. JOSEPH SMITH, for President, and Gen. JAMES A. BENNETT, of New York, for Vice-President.

Note: As the Mormons soon learned, James Arlington Bennett was not a legitimate possibility for the election, and the name of Sidney Rigdon soon replaced that of Bennett at the bottom of the LDS presidential ticket.


Vol. IV.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, March 22, 1844.                          No. 21.

The "Latter Day Saints" are determined to make an effort to complete their Temple this summer. The Nauvoo Neighbor, of a late date says:

"It is in contemplation to devote all our energy to the completion of the Temple this season, and to let the Nauvoo House stand until the Temple is finished. By a unity of efforts, it is expected that the roof can be got by next fall, and the building be enclosed."

At the head of its columns stands in bold relief the name of Gen. Joseph Smith, for President, and Gen. James A. Bennett, of New York, for Vice President.

Note: It was a rarity in those days, for a Whig editor to simply relay a report published in a rival "Locofoco" paper, without adding a caustic remark or two. However, as 1844 wore on, both the Whigs and the Democrats found themselves increasingly in agreement regarding the "Mormon problem."

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, March 28, 1844.                         No. 32.

"General Smith's Views of the Power and Policy of the Government of the United States. -- John Taylor, Printer; Nauvoo, Illinois." Pamphlet -- 12 pages.

And what are General Smith's "views?" In addressing ourself to the perusal of this morceau, we must confess that we expected something rich -- something in point of extravagance, worthy of one whose has proved himself so eminently successful in the [times?] of humbugism as has the imaculate Mormon Prophet; but we have been sadly mistaken. Joseph is tame, exceedingly -- indeed, he is silly. He may be a great man at home but his maternal parent should never trust him out -- at least in print. Extemporaneously he might pass muster, where sound, and not sense, was the order of the day; but with the aid [of] typo, ink [and] paper he cuts a sad figure [in] his ideas [and] and he certainly has some, such as they [are] -- do not appear to be in the habit of subjecting themselves to [much] discipline -- [probably] somewhat like his redoubtable [Legion] in this respect -- and run [helter]-skelter in most admired disorder. We shall endeavor, however, to give the reader a synopsis of Joseph's "Views."

He thinks that all the Presidents prior to Mr. Van Buren, were "Big men" -- indeed patriotic men, -- yet that they were too much wedded to the party -- says there has not yet been a President of the United States; [though] he might make one -- though he does not positively announce himself as a candidate, is in favor of the abolition of slavery, by paying, to the owners of the slaves, out of the public treasury, the worth of their property -- would [abolish?] Penitentaries, blessing the culprits, and saying to them, "go your way and sin no more!" Suggests in a like spirit, that when soldiers desert from the public service, they should not be subject to arrest, but should have their [wages?] sent after them, with an intimation not to return; believes it would be right to lawyers, so soon as they shall repent, to turn preachers, as is desirable to have an enlightened clergy -- is in favor of the admission into the Union, of Texas, Mexico and Canada--when they shall ask it, -- and the occupancy of Oregon -- when the red men consent to the measure: goes for a national bank, having a branch in each State and Territory [of] the Union, and thinks that the [iron eyes of power] should watch "from Maine to Mexico, and from California to Columbia," (he doesn't say whether District or River) over our liberties! He deems Mr. Van Buren very obnoxious to censure, and says in connection with his name -- "vox Matti -- veox Diaboli." Of the Sub-Treasury he classically remarks, "Oh Granny, what a long tail our puss has got!"

Joseph is something of a linguist and accordingly we have specimens... [remainder illegible]

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, April 4, 1844.                           No. 12.

The Nauvoo Neighbor announces its determination to support hen. Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, for the Presidency at the coming election. It is strongly opposed to either Van Buren or Clay.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, April 11, 1844.                         No. 46.

No chance for Clay or Van Buren.

The Nauvoo Neighbor announces its intention to support Gen. Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, for the Presidency, at the coming election.

Half Breed Tract.

We have learned that the chancery suit pending in the District Court of Muscatine county, brought to set aside the Decree of the court of this county confirming the division and allotment of the Half Breed lands, has been compromised by the parties.

We are not fully advised of the terms of the arrangement entered into by the complainants and respondents, but undestand that it will, in all probability, put the vexed question of Half Breed land titles in this county, at rest, and afford satisfaction very generally to the settlers on the tract.

It is said that the compromise provides for the sale of lands to those who have made improvements, and now reside thereon, at prices rating from one dollar and a quarter to five dollars per acre, in one, two and three years.

This compromise will aid the growth and prosperity of the towns of Montrose and Keokuk, and indeed will tend to the increase of population and wealth throughout the whole county.

This too, we presume will avert the question of the re-survey of the northern line of the tract, and thereby crush in the bud another very fruitful source of litigation.

We are heartily rejoiced at this intelligence, and trust that nothing may arise to defeat the arrangement concluded by the parties. -- Lee County Democrat.

Note: The above mentioned "compromise" opened the way for the Iowa LDS to sell their settlers' lots in Lee County with a minumum amount of legal distraction. That development was to prove an important one during the subsequent Mormon departure from the Iowa shore.



Vol. III.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, April 27, 1844.                         No. 41.

We find the following scrap of Mormon news in the Mo. Republican, of the 22d inst. "We see it stated, that the Mormon Prophet Jo Smith has turned his wife out of doors for being in conversation with a gentleman of the sect, which she hesitated or refused to disclose. It was understood yesterday, that she had arrived in this city."

We find in the Nauvoo Neighbor of the 17th, an account of a conspiracy that has lately leaked out, in which several of the saints are implicated. They have been charged with having uttered outrageous things against the Prophet and his family.

Note 1: The mention in the Missouri Republican, of Emma's departure from Nauvoo, appeared in its issue for April 23rd. She evidently arrived in St. Louis on the 20th or the 21st -- by the time that the Fort Madison paper reprinted the above report, she had already been back in the Mormon capital for two days. The mention of her "conversation with a gentleman of the sect" remains unsubstantiated. Some researchers have speculated that the unidentified "gentleman" might have been Elder William Law.

Note 2: In a letter written on Jan. 7, 1887, William Law stated: "Joseph offered to furnish his wife, Emma, with a substitute for him, by way of compensation for his neglect of her, on condition that she would forever stop her opposition to polygamy." In a personal interview conducted on March 30, 1887, William Law recalled that at Nauvoo, Emma Hale Smith had said: "Joe and I have settled our troubles [i. e. over polygamy] on the basis of equal rights." See also William Clayton's journal entry for June 23, 1843.

Vol. V.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, May 2, 1844.                             No. 49.

The Presidency -- Gen. Jo. Smith.

The Nauvoo Neighbor of last Wednesday contains the following, by which we learn that the Mormons feel quite sanguine of doing something in the Presidential way after all

Public  Meeting.

Yesterday at ten o'clock A. M., a Public Meeting was held in the large room, over Gen. Smith's Store, for the purpose of consulting upon measures for the furtherances of our designs in the next Presidential election.

The meeting was addressed in a very spirited manner by several gentlemen present setting forth our grievances, our rights, our numbers, and our political influence. -- From the statements presented, we have no reason to doubt, but that we can bring, independent of any other party, from two to five hundred thousand voters, into the field. Several gentlemen were nominated to attend to the Baltimore Convention, to make overtures to that body.

It was resolved, that a State Convention be held in the city of Nauvoo, on the 2d day of May next.

Mr. W. W. Phelps, moved that the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Nauvoo Neighbor, with a request that the State Register, Sangamo Journal and all other papers in the State publish the same.
                              JOHN TAYLOR, Pres't.
                              WM. CLAYTON, Clerk.

It is in contemplation to hold a National convention, in the city of Baltimore, or in some other eastern city, as shall be agreed on.

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. III.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, May 4, 1844.                       No. 42.

Exposure of Mormonism -- Great row in Boston. -- An unusual crowd assembled at Marlboro Chapel, Boston, on the evening of the 27 ult. to hear Mr. John Dennett, (wonder if it shouldn't read Bennett?) upon the subject of Mormonism. A number of Mormons attended, and evinced a strong desire to break up the meeting, even before the exercises commenced. It seems that while Mr. Dennett (or Bennett) was among the Mormons he unfortunately formed acquaintance with a female Mormon, by which he was led into a lamentable mishap, and was expelled by them. Of this sin he has since, he says, repented, but declares that the Mormons being guilty of the same offence, should not have cast the first stone at him. Whilst engaged in his discourse, he was assailed from every direction with rotten eggs, Chinese crackers, and a variety of other offensive missiles, A cessation of firing took place, and the crowd demanded a song. He complied and gave them two or three verses of 'Rory O'Morre,' but it failed to please the crowd, and the battery of rotten eggs was again opened upon the unfortunate orator, who stood it as long as possible but was at last obliged to fly, which he did, with the whole mob at his heals. -- Gaz.

Note: Another contemporary account identified the speaker thusly: "Dennett, an ex-Mormon [attempting] to deliver a lecture explanatory of the mysteries of this chaste sect. -- Dennett is said to illustrate in his own person and life the quintescence of Mormonism..."


Vol. IV.                            Bloomington, I. T., Friday, May 8, 1844.                            No. 26.

We see it stated, that the Mormon Prophet, Jo Smith, has turned his wife out of doors, for being in conversation with a gentleman of the sect, which she hesitated or refused to disclose. It was understood, yesterday, that she had arrived in this city. -- Missouri Repub.

One hundred and fifty Mormons, from England, arrived here yesterday on the steamer Congress. This makes about three hundred that have passed here within the last ten days, on their way to Nauvoo, the Mormon Paradise. Poor, deluded beings! -- they will find it any thing but a paradise when they [arrive] there. -- Mo. Repub.

Note: See comments appended to the Lee County Democrat clipping of Apr. 27, regarding Emma's trip to St. Louis.


Vol. IV.                         Bloomington, I. T., Friday, May 15, 1844.                          No. 27.

Dissension[s] among the Mormons at Nauvoo.

We have good reasons for placing reliance in the details of a letter, the contents of which are hereafter stated, giving an account of an emeute at the chief city of the Mormons, Nauvoo.

The occurrences took place on the 26th. On that day -- says the writer -- a fracas of an alarming and important character occurred in Nauvoo, threatening the impending destruction of the Mormon government and even the life of the Prophet himself. Jo Smith, Prophet and Mayor elect, having ordered his police to arrest a man by the name of Spencer, for an assault on his brother in his own house -- the residence of his mother also -- the accused refused to become prisoner, alleging it was was illegal to arrest without a writ from the Mayor.

All the parties, however, collected round the Masonic Hall, or court-house. Joe Smith, Mayor, being present, ordered the police and the people to take said Spencer into custody. The constable having placed hands on him, Spencer put himself in a fighting position, and was assisted by Dr. Foster and his brother, younger Foster, and also James Higby -- who said they would not submit to the authority of the Prophet. Jo Smith put hands too, to assist in taking him, when young Foster took out a pistol, presented it, and said he would shoot the Prophet. At this moment I came up, and saw the struggle. The Prophet got hold of the pistol, and held firmly round the breech until, by the assistance of Rockwell, a second, the Prophet succeeded in getting the pistol from Foster. The Dr. and Lasner at this time took up stands, and vociferated they would kill the Prophet -- said he was a villian and an impostor, and that he knew it; that they would be doing a meritorious act to rid the world of such a villain, an impostor and tyrant.

Higby said he would certainly shoot him -- at any rate told him he remembered by-gone times -- knew of blood being shed on the island opposite; that he, the Prophet, was the right man. He (Higby) belonged to his band -- had sustained him by money and force; he knew the Mormon Prophet, Jo Smith, was the author of murders, and it was high time he should die, and he would kill him.

The Prophet got his [right] hand cut and his nervous system shook. Finally, the authorities succeeded in bringing up the three traversers before the court, It would be too long to write all the trial. -- Let the following suffice: The traversers manifested no disposition to withdraw their threats -- on the contrary, demanded their pistol from the Mayor who gave it to them -- said he was always lenient, and would tyrannize over no man. Foster took the pistol, and took another from his breast, examined to see all was properly loaded, and betrayed much wickedness and desperation.

The court having heard the evidence, the Prophet made many observations about his clemency -- adverted to the threats, and denied ever having been privy to any murders on the island -- said he would maintain his authority and the law, should it cost life, and then fined the traversers -- Spencer for assaulting his brother, a cripple, in $100; and said Spencer, Dr. Foster and his brother young Foster, each $100 for resisting civil authorities. Appeals were taken in all the suits. The case is, at present, undergoing a second trial before a Squire in the upper part of the city, where the mother, a brother of Spencer, and his two daughters are called on to give evidence before a jury. The verdict is not yet returned. Spencer, in the pleadings, when the Elder Brother objected to his mother's evidence, on the ground of age and forgetfulness, called on his brother's daughters, who were present, and whose memories, he assured the court, were as bright as their faces (and they are undoubtedly handsome.) The court, however, overruled his motion.

Jo Smith has a number of enemies and his influence is beginning to decline, but I think his doctrine is on the increase.

There are about fifty masons and stonecutters engaged about the Temple. It will be the most extraordinary building on the American Continent. We have a regular theatre, got up by the Mormons themselves. Last night the play of Pizarro went off in good style to a large audience, of which about one hundred were ladies. I was astonished to see such an array of beauty in the New Jerusalem. -- Missouri Republican.

The [Mormons] recently held a meeting at Gen. Smith's store in Nauvoo, to consult upon measures for the furtherance of their designs in the [next] Presidential election. Several gentlemen addressed the mating on their grievances, their rights, and political influence.

The official proceedings say: "From the statements presented, we have no reason to doubt, but that we can bring, independent of any other party, from two to five hundred votes, into the field. Several gentlemen were nominated to attend to the Baltimore convention, to make overtures to that body."

A State Convention was to be held at Nauvoo on Thursday last. And measures have been taken to secure the appointment of delegates, from the several States to a national convention, to be held at Baltimore at such time as may be hereafter agreed upon. -- Mo. Repub.

Note: For another report of the April 26th "fracas," see the Nauvoo Neighbor of May 1st. The Nauvoo editor identifies the assaulted Spencer as "Alderman Spencer" -- that is, the noted Mormon, Orson Spencer.



Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, May 23, 1844.                           No. 21.

The Mormons recently held a meeting at Gen. Smith's store in Nauvoo to consult upon measures for the furtherance of their designs in the next presidential election. Several gentlemen addressed the meeting on their grievances, their rights, [numbers] and political influence. The official proceedings say: "From the statements presented, we have no reason to doubt but we that can bring, independent of any other party, from two to five thousand votes into the field. Several gentlemen were nominated to attend the Baltimore Convention, to make overtures to that body."

A State Convention was to be held at Nauvoo on Thursday last. And measures have been taken to secure the appointment of delegates from the several States to a National Convention, to be held at Baltimore at such time as may be hereafter agreed upon.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. VII.                             Burlington, I. T., Saturday, May 25, 1844.                            No. 46.

A PETITION from Joe Smith, praying Congress to allow him to raise a company of volunteers, for the protection of emigrants to the unsettled territories of the United States, was presented in the House by Mr. Semple of Illinois, on the 6th.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. III.                           Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, May 25, 1844.                           No. 45.

A prospectus has been issued for a new paper at Nauvoo, Illinois to be called the "Nauvoo Expositor," and intended to be the organ of the new, or seceding church, who have renounced Jo Smith and set up for themselves.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 30, 1844.                         No. 41.


The last Warsaw Signal states that a rupture has taken place among the Mormons -- a respectable number of the most intelligent members of that body having acceded, under the guidance of William Law, and set up for themselves. It does not appear that the religious views of the seceders have undergone any material change. They profess to believe that Joseph Smith was once a true prophet; but contend that he is now fallen from grace, and no longer worthy to remain at the head of the Church. Private information confirms the above intelligence in its most essential features. -- (Alton Telegraph.)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 6, 1844.                             No. 2.

Nauvoo papers inform us that Jo Smith was lately arrested by virtue of a writ from the District Court of Hancock county, and that forthwith a habeas corpus was issued by the Municipal Court of Nauvoo and Jo was discharged. Here we see some of the damnable effects of locofoco legislation: the consequences produced by the hot headed proceedings of a partizan Legislature. The State authorities are set at naught, in fact, superseded by a petty city court. A habeas corpus and a trial by an ex parte judge set at defiance the laws of a sovereign State. Crimes without number and of the utmost enormity may be committed with impunity. A criminal has but to seek refuge in Nauvoo, become a Saint and he is safe from the hands of justice. Such is the effect of the amalgamation of the Mormons and locos. The city of the State has long been a nuisance. Texas bears no comparison with it in point of iniquities. It is far beyond it in point of respectability. We are glad to learn that a new paper is to be published at Nauvoo, called the "Expositor," in opposition to Jo Smith and his authority. We trust it will be a true expositor and unmask the whole gang who have so long been a curse to all around them.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, June 6, 1844.                         No. 42.


The steamer Osprey, which arrived here this morning, brought down from Nauvoo between fifty and sixty Mormons, who are, it is said, regularly licensed preachers, sent out by Holy Joe to preach and expound the doctrines of the Latter Day Saints.

From a gentleman who came down on the same boat, and who resides in the vicinity, we learn that there are several families among them who are going to stop here -- as our informant expressed it -— to keep from starving, which he said they would certainly do if they remained in Nauvoo. He also informed us that the increased by the emigration from Europe within the last two months will amount to between six and eight hundred, and from the United States, (principally Pennsylvania, Connecticut and Massachusetts,) to between three and four hundred souls: so great and unexpected had been the rush for a sight of the holy city, that the Prophet had not been able to provide places wherein to rest their heads nor shelter to cover them, but that they were crowded together in small houses and huts, some of which are occupied by a dozen families; the weather had been so unfavorable that their usual occupation of brick making had ceased, and for want of the necessaries of life they were compelled to leave. This did not seem to affect the Prophet much, as he already began to find the kingdom rather heavy for his shoulders, and is himself doing his best to get clear of a portion of the disaffected under the pretext of sending them to preach.

Our informant further states that a few days since he marched off no less than fifty under the same order, and that many more will go on a similar errand in a short time. This is the plan, it is said, Holy Joe has adopted to rid himself of the more intelligent and influential portion, and by this means he expects to break down the late schism which had been formed against his entire control by Foster, Law, and a number of other disaffected spirits. Last Monday he visited Carthage escorted by his bodyguard to answer to an indictment for bigany, which had been found against him by the Grand Jury of Hancock county; but owing to some informality in the proceedings, the trial was put off until the next term of the court. He returned to Nauvoo in great spirits, called a review of the Legion, and preached a sermon, the substance of which was that it was always so when the wicked conspired against the Prophet and the Lord. -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, June 6, 1844.                           No. 23.

A Mormon "national convention" was held at Nauvoo [last week?] for the purpose of nominating [candidates supported] by that sect for [President and Vice] President. Gen. Smith [was nominated] for President and Sidney Rigdon for Vice President. Messengers, it is said, to the number of some sixty, have been despatched to the various portions of the Union, with the view of furthering the success of the new ticket.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 13, 1844.                           No. 3.


We learn by passengers on the New Brazil that the new printing office of the "Expositor" at Nauvoo, was totally demolished on Monday night, by order of Jo Smith. Will the people countenance such an attack on the freedom of the Press?

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                         Bloomington, I. T., Friday, June 14, 1844.                          No. 32.

NAUVOO EXPOSITOR -- We have received the first number of a new paper of this name, just commenced at Nauvoo, Ill., and edited by Silvester Emmons. It appears to be exceedingly hostile to Joe Smith, and a large portion of the paper is devoted to the exposure of Joe's impostures and villainies. It advocates the election of Joe to represent the county at Alton, but violently opposes the election of Hiram Smith to represent the people in the legislature. It states that Hiram professed to have received a revelation from God, that all the Mormons should vote for Hoge, the loco foco candidate for Congress.

The City Council, on Monday last, [declared it] a nuisance, and on Tuesday, by order of the authorities, the materials of the office were demolished.

Note: "...represent the county at Alton" -- the Illinois State Penitentiary was located at Alton.



Vol. III.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, June 15, 1844.                       No. 48.


On Tuesday last a most outrageous act was perpetrated in the city of the Latter Day Saints, which may in the event prove the downfall of that great city. It appears that a large number of the leading members of the church have of late become dissatisfied with the teachings of their Prophet, and in consequence of which they were read out of the church. These dissenters then formed themselves into a body and were endeavoring to establish a new church. They frequently held meetings as we are informed in the city, and for the purpose of furthering their cause, and disseminating their views in regard to the Prophet and to expose the secret sins there, they purchased a press and a large quantity of type and removed it into the city. On Friday a week [ago], they issued the first number of their paper entitled the "NAUVOO EXPOSITOR;" it had scarcely been circulated abroad before the city council held a meeting, in which his Honor the Prophet presided, and declared that the publishing of the paper in the confines of the city was a public nuisance, and ordered it to be removed from out of the city, within three hours time. A mob immediately proceeded to the office and commenced battering down the press, whilst others were engaged carrying out the cases of type, books, &c., piling them up in a heap in front of the door, and afterwards set fire to it and burned the whole up. A more highhanded and outrageous act we will venture to say has never been committed in a civilized community. It is stated that great fears are entertained in the city of a general rupture. Many of the dissenters have in consequence, left, fearing that their lives were in danger. We have heard it reported that a meeting was to be held at Carthage, Ill., for the purpose of raising an armed force to proceed to Nauvoo for the purpose of taking the Prophet, and it is also rumored that hundreds more held themselves in readiness to march over from Missouri at a moments notice. We cannot for a moment believe that such an outrage as this will, or can be overlooked by the people of Illinois. The freedom and liberty of the press should at all times be guarded against violence, and we predict that if such an act of outrage is permitted to be passed over, then indeed we may bid adieu to our sacred liberties.

The New Purchase arrived here on Wednesday evening last from Nauvoo, bringing on board a large number of the dissenters with their families and goods. Great excitement was then prevailing in the city, and it was feared that before morning the whole of their property would be destroyed; many of them own some good and valuable buildings in the city. Most of them went to Burlington the same evening. We fear the glory of the Prophet is fast setting.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 20, 1844.                             No. 4.


Wednesday, June 19, 5 o'clock O. M. A boat from nelow brings us the information that Jo Smith has 1500 men under arms at Nauvoo and that no person is allowed to leave or depart without his permission. It is reported that 3,000 men are assembled at Warsaw who will march for Nauvoo this day.

From the St. Louis Reveille.

Latest from Nauvoo -- "The time is Come"
The Prophet in Danger.

An extra from the office of the Warsaw Signal, came to us yesterday morning, containing some further statement about the present trouble at Nauvoo. This is the way the Signal talks about it. Heading his extra with,

"The Time is Come!"

he goes on, after stating the matter, as follows;

We have only to state, that this is sufficient! War and extermination is inevitable! ARISE, ONE AND ALL!!! -- Can you stand by, and suffer such INFERNAL DEVILS!! to rob men of their property and rights, without avenging them. We have no time for comment! -- every man will make his own. Let it be made with POWDER AND BALL!!

LATER -- 6 o'clock, P. M. We have just learned from Carthage, that writs have been procured, and officers despatched to Nauvoo, to arrest the perpetrators of the outrage.

It is also rumored, that Joe is causing the arrest of every man in Nauvoo, who is opposed to him, and does not justify his proceedings.

By the stage driver we learn, that the press, &c., were destroyed a little after sun down, last evening.

We await the final result with anxiety. Much excitement exists; but the course determined on, is to throw Joe into opposition in the laws.

It seems that, in destroying the Expositor office, Jo's orders were, if resistance were made, for the officers to demolish the building, and property, of all who were concerned in punishing said paper; and, also, take all into custody who might refuse to obey the authorities of the city.

Accordingly, a company consisting of some 200 men, armed and equipped with muskets, swords, pistols, bowie-knives, sledge-hammers, &c., assisted by a crowd of several hundred minions. who volunteered their services on the occasion, marched in the building, and breaking open the doors with a sledge-hammer, commenced the work of destruction and desolation.

They tumbled the press and materials into the street, and set fire to them, demolished the machinery with a sledge-hammer, and injured the building very materially.

The following is from the Warsaw Signal of Wednesday:


We have conversed with a gentleman of undoubted veracity, who was in Nauvoo and present in the council room, at the time the ordinance to destroy the Expositor press was under consideration, and from him we received the following items from the speeches of Joe and Hyrum Smith.

Joe became very much excited in the course of his speech, and appeared wrathy at his own followers, because of their not entering into his schemes with sufficient zeal. In giving vent to his feelings he used the following language: "If you (the people of Nauvoo) will not stick by me, and WADE TO YOUR KNEES IN BLOOD FOR MY SAKE, you may go to Hell and be Damned, and I will go and build another City!!!"

Hyrum directed his fire against the PRESS; and in relation to the editor of this paper, he made use of the following language: "We had better send a message to long-nosed Sharp, that if he does not look out he might be visited with a PINCH OF SNUFF, that will make him SNEEZE." At this burst of oratory, the council were convulsed with laughter.

In relation to our Press," he said, "If any person would go to Warsaw boldly, in daylight, and BREAK THE PRESS of the SIGNAL OFFICE, with a sledge hammer, I will bear him out in it, if it cost him his farm. He could only be taken with a warrant at any rate, and what good will that do?

These extracts will show, the Rulers of Nauvoo have doffed their saintly robes, and have come out in their true characters of HELLISH FIENDS. Yes! Hyrum & Joe are as truly Devils, as though they had served an apprenticeship of half of eternity in the Infernal Pit.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, June 20, 1844.                         No. 44.


We mentioned the establishment of a Reformed Mormon Church -- got up in opposition, practiced upon the credulity of the people by Joe Smith, -- at Nauvoo. By reference to an article in to-day's paper, it will be preceived that a lawless mob has made a bonfire of the printing materials with which the new party had issued their first sheet. We know not the nature of the laws of the neighboring state if they can be violated with impunity upon so slight a pretext as is urged by the arch hypocrite, who conducts the daguerrotype representation of Joe Smith's blasphemy, at Nauvoo. Hiram Smith, we see it stated, professes to have received a revelation from God, that all the Mormons should vote for Hoge, the Locofoco candidate for Congress!

Such blasphemy cannot long succeed, for we have too many and late instances of it being sternly rebuked by an offended Diety, to presume that this will go long unpunished.

It is currently reported here that in consequence of the lawless proceedings of Joe Smith and his followers in burning the press at Nauvoo, the whole country in that vicinity is aroused and have appealed to the citizens of Illinois and Iowa to aid them in capturing the ringleader of this daring outrage.

Yesterday, we understand, was the day appointed for Joe's arrest. The troops bearing the warrant marched under the motto "peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must." We trust that they will be governed by law and reason and not add murder to rapine.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, June 20, 1844.                           No. 25.

The "Nauvoo Expositor," a paper established in opposition to Joe Smith, was, the other day, declared by the City Council, a nuisance and the materials demolished by their order.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Bloomington, I. T., Friday, June 21, 1844.                          No. 33.


These deluded people, the Mormons, seem to be doomed to never ceasing troubles. From their first establishment in Missouri to the present time, scarce a week has rolled over that brought not with it new troubles to these people. Their evil acts and the persecution of them by their enemies in Missouri, are well known to the people of the west, so a repetition of them at this time is deemed unnecessary. When driven from their homes in Missouri, they sought shelter and protection in Illinois, they were fed, nursed and hugged by men of both political parties, each anxious to win their favor by excelling the other in kindness towards them. For a while all worked well.

They purchased their town site, to which the Prophet and many of his followers removed, and in a short time their village numbered several hundred souls. Election after election came and so unsettled were they in political sentiments that each party regretted their strength, yet feared to offend, so a city charter, conferring unwarranted power upon its authorities was passed by the Legislature of Illinois, neither party having independence enough to oppose it.

Its charter confers upon the Mayor power to grant, hear, &c., decide upon writs of habeas corpus, under which many criminals arrested for offences against the laws of the State were set at liberty. Recently, Jeremiah Smith, charged with having obtained money from the Treasury of the United States under false pretences, fled the Territory, joined the Mormons, and sought the protection of the Prophet. By him he was kept concealed, but produced under such restrictions as prohibited the officers from taking him from within his jurisdiction for trial. Service was made upon the refugee, and upon trial, released under the writ of habeas corpus. After several ineffectual attempts to bring the refugee to justice, he consented to appear before a judge of the Supreme Court, at Springfield, when his case was heard, and he held to bail in the sum of $5,000.

The resistance of the officers naturally aroused a spirit of indignation among the people, many of whom were against them. Upon the heels of this trouble followed the establishment of an Anti-Mormon paper in that city, which unsparingly exposed the corruption of Jo Smith and all his followers. Shortly after the appearance of the paper, the office was destroyed, as noticed in our last. An attempt was made to enforce the laws against the mob, but, as usual, they were shielded by Smith and his forces, and the law set at defiance. The people of the surrounding country met and resolved to bring them to justice, even at the point of the bayonet, and commence making preparations in military style, by gathering arms, calling for volunteers from Missouri, &c.

By late boats which have arrived from below, we learn that on Wednesday last, Warsaw wore a warlike appearance, multitudes being gathered together in arms, and that Jo Smith has proclaimed Martial Law in Nauvoo, and has sentinels armed with muskets, placed at the outposts, to cut off all communication with the city. Upon the landing of a steamboat at the port a sentinel is placed at the end of the plank, and no person allowed either to land from the boat, or depart thereon. The mob is forming at Warsaw, which is its head quarters, have signified an intention, so soon as it shall be deemed sufficiently strong, to make an attempt to arrest those charged with destroying the press, or destroy the city. How the matter will end there is no telling, but we should not be surprised if it ended in smoke, and the backing out of the mob. By next week, it will have gone one way or the other, when our readers shall be informed of it.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                    Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, June 22, 1844.                  Whole No. 49.


Our town for the last few days has been thrown into great excitement in consequence of the anticipated difficulties with the Mormons. In our last we made mention of the burning of a press in Nauvoo, the city of "Latter day Saints," by order of the city council, this, and other acts said to have been committed by the Mormons, has aroused the people of Illinois, and we now learn that hundreds of them properly armed and equipped hold themselves in readiness to march at a moments notice to Nauvoo, to aid and assist the authorities of that state. We understand that the authorities of Hancock county, Ill., have several writs in their hands for the arrest of the Prophet and those concerned in demolishing the press, and in case they refuse to comply with the laws of that state, they will then march into the city and take them peaceably if they can, and forcibly if they must. We also learn that the Prophet has his "Legion" in readiness properly drilled and disciplined, determined to avenge all encroachments that may be made, and that by his order Marshal Law has been strictly put in force in that city, so that no one is permitted to enter in or out of the city without their first showing a passport from General Smith.

Public meetings are daily held in different counties of Illinois, and it is reported that over four hundred men are now under discipline in Carthage, and over one thousand men are now in readiness at Warsaw, Ill., ready to aid the authorities in the discharge of their duty. We know not what will be the result of all this -- at present things seem to wear a warlike appearance.

Note 1: One preserved typescript adds this line to the above text: "[Joe Smith's followers]...would fight until the last drop of blood because they had enthusiasm equal to that of Mahomet in Arabia..."

Note 2: Some reprints in other newspapers credit the above announcement to an "Extra" issued from the Democrat's office; so perhaps it appeared on a separate sheet, inserted into any remaining copies of that day's paper, which had not already been distributed.


Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 27, 1844.                             No. 5.


The Warsaw Signal of June 20th, says that 250 men mustered at that place the day before; which is a falling off, as it was reported here, that 3000, and some said 5000, were assembled at that city. The same paper says that 300 were encamped at Carthage and that the Mormons say they have 4000 strong.

The Democrat of Fort Madison issued an extra, on Saturday the 22nd, which we have before us and which states that Martial Law is in force in Nauvoo -- that Governor Ford arrived at Carthage on the 21st, and that he had approved the order of the Brigadier general calling upon the militia who refused to comply until the Governor had sanctioned it. Numerous rumors are afloat in town but we give them no credit. In fact, we have nothing more definite than the above, though it may be possible that Jo, as reported, has left Nauvoo, or has given himself up to Governor Ford.

SIDNEY RIGDON has left Nauvoo in her days of trial, but not, as reported, on account of any dissension between him and Jo. He has gone to Pittsburgh, Pa., in consequence of a vision, which appeared to Jo., commanding him to do so. Very convenient things, these visions and revelations!

THE END OF MILLERISM. -- The Midnight Cry, the organ of the Millerites, has ceased to be published. The editor has become convinced of his folly, and says -- "We confess that our published time is past, and that as honest men, we cannot point to definite days in the future." Millerism, we may therefore conclude, is now at an end.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, June 27, 1844.                         No. 45.


The nomination of John Tyler, stands pretty much on the same footing with that of Joe Smith, the Nauvoo prophet. Both are precious pieces of burlesque, and of course cannot cause even a ripple in the [political] ocean where the squadrons of Clay and Polk are about to engage.

The issues of 1840 are again to be tried and, as the Whigs contend for principles exclusively, it mattered little who was put forward as the champion of the disorganizing schemes of their adversaries.

Unless the American people are the most versatile and fickle people in the world in their opinions, the result of the present contest cannot be materially different from the last. The omens were never [more] auspicious for the success of the Whig cause than at present; no, not even in the commencement of the glorious campaign of [1840 ---- ---]

Every steamboat arrival from below brings us rumors of war in the Mormon camp, but the war itself is, we trust, far from the thresholds of that deceived people. The latest intelligence the wily Joe had alluded his pursuers end was again beyond their reach, doubtles concealed in some of the recesses of Nauvoo.

The St. Croix in her upward trip, it is stated, was stopped at Keokuk and forced to [land] 200 barrels of flour and a quantity of ammunition, which was on board destined for Nauvoo. As soon as the mob which has congregated to arrest Joe, get tired of living on their own expense in a country but thinly supplied with provender, they will disperse. Joe will then again make his appearance, filled with unhallowed revelation. Joe, undoubtedly, should be held responsible by the authorities for the breach of law, of "American rights" as he terms it, which he committed, [but] not by a lawless mob.

To show the deep [dismay] of Joe Smith, we [give] the following extract, said to have been uttered by him in Council when instigating his tools to commit violence: -- "If you (citizens of Nauvoo) will not stick by me, and wade to your knees in blood for my sake, you may go to hell and be damned, and I will go and build another city."

Very little better is the language of the editor of the Warsaw Signal, -- the following is an extract from his appeal in an extra, to the passions of the People: --

"War and extermination is inevitable. Citizens, arise, one and all! Can you stand by and suffer such infernal devils to rob men of their property and rights, without avenging them? We have no time for comment -- every man will make his own. Let it be made with powder and ball!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, June 27, 1844.                           No. 26.

We make the following extracts from the Bloomington Herald:

These deluded people, the Mormons, seem doomed to never ceasing troubles....

(read original report in Bloomington paper)

The Territorial Gazette of the 22d inst. says:

A gentleman who came up from Nauvoo on Thursday, reports that on the previous evening a party of Anti-Mormons having approached near to or within the Mormon lines, were discovered and retreated. One of the party was shot! Nauvoo is under martial law, no one being permitted to enter or leave the city without a pass. From 2500 to 5000 men are constantly under arms and in readiness for duty, and they have several pieces of ordinance ready for use.

From an extra of the Lee County Democrat of the 22d, we received the following additional information:

Mormon News.

                                                  Carthage, Ill., June 21, 1844.
The Governor arrived here [at] 7 1/2 o'clock this morning. The Brigade has been ordered out and the Governor approved the order. The militia it appears were ordered out by the Brigadier General, but refused to comply with the order until the Governor had sanctioned it. The Governor has now acquiesed in it, and the militia are now compelled to comply with the Brigadier's order.

We also learn that several stores in the city of Nauvoo, have been forcibly entered and provisions and amnunitions taken therefrom.

P. S. By one of our citizens who was in Bloomington on Monday last, we learn that a boat which came up on that day brought intelligence that order was being restored. The Governor had gone to Nauvoo to negotiate with the Prophet in person, and the forces assembled were returning to their homes.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, June 28, 1844.                             No. 34.

The latest intelligence we have from the Mormon war, was received by the Osprey, on Monday last. From her officers we learned that upon landing at harsaw on Sunday last, a body of armed men, numbering some 30 or 40, were marched to the shore, the apparent commander of whom demanded an examination of the boat, to ascertain whether there were any arms or ammunition for the Mormons on board. Upon a demand of his authority for such an unlawful assumption of power, he stated it was by order of the Governor, but no such authority could be produced. -- Nothing being found, the boat was allowed to proceed. The mob, numbering several hundred persons was in and about Warsaw, and additional numbers were daily coming in. Martial law was no longer enforced at Nauvoo, though the Legion was held in readiness to meet the mob on its approach to the city. It was reported that Jo Smith and those charged with the destruction of the Expositor office intended to surrender themselves to the proper officers for trial at Carthage on Monday. If this is done, the mob will of course disperse, and quiet be again restored in that vicinity. The Governor was thereabouts, watching the movements of both parties.

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. III.                           Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, June 29, 1844.                        No. 50.



We stop the press to hasten to lay before our readers the Murder of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyram. The news reached here early the morning of yesterday, but little credence was at the time given to the report, until about 3 P. M., when we received from the hands of a gentleman direct from the city of Nauvoo the following developments which fully corroborate the report. They are written by a gentleman of undoubted veracity for truth, and the statement thus given of this horrible assassination may be relied on as correct.

      To the Editor of the "Lee Co. Democrat:"

Nauvoo, June 28th, 1844.           
9 o'clock A. M.           
Sir, -- I hasten to inform you that Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, and his brother Hyram Smith, were murdered in a jail of this county, at about 5 o'clock yesterday afternoon.

On Monday last Smiths gave themselves up to the civil authorities under the most solemn assurances of Governor Ford, that they should be protected, and received no personal violence. On Tuesday they both, by advice of Counsel, voluntarily without examination, entered into recognition for their appearance at the next Term of the Hancock Circuit Court, to answer to the charge of riot on which they had been arrested. -- While they were in custody under the above charge they were arrested on a charge of Treason against the State of Illinois, and without any examination committed to jail, there to remain until discharged by due course of law. On Wednesday they were brought before Justice Smith, and time given until 12 o'clock, Thursday, to get witnesses ready for trial. On the same day the Governor held a council of war, or rather of officers, and determined to march all the troops with the exception of one company into the city of Nauvoo, where he was assured by Captain Singleton who was stationed at Nauvoo, that all was peace and quiet. The examination of Smiths in consequence of this determination to march to Nauvoo were from some cause postponed until Saturday next. On Thursday morning the orders for all the troops to march to Nauvoo were from some cause countermanded and most of the troops at Carthage, some 800 in number were disbanded. One company of some 50 men were left at Carthage to protect the prisoners, only 8 of this Company was stationed at the jail as guards while the remainder of the company were in camp a quarter of a mile distant. His Excellency with some fifty or sixty horsemen, marched to Nauvoo where he made a stump speech to what he called the military saints, advising them among other things to give up all their arms, as they had given up those belonging to the state.

In absence of the Governor, an armed and disguised band of men, said to be about two hundred in number attacked the jail, overpowered the guard of eight men, entered the jail and shot both the Smiths. Hyrum received a ball in the head, and merely had time to exclaim, "I am a dead man," and expired; Joseph Smith received a number of balls which pierced his body, some while still in the jail, and others after he reached the ground, he exclaimed, "O God," -- and expired. Elder Taylor who was also in the jail, not a prisoner, but as a friend of Smiths, received several flesh wounds, none of which were considered dangerous. The murderers immediately escaped to the woods, before the company of soldiers, left at Carthage, arrived at the jail. The murderers were disguised with paint and of course not known; it is supposed that some of those who made the attack were wounded by the guard who fired upon them, but no so as to prevent their escape.

The news was received here about daylight this morning, by messengers and a letter from Governor Ford; his excellency calls upon the Mormons to prepare themselves for any attack that may be made upon them; and says that he has again called out the troops ...

Head Quarters, Carthage.
      June 29th,
            4 o'clock, A. M.
Fellow Citizens of Hancock County: --
      Every prospect of danger from the Mormon population of this county is removed and those who have retired from their homes in its apprehension, are required forthwith to aid in allaying public excitement by a speedy return. A communication this A. M. received from the authorities of Nauvoo, brings the most satisfactory assurances that no retaliation or aggression will be resorted to by the citizens [in] any part of the county. The butchery of the prisoners at Carthage has the execrations of the great mass of our citizens. The humane and patriotic of Adams co. are gathering at Carthage for the maintenance of our laws against the violators of law of any party. The command of Col. Flood consisting of 220 well armed and efficient men will be at Carthage this A. M. for the preservation of order. The Governor's return from Adams is hourly expected. It is believed that no other forces will be necessary for the public safety.       (Signed)
M. R. Demming.            
Brig. Gen.               

Note: Considering the confusion of the times, the Democrat's reporting in this issue was remarkably accurate and timely. Some other news articles, published during the next several days presented grossly inaccurate accounts of the dismal events at Carthage Jail.


Iowa  Capital  Reporter.

Vol. III.                           Iowa City, I. T., Saturday, June 29, 1844.                        No. 25.


We are informed by one of our citizens who has just returned from Nauvoo, that the ravages of war in that city and vicinity have, for the present, stopped. Governor Ford had arrived at Carthage which lies some fifteen miles out from the city of the Saints, and Joseph the prophet had surrendered himself up to the civil authorities. At the time of the Governor's arrival, and for many days previous, upwards of three thousand Mormons were under arms, ready cocked and primed to fight to the last extremity for the Prophet, their religion and city. It is to be hoped that the difficulties will be sett1ed -- but we must confess that we entertain serious apprehension of bloodsheding [still?] in that quarter. The population for a considerable distance around Nauvoo, are much exasperated against the Mormons, and should they make an attack, the inevitable consequence will be a bloody fight.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, July 5, 1844.                             No. 35.


From the following, issued as an extra from the office of the Quincy Herald, it will be seen that the worst anticipations with regard to the Mormon troubles have been more than realized -- that the hitherto fair face of Illinois has been sullied -- blackened -- by a deed which casts a stigma upon the whole human family. In vain may we search the whole catalogue of crime for an equal to this brutal, cowardly, hellish (yes hellish is the word, but not half-expressive enough to convey a proper idea of its enormity,) murder.

Assassins may plunge the dagger to the heart of the innocent and unsuspecting savages may torture, kill and slay, but their crimes are virtues in comparison with the heart of the reputed civilized man who in cold blood murders the victim who has voluntarily placed himself in the hands of his enemy, to be tried according to law. Only think of it -- a man in the nineteenth century, an age of boasted light and reason, voluntarily surrendered as a prisoner, ready to suffer for his crimes or misdemeanors overpowered and slain in cold blood. Language is inadequate to paint the outrage in the color it deserves. It matters not what may have been the misdeeds of Smith, they cannot be offered in palliation of this horrid crime -- nothing can justify such an outrage. By the statement of the Governor it appears that Smith yielded to every demand made by him under the pledge that no harm should befall his person, and that by the laws alleged to have been violated was he to be tried and that too, by his enemies. How shameful, then, is the violation of this pledge!

That Smith was an evil disposed man, dangerous to community, we cannot dispute, but the great error lay not with him -- 'twas in the State in granting City charters conferring such unbounded powers.

The bodies of the two Smith's were taken to Nauvoo, and placed in the hall of a hotel where several thousand persons called to take a last look at them. After being exhibited in this way for one day, they were placed in the vault of the church. At the date of our latest accounts from Nauvoo, peace and quiet prevailed, and the people were in great sorrow and grief for the loss of their leader.

Quincy, Ill., Friday, June 28.            
Gov. Ford arrived in this city this morning, much worn down by travel and fatigue, having left Carthage yesterday. It is now certain that only Joe and Hyrum Smith are killed, and they were murdered in cold blood.

It seems that while Gov. Ford was absent from Carthage to Nauvoo, for the purpose of ascertaining satisfactorily the strength of the Mormon force, an excited mob assembled near Carthage, disfigured themselves by painting their faces, and made a rush upon the jail, where Joe and his fellow prisoners were confined. -- The guard placed by the Governor to protect the Jail were overpowered by superior numbers, the doors of the Jail forced, and Joe and Hyrum both shot. Hyrum was instantly killed by a ball which passed through his head.

Joe was in the act of raising the window, when he was shot both from without and within, and fell out of the window to the ground. Richards whom we supposed yesterday was dead escaped unhurt by shutting himself up in a cell in the jail. Mr. Taylor, the Editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, was in the room with the Smiths, and received three balls in his leg, and one in his arm. He is not considered dangerous. Three of the assailants were slightly wounded,

It will probably never be known who shot Joseph and Hyrum Smith -- but their murder was a cold-blooded cowardly act, which will consign the perpetrators if discovered, to merited infamy and disgrace. -- They have broken the pledges of the Governor -- disgraced themselves and the State to which they belong. They have crimsoned their perfidity with blood. The dead bodies of the Smiths were conveyed to Nauvoo by order of the Governor yesterday. It was supposed by many that the Mormons on seeing them would break away from all restraints and commence a war if extermination. But nothing of the kind occurred. They received their murdered friends in sorrow -- laid down their arms and remained quiet. Col. Singleton and his company of sixty men, are still in Nauvoo, and the Mormons submit to their authorities. The 300 troops which left our city yesterday on the Boreas are at present in Warsaw. A man was assailed and knocked down with a musket in Warsaw yesterday, for presuming to express dissapprobotion at the murder of the Smiths.

It will long be regretted that things have taken the turn they have in relation to the Mormons. After they had laid their arms, and submitted to the laws, they were entitled to the protection of those laws. Gov. Ford in the name of the State pledged them that protection, and he extended it to them so far as was in his word.

The conduct of the Governor stands pre-eminently untarnished in this matter. Party is lost sight of, as it should be, and all unite to award him the meed of praise. Several public meetings which have been held in this city during the excitement have passed resolutions approving of his course. As the troops were leaving our wharf on the Boreas yesterday, his honor the Mayor, came forward and proposed three cheers for Gov. Ford, which were given in a manner that made the welkin ring. Geo. T. K. Davis, Esq., in an address to our citizens last evening, also bore testimony to the calm and impartial manner which has characterized the conduct of the Governor throughout the whole of this affair.

In what we have written above we would not have it understood, that our remarks in relation to the assassination of the two Smiths, apply to the people of Hancock county generally. The actors in the disgraceful transaction are probably confined to a few desperate characters who are determined to ride over the law to effect their object. It will be seen by the accompanying Proclamation, that the Governor has issued orders for the raising of troops to be in readiness in case of emergency. This is certainly a discreet and provided movement. For although quiet reigns at present in Nauvoo and vicinity the prejudice and excitement is so great, there is no knowing how soon another outbreak may occur.


I desire to make a brief but true statement of the recent disgraceful affair at Carthage, in regard to the Smith's so far as circumstances have come to my knowledge. The Smith's, Joseph and Hiram, have been assassinated in jail, by whom is not known, but will be ascertained. -- I pledged myself for their safety, and upon the assurance of that pledge, they surrendered as prisoners. The hormone surrendered the public arms in their possessions, and the Nauvoo legion submitted to the command of Captain Singleton of Brown County, deputed for that purpose by me. All these things were required to satisfy the old citizens of Hancock, that the Mormons were peaceable disposed; and to allay jealousy.

It appears however that the compliance of the Mormons with every requisition made upon then, failed of that purpose. The pledge of security to the Smiths was not given upon my individual responsibility. Before I gave it, I obtained a pledge of honor by an unanimous vote for the officers and men under my command, to sustain no in performing it. If the assassination of the Smiths was committed by any portion of these they have had added treachery to murder; and have done all they could to disgrace the State and sully the public honor. On the morning of the day the deed was committed, we had purposed to march the army under my command into Nauvoo.

I however discovered on the evening before, that nothing but utter destruction of the city would satisfy a portion of the troops; and that if we marched into the city, pretexts would not be wanting for commencing hostilities. The Mormons had done every thing required or which ought to have been required of them. Offensive operations on our part would have been as unjust and disgraceful as they would have been impolitic, in the present critical season of the year, the harvest and the crops. For these reasons I decided, in a council of officers, to disband the army, except three companies, two of which were retained as a guard for the jail. With the other company marched into Nauvoo, to address the inhabitants there, and tell them what they might expect in case they designedly or imprudently provoked a war. I performed this duty, as I think plainly and emphatically, and then set out to return to Carthage, then I had marched about three miles a messenger informed of the occurrences at Carthage. I hastened to that place. The guards it is said, did their duty but were overpowered.

Many of the inhabitants of Carthage had fled with their families. Others were prepared to go. I apprehended danger to the settlements from the sudden fury and passions of the Mormons and sanctioned their movements in this respect.

General Deming volunteered to remain with a few trips to observe the progress of events, to defend property against small numbers, and with orders to retreat if menaced by a superior force. I decided to proceed immediately to Quincy, to prepare a force, sufficient to suppress disorders, in case it should ensure for the foregoing transactions or for any other cause. I have hopes that the Hormone will make no further difficulties. In this way I may be mistaken. The other party may not be satisfied. They may recommence aggression.

I am determined to preserve the peace against all breakers of the same, at all hazards. I think, present circumstances warrant the precaution, of having competent force at my disposure, and readiness to march at a moment's warning. My position at Quincy will enable me to get the earliest intelligence, and to communicate orders with great celerity.

I have decided to issue the following general orders:
Head Quarters,           
Quincy, June 27, 1844.           
It is ordered that the commandants of regiments in the counties of Adams, Marquette, Pike, Brown, Schuyler, Morgan, Scott, Cass, Fulton, Fulton, and McDonough, and the regiment composing general Stapp's brigade, will call their respective regiments and battalions together upon receipt of this order, and proceed by voluntary enlistment, to enroll as many men as can be armed in their respective regiments. They will make arrangements for a campaign of twelve days, and will provide themselves with arms, ammunition, and provisions accordingly, and hold themselves in readiness immediately to march upon the receipt of further orders. The Independent companies of Riflemen, Infantry and Cavalry, and Artillery in the above named counties and in the county of Sangamon will hold themselves in readiness in like manner.
THOMAS FORD,                       

Note: Ther Bloomington Herald editor reproduces "Friday, June 28" as being the correct date of the Quincy Herald's report. That Illinois newspaper published several "Extras" in the days surrounding the Smith assassination, and that date may appeared in the heading of one of the two Quincy Herald sheets (no longer extant) printed within the hectic 24 hours between June 28th and June 29th.

Vol. VI.                               Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 11, 1844.                             No. 7.

M O R M O N.

Peace and quiet reign once more in the City of the Latter Day Saints. The calm is if that peculiar nature that is experienced by a people dismayed by a dreadful calamity. We trust, however, that all will remain tranquil. We understand that a great many emigrants are arriving there and some are leaving. On Friday the 28th ult., the bodies of Joseph and Hyram Smith, were brought to Nauvoo, and were met outside by about 10,000 persons. They were placed at the Mansion House and exhibited to about 20,000 people. They were interred the next morning. Elder Adams has gone East to consult with the Elders residing there in relation to church affairs, the organizing or re-organizing the church, &c.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                             Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, July 11, 1844.                           No. 28.


Several Locofoco papers that we notice, express great horror and detestation at the assassination of Joe and Hyrum Smith. -- That is well; -- the act is worthy of all detestation it can possibly receive.

But will those same papers tell us the remote cause of this result? Will they point out to those who gaze upon the bloody and worse than barbarous deed in horror and astonishment, the evil influence that has led to this shamful act? Will they tell us what portion of the American people are the advocates of force, when a wrong, (or what...

[ under construction ]

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. III.                           Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, July 14, 1844.                        No. 52.

...The murder of Joe Smith and his brother, has caused feelings of deep regret in the breasts of every peaceable and law abiding people; they look upon it as a high-handed outrage, and as a cruel, cold blooded, cowardly and contemptible murder. That Joe and his brother were guilty of acts which required the interposition of the law, we are well aware, but after he and his brother had voluntanly surrendered themselves up to justice, under the full assurance that they would receive the protection of Gov. Ford from all violence; they were entitled to all protection against all danger and all enemies. Yet still with all the assurance that were given to the Smiths and his people, and whilst in prison awaiting their trial, they were by a ruthless mob, shot down. A more deeper stain could not have fallen upon the State of Illinois, or a more outrageous butchery perpetrated. The State of Illinois has her fair fame tarnished by the violence of an ungovernable mob, and it is time that such acts of violence should be arrested, or we may soon say our laws are a dead letter and our freedom gone forever. Every good citizen must feel interested in putting down such outrageous acts -- and every good citizen should lend his aid in ferreting out the murderers, and bring them to justice.

Note: The date of this clipping has not yet been confirmed -- possibly it appeared in the July 21st issue.

Vol. III.                              Davenport, I. T., July 17 ?, 1844.                               No. ?

The deluded followers of Joe Smith, since his demise, have remained inactive. Emma Smith, Joe's wife, is said to have issued an order to the Mormons to keep quiet. Various reports are in circulation of the pretended resurrection of Joe upon the third day, his appearance soon after death, to his wife, etc., most of which statements no doubt are incorrect, but if true, will be greedily swallowed by the believers in his revelations. The latest rumor is, that a new prophet, in the person of a Col. Anderson, had been found.

Note: The date of this clipping is questionable. Possibly it was taken from an "extra" issued on a Wednesday.


Vol. I.                                   Buffalo, Scott Co., I. T., August, 1844.                                 No. 2.


A word now from us on this subject will be sufficient. While we stand connected with "THE ENSIGN" as we now do, its columns will never be used to foster the objects of any political party whatever... We have been led to these remarks from reading a few strange and singular lines in our neighbor, 'The Davenport Gazette.' refering to us -- the climax of which is. "But we are led to believe that this society will profit by the error of the Mormons, and refrain from taking part with the politics of their country." ...

There is another remark of the gentleman's we wish to notice. In speaking of us in connection with the Mormons, in relation to a political party, he says: "They sought, as their prototypes of Illinois, by fawning upon a similar sect, recently sprung up among us, to win their votes."... But we confess we are at a loss to understand that part of the above sentence contained in these words, comparing us, as we suppose, to the Mormons; (as he pleases to call them,) "A similar sect recently sprung up among us." The editor being a religious man, we do not wish to charge him with falsehood; but we do wish, as he has made a direct attack upon us, for him to give his political paper somewhat of a religious turn long enough, at least, to explain himself, and show "the similarity."... We are perfectly willing to confess our ignorance of "a similarity" between the church of 'Latter Day Saints,' and the one to which we are attached. One thing we have to say, and we want it distinctly understood -- we have no bond of union or fellowship existing between us and the Mormons...


          Buffalo, Scott County, I. T.,
                            August 14, 1844.

To W. W. Phelps, Esq., Nauvoo, Ill.
   My dear Sir, -- After so long a time, I take my pen to address a few lines to you, and thus break that perfect silence which has existed between us ever since we parted in Far West, Missouri, in the Fall of 1838. Then you and I were both dissenters from the church of 'Latter Day Saints;' though we do not dissent upon exactly the same principles -- for I only dissented from the unwise, unhallowed management of the heads or authorities of the church, and not from any true points of doctrine which I ever had believed. -- But you said to me that you dissented from the whole Mormon system.

Since then I have been told by good authority, such as Hyrum Smith and others, that you have returned to the bosom of the church, and have been received again to fellowship, and all seems to be well with you -- if you are happy in the course you are now taking, all I have now to say to you is, at the tribunal of heaven you will have to answer for all your deeds done in the body.

But Sir, there is one point upon which I wish to address the Latter Day Saints through you, in order that the honest hearted and ignorant minded may be corrected, and the malicious hearted slanderers put to shame. It has been the theme of many ever since I left Missouri, to calumniate and vilify me for the course which I, as the acting Colonel of the Militia of Caldwell, pursued in the surrender of the citizens of Far West, Caldwell, &c., to the authorities of Missouri. Those vilifiers have stated it, and vociferated its repetition throughout the length and breadth of our happy land -- and the newspapers of the day have thrown it upon the wings of the wind, and no doubt it has gone to the old world, and there been listened to and credited -- especially by those of your faith -- that I, as a base wretch, after having the confidence of the church -- yet in that critical moment of their perils in Missouri, when they in and or Far West were besieged by between three and four thousand men -- the story is, that I, there and then, betrayed 'the Heads of the Church' into the hands of the Military authorities of Missouri, and that too, for a large sum of money! And then, as if they intended to heap disgrace upon me, after insult and injury, they say that I turned State's evidence against them: -- also, that I informed on many of the citizens of Far West, had them arrested and delivered up to the court of inquiry, to be punished. And many such like reports have been put in circulation by my enemies to do me injury; all of which, before God, I do declare to be as false as Satan himself.

Now Sir, you are the man who knows more about it than any other man belonging to your church. You know that you, John Corrill, A. Morrison, and myself, were appointed by Joseph Smith to go and confer with the commanding officers of the Missouri Militia, and effect a treaty if possible, on any terms short of a battle. -- You know that we went and risked our lives with a white flag, when only a few hours previous, the bearer of one (Charles Rich) had been fires at on the same field, and we did this to obey the order or request of Joseph Smith. Our object was (at least I felt so,) to prevent the effusion of blood, which we all saw must inevitably soon take place, unless something could be immediately done. Were you not present, Sir, at that trying scene? when the eyes of our enemies seemed almost to flash fire when we approached, and I received from the hand of Major General Lucas that unhallowed paper narrating to us the terms upon which the lives of our families and friends could be saved -- viz.: "Give up your leaders -- your principal men, as hostages to be tried by civil law. Give up all your arms of defence, and ALL leave the State forthwith." He also read to us that generous -- no -- that execrable order of Governor Boggs, authorizing him to exterminate us, or drive us from the State. -- Now Sir, I appeal to your candor: did I, at this critical moment, say to General Lucas, or to any of those with him, Give me a sum of money, Judas like, and I will comply? If you answer in the affirmative, then query, were you and the others of the delegation to go partners with me in such an unhallowed speculation? What! thus betray our friends -- our brethren into the hands of their implacable enemies in the hour of peril -- and that too for Missouri gold!!! Or, if I did, as has been reported by men in high authority among you, winked at by all, and not contradicted by any -- at least so far as I know -- did I take the price and snugly lodge it all in my own pocket, without dividing with any of you? You know I did not make that treaty alone. Nay, you well remember that yourself and others with us, by authority, or request of Joseph Smith himself, agreed to the disgraceful terms. We then urged all to submit. But did I not then and there oppose that part of the order requiring us to give up our arms and immediately leave the State, urging that if any had offended by breaking the law we were willing and even anxious that such should be punished to the extent of justice, or the magnitude of the crime -- but to give up our arms and leave the State, would be virtually throwing away our most sacred rites as citizens of a republican state; and that we would about as soon give up our lives? Did he not become enraged and say that Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, P. P. Pratt, and G. W. Robinson must be given up; and no other terms would do? Did he not give us half an hour to consult our friends? When the facts were laid before Joseph, did he not say, "I will go:" and did not the others go with him, and that too voluntarily, so far as you and I were concerned? My understanding was, that those men were to be taken and kept till next morning as hostages. And if they did not, upon reflection and consultation with the officers in the camp of the enemy, during the night, conclude to accept of the terms proposed to us, but chose to fight, then they were to be kept safely, and returned to us in the city next morning, unharmed: and time given us to prepare for an attack by the Militia. During this whole interview and transaction, were not thousands of troops drawn up near the city, ready to fall upon us, provided those demanded as hostages refused to go? And when Smith and the others had given up, without any compulsory measures from us, did not General Lucas demand our arms; but on reflection he agreed to let us retain them till next day, insomuch as it was then about sunset? Were we not advised next day, by word sent expressly from Joseph Smith to us, to surrender? -- When that intelligence was received, did I not draw up the forces under my command, and explain to them the nature of the whole affair, and then request all who were in favor of surrendering, to make it known by marching three faces forward? They made a very slow start, but finally all came forward. We then marched out with slow and solemn step, into a partial hollow square of the enemy, faced inward, grounded arms, and marched away and left them. The town was laid under Martial law and guarded. Then the authorities commenced taking others as prisoners, and kept them under guard to be tried, as they said, by civil law.

No man ever knew me to complain of, or inform on any one. Uniformly when questioned by those seeking victims, I told them that all I knew to be guilty of breaking the law, had fled from the city the night before the surrender. When the Court of Enquiry held its session in Richmond, I did not turn State's evidence, but was legally subpoenaed, as you know.

Therefore, as to my course of conduct there, even under trying circumstances, while retrospecting it, I have no cause of regret. And during the time I was a member of that Church, before God and all men, I have a clear conscience; and am willing to give an account of my course at any time.

While I lived in that church I tried to live in peace; and when I left it, I did not leave in order to persecute it, but to get from under the priestly influences of those men who bore down upon those who opposed their views, with an iron rule; with a yoke too intolerable for a high minded man, or an humble christian spirit to bear. Past experience had already shown me, that as soon as any one, but especially those of note among them, would leave them, he must suffer all kinds of abuse. -- The motto was "His character must be ruined, or he will injure us." And in return, the Dissenters have said, "Down with the heads of the church; down with the church." And I know that they have sometimes used base means, and published many falsehoods, and brought much persecution on you. This has been my course. I despise the course which both parties have pursued. I am for peace and for truth, and truth only on all subjects. -- Notwithstanding the many slanders that have been set afloat about me, in order to injure and ruin me, this is the first scrap that I have ever published on the subject: and I have written and published this out of mere necessity, in self-defence. I have hitherto been determined, let them say what they would or could, I would bear it, and leave the event with God. Almost six years have rolled away since I withdrew my labors and influence from among that people; and notwithstanding my reserve, some of them still continue to roll down their satanic falsehoods upon me. -- I have been informed that one of your number is now in adjoining neighborhood to this, asserting that I sold the heads of the church, in Missouri, for $700.00. Now Sir, as you are the man who was engaged in the whole affair with me, I request that you write a letter for publication, and either put it in the 'Times and Seasons,' or send it to me; and in it exempt me from those charges, and correct the minds of that people and the public on this subject -- for you know that they are as base as the blackness of darkness, and as false as Satan himself. If I felt to retaliate, or to do as other dissenters have done, I might publish much, and do it in truth, about the wickedness of that people; and it might add to the already exasperated state of feelings now existing against them: but, Sir, that is not my purpose. I feel, and always have, to leave them in the hands of God, and to mind my own business; -- and I assure you I find enough to do to attend strictly to my own duty: -- therefore, write and exhort your brethren "to go and do likewise."

Very respectfully, your friend and well wisher,      G. M. HINKLE.

Note 1: The first mention of Elder Hinkle and his followers, in the columns of the Iowa papers, seems to have been an article in the June 3, 1843 issue of the Lee County Democrat. The article in the Davenport paper that Hinkle makes mention of above has yet to be located.

Note 2: In an article in the Jan. 1, 1844 issue of the Times and Seasons, Elder W. W. Phelps says: "So now, dear brother, while I respect you and the "Twelve," and all their kin, as my own blood relations, shall we... turn to the beggarly elements of the world, to work our passage back to popularity and hell, for a 'mess of portage,' like Hinkle, Bennett, Laws, Rigdon and Co?" In the May 1, 1845 issue of that paper, a correspondent speaks of Smith as, "the seer that the Lord" not turning aside in his course "when Hinkle and McLellin or others betrayed him into the hands of others for slaughter..." Phelps, however, chose not to acknowledge George M. Hinkle's Aug. 14, 1844 letter in the pages of the Nauvoo press.

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 1, 1844.                         No. 50.

The St. Louis papers, without exception, pronounce the death of Joe Smith murder. Was it not? Let no one throw any glass on the character of Smith (obviously a bad impostor *) because of his death; but let all reflect on the train of causes and effects. Smith recently put forth a pamphlet on the powers and policy of the U. S. Government. In that he had this remarkable paragraph: "Give every man his constitutional freedom, and the President full power to send an army to suppress mobs, and the States authority to repugn that relic of folly, which made it necessary for the Governor of the states to make the demand of the President for troops, in case of invasion and rebellion. The Governor himself may be a mobber, and instead of being punished, as he should be for murder and treason, he may destroy the lives, rights and property he should protect."

Was it not so? Was not the conduct of the Legislature of Illinois, and its Governor just equivalent to the worst spirit of mobism? To secure the balance of power, the Locofoco leaders in Illinois trafficked with Smith for the charter of Nauvoo.-- They were granted, and the country saw the whole Mormon body voting for the Locofoco candidate for Governor. Did not these charters give Smith and his followers power to do all he did do? It is true, the Constitution of the United States denies any functionarys, the power to destroy a press; but did not the charter of Nauvoo give the municipal authorities to declare that press a nuisance, if they pleased? We suspect it did. Smith, at the time of his death, was the highest military officer in grade in the United States. he was commissioned, by the State of Illinois, Lieutenant General of the Nauvoo Legion. This granted to a notorious imposter, without the respect of man, for party purposes! -- Cin. Chron.

* We were under the impression that all impostors were bad. ED GAZ.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                               Bloomington, I. T., Friday, August 2, 1844.                             No. 39.


The Alton Telegraph learns, that the two Laws, who are seceders from the Mormons, have commenced a settlement near Rock Island, on the Illinois side, and that large numbers of the Mormons are quitting Nauvoo and joining the Laws. The Potosi took up a number of families on her last trip, and was to take up several more on her next trip. The division among them is a happy circumstance to themselves as well as to the community in which they are located. We trust, it will, in some extent, check their invasions upon the rights of others, which caused the recent difficulties at Carthage. -- Mo. Repub.


John Hardy, president of the Boston branch of the Mormons, in reference to a successor to Jo Smith, informs the editor of the Times that all the speculations on this point are "fudged and nonsense," and says, "Samuel H. Smith, the oldest member of the family now living, and a brother to the murdered Prophet, will take the place of his brother Hiram as Patriarch in the church, according to the ancient custom of God's people."

Gov. Ford of Illinois, reached this city on Saturday, from Quincy. Apprehensions are expressed, that the difficulties between the Mormons and the anti-Mormons are only suspended -- not suppressed. -- Mo. Repub.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 8, 1844.                         No. 51.


Much conjecture has been indulged in respecting the Mormons and the question been frequently asked, whom will they choose as a successor to their murdered prophet? It has been the general impression that some prominent individual in the body, would through the impious though easy medium of revelation elevate himself to that station, but it appears that the Mormons are determined to proceed systematically in the choice of a successor. The "seventy" have been recalled from their missions, in solemn assembly they are to proceed to ballot for a prophet, the one who receives the majority of their votes is to be the individual to when God is hereafter to reveal such things as are secret even to the angels in heaven.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 15, 1844.                         No. ?


A number of Mormons assembled in Baltimore, have decided in consequence of the death of Joe Smith, to nominate no candidate for the Presidency.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. III.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, August 22, 1844.                         No. ?


The following letter of S. S. Prentiss, has been published in the Vicksburg Whig:

To the Editor of the Vicksburg Whig: -- In conclusion I will say if ever I join the Mornons, I shall attach myself to Joe Smith, the founder of the sect, and not to one of his rival disciples. And should I ever turn Locofoco on the question of the immediate annexation of Texas, I will support John Tyler, and not James K. Polk.
                        S. S. PRENTISS.


A Mormon has arrived in this city who reports that Joe Smith has risen from the dead, and has been seen in Carthage and Nauvoo, mounted on a white horse, and with a drawn sword in his hand. He says that as Joe is thus restored to life every thing will go on prosperously with the Mormons. Thus a few fanatical leaders induce these ignorant, credulous, and superstitious fanatics to believe the greatest possible absurdities. There appears to be nothing so unreasonable that it will not be believed by some, if presented by crafty priests or religious [teachers, in the form of religious] doctrine or tenet. -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 5, 1844.                         No. 2.


We see it stated that Sidney Rigdon, that arch Mormon imposter, pretends to have had a revelation from Heaven constituting him President of the Mormon church. Sidney Rigdon possesses all the cunning that superior talents, misapplied, can give him, without any moral restraint to deter him from devoting them to the basest purposes. No doubt many of the poor deluded creatures that have hitherto confided in him, will give credit to his blasphemous pretensions.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                             Bloomington, I. T., Friday, September 6, 1844.                          No. 44.

The Warsaw Signal says that Daniel Spencer has been elected Mayor of Nauvoo pro tem. Geo. Miller and Whitney have been elected Trustees of the Church property, under their management the Temple is progressing rapidly. Samuel H. Smith, brother of the Prophet, died at Nauvoo about two weeks since. William is now the only surviving brother. Sidney Rigdon, who claimed the leadership of the church, on the ground of his being the only survivor of the first Presidency, and also, on the ground of his having been named by Joe at one time, as his successor, has had his claims rejected by the twelve, who have decided not to have one man for leader, but that the church shall be governed by them collectively.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. VI.                       Burlington, Iowa, Thursday, September 12, 1844.                    No. 16.


SIDNEY RIGDON has left Nauvoo for Pittsburgh and it is expected that a large number of English Mormons will follow him. There is great dissension among the leaders of the church. Emma, the deceased prophet's widow, has given much dissatisfaction in condequence of her refusing to transfer some of the church property which was in the prophet's name. It is said she is weak in the faith, and that she has purchased property at Hampton, where Law and other seceding Mormons reside, where it is probable she may remove.

Brigham Young preached at Nauvoo on Sunday week and avowed his belief in the spiritual wife doctrine and said he wished he had a hundred. The Temple is progressing very rapidly as the leaders tell the people that when it is finished Joe will appear and dedicate it. Many are removing from Nauvoo, and more would if they could sell their property. The Mormons on Bear Creek had a meeting on Friday week and resolved to quit the country.

Lyman Wight has left Nauvoo, with about two hundred followers, for the pine country up the Mississippi. Gen. John C. Bennett has gone to Hampton. This place is in the Rock River region. The above we collated from the Warsaw Signal of the 4th.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                        Iowa City, I. T., Thursday, September 12, 1844.                       No. 37.


The Warsaw Signal says that Daniel Spencer has been elected mayor of Nauvoo pro. tem. George Miller and Whitney have been, elected trustees of the church property, and under their management the Temple is progressing rapidly. Samuel H. Smith, brother of the Prophet, died at Nauvoo about two weeks since. -- William is now the only surviving brother. Sidney Rigdon, who claimed the leadership of the church on the ground of his being the only survivor of the first Presidency, and also, on the ground of his having been named by Joe at one time as his successor, has had his claims rejected by the twelve, who have decided not to have one man for leader, but that the church shall be governed by them collectively.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 12, 1844.                         No. 3.


The Nauvoo Neighbor, of the 4th inst., says that fellowship had the previous evening been withdrawn from Elder Rigdon, James Emmet and [Zachariah] Wilson, by the Counsel of Twelve, and that the matter would be laid before the church for action on the next Sunday.

Gen. Bennett, it is stated by the N. Y. Sun, has issued a "feeler" to the President of Texas, to know on what condition he may locate 5000 troops in that nation; he signs himself, James Arlington Bennett, Inspector and Major General, Nauvoo Legion.

Last week 150 Mormons passed up the Mississippi on their route to a destined location on government land, in Wisconsin some 60 or 80 miles above Prairie du Chien.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. VI.                       Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 19, 1844.                     No. 17.

Mormon  News.

The Warsaw Signal of the 11th says that it is rumored that on the previous Sunday, nineteen of the leading Mormons were ejected from the church at Nauvoo, among whom were John A. Forges and Emma Smith, the Prophet's widow. The temple is going up very fast as nearly the whole population is engaged upon it. The third tier of windows is ready to receive their capitals. Private building has almost entirely ceased as so many people are leaving the town, Property has fallen to about one third of its value, previous to the Prophet's death. Twenty-five Mormon families have left Bear Creek, and those at Morley's settlement are also leaving. Great dissensions continue and it is quite probable that in a year or two the followers of the Mormon Prophet will be scattered to the four quarters of the globe. A late St. Louis Republican says that Sidney Rigdon had arrived in that city on his way to Pittsburg, where he would establish a paper. He was still a believer in the doctrine, though the Twelve would not allow him to rule.

Note 1: "He was still a believer in the doctrine." -- This news seemingly conflicts with a subsequent report published in The Prophet of New York City, on Nov. 16, 1844: "Mr. Rigdon informed us that there was a revelation given to Joseph Smith 'that he should live till his hair should become white, if he was faithful,' and another one saying, 'that if he was faithful he should live till the coming of Christ,' ...but we had the word of a man, that while in Missouri, he stood up and cursed God to his face and pronounced Mormonism to be a delusion."

Note 2: See also the Jan. 29, 1884 statement of James Jeffery, as published in the Baltimore Presbyterian Observer of Feb. 7, 1884 (paraphrased in the Keokuk Daily Gate City of May 10th. and in the Lamoni Saints' Herald of May 24, 1884). Elder Clark Braden cited this recently published statement in his "Fourth Speech" at Kirtland, Ohio, on Feb. 16, 1884, saying that in "the fall of 1844, just after Rigdon had been driven out... the Times and Seasons assailed him bitterly... for exposing Mormonism. On his way from Nauvoo to Pittsburg, he called on his old acquaintance, Mr. Jeffries [sic], in St. Louis, and, in his anger at the Mormons, he let out the secrets of Mormonism, just as he told the Mormons he would, if they did not make him their leader." -- Among other things, Mr. Jeffery claimed that he knew Sidney Rigdon; that the two had conversed in St. Louis in 1844; that Rigdon divulged some information regarding Mormonism, etc.

Note 3: In his Sept. 16, 1844 letter sent from Missouri to Brigham Young and The Twelve, at Nauvoo, Apostle Orson Hyde said that Rigdon claimed in St. Louis to be "in possession of facts and power [sufficient] to have hurled Joseph from his station long ago." (See Hyde's correspondence reproduced in the LDS "Journal History" for September, 1844, original documents in the Brigham Young Collection, Box 39, folder 18). It is doubtful that Rigdon was speaking merely of Mormon secrets regarding Nauvoo polygamy, the Council of Fifty, or recent political intrigues in Illinois. His reference to "long ago" appears to place the context of the "facts" he claimed to possess relating to Joseph Smith, Jr, as dating back to the earlier days of the Church. -- However, by the time Sidney Rigdon reached Pittsburgh, a few days later, he evidently had toned down his St. Louis outburst, denouncing "Mormonism to be a delusion," and had begun voicing a somewhat less radical claim -- that Joseph Smith, Jr. ended his days as a fallen prophet.

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, September 19, 1844.                         No. 4.


Sidney Rigdon is said to have left for Pittsburgh, and it is added that a large number of the English will soon follow him. Dissensions are said to exist among the Mormon leaders. Mrs. Smith the widow of Joseph Smith is accused of withholding the transfer of property belonging to the Church, held in Joe Smith's name. There was a rumor that she had purchased property at Hampton, where Law and seducers reside. Brigham Young preached a sermon in Nauvoo last Sunday, in which he is said to have avowed the spiritual wife doctrine -- [a] matter which had been charged upon, and denied by them. The Temple is going ahead with astounding rapidity, a great portion of the population being employed upon it. The leaders prophecy the re-appearance, of Joe to consecrate and dedicate to the Lord, and to hasten this event, the poor fanatics are exerting themselves to the utmost.

Many persons are leaving Nauvoo, and others would leave it if they could dispose of their property. At a meeting of Mormons, in Bear Creek, settlement, week before last they resolved to quit the county. -- Reveille.

Daniel Spencer has been elected Mayor of Nauvoo, pro tem. George Miller and a Mr. Whitney have been elected Trustees of the Church property, under their management the Temple is progressing rapidly. Samnel H. Smith, brother of the Prophet, died at Nauvoo about two weeks since. William is now the only survivinL brother. Thu twelve have decided that no one man shall govern the church, but that it shall be governed by them collectively.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                           Bloomington, I. T., Friday, September 20, 1844.                         No. 46.


Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in the city yesterday evening. We learn that Rigdon, who professed to have had a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smiith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism still remain unchanged, although they will not have him to rule over them. The adminstration of the affairs of the church for the present is to remain in the hands of the Twelve apostles. -- Mo. Repub.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. VIII.                Burlington, Iowa, Saturday, September 21, 1844.                       No. 11.

Letter of Sidney Rigdon, Esq.
To the Editor of the People's Organ.

DEAR SIR: -- Being in this city on my return from Nauvoo to Pittsburgh )the place of my residence,) I feel myself called upon to edify the public enquiry in relation to myself and a portion of the citizens of Nauvoo. It is pretty generally known that I left Nauvoo in June last, with my family, with the design of making my future residence in the city of Pittsburgh. On hearing of the murder of the two Smiths, I returned to Nauvoo, without any intention, however, of making Nauvoo my place of residence. During my stay in Nauvoo, a number of persons expressed a desire to go with me to Pittsburgh and reside some where in that region of country, where they could enjoy my society, as well as I theirs. This determination gave great offence to some of the citizens of Nauvoo. We held several meetings in relation to the matter -- not in the least doubting our right to do so if we chose -- when, to our surprise, a great excitement was got up -- meetings were appointed in different parts of the town, and were addressed by Brigham Young, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Erastus Snow, and others. Inflammatory speeches were made, and a general excitement was created. We were traduced as mobocrats, as murderers, conspirators; and many other epithets of like character were applied to us. We were charged with conspiring against the lives of the before-mentioned persons: -- and all this for the sin of desiring to go to Pennsylvania to live with our families.

Orson Hyde (who is now in St. Louis, and who is calculating to preach to the good people of this city on Sunday next,) in a public meeting, used language calculated to excite an ignorant populace to commit violence on my person. His expressions were, (speaking of myself,) -- "I will not ride him on a rail -- no, I will not do it; but ought not a man reap that which he sows? If he gets up a mob, ought he not be mobbed?" This was said in the presence of a large assembly of people; and my great crime was, (for which I ought to be rode on a rail, or otherwise mobbed,) that a number of gentlemen of high respectability desired, if they could so arrange their business, to go with their families to Pittsburgh and there reside, and I had agreed to aid them all I could, and use my influence for their comfort and future prosperity.

On last Sunday, a conference was called of all the citizens of Nauvoo, to take our case under due consideration. Here, if I have been properly informed, my own character was assailed in a most shameful manner. I, with many others, were cut off from the church: -- all for the crime of wishing to go to Pittsburgh and live.

So great was the excitement, that some of my friends thought it unsafe for me to be out of doors in the night season.

Now, Sir, this unheard-of excitement grew out of the simple fact of myself and others wishing to go and settle somewhere in Pennsylvania; and for this crime, the said Orson Hyde (who on next Sunday is to preach righteousness to the people of St. Louis,) actually desired to raise a mob to commit violence on my person -- or else there is no meaning in language; and he has actually, after such shameful and unpardonable abuse, been on board the steamboat May Flower, where I am writing this communication, and requested me not to write certain things, in order to save himself from the shame or odium which must attach itself to him; or else he is destitute of all sense of shame.

I presume, Sir, a parallel to this case cannot be found in the history of the civilized world. A whole community of people excited till they actually called a peaceable number of citizens murderers, and every other evil epithet that malice could invent, because, forsooth, they were guilty of the awful crime of daring to leave Nauvoo without the permission of certain individual -- such as the before named. It is such mortals as the above named, who would claim the right to dictate religion to the world. When I conversed with Orson Hyde this day on the subject, he had the effrontery to tell me he did it from a sense of duty. I ask, whose life is safe, when men act from a sense of duty in such flagrant violation of the most sacred rights of others? I do know, Sir, that some of those persons who were calculating to take their families to Pennsylvania, were put in such fear as to fear to make their design known, for fear of abuse; and all this, says Orson Hyde, "we do from a sense of duty." What a sense of duty may lead such men to do, God only knows. For my own part, "I have not so learned Christ;" nor ever expect to learn him -- nor did any other man so learn him. From what Hyde said to me to-day, on the steamboat, I was satisfied that he feared disclosures would be made that might effect him during future life.

I did not leave Nauvoo because I feared them, but because I had staid beyond the time I calculated to stay when I left home, and because I had received a letter requesting my return home. As to any attack they can make on my character, I fear them not. I feel myself at their defiance, though they should assail me by falsehoods, which I conceive any man who can cloak wickedness under a pretended sense of duty can do by the same kind of conscience.
                                Yours, most respectfully,
                                            SIDNEY RIGDON.

Note: In its original appearance in the St. Louis People's Organ of Sept. 17th, this Rigdon letter was dated: "Sept. 12, 1844." See also Orson Hyde's letter, in the same newspaper, on Sept. 18, 1844.


Vol. VI.                       Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 26, 1844.                     No. 18.

Sidney Rigdon has been turned out of the Mormon Church. His late letter to the Saint Louis Organ shows he has been scurvily treated. He has the reputation of being the principal mover in establishing the sect, and is now ostracised by his own creatures. Mormonism, like Democracy, "isn't what it used to was."

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                  Davenport, Iowa. I. T., Thursday, September 26, 1844.                   No. 5.


Every indication in the Mormon camp is favorable to a complete rupture and disbanding of this misguided people. The death of Joe Smith appears to have an enervating influence upon his [deluded] followers. Sidney Rigdon, on the 12th inst. came out in the St. Louis Organ in a letter, throwing more light upon the lawless proceedings of the leaders of the church. He says that he was expelled from the body solely because a number of Mormons resolved to follow him to Pittsburg. Several indignation meetings were held at Nauvoo prior to his expulsion -- Orson Hyde, another leading impostor among the Mormons, has written a letter denying the statements made by Rigdon. He says Rigdon was expelled for offenses entirely different from those stated. We cannot but think with the editor of the St. Louis Era, that these Mormon leaders will soon satisfy all the world that they are just that description of man that they have been represented to be by those citizens of Missouri and Illinois, who have had the best opportunity of knowing them.


By the last Nauvoo Neighbor, we perceive the hand of fellowship has been withdrawn from Elders Sidney Rigdon, James Emmet, and Zachariah Wilson. It is also rumored that on Sunday last, nineteen of the leading Mormons were rejected from the Church and among these were John A. Forges and Emma Smith, the widow of the Prophet; -- there appears to be a great dissension amongst the brethren -- something of importance is brewing but persons who live in the city seem entirely ignorant of what is really in contemplation, many honest Mormons are disaffected, and are removing from the city.

The Temple is still going ahead with surprising rapidity -- the third tier of windows being ready to receive their capitals. Above them is, to be a belt course of stone, and then six feet of plain cut stone work, will finish the walls. Nearly the whole population seems to receive support from their labor on the Temple; only about half a dozen private houses are now under way. If the contributions to the Temple should cease, the population would soon starve out, for there are no factories of any account in the city to give employment to any of the inhabitants. Confidence being destroyed by the death of Smith, private enterprise of the city is checked, and the people have recourse but to work for scanty substance on the temple. The leaders are well aware that their only hope of keeping the mass together is to find them employment; hence their exertions on this structure. Property has fallen in Nauvoo, to about one third of its value, previous to the death of Joe. This is a legitimate consequence of the anxiety of so many persons to get away from the city.

Sidney Rigdon has not started for Pittsburg, as we stated last week; but now since he is disfellowshipped, we may expect his influence to create a considerable rupture in the church. He has some influence, and is very determined, and there is no doubt but that he will be troublesome.

On Bear Creek, there have been some tall doings during the last week; some twenty-five families of Mormons drove from the settlement, but they took care to provide well for themselves before they left at the expense of the gentiles. Several horses, valued at about $700, were stolen on the night of their departure and also many head of cattle are amongst the missing. -- The thieves are known, but they have retired to Nauvoo, and of course are safe from the process of law.

The Mormons are leaving Morley settlement, about 12 miles south of this place, but we have not heard of any thefts in this neighborhood as yet.

John P. Greene, Marshal of the city of Nauvoo, died yesterday morning. -- Warsaw Signal.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           Bloomington, I. T., Friday, September 27, 1844.                         No. 47.

A letter from a gentleman at Springfield, Ill., states that Gov. Ford has issued orders for the march of twenty-five hundred Illinois militia and volunteers to Nauvoo, for the protection of that place. The detachment from Morgan County was ordered to rendesvous at Beardstown yesterday. No reasons are assigned for this new movement of the Governor, but, as it involves a very considerable expenditure to the State, it may be presumed that it has not been done without urgent necessity.

Since the above was written the steamer Ohio arrived, which left Nauvoo yesterday morning, and reports all quiet there. So that we are at a loss to account for the cause of the Governor ordering out the troops. -- Mo. Republican.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, September 28, 1844.                      No. 11.

...upwards of 500 militia were at Nauvoo, but for what purpose no one seemed to know. They were stationed at various points of the city, divided into companies. Many of the Mormons were frightened at such warlike movements and were leaving the city.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. VIII.                        Burlington, I. T., Saturday, September 28, 1844.                       No. 12.


The adherants of Rigdon have issued the following
statement in relation to their church difficulties.


It becomes an imperative obligation devolving upon the friends and adherants of Pres. (SIDNEY RIGDON) to make an explicit and candid statement of the causes, which have led to their disunion and disfellowship with the adherents of the Twelve in their illegal and unwarrentable assumption of the authority of their first presidency.

It is well known to every well informed member of the church that the law, organization, and government of said Church is contained in the book of Doctrine and Covenants, as received through Joseph Smith by revelation. By reference to that book we find that the church is governed by the Presidents of the High Priesthood, appointed by revelation, whose duty is to preside over the whole church, the Twelve being subordinate to that authority and acting under its direction.

The melancholy catastrophe of the murder of Joseph Smith, the presiding President and Hyrum, his brother, resulted in having one individual only known to the church as pointed out by repeated revelations, as holding the Presidency and Keys of this last Kingdom, as Prophet, Seer and Revelator for the church, viz: Sidney Rigdon.

Pres. Rigdon, who was then in Pittsburgh, received instruction from the Lord to repair [to] this place and present himself to the church, for their acceptancere or rejection, which actually did result in his rejection, and the appointment of the Twelve (by a large majority) of the church to the presidency of the church and its entire control.

Verily believing as we do that this was a vital departure from the order of Heaven and a rejection of the only man, who sustained the legal relations of a revelator to the church, and who was competant to reorganize the first Presidency, we dissented and lifted our voices against such proceedings and manifested our adherence to Pres. Rigdon.

In consequence of this rejection Pres. Rigdon has received a commandment to reorganize the church and for this reason the Twelve and their adherants have assidyuously studied and striven to misrepresent the character and designs of Pres. Rigdon, and his friends, and have not scrupled to ascribe to them motives and designs the most base and dishonorable.

We do declare that Pres. Rigdon is above all malevolent aspirations of his reputation, and is known to us as a worthy, law-abiding citizen, and a gentleman of unblemished character.

We do moreover declare our sincere conviction, that in rejecting Sidney Rigdon, the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, nolonger exists, except in connection with him, and that God has given no authority for an organization of the church differing from that contained in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants.

Heretofore, the accused, has had the privilege of trial, and opportunity to reply to the charges brought against them, but on the memoriable 8th day of September, 1844, this privilege was denied in open and flagrant violations of all the laws and rules of the churche; thus manifesting clearly, that the course they have pursued towards us is one unsanctioned by law and unhallowed by justice.

Samuel James
Leonard Soby
J. B. Bosworth
J. H. Newton
Briggs Alden
Elizah Reed
John Evans
Wm. Richards
George [Soby]
Sam. Bennett
Jno. A. Forgus.
George W. Crouse
Lewis James
G. W. Robinson
G. Bentley
Wm. Coltien
G. J. Lanyon
David Scott
Thomas Crompton
J. Hatch, Jr.
and many others.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                              Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 3, 1844.                            No. 19.

Mormon  News.

Governor Ford of Illinois, has issued an order calling out 2500 militia from various counties in that State and requiring them, properly armed and equipped, to proceed to Hancock county. This order, it is supposed, was in consequence of a contemplated military encampment to take place at Warsaw from the 27th of September to the 2d of this month. A military meeting was held at Carthage last fall and this season it was to be held at Warsaw. The Governor fearing something hostile was intended or might ensue, forthwith issues his mandates to his loyal officers who call upon the rank and file. The Quincy Whig of the 25th ult. says that the Governor's order had been received in that city -- that a meeting was held and a call made for volunteers, and lo! five men enrolled their names and there was a "hot chase" after the sixth. The Whig says the people thought that his Excellency's proceedings were a mere electioneering scheme to gain the favor of the Mormons and procure votes at the Presidential election. Two uniform companies left that city on Sunday week for Hancock.

The Warsaw Signal of the 26th [sic] says that Gov. Ford was on his way to Hancock county with a large body of Sangamon and Morgan troops. The Mormons were much alarmed and dreaded the idea of the militia entering Nauvoo. Two or three Sundays since O. P. Rockwell and a Mr. Kimball had a fist combat, in which Rockwell was victorious and gave Kimball a fine chase through the streets, though Rockwell's shirt was torn off. The editor of the Signal, Thomas C. Sharpe, had a writ served on him Wednesday of last week. It was a warrant, issued by Justice Johnson of Nauvoo, for the murder of Joseph and H. Smith. On consultation with his friends, Mr. S. resolved not to obey the Justice's mandate and the officer left without him. The Lee County Democrat of the 28th ult. says that upwards of 500 militia were at Nauvoo, but for what purpose no one seemed to know. They were stationed at various points of the city, divided into companies. Many of the Mormons were frightened at such warlike movements and were leaving the city.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                           Bloomington, I. T., Friday, October 4, 1844.                         No. 48.


In our last we gave extracts showing that the Governor of Illinois has called out several military companies, with orders to march to Nauvoo, for what purpose was left altogether to conjecture, and we hoped that ere this, the mystery that then surrounded this movement would have been removed, and the object fully made known; but as yet it has not. The general supposition, however, is that the governor had got wind of a premeditated attack by the anti-Mormons of Hancock and Missouri upon Nauvoo, at a day late in the month, and that it was intended as a means to prevent it. Whether such an attack was intended is not ascertained, and possibly never will be unless some ruse among them which may induce them or one of the number engaged to turn States' evidence.

At the date of latest accounts, Gov. Ford was in Nauvoo with a small force, and Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, a Col. Williams, (on both of whom a warrant had been served, for the murder of Jo Smith, and resisting

[illegible lines]

together with a host of their colleagues in opposition to the Mormons, together with their confederates in Missouri, were in Churchville, to avoid the officers. -- The two Lawes and Foster, against whom a warrant for the same crime had been issued and likewise resisted, passed down on Wednesday last, to surrender and stand their trial.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 10, 1844.                          No. 7.

It is estimated that the recent Mormon war will cost the state of Illinois $20,000. The aggregate expense incurred during the year on account of the Mormons will not fall short of $50,000.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 10, 1844.                      No. 20.

The  Mormon  War.

We were in Jacksonville when the troops returned from Nauvoo and Warsaw on Wednesday and Thursday of last week. It turned out to be a complete Tom Ford humbug and is set down as such by all. The fruits of it will be additional taxation on the people to pay expenses -- the killing of Norris, one of the Springfield Cadets -- and universal disgust at the action of the Governor.

Sharp, the editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Col. Williams, who had both retired to Missouri, and are accused as accessaries to the murder of the Smiths, held a treaty with Gov. Ford, and as the Governor complied with all their terms, they gave themselves up on Monday of last week. -- This farce would have lasted much longer, had it not been for the zeal and promptitude of Gen. Hardin.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. IV.                           Bloomington, I. T., Friday, October 11, 1844.                         No. 49.


Gov. Ford has disbanded his forces called out to watch the movements in and about Nauvoo, and returned home. -- Finding a prevailing disposition among the press and the people to find fault with and ridicule his late movements, the Governor, it is said, has resolved to give himself no further trouble about the Mormons, but suffer them and their enemies to 'fight it out.'

Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Col. Williams, charged with a participation in the murder of the Smiths, made some kind of an extra judicial agreement with the Governor concerning their trial, have [given?] bail, and returned to their homes.

The two Br. Lawes, and Mr. Foster, editor of the Nauvoo Expositor, whom we last week mentioned as having gone down for the purpose of standing their trial, finding no one to appear against then, have returned to their home at Hampton, Illinois, where Gen. Bennett and several other prominent seceders reside.

Note 1: Compare the last paragraph above with a tangential mention in the Times and Seasons of Nov. 1, 1844: "the accessories to the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, with John C. Bennett as the ne plus ultra, will form a union of all the excommunicated members from the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." The idea that the Hampton refugees had united with other "apostates," in order to destroy the Nauvoo faithful, echoed through the reporting in LDS periodicals for many months. In May of 1845 Sam Brannan, editor of the New York Prophet, gave front page priority to this supposed "Base Attempt at Imposition," claiming that "the whole gang [in Hampton, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, etc.] united in one, to make a last and desperate struggle for the destruction of the Saints, and the establishment of Satan's dominion..." (May 10th issue). --

(Click here for larger image)

Note 2: According to Horace Cummings (in his "Conspiracy in Nauvoo," The Contributer V, 1884) The "leading members" of an 1844 plot to murder Joseph Smith, Jr., were Nauvooites "William and Wilson Law, Austin A. Cowles, Francis and Chauncey Higbee, Robert Foster and his brother, two Hicks brothers, and two merchants, Finch and Rollinson." -- Relying upon sources such as Cummings, Kenneth W. Godfrey, in his 1968 BYU Studies article, "The Road to Carthage Led West," opined thusly: "Organizing together with others in Nauvoo until their group had a membership of approximately two hundred, these excommunicated leaders held their meetings and formulated plans to take the Prophet's life."

Note 3: The modern reader can only wonder whether "the whole gang" outlined in the columns of The Prophet would have included Mother Lucy Smith and her extended family (son William, daughter-in-law Emma, grandson Joseph, etc.) The Burlington Hawkeye of Sept. 12th reported: Emma, the deceased prophet's widow... It is said she is weak in the faith, and that she has purchased property at Hampton, where Law and other seceding Mormons reside, where it is probable she may remove.". -- As things turned out, Emma bypassed Hampton and on Sept. 18, 1844 she and her children arrived in Fulton, Illinois, only a few miles upstream from the the Mormons who had been associated with the late Nauvoo Expositor. At about the same time Lucy Mack Smith also left Nauvoo and accompanied her daughters to McDonough County, Illinois. None of those particular Smiths and Smith in-laws ever joined the subsequent westward migration. It was Brigham Young's assertion that Emma tried to murder her husband with poison: Apostle Joseph F. Smith claimed that she purposely enticed her husband back across the Mississippi from Iowa, to face a certain death in Hancock County.



Vol. IV.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, October 12, 1844.                    No. 13.

We have seen a Proclamation from Gov. Ford, published in the Nauvoo Neighbor, offering a reward for two hundred dollars for the apprehension of Levi Williams, Thos. C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Joseph H. Jackson, who are said to be accessory to the murder of Joe Smith and his brother Hiram. A number of writs were issued for the arrest of some seventy others. Williams and Sharp, have since been arrested and admitted to bail.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 17, 1844.                          No. 8.

Sharp and Williams have returned to Warsaw. Thorns, the Circuit Judge, before whom they by their treaty stipulated to appear, refused, as we stated on Thursday, to have anything to do in the matter. They were both permitted to depart from Quincy on Thursday; Sharpe took passage on Boreas, and Williams went back by land. Gov. Ford left Quincy on Wednesday, but by what conveyance we are not informed. The rear guard of the forces, from the vicinity of Jacksonville were seen crossing the Illinois river, yesterday, at Beardstown in High Spirits. The great commander-in-chief, we suppose is wending his way back to the capital, in solitude and silence, as nothing has been heard from him since his flight from Quincy. -- N. Era.


Through the politeness of a friend, we have received the following manifesto, of a portion of the Mormons in regard to the successorship of the impostor, Joe Smith...

(view original article in Illinois paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 17, 1844.                      No. 21.


On the last day of September, Levi Moffit came to my mill in the presence of some four persons besides Moffit and myself, and told me he wanted to repair his mills, and that I must take out my mill-dam. I answered him by saying that I had waste gates sufficient and would let the water out through them. Moffit said that would not do, and went off. The next morning in my absence, Moffit, with a company of men composed of Mormons came with tools for the purpose which they intended, and cut round the end of my mill-dam and let out the water. By cutting a hole with the assistance of the water something like one hunderd feet wide and from eighteen to thirty feet deep from top to bottom. You may call it a mob or what you please, for they worked day and night.
PETER BREWER.              

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. IV.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, October 19, 1844.                     No. 14.

Nauvoo, Oct. 3, 1844.        
MR. EDITOR, DEAR SIR: -- Inasmuch as times are big with interest in this city, distinguished in these latter days, and of late particularly notorious for new doctrines and new ideas. I have deemed it my privilege to enlighten yourself and the "gentile world," who sit in darkness, respecting events as they are passing here.

A man may travel over the wide earth, and unless he visits Nauvoo and becomes acquainted with the peculiarities of her people, he will be ignorant of half the wonders of the world. Since the death of the Prophet, the aspect of affairs has materially changed; the property of the city has fallen to one half its former value. and scarcely commands money at any price. Instead of immigration as heretofore, emigration is one important feature of the town this fall. Instead of receiving an accession of hundreds, several thousands have left, and many are trying to get away. The Twelve have usurped the reins of government, and with his "Holy Boldness," (B. Young) at their head, they are endeavoring to make their power felt in every part of Israel. Rejecting the Book of Doctrine and Covenants which states that a first Presidency shall be the Leaders of the Twelve and the whole Church, His Holy Boldness says: "It is Big Mr. I" who has the power to bind and loose, to seal and unseal, to marry and unmarry, to take one wife or a dozen, and to do all other things, which he and his co-workers in iniquity, may think proper, when met in secret council. We read in the good Books, "If any man lack wisdom let him ask of God" &c. -- but in the goodly city it has a very different meaning from what this ignorant world have generally supposed. According to the exposition of his Holy Boldness it is as follows: If any man lack wisdom, let him ask the Twelve. Take the case of Annanias.

Now Christians have believed that he was killed by the power of the Holy [Ghost]; but the theological world have not been illuminated in relation to the matter. Peter, being a violent, headstrong, passionate old fellow, killed Annanias with his own hand, but from the fact that Peter had the Holy Ghost upon him at the time, it was stated that he was slain by that power. Well, for the application -- If his Holy Boldness should kill a person, it would be perfectly right, since he holds a big bundle of Keys, as did Peter, and has the influence on him most of the time. Many circumstances prove how dearly they love their religion and their erring brethren, for they are ready to lie at all times for the one, and the foulest slander will blast the reputation of the other, if he should hesitate for a moment to bow the knee to Baal.

Persecution (about which they are ever cursing the world) is blooming here in all its malignant rancour, and all who will not worship at the shrine of their Idolatry, are hunted by the tongue of insult, indecency, and scurrility, and if they escape the "Brothers of Gideon," (of whom W. W. Phelps testified in Missouri) alias, the "Danite Band," they have need to thank their God. The Nauvoo Neighbor, with its misrepresentation, hypocrisy and falsehood, would fain make the world believe, that every thing is going on prosperously and harmoniously here, but more of the elements of discord and iniquity, cannot be found in the bosom of any other society. The infatuation of this people is truly astonishing, and such is the baseness of their leaders, that they must sooner or later find themselves involved in labrinths from extrication will be impossible. The poor devotees to Humbug are urging on the Temple with a desperation indicative of the last struggle of parting life, thinking, when it is completed, that they will receive power sufficient to overcome all opposition. Property and enough has doubtless been given to build two such structures, but still it is far from being finished. The labor of the poor has reared its imposing walls thus far, and. in all probability, no small portion of funds, appropriated for its erection, have furnished certain Dignitaries the means to live and bask in luxury. More than a hundred thousand dollars have been appropriated for the Nauvoo House, yet nothing but the cellar exhibits where this immense sum has gone. When a stranger comes into the city, especially a member of the church, if he has the unfortunate reputation of having money, he is soon visited by some leading worthy, who is in great want of a few hundred dollars, only for a few days, when it shall be positively returned. The inexperienced brother shells out a $100, to this one, a cool $1,000 to that and the other, until he is pretty genteelly fleeced in this way. The few days go by and he calls upon the aforesaid worthies, and is put off -- he calls again and again, until finally he receives insult instead of the Kingdom. Should he chance to express an opinion publicly that such treatment did not savor much of christianity, the cry of apostasy is rung in his ears, he is swept from the church, and no calumny is too base, no stigma is too black with which to blast his character. Falsehoods, that would make a Devil blush, and base as the black hearts from which they spring, are put in circulation, and from his Holy Boldness down to the meanest minion, they are scattered far and wide.

To lay open the iniquity of the place would require a volume, but the Mask of Corruption is being rapidly torn off, and they will soon exhibit to the world their naked deformity. Salt Peter, with all its preservative qualities can not save their base deed from becoming a stink in the nostrils of the world. Knowing well that they cannot live in any section of the Union, many of the most abandoned will be moving toward the West among the Indians, upon whom they make a great dependence for future success -- their doctrine of Polytheism and Polygamy will soon be fully exposed, and time will tell which is the true and which is the Bogus-Coin, and the base coin shall be nailed to the counter. Some will probably soon take the "Sabine side of the way.

Yours, &c.

Note 1: Compare this anonymous letter (in tone and content) with the similar Sept. 23, 1844 communication from Nauvoo published in the Oct. 23, 1844 issue of the Quincy Whig. Both writers call Brigham "Holy Boldness" and make use of the same phraseology to address practically the same topics -- corruption of the Twelve, decline of Nauvoo, etc. Probably both letters were penned by the same articulate writer -- a disaffected Mormon of the upper ranks of Nauvoo society.

Note 2: J. Mount -- probably Elder Joseph Mount -- in the next issue of this newspaper guesses the nameless correspondent desires "to bring a people with whom he has been associated, into disrespect with the public." This may indicate that writer "X" was a Rigdonite or some other former member who was facing excommunication for not supporting "The Twelve."



Vol. IV.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, October 26, 1844.                     No. 15.

Ft. Madison, Oct. 21, 1844.           
Mr. Editor: I noticed a communication in your paper, purporting to be from a correspondent in Nauvoo. I have often regretted that editors would let communications have a place in their papers to the prejudice of individuals or communities without giving such, the privilege to reply and vindicate themselves from the aspersion that may be cast upon them; but according to the true spirit of Democracy, you have divested yourself of such principles or intoleration, and left your columns open to free discussion.

I shall avail myself of the opportunity to make a few remarks on your correspondent from Nauvoo.

In the first place I shall express my disapprobation at the course he has pursued; it is too much like concealing the hand that holds the deadly weapon.

I do not like the motto, "strike but conceal the hand." The object of the writer is clearly manifested, in my opinion, to every candid reader; it is no doubt to bring a people with whom he has been associated, into disrespect with the public. He writes like a disappointed aspirant; his whole communication breathes the spirit of one disappointed in some favorite scheme while he professes his object is, to enlighten yourself and the gentile world which he thinks is in darkness respecting doings in Nauvoo.

I think it would take quite a bundle of such comments to shed forth one ray of light; for similar communications have been making their appearance for the last fourteen years, concerning the Church; and our experienced traveler has just found out that yourself and the gentile world were in darkness all this time.

But in reality his object is to vent his spleen against those who have foiled him in some favorite scheme; and sacrifice a people on the altar of public opinion to gratify his unhallowed passion for revenge. Such communications are seldom worth noticing. When a man condemns himself to a mask he should be condemned as worthy of the silence of contempt . But perhaps he thinks to justify himself by throwing out hints that his personal safety would be greatly endangered by what he is pleased to call his Holy Boldness, or the Brothers of Gideon, alias the Danite band. This reminds me of the story of raw head and bloody bones to quiet unruly children, and cause them to hide their heads under their mothers apron, for fear of seeing the shapeless monster.

We frequently hear from such writers of their being hunted by Danites, and of their great acts of bravery in defending themselves, but we never knew any one hurt, therefore conclude they must be visionary beings haunting the imagination of the guilty :for it is written the wicked fleeth when no man pursueth. As it respects the men their measures, with whom your correspondent has made so free, they are before the public. To approve or disapprove of them is the prerogative of every individual, especially in a country like ours where every mans religious opinions should be held inviolate, as long as a regard and reverence is shown to the laws, and such religious opinions do not justify sedition or conspiracy.

Insinuations are no evidence of truth, but rather otherwise truth needs no cloak to hide its deformity; and sophistry only serves to veil its beauty and the man that vindicates it need not be ashamed nor afraid of aspiring demagogues.

I have been acquainted with B. Young and the majority of the twelve for more than three years, and can testify to the purity of their lives and conduct -- I can vouch for his being a man of integrity; he never betrayed a friend nor took the advantage of an enemy; they have minds too exalted to crush a reptile because he crosses their path. A friend, or an enemy, is as safe in their power, as the babe in its mothers arms

And the man that lacks wisdom would do well to take a lesson both from their precepts and example. They have been approved by the church to stand in the place which has been designated by God through his prophet and as faithful administrators they will carry on the will of the testator, in building up the Temple and Kingdom of God in all the world, and the Saints are well assured they will discharge their duty with honesty and fidelity with all men.--That some professing to be Saints, have erred, I do not pretend to deny; but let him that is without fault throw the first stone.
                           Yours, with respect.
                                   J. MOUNT.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 31, 1844.                          No. 23.

The last Warsaw Signal has intelligence that a body of two or three hundred Mormons have formed an encampment a mile or two north of Carthage for purposes unknown, although rumor assigns various reasons for the movement. Gov. Ford and the imperial guard will undoubtedly take the field in force.

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. IV.                      Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, October 12, 1844.                    No. 13.

We have seen a Proclamation from Gov. Ford, published in the Nauvoo Neighbor, offering a reward for two hundred dollars for the apprehension of Levi Williams, Thos. C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Joseph H. Jackson, who are said to be accessory to the murder of Joe Smith and his brother Hiram. A number of writs were issued for the arrest of some seventy others. Williams and Sharp, have since been arrested and admitted to bail.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, November 21, 1844.                          No. 13.

The store of Mr. H. Kimball at Nauvoo, was broken open and robbed on the 16th ult. of notes, cash and goods to a large amount. The New Era says: -- "The Mormons still seem to think that they render God's service by robbing the Gentiles."

Note: Of course, Mr. H[iram S.] Kimball of Nauvoo was, was by no means, a "Gentile." This relative of the more notable Mr. H[eber C.] Kimball of Nauvoo, entered the LDS Church in July of 1843.


Vol. VI.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, December 12, 1844.                          No. 29.

Trouble is hatching up at Warsaw, growing out of indictments found against persons suspected of the murder of the Smiths -- but as yet no positive demonstration.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, December 19, 1844.                       No. 29.

The Mormons at Nauvoo continue their predatory practices upon the citizens in that vicinity. The most bitter feeling exists against the whole order, giving promise of a continued ferment of all the bad passions in the whole population in that portion of the State.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                           Davenport, I. T., Thursday, December 26, 1844.                          No. 18.


It will be recollected that upon the death of Joe Smith, his followers separated and that one division, under Lyman Wright, passed up our river with the intention of locating above Prairie du Chien. It appears that starvation there stared then in the face, when in an attempt to rob a French trading station to produce food, they were fired upon the four of their number instantly killed. It is feared that the whole company will be exterminated by the exasperated Traders and Indians.

Note: See the Gazette of Jan. 30, 1845 for a partial retraction of the above report.

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