(Newspapers of Missouri)

Misc. St. Louis Newspapers
1844-1849 Articles

View of Saint Louis, Missouri in the 1850s

1831-1840   |   1841-1843   |   1844-1849   |   1850-1899

NEra Jan 29 '44 |  Rev May ? '44 |  EGaz Jun 12 '44 |  Rev Jun 14? '44 |  NEra Jun 16 '44
Rev Jun 19 '44 |  Rev Jun 22 '44 |  NEra Jun 24 '44 |  EGaz Jun 28 '44 |  Rev Jun 29 '44
Rev Jun 30 '44  |  Rev Jul 06 '44  |  POrg Aug ?? '44 |  NEra Aug 29 '44 |  POrg Sep 10 '44
Repb Sep 11 '44 |  NEra Sep 12 '44 |  POrg Sep 17 '44 |  Rev Sep 18 '44 |  NEra Sep 18 '44
POrg Sep 18 '44 |  POrg Sep 23 '44 |  NEra Sep 25 '44 |  NEra Sep 26 '44 |  NEra Sep 27 '44
POrg Sep 30 '44 |  NEra Sep 19 '44 |  MRp Oct 03 '44 |  Rev Oct 06 '44 |  POrg Oct 23 '44
NEra Oct 24 '44 |  POrg Nov 01 '44 |  NEra Dec 12 '44 |  MRp Mar 28 '45 |  MRp Apr 04 '45
MRp Apr 14 '45 |  NEra Apr 17 '45 |  Repb May 19 '45 |  MRp May 26 '45 |  MRp July 04 '45
Rev Sep ? '45 |  DAm Sep 12 '45 |  DAm Sep 28 '45 |  DAm Oct 03 '45 |  POrg Oct 03 '45
DAm Oct 04 '45 |  MRp Oct 21 '45 |  MRp Oct 23 '45 |  MRp Oct 25 '45 |  MRp Oct 27 '45
MRp Oct 28 '45 |  DAm Nov 01 '45 |  MRp Nov 01 '45 |  MRp Nov 03 '45 |  Rev Nov 03 '45
DAm Nov 11 '45 |  DAm Nov 17 '45 |  Rev Nov 20 '45 |  POrg Nov 21 '45 |  MRp Jan 12 '46
MRp Jan 17 '46 |  MRp Feb 05 '46 |  NEra Feb 28 '46 |  NEra Mar 07 '46 |  DAm Mar 21 '46
DAm May 05 '46 |  DAm May 16 '46 |  DAm Jun 10 '46 |  DAm Jun 17 '46 |  DAm Aug 16 '46
NEra Aug 22 '46 |  DAm Sep 22 '46 |  DAm Oct 01 '46 |  Rev May 27 '47 |  Union Oct 08 '47
POrg Nov 10 '49

Articles Index   |   St. Louis Missouri Republican 1830s  1840s


Vol. III.                           St. Louis, January 29, 1844.                           No. ?


... A meeting was recently held at Nauvoo, to express the sentiments of the Mormons in relation to the repeated demands by the state of Missouri for the body of General Joseph Smith, ;as well as the common cruel practice of kidnapping citizens of Illinois and forcing them across the Mississippi river, and then incarcerating them in the dungeons or prisons in Missouri.

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted:

Whereas, the State of Missouri, with the Governor at the head, continues to make demands upon the executive of Illinois for the body of General, Joseph Smith, as we verily believe, to keep up a system of persecution against the Church of Latter-day Saints, for the purpose of justifying the said State of Missouri in her diabolical, unheard of, cruel and unconstitutional warfare against said Church of Latter-day Saints, and which she has practiced during the last twelve years, whereby many have been murdered, mobbed and ravished, and the whole community expelled from the State:

And also to heave dust in the eyes of the nation and the world, while she, as a State, with the Government to back her, continues to slip over the river to steal the property of the Latter-day Saints, and kidnap the members of said Church to glut her vengeance, malice, revenge, and avarice, and to make slaves of the said captives or murder them: Therefore,

Resolved unanimously: As we do know that Joseph Smith is not guilty of any charge made against him by the said State of Missouri, but is a good, industrious, well-meaning, and worthy citizen of Illinois, and an officer that does faithfully and impartially administer the laws of the State, that we as citizens of Illinois, crave the protection of the Constitution and laws of the country as an aegis to shield him, the said General Joseph Smith, from such cruel persecutions, beseeching the Governor of Illinois not to issue any more writs against the said General Joseph Smith, or other Latter-day Saints (unless they are guilty), but to let the Latter-day Saints "breathe awhile like other men," and enjoy the liberty guaranteed to every honest citizen by the Magna Charta of our common country.

[The city authorities have also passed] "an extra ordinance for the extra case of Joseph Smith and others;" [the principal provision of which is that] --

[After some pertinent remarks by Mr. Taylor, General Joseph Smith briefly addressed the meeting. He dissented entirely from the opinion of the Attorney-General, and observed that it was stated in the Charter that the Legion was a part of the Militia of Illinois, and that his commission declared that he (General Smith) was the Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion and of the Militia of the State of Illinois; and as such, it was not only his duty to enforce the city ordinance, but the laws of the State, when called on by the Governor. He also stated that he had been informed that the Chief Magistrate of Missouri had it in contemplation to make another requisition on the Governor of Illinois for him (Joseph Smith).]

(exact wording uncertain -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Mo., May ?, 1844.                         No. ?


COUNTERFEITORS. -- Mormon Certificates. Yesterday morning, a boy named Theron Terrill was arrested, having in his possession twelve American half and eight Spanish quarter dollars, all counterfeited in some sort of base metal. On examination by the Marshal, he stated that many had been given to him by one George Reader, with whom he had lived in former years, but who he had only recently seen again. For a long time the boy maintained secrecy, but, eventually, he yielded, and so told his story, Reader was caught and arrested on board the Ospery, having taken passage for himself and the boy to Nauvoo. The man had given the money to the boy, either to buy articles, or to sell to somebody else, as the statement was made.

On Reader was found a steel file and other implements, known as such as are used [in] turning and finishing counterfeit coin. Among other things taken from his pockets, perhaps the following printed certificate, with blanks duly filled in manuscript, may be considered a little curious.


This certifies that George Reader has been received into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, organized on the sixth of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight and thirty, and has been ordained an elder, according to the rules and regulation of said Church; and is duly authorized to preach the gospel, agreeably to the authority of that office. Given by the direction of a general conference of the authorities of said Church, assembled in Nauvoo, Ill. on the sixth of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty.   (Signed,)
                                           Joseph Smith, President.
William Richards, Clerk.
    Nauvoo, Oct. 18th, 1843.

On the back of this was the following endorsement: "This license was recorded in License Record Book A., page 117, Oct. 19th, 1843.   (Signed)
                                           Wm. Richards, Recorder.

Reader was recognized by a bar-keeper of a coffee-house, and identified as one who attempted to pass similar coin, a few days since, for a glass of beer. They were both committed, in default of bail -- Reader, in the sum of $200 and the boy in that of $100, to appear as a witness against him.

Note: The above item evidently comes from the original daily St. Louis Reveille, a Democratic paper that began publication on May 14, 1844. The issue of the Weekly Reveille,for Sept. 18, 1844 is marked "Number 10," probably indicating that the paper did not begin to issue a Monday weekly edition until about July 15th.


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Wednesday, June 12, 1844.                            No. ?

Tremendous Excitement -- Unparalled Outrage

                                                       On Board Steamer Osprey, June 12, 1844.
Mr. Editor: -- In behalf of the publishers of the "Nauvoo Expositor," and for the purpose of informing the public, I hasten to lay before your readers and the community generally, the particulars of one of the most unparalleled outrages ever perpetrated in the country.

On Monday evening, last, a company consisting of some two or three hundred of the Nauvoo Legion, assisted by as many volunteers, armed with muskets, swords, pistols, Bowie knives, &c., marched up in the front of the office of the "Expositor" -- entered the building by opening the door with a sledge-hammer, and destroyed the press and all the materials, by throwing them into the street and setting the whole on fire.

This took place between the hours of 7 and 10 P. M. The particulars are as follows: -- A large and respectable portion of the citizens having become fully convinced by the most conclusive testimony, and their own observation, that the character of Jo Smith, in connection with many of the Mormon leaders had become so base and corrupt, that longer countenance would be crime. They early in April last, resolved themselves into a new Society, styled the "Reformed Mormon Church," and appointed William Law their President. The old church party felt very uneasy about the establishment of this new party, and commenced a tirade of abuse and slander against the characters and persons of those who had heretofore stood in high estimation, simply because they dared to think for themselves, and express their honest opinions.

The new party, having no organ through which to speak, being denied the privilege of publishing any thing against Joe (however true it might be) had the only alternative left, to establish a Press of their own, or else, quietly submit to the foul and false assertions which were heaped upon them by wholesale, as often as the "Nauvoo Neighbor" made its appearance.

For the purpose, then, of establishing a free and independent press in Nauvoo, through which they might advocate equal rights to every citizen, and whereby all might speak for themselves, a company of several gentlemen (some of whom were members of the new church, and some of no church,) formed themselves into a committee to publish the "Nauvoo Expositor," the first number of which appeared on the 7th inst. as proposed in the Prospectus. The next day an extra session of the City Council was called for the purpose of adopting means and measures to bring our youthful paper to an immediate and untimely fate. -- The Expositor was eagerly sought on all hands -- some had the audacity to read it in the public street, while others, -- poor, pitiable creatures, would conceal it in their pocket, and repair to some private corner, and there peruse it! In the council various opinions were expressed as to the modus operandi of suppressing our odious paper, whose only offence was, telling the truth, and exposing to public gaze the iniquities of those who were governing us with a heart of steel and a rod of iron. Some suggested the propriety of passing an ordinance in relation to libels, but Joe and Hiram (Joe's brother) raved and swore away with a vengeance, declaring it a nuisance, which should be demolished on the spot, together with the property of all concerned with its publication, if they made any resistance or defence. One liberal councilman thought they should notify, but this was objected to, the ordinance was passed, the orders given, and troops presented themselves, as full of fight as old Joe is of folly.

The excitement here became tremendous. Surrounded on all sides by a ruthless and merciless gang of ruffians, and being few in number ourselves, we knew not what to do. Our feelings were too deeply wounded for utterance -- already insulted beyond endurance, we must now submit to the forfeiture of our rights to the mercy of a mob, and that under sanction of law. We concluded to make no resistance. When they marshaled their troops before the office, F. M. Higbee and myself, in behalf of the publishers forbade their entering the premises or laying hands on the press. They paid no regard to his commands, but marched up stairs, broke open the door, entered the office, and demolished the press -- threw out the tables, stands, desks, &c., and scattered the type in all directions. After clearing out of the office, they piled up the combustible materials, and set fire and burnt them to ashes, while the multitude made the air ring with their hideous yells.

This constitutes the history of this disgraceful and most outrageous affair. We have given a simple statement of the facts as they took place, without the aid of fancy or fiction, and shall conclude this sketch by stating to the public that this is but a specimen of the unjustice that is meted out to those whose ambition soars higher than to obey the dictum of such a tyrannical wretch as Jo Smith -- a man notorious for villainy -- a man whose crimes are too dark to be recorded, whose character is stained with deeds that would blacken the bottomless pit. We mean all we say, in relation to this monster. Facts have recently been developed which fully substantiate the position. It is a fact too well known to be disputed or denied, that Joe did employ Rockwell and others to shoot ex-Governor Boggs, of Missouri, and by J. H. Jackson's statement, tried to hire him to go to Missouri and rescue Rockwell and perpetrate the same diabolical deed, if he had an opportunity. Dr. R. D. Foster has made affidavit also, which is now on file, that he offered him $300 to pay his expenses in going to Missouri and shooting Boggs, stating, "it was the will of God, and must be done," and would reward him handsomely.

It is a lamentable fact, that he has ensnared scores of credulous and superstitious females (both married and single,) in his seductive met, under pretence of Divine authority, thereby involving families and individuals in disgrace and infamy, and after gratifying his most hellish lust, has, to clear himself, thrown down the lie upon them, adding the blackest insult to the foulest injury.

It is a fact, generally known, that he has been prominently engaged in the manufacture of bogus money and counterfeiting.

It is a fact, he now stands indicted before the Hancock Circuit Court, for perjury, fornication and adultery.

It is a fact that he has used his office and assumed power of the City Charter, in protecting and shielding fugitives from justice, charged with high misdemeanors.

It is a fact that he lives upon the spoils of his dupes in splendor, while thousands are in a state of starvation. And last, though not least, it is an act that has capped the climax of his outrages by authorizing the destruction of a public press. Not satisfied with personal injury, he resorts to open contempt and violation of one of the most sacred features of American institutions -- the liberty of the press.

We repeat it, history affords no parallel to the iniquities and enormities of this tyrant who, dressed in a little brief authority, perpetrates deeds at which Heaven weeps and human nature falls back ashamed of her own depravity.

In this our situation -- robbed of our property -- stripped of our rights, and outraged on every hand, we present our case before a free and enlightened public, leaving it with them to say how long we shall be subjected to a sacrifice of our nearest and dearest rights at the shrine of unhallowed ambition.
                                       Respectfully, &c.,
                                           CHARLES A. FOSTER.

Note: Compare the above account to Foster's shorter report, as published in the July 11, 1844 "Extra" of the Warsaw Signal, and reprinted in that same paper on the following day.


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Mo., June 14?, 1844.                         No. ?


Latest from Nauvoo -- "The time is Come"
The Prophet in Danger.

An extra from the office of the Warsaw Signal, came to us yesterday morning, containing some further statement about the present trouble at Nauvoo. This is the way the Signal talks about it. Heading his extra with,

"The Time is Come!"

he goes on, after stating the matter, as follows;

We have only to state, that this is sufficient! War and extermination is inevitable! Citizens ARISE, ONE AND ALL!!! -- Can you stand by, and suffer such INFERNAL DEVILS!! to rob men of their property and rights, without avenging them. We have no time for comment! -- every man will make his own. Let it be made with POWDER AND BALL!!

LATER -- 6 o'clock, P. M. We have just learned from Carthage, that writs have been procured, and officers despatched to Nauvoo, to arrest the perpetrators of the outrage.

It is also rumored, that Joe is causing the arrest of every man in Nauvoo, who is opposed to him, and does not justify his proceedings.

By the stage driver we learn, that the press, &c., were destroyed a little after sun down, last evening.

We await the final result with anxiety. Much excitement exists; but the course determined on, is to throw Joe into opposition in the laws.

It seems that, in destroying the Expositor office, Jo's orders were, if resistance were made, for the officers to demolish the building, and property, of all who were concerned in punishing said paper; and, also, take all into custody who might refuse to obey the authorities of the city.

Accordingly, a company consisting of some 200 men, armed and equipped with muskets, swords, pistols, bowie-knives, sledge-hammers, &c., assisted by a crowd of several hundred minions. who volunteered their services on the occasion, marched in the building, and breaking open the doors with a sledge-hammer, commenced the work of destruction and desolation.

They tumbled the press and materials into the street, and set fire to them, demolished the machinery with a sledge-hammer, and injured the building very materially.

Note: The above item evidently comes from the original daily St. Louis Reveille, a Democratic paper that began publication on May 14, 1844. The issue of the Weekly Reveille, for Sept. 18, 1844 is marked "Number 10," probably indicating that the paper did not begin to issue a Monday weekly edition until about July 15th.


Vol. III.                           St. Louis, June 16, 1844.                           No. ?


Mormon War. We have received a slip from Warsaw, Illinois, containing the proceedings of the citizens of that place in a meeting on the twelfth. The preamble alludes to the violent destruction of the press of the Nauvoo Expositor, and the threats made by the Mormons to destroy the press of the Warsaw Signal, and to assassinate the editor. Among the resolutions adopted were the following:

"Resolved, that the public threat made in the Council of the city, not only to destroy our printing-press, but to take the life of its editor, is sufficient, in connection with the recent outrage, to command the efforts and the services of every good citizen to put an immediate stop to the career of the mad prophet and his demoniac coadjutors. We must not only defend ourselves from danger, but we must resolutely carry the war into the enemy's camp. We do therefore declare that we will sustain our press and the editor at all hazards; that we will take full vengeance, terrible vengeance, should the lives of any of our citizens be lost in the effort; that we hold ourselves at all times in readiness to co-operate with our fellow-citizens in this state, Missouri and Iowa, to exterminate. utterly exterminate the wicked and abominable Mormon leaders, the authors of our troubles.

Resolved, that a committee of five be appointed forthwith to notify all persons in our township suspected of being the tools of the prophet to leave immediately on pain of instant vengeance. And we do recommend the inhabitants of the adjacent townships to do the same, hereby pledging ourselves to render all the assistance they may require.

Resolved, that the time, in our opinion, has arrived, when the adherents of Smith, as a body, should be driven from the surrounding settlements into Nauvoo. That the prophet and his miscreant adherents should then he demanded at their hands; and, if not surrendered, a war of extermination should be waged to the entire destruction, if necessary for our protection, of his adherents. And we hereby recommend this resolution to the consideration of the several townships, to the Mass Convention to be held at Carthage, hereby pledging ourselves to aid to the utmost the complete consummation of the object in view, that we may thereby be utterly relieved of the alarm, anxiety and trouble to which we are now subjected.

Resolved, that every citizen arm himself to be prepared to sustain the resolutions herein contained.

LATER NEWS -- 7 o'clock, P. M. A gentleman directly from Nauvoo, informs us, that on Tuesday, the city council passed an ordinance that if any officer or officers should attempt to arrest any person in the destruction of the Expositor press, and take him out of Nauvoo for trial, he should be imprisoned. We may therefore expect that the officers from Carthage are in custody of the Mormons.

A mass meeting was called, to assemble in Carthage today.

The streets of Warsaw will be patroled to-night in pursuance of the order made by the public meeting yesterday.

A family of suspected persons were to-day, ordered to leave this place, before to-morrow at 10 A. M., by a party of our citizens; a part of whom were armed. The excitement in the county is said to be tremendous, and on the increase.

A meeting was to be held in St. Louis on the night of the 15th inst., to take into consideration the subject of these difficulties.

LATEST. Jo Smith anathematizes all Mormons who will desert Nauvoo at the present emergency. Some 300 had previously left. He has decreed the holy city to be under martial law. The citizens of the surrounding parts, of Carthage, &c., have six places of encampment, and were to assemble on the 19th, armed and equipped, to move in attack on that day. About 2000 thus were enrolled and under the sheriff's orders. It is to be hoped the executive of the state will have interfered in time to prevent the effusion of blood.

(exact wording uncertain -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Wed., June 19, 1844.                         No. ?


... several pieces of cannon have been taken from that place by the Steamboat Die Vernon, for Warsaw the headquarters of the Anti-Mormons....

Note: The above fragment evidently comes from an article printed in the original daily St. Louis Reveille, a Democratic paper that began publication on May 14, 1844. The issue of the Weekly Reveille,for Sept. 18, 1844 is marked "Number 10," probably indicating that the paper did not begin to issue a Monday weekly edition until about July 15th.


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Saturday, June 22, 1844.                         No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- The Waverley, down last night, brings intelligence that the allies march to-day on Nauvoo. They are reported to be three or four thousand strong, while the Mormons are said to be already short of provisions.

By the clerk of the steamer New Haven we are informed that Nauvoo is strictly under martial law, armed guards are stationed at different points, and a sentry patrolling the landing. The New Haven, however, was permitted to touch, and a guard was immediately placed at the foot of her gangway plank to prevent the embarkation of any who had no particular business with the city.

Note: The above item evidently comes from the original St. Louis Reveille, a Democratic paper that began publication on May 14, 1844. The issue of the Weekly Reveille, for Sept. 18, 1844 is marked "Number 10," probably indicating that the paper did not begin to issue a Monday weekly edition until about July 15th.


Vol. III.                           St. Louis, June 24, 1844.                           No. ?


The Ohio and Hibernia passed Nauvoo yesterday morning, and it was then currently reported that Joe Smith and the members of the Nauvoo City Council had eloped during the night previous. It was stated that they had crossed into Iowa at Montrose. The leaders had thus deserted and left their deluded followers as victims to the fury of the indignant citizens of the surrounding country. Joe had declared his determination not to go to Carthage or Missouri, for he could not get justice at either place, but he would surrender himself at any other place. He, however, concluded that discretion was the better part of valor, and escaped. The people of Warsaw were under arms; they searched the Osprey to see if she carried any arms for the use of the Mormons. Nothing unusual appeared to be going on at Nauvoo yesterday morning.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Extra.]                            St. Louis, Friday, June 28, 1844.                            [Extra.

[ title  unknown ]

... on the evening of the 26th, not long after Smith had given himself up, a party of about two hundred men surrounded the Carthage jail and demanded admittance. The guard (consisting of but seven men armed) refused. The guard were then overpowered, and, when the mob were about to enter the prison, Smith appeared in the window above and it was probably supposed, intended to leap out. While in this position, a shot was fired at him; he then leaped, and before he reached the ground he was pierced by three or four balls more. Hiram Smith and Richards were shot in prison...

Friend Flagg -- Enclosed you have a copy of an "Extra" issued at Quincy. We left Nauvoo about daylight this morning (Friday 28th) all was quiet. The Mormons had not heard of the death of the Smiths, as Gov. Ford, who was encamped a few miles back, had (as supposed,) intercepted the messengers from Carthage.

At Warsaw, all was excitement. The women and chidren were all removed, and an immediate attack was expected from the Mormons.

We met the "Boreas," just above Quincy, with 300 men armed and equipped for Warsaw, eager for fight.

I send the "Quincy Herald" printed this morning, containing the particulars of Smith's death. In haste, yours, &c.   A. J. STONE.
    On board Steamboat St. Croix:
    Friday Evening, June 28, 1844.

From the Quincy Herald, Friday Morning, 3 o'clock.

(read original report from Quincy paper)

Note: The title and full content of the above report remain undetermined. The text is taken from various reprints in other papers.


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Saturday, June 29, 1844.                         No. ?

From the Quincy Whig Extra.
June 28, 1844.

Dreadful  News!

Attempt at Rescue! -- Killing of Joe Smith--
Hiram Smith, and William Richards,
in the Carthage Jail.

On Friday morning last, just before sunrise, our citizens were aroused from their slumbers, by the ringing of the bells of the city. The cause of the commotion was the astounding news that had just come down from Hancock, viz: of the attempt on the part of the Mormons to rescue Joe Smith from Jail in Carthage and of the killing of Joe Smith, Hyrum Smith, and Joe's Secretary, William Richards! and of the great peril of Governor Ford, and the handful of troops now in Nauvoo! An immense crowd had collected at the court house, with Dr. Ralston in the chair. Wm. H. Roosevelt, Esq. being present, was called upon to give a statement of recent occurrences in Hancock. The gentleman seemed to be laboring under great excitement, but gave a tolerable well connected account of the events of the last few days in Carthage and vicinity.

It appears that Joe Smith, Hyrum Smith, and a number of other Mormon leaders, were in Jail at Carthage, confined on certain offences against the laws of the State. The "Carthage Greys," a volunteer company, were placed as a guard around the jail. About 6 o'clock, last evening, an attempt was made by the Mormons on the outside to rescue the Mormon prisoners from the custody of the guard. A youth, about 19 years of age. (a Mormon,) began the fray, by shooting the sentinel at the door, wounding him severely in the shoulder. Simultaneously with this attempt, the Mormons on the inside of the jail, including the Smiths, presented pistols through the windows and doors of the jail, and fired upon the guard without; wounding, it is supposed, mortally, four of the old citizens of Hancock! -- It is unnecessary to say that this bloodthirsty attempt, on the part of the Mormons, was the signal for certain and sure vengeance. The lives of the two Smiths, and Richards, were quickly taken, and we believe no others! Carthage was filled with Mormons -- previous to the affray, the Mormons appeared to be collecting around the jail, it is now supposed, for the purpose of attempting the rescue of their leader.

G. T. M. Davis, Esq., of Alton, came down this morning from Nauvoo. The news of the killing of Smith, had not reached Nauvoo when he left. Governor Ford was in Nauvoo yesterday, and was to camp six miles out last night. Col. Singleton was in command at Nauvoo, with 120 troops. Great fears are entertained for their safety, if the Mormons rose upon him, after hearing of the death of the Prophet.

It is also feared that both Carthage and Warsaw have been burned by the Mormons, as threats of that kind have been made. The Women and children in the latter place have been taken to places of safety -- a portion of them came down on the Boreas, this morning.

The "German Guards" and "Rifle Company," are now assembling, as well as a portion of the Militia, for the purpose of marching to the scene of action. The Boreas has been chartered to take them up. Our city has the appearance of a military camp.

The above was issued from this office in an extra on Monday evening. The accounts received since then, it is due to state, confirm little of the above ibtelligence except the fact of the death of the Smiths and Richards in the Carthage jail. The statement appears to be entirely one-sided. Another account states that Smith was killed by a company of a dozen or so of men, with faces painted black, who went up from Warsaw. But this we have not seen confirmed. The most credible account we have seen is that given in the St. Louis Gazette of Friday, which says that on the evening of the 26th, not long after Smith had given himself up, a party of about two hundred men surrounded the Carthage jail and demanded admittance. The guard (consisting of but seven men armed) refused. The guard were then overpowered, and, when the mob were about to enter the prison, Smith appeared in the window above and it was probably supposed, intended to leap out. While in this position, a shot was fired at him; he then leaped, and before he reached the ground he was pierced by three or four balls more. Hiram Smith and Richards were shot in prison -- But this account may be as far from the truth as either of the others. It is likely we may shortly have something in an authentic shape from Gov. Ford. It appears, however, settled that there were no Mormons at Carthage when Smith was killed, and there was no attempt made at a rescue. And, consequently, whatever may have been the minor circumstances attending the death of Smith, it was little less than most foul murder, for which every one of the offenders, no matter whether half a dozen or two hundred, should receive the punishment the law awards to him who takes the life of his fellow. We forbear further comment, however, until we are better informed.

Nauvoo, by the latest accounts, was quiet, and so all around it. No danger of a collision between the citizens and Mormons was apprehended. Gov. Ford was still on the ground, active in the emdeavor to bring offenders to justice and to restore peace and quiet.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Sunday, June 30, 1844.                         No. ?


By the clerk of the steamer Gen. Brooks, which came down yesterday evening, we are informed that Gov. Ford had arrived at Carthage, approved of present operations, to further which he had ordered out 2,500 men. By this time, it is supposed, that active operations have been commenced.

Note: The text for the above notice was taken from the July 4, 1844 issue of the Rochester Daily Advertiser.


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Mo., July 6, 1844.                         No. ?


Having visited Nauvoo and its vicinity in person, for the purpose of getting at the true state of affairs among the Mormons and their neighbors, we are enabled to give the latest as well as the most correct intelligence.

Nauvoo reposes in a state of quietude and tranquility most remarkable. During some thirty hours that we passed in the 'Holy City,' we heard but one solitary intemperate expression, and the man who uttered it was instantly checked, and made silent by more prudent spirits around him. Elders Adams and Lyne, accompanied by others, left the city on Tuesday last, their object being to call home the absent Apostles and members of the Council of Seventy. Upon the return of these, there will take place a solemn deliberation of the Twelve Apostles, who will appoint a successor to the lost Prophet, and their appointment will then be acted upon, either to be ratified or rejected by the Council of Seventy.

The walls of the Temple are little more than half up to the designated height, and all work ceased upon them during the recent troubles; but, at the public meeting on Monday afternoon, the people were notified by Elder Phelps, now one of the most active and influential men among them, that labor should commence again the next day. He told the men not to neglect their families; to be ebergetic in seeing them provided for first, and then hasten to work upon the temple. The system upon which this temple has been building, is the exaction of labor every tenth day from every man who cannot purchase his exemption from the task with money. It will be, if ever finished, a very imposing looking edifice. It stands in a high and commanding position, a prominent object, riveting the stranger's eye at once; and, upon near inspection, the style of architecture is found to be more than commonly attractive, from its singularity. It is like nothing else; and, unless we may be allowed to designate it as the Mormonic order, it certainly has no name at all. The stone is of excellent quality, quarried in the neighborhood, and very good mechanics have been at work upon it. The massive caps of the columns are already carved from huge blocks, showing a gigantic round human face like the broad full moon. The columns are made to rest upon crescent moons, sculptured on the face of the stone, resting with the horns down, with a profile of eyes, nose, and mouth upon the inner curve. What idea this is meant to convey we could not learn, though the impression is irresistible that the church is built up upon moonshine.

The utmost harmony and peace, at least as far as was allowed to appear to the eye of a stranger, prevailed throughout Nauvoo. At Warsaw, and all about the adjoining district, a very different state of things is fully apparent. The people are boiling over with excited feeling. We arrived at Warsaw on our return, on the Osprey, and Capt. Anderson, in the kindest manner, complied with our request for the boat to wait an hour, and afford us an opportunity of seeing and communicating with the citizens. We found them laboring under such a state of feeling as is quite evident can never be changed. In reply to the deputation from Gov. Ford, consisting of A. Jonas, Esq., and Col, Hart Fellows, the former appearing as spokesman, we were told that a committee had already left Warsaw to wait upon the Governor, with the deliberate expression, that either one or the other of the antagonistical parties must abandon the county. Mr. Jonas very properly told the people, that Gov. Ford could give no reply to such a communication, save one of condemnation; he would be subject, himself, to impeachment, by venturing on any action to drive away either the Mormons, or their opponents; and in this unsatisfactory way the meeting at Warsaw broke up, we returning on board the Osprey, and the people to their dwellings.

We stopped at Quincy on Thursday evening, and saw the Governor. We frankly laid before him the charges we had heard made against him, both by Mormons and Anti-Mormons, all of which he combatted with fair and intelligent statements. The Macdonough soldiers, about whose dismisal the Mormons are most indignant, were disbanded, merely from the simple fact, that there was no sustenance for them in the power of the Governor, or the people of the place. Gov. Ford depended upon the ussurances of protection for the prisoners, given by the Carthage Greys, and the guard around the door of the jail.

The point most interesting, may be the manner of the murder, and, without partiality, we can here give the straight-forward truth. At the request of their own counsel, the prisoners were placed in an upper apartment of the jail, instead of the cells. This is another point upon which the Mormons feel sure, they believing, or pretending to believe, that the Smiths were so placed, with design to give the assassins more facility in accomplishing their work. The first alarm in Carthage, was a cry from the vicinity of the jail, "The Mormons! the Mormons! they have come to rescue the prisoners!" It is clear from all respresentations, that such was the instantaneous impression. The Carthage Greys were under arms, and immediately commenced quick march for the jail. First was heard a solitary shot, followed by the quick and continuous reports of a revolving pistol. (these latter are known and admitted to have been fired by the Prophet,) and then came a volley of fire-arms, succeeded by Joseph Smith tumbling head foremost from a window of the jail. The whole time of action, from the first cry of "The Mormons! the Mormons!" until the Carthage Greys, on approaching the scene, discovered a band of men disappearing as fast as they could run, was scarcely ten minutes. This has been all represented fully at Quincy, though many still, whether from honest impression, or fixed design, it is difficult, and perhaps, useless to speak, assume to impugn the integrity of the Greys.

There is such a whirlpool of conflicting interests involving this business, that an impartial mind is completely astonished at the manner in which first high principles may be lost sight of, in the petty differences of party.

All men, from one end of the Union to the other, must condemn, most emphatically, the outbreak at Carthage. It was wrong; it was unjustified by any law; it was a demonstration, bound to be regretted deeply by all good citizens, living under this free government. Still, let us do the people of Hancock county, Illinois fair justice.

Note 1: The text of the above article was taken from an unverified reprint from an unknown New York newspaper and a second reprint, published in the Washington, D. C. Daily National Intelligencer of July 18, 1844. The original Reveille issue has not yet been located.

Note 2: The account given in the Reveille, came from Editor M. C. Field; who here mentions that "Elder Phelps, now one of the most influential" among the Latter Day Saints. W. W. Phelps' behind-the-scenes role in governing the political activities of the Mormons came briefly into the daylight at this critical time. The quintessential anti-Mason of years gone by, Phelps' name is oddly paired in the above report with that of Abraham Jonas, the Masonic Grand Master in Illinois and the writer of a glowing 1842 newspaper account of Joseph Smith and the Mormons.


Vol. V.                             St. Louis, Mo., August ?, 1844.                             No. ?


We have intelligence from Nauvoo to the 5th inst. All was quiet. It appears that the reports of the appearance of Joe Smith and the appointment of his son are false, and originated in a desire to injure the Mormons abroad. Sidney Rigdon has retired to Nauvoo from Pittsburg, and preached to the people on the 4th inst. In consequence of the death of Samuel Smith, Joe's brother, since the death of the prophet, Sidney Rigdon will be chosen Patriarch of the Mormon flock. He is their master spirit, and will make a shrewd and energetic leader. There are five widows of the Smith family now living in Nauvoo, the mother of all, and the late wives of Joe, Hiram, and their two brothers. Accessions to the Mormon strength continue to be quite large; in Nauvoo, the usual activity is apparent and the Temple is steadily going up in its unique form and shape. Its style of architecture is of the pure Mormon order.

Note: The above article appeared in the Organ during the second week in August. The text is taken from reprints in various newspapers.


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Thursday, August 29, 1844.                           No. 9.


SIDNEY RIGDON. -- A gentleman from Nauvoo informs us that Sidney Rigdon is now filling the office of first President of the Mormon Church, having received a revelation from Heaven that he was selected to act in that capacity. This is said to be doubted by some of the brethren.   -- Transcript.

(more text follows, not yet copied -- under construction)

Note: The report on Elder Sidney Rigdon's "filling the office of first President" in the LDS Church was premature. Rigdon was excommunicated on Sept. 8th by a Bishop's Court at Nauvoo, which acted upon charges brought by Brigham Young's Quorum of the Twelve.


Vol. V.                        St. Louis, Tuesday, September 10, 1844.                        No. 190.


Some of the Mormons are scattering off and they are considerably divided in their movements. Sidney Rigdon has been among them, but his claims were not recognized. Lyman Wight withdraws from Nauvoo. The infamous Bennett has gone up to try his hand among them. -- Era.

Note: This article appeared in the New Era of the 9th. The "Bennett" here referred to is James Arlington Bennett of Long Island, NY, not the famous newspaper editor James Gordon Bennett, and certainly not the ex-Mormon leader, John C. Bennett (who, nevertheless, did later join James J. Strang's group of Saints).


Vol. ?                        St. Louis, Wednesday, September 11, 1844.                        No. ?

(for more Republican articles, click here)

Mormonism. -- Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in the city on yesterday evening. We learn that Rigdon, who professed to have a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism remain unchanged, although they will not have him rule over them. The administration of the affairs of the church for the oresent is to remain in the hands of the Twelve Apostles.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Thursday, September 12, 1844.                           No. 11.


Mormonism. -- Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in the city on yesterday evening. We learn that Rigdon, who professed to have a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism remain unchanged, although they will not have him rule over them. The administration of the affairs of the church for the oresent is to remain in the hands of the Twelve Apostles. -- Republican

==> There is said to be a great dissension among the Mormons, arising out of the succession to power and division of the spoils. -- The corrupt impostors and their fanatical, superstitious, priest-ridden dupes, are in a state of great confusion. It is to be hoped that a large number of them will abandon the community, and with it the system of imposture by which they have been held together.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Tuesday, September 17, 1844.                         No. 196.


To the Editor of the People's Organ:

DEAR SIR, -- Being in this city on my return from Nauvoo to Pittsburgh (the place of my residence,) I feel myself called upon to edify the public enquiry in relation to myself and a portion of the citizens of Nauvoo. It is pretty generally known that I left Nauvoo in June last, with my family, with the design of making my future residence in the city of Pittsburgh. On hearing of the murder of the two Smiths, I returned to Nauvoo, without any intention, however, of making Nauvoo my place of residence. During my stay in Nauvoo, a number of persons expressed a desire to go with me to Pittsburgh and reside some where in that region of country, where they could enjoy my society, as well as I theirs. This determination gave great offence to some of the citizens of Nauvoo. We held several meetings in relation to the matter -- not in the least doubting our right to do so if we chose -- when, to our surprise, a great excitement was got up -- meetings were appointed in different parts of the town, and were addressed by Brigham Young, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Erastus Snow, and others. Inflammatory speeches were made, and a general excitement was created. We were traduced as mobocrats, as murderers, conspirators; and many other epithets of like character were applied to us. We were charged with conspiring against the lives of the before-mentioned persons: -- and all this for the sin of desiring to go to Pennsylvania to live with our families.

Orson Hyde (who is now in St. Louis, and wgo is calculating to preach to the good people of this city on Sunday next,) in a public meeting, used language calculated to excite an ignorant populace to commit violence on my person. His expressions were, (speaking of myself,) -- "I will not ride him on a rail -- no, I will not do it; but ought not a man reap that which he sows? If he gets up a mob, ought he not be mobbed?" This was said in the presence of a large assembly of people; and my great crime was, (for which I ought to be rode on a rail, or otherwise mobbed,) that a number of gentlemen of high respectability desired, if they could so arrange their business, to go with their families to Pittsburgh and there reside, and I had agreed to aid them all I could, and use my influence for their comfort and future prosperity.

On last Sunday, a conference was called of all the citizens of Nauvoo, to take our case under due consideration. Here, if I have been properly informed, my own character was assailed in a most shameful manner. I, with many others, were cut off from the church: -- all for the crime of wishing to go to Pittsburgh and live.

So great was the excitement, that some of my friends thought it unsafe for me to be out of doors in the night season.

Now, Sir, this unheard-of excitement grew out of the simple fact of myself and others wishing to go and settle somewhere in Pensylvania; and for this crime, the said Orson Hyde (who on next Sunday is to preach righteousness to the people of St. Louis,) actually desired to raise a mob to commit violence on my person -- or else there is no meaning in language; and he has actually, after such shameful and unpardonable abuse, been on board the steamboat May Flower, where I am writing this communication, and requested me not to write certain things, in order to save himself from the shame or odium which must attach itself to him; or else he is destitute of all sense of shame.

I presume, Sir, a parallel to this case cannot be found in the history of the civilized world. A whole community of people excited till they actually called a peaceable number of citizens murderers, and every other evil epithet that malice could invent, because, forsooth, they were guilty of the awful crime of daring to leave Nauvoo without the permission of certain individual -- such as the before named. It is such mortals as the above named, who would claim the right to dictate religion to the world. When I conversed with Orson Hyde this day on the subject, he had the effrontry to tell me he did it from a sense of duty. I ask, whose life is safe, when men act from a sense of duty in such flagrant violation of the most sacred rights of others? I do know, Sir, that some of those persons who were calculating to take their families to Pennsylvania, were put in such fear as to fear to make their design known, for fear of abuse; and all this, says Orson Hyde, "we do from a sense of duty." What a sense of duty may lead such men to do, God only knows. For my own part, "I have not so learned Christ;" nor ever expect to learn him -- nor did any other man so learn him. From what Hyde said to me to-day, on the steamboat, I was satisfied that he feared disclosures would be made that might effect him during future life.

I did not leave Nauvoo because I feared them, but because I had staid beyond the time I calculated to stay when I left home, and because I had received a letter requesting my return home. As to any attack they can make on my character, I fear them not. I feel myselfat their defiance, though they should assail me by falsehoods, which I conceive any man who can cloak wickedness under a pretended sense of duty can do by the same kind of conscience.
                                Yours, most respectfully,
                                            SIDNEY RIGDON.
St. Louis, Sept. 12, 1844

Note 1: Just prior to the publication of Rigdon's letter, Elder Orson Hyde wrote the following to the Twelve at Nauvoo: "St. Louis, Sept. 12, 1844.   Dear Brethren, We arrived here yesterday all well. Elder Rigdon said that he never felt happier, but his happiness appeared to me like the blaze from shavings lively and brilliant, but of short duration. I do not think he intends to publish so much as he talked of. "He said here to Bro. Small that to tell the truth, it is not necessary to build the temple" for said he, "if the temple is built the Twelve have no power to administer the endowment." He said to Bro. Small, that Emma came to him on the morning of his leaving and told him that it was her intention to go with him and that the new translation and other important and sacred things, she should deliver up to him. Clapp, a merchant on Main Street came down with us. He appeared to side with Elder Rigdon. He seemed to me to be a snake in the grass. There is no dependence to be placed in him in my opinion. The brethren here appeared all warm for the Twelve. I sent on an appointment by Elder Hollister to Cincinatti for Sunday Week. Next Sunday I preach here. It was a very swift boat on which Elder Hollister went out on, this morning; but Elder Rigdon did not go out on it for the berths were all engaged. He has gone to a very slow boat that will go out this evening or tomorrow. I sent on letters to Pittsburg by Elder Hollister. I preached in town last evening and a very good feeling prevailed. I sent down to the boat and invited Elder Rigdon to attend but he did not leave the boat, was sick with the dioarhea and vomited most of the night, so he told me. I shall leave no stone unturned in doing my duty. May God protect you from the mobs and writs. A man on the "Osprey" wrote to the Governor in your behalf. I instructed him what to say and he said it. But keep this to yourself. The "Osprey" broke her shaft. This delayed our journey about six hours. All is right at Quincy. They are for the temple, the Twelve and for God. They are all right so far as I can hear from all quarters. I shall write to the "Prophet," N. Y. soon. Elder Rigdon told Bro. Small that he had organized the "School of the Prophets" in Nauvoo and left them to carry on the work there and he was going to Pittsburg to carry on the work there. Bro. Small is all right. Elder Rigdon's excommunication from the Church was all over town when we arrived here. The news went by the birds perhaps. However many here were expecting that that would be the result with him. There is [----] tithing here that I shall gather on my return. Closing in haste (more soon)     O. Hyde. (Journal History of the Church, Thursday, Sept. 12, 1844.)

Note 2: In another letter to the Twelve, Orson Hyde reportedly said: " a friend... I indulged the hope that he [i, e., Sidney Rigdon] would see the error into which he had fallen, and erelong retrace his steps... 'be careful how you put pen to paper in this time of your excitement... wait a few months and then see how you will feel'..." [but Rigdon replied that] "his course was marked out before him and that he should pursue it... that he never felt happier. [However, according to Hyde, the man's] "happiness appeared to me like the blaze from shavings -- lively and brilliant, but of short duration..." This quotation is taken from Richard Van Wagoner's 1994 Sidney Rigdon A Portrait of Religious Excess, p. 359. Mr. Van Wagoner cites as the original source, Orson Hyde's Sep. 12, 1844, letter to "Dear Brethren," [i. e., Brigham Young and the Council of 12 Apostles] in the Brigham Young Collection, Box 39, folder 18, at the LDS Church Archives. However, only the final clause is from that source. Van Wagoner prefaces his Sep. 12th quotation with some uncited words actually taken from Hyde's Sep. 17 letter to the St. Louis People's Organ

Note 3: In a subsequent letter (original also in Brigham Young Collection, Box 39, folder 18) Orson Hyde wrote to Brigham Young from St. Louis on Sept. 16th, saying that Rigdon claimed in St. Louis to be "in possession of facts and power [sufficient] to have hurled Joseph from his station long ago." It is doubtful that Rigdon was speaking merely of Mormon secrets regarding polygamy, the Council of Fifty, or recent political intrigues in Illinois. His reference to "long ago" appears to place the "facts" he claimed to possess against Smith among the early days of the Church. Perhaps Rigdon was making a subtle reference to long-held secrets concerning Book of Mormon authorship.

Note 4: The "Bro. Small" mentioned by Apostle Hyde was Elder William Small, then the St. Louis Branch President and later an apostle in Rigdon's Pittsburgh church. According to his statements in Rigdon's Pittsburgh Messenger & Advocate, Elder Small conveyed some of Rigdon's words directly to Hyde at this time, only later breaking his last ties with the Twelve in order join Rigdon's group. Elder Small was the first convert of the Philadelphia branch and briefly functioned as the a senior Mormon Elder at Pittsburgh, under Apostle John E. Page. The merchant "Clapp," who accompanied Rigdon to Pittsburgh may have served as a middleman in bringing St. Louis merchant James Jefferies into Rigdon's company while the excommunicated Mormon leader was in the city. Forty years later Jefferies would claim in the pages of the Baltimore Observer that Rigdon had betrayed to him certain Mormon secrets concerning the Solomon Spalding authorship of the Book of Mormon.

Note 5: On page 324 of his 1994 book, Van Wagoner accuses Apostle Orson Hyde of being the Twelve's "de facto agent of disinformation" and of taking "particular pleasure in attacking Rigdon's reputation." According to Van Wagoner, much of the top LDS leaders' portrayal of Rigdon's last years within the Church consisted of highly distorted or downright falsified "disinformation." This pattern of portraying known falsehood as unmitigated truth, in the case of Elder Sidney Rigdon, was apparently merely part of a larger effort by those same leaders to hide the practice of Mormon polygamy and to discredit Rigdon's early exposure of that secret religious practice at Nauvoo.


Vol. I.                         St. Louis, Monday, September 18?, 1844.                         No. 10.


Mormonism. -- We learn, from the Republican, that Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in the city on Wednesday evening. Rigdon, who professed to have had a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism remain unchanged, although they will not have him rule over them. The administration of the affairs of the church at the present, is to remain in the hands of the Twelve Apostles.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Wednesday, September 18, 1844.                           No. ?


Sidney Rigdon's Letter. -- in the Organ, gives more light respecting the deep rooted fanaticism and lawless spirit that prevails among the Mormons at Nauvoo. He, himself, has been a principal leader in their systemof imposture and priestcraft, and now he finds that he is unable to lead them; that there are others who are even more unprincipled and lawless than himself. He is excommunicated from the very synagogue of imposture which he assisted in raising. These discussions of the Mormon leaders should open the eyes of their duped followers, and induce them to abandon all such impostors and deceivers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Wednesday, September 18, 1844.                         No. 197.


MR. EDITOR: -- I observed, in your paper of this morning. a letter written by Sidney Rigdon, Esq., in which my name was called [in] question quite unceremoniously. I would say, however, that the most of his statements are untrue, which I am prepared to prove; and others are deeply shaded with misrepresentation. The statement that he, with some others, was cut off from the Church, is true; but not for the crime of going to Pittsburgh to live, as Mr. Rigdon very well knows. He has not touched on a single point on which the difficulty with him arose. But as the minutes of the Conference before which his case was investigated on Sunday, (a week ago) will appear in the "Neighbor" and the "Times and Seasons," it will be unnecessary for me to trouble you, at this time, with their recital.

I am at Mr. Rigdon's defiance to prove that I ever used the language attributed to me in relation to riding him upon a rail; for I never used it. Neither did I try to inspire the people with a disposition to commit any violence upon his person, -- and whatever advice his pretended friends might have given [him], or whatever fears they might have entertained for his personal safety, it is plain and clear to me, that their own guilt was the origin of their fears. Mr. Rigdon was as secure from harm in Nauvoo as the tender infant in its mother's arms. His own statement proves this. He says: "I did not leave Nauvoo because I feared them, but because I had stayed beyond the time I had calculated to stay when I left home."

But, to show his misrepresentation concerning the riding upon a rail, I will state the facts. In a private conversation with Mr. Rigdon and some others, Mr. R. observed that the people of Pittsburgh were willing that he should preach his religion there, but that if he attempted to gather together the people in that place, they would ride him out on a rail, and he should not attempt to do it; but that those who united and went with him would settle around in the county some thirty or forty miles from the city. This conversation I related in a public address to some of the citizens of Nauvoo, and then asked them, if a man was worthy or capable to lead this Church who would be turned out of his course because some rowdies threatened to ride him on a rail? Shouts of No! No! No! roared through the congregation with some spirit and emphasis. So much, then, for my mobbing him, or riding him or not riding him on a rail. Yes -- I am the very man that "preached righteousness to the good people of St. Louis" on yesterday!! And a liberal turn out we had.

It is true that I went to see Mr. Rigdon on board the steamer "May Flower," and took him aside as a friend, and told him that I considered his case a critical one, yet I indulged the hope that he would see the error into which he had fallen, and ere long retrace his steps. Now, said I to him, be careful how you put pen to paper in this time of your excitement, but wait a few months and then see how you will feel -- should you write in the present state of your feelings, you may commit yourself and lay the foundation for a more bitter repentance at some future period. He said that his course was marked out before him, and that he should pursue it. I replied, I have come to you, Mr. Rigdon, in a spirit of friendship and good will, because I feel it my duty so to do, and drop you this word of caution -- but if your course is marked out, and you are resolved to pursue it, you certainly are of age and must act for yourself, and I shall not try to prevent you. -- Thus were my most kind and friendly feelings towards him transformed in his dark imagination into a disposition on my part to conceal my own scheme.

With regard to any exposure, which Mr. R. fancied I dreaded, I would say, that I have a conscience void of offence before God and man, and am willing to be weighed [in] the balance with Mr. R. whenever it shall please Almighty God to summon us to appear at His tribunal.

Some of the real causes of Mr. Rigdon's expulsion from the Church will appear in the Nauvoo Neighbor. But if Mr. R. felt that his cause was a just one, and that his only "crime was in wishing to go to Pittsburgh to live, why did he not appear on the public stand and plead his own defence when he was invited so to do? He could have sounded his defence in the ears of more than six thousand people, in the very place where his grievances should have been redressed. Is he not a man of sense? Does he not possess a flow of language and eloquence not often surpassed? Yes, he does. If he regarded the truth, why did he send word by Elder Marks to the stand, on Sunday morning, that he was sick and unable to appear for his defence? -- when I can prove by his own party that very early on Sunday morning they met together in council and agreed that Mr. Rigdon should make no defence, and that his health was quite as good as usual.

After the case was laid open to the Conference, and the charges very clearly proven, he was publicly invited to come forward again and plead his own defence; or if any friend or attorney of his would come forward to speak for him, the stand was at his service. If Elder Rigdon's crime was only for desiring to go to live in Pittsburgh, what child could not have successfully plead his defence? Mr. Rigdon well knows, that on the Sabbath previous to the Conference, an expression of the people was taken in relation to his going to Pittsburgh in peace, and it was their unanimous expression that he should go in peace. Now he says that he was cutt off from the Church for the crime of wishing to go to Pittsburgh to live. Mr. Rigdon knows this statement to be utterly false, as well as he knows that he has a head on his body.
                                        Respectfully, I am your ob't serv't,
                                              ORSON HYDE. St. Louis, Sept. 17th, 1844.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Wednesday, September 19, 1844.                           No. ?


Orson Hyde, one of the Mormon imposters, has written a letter denying all the material statements made in the recent letter of Sidney Rigdon. He charges that Rigdon was expelled from the Mormon Church for offences entirely different from those alleged in his letter. Those Mormon leaders will soon satisfy all the world that they are just that description of [-----s] that they have been represented to be by those citizens of Missouri and Illinois, who have had the best opportunity of knowing them.

SIDNEY RIGDON. -- This impostor is, or has recently been here, and has sent a communication to the Organ. We did not suppose that any of the leaders of the Mormons who escaped from Missouri would venture again to make their appearance openly in the State.

(under construction)

Note: This issue of the New Era also reprints Sidney Rigdon's letter of Sept. 12th.


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Monday, September 23, 1844.                         No. 206.


Gov. Ford, it appears, has ordered out 2,500 of the State militia of Illinois, with an eye, perhaps, to approaching difficulties between the Warsaw citizens and the Nauvoo boys. The Signal most signally denies the necessity of such a movement, and declares that "order reigns in Warsaw."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Tuesday, September 25, 1844.                           No. ?


RUMORS OF A MORMON WAR. -- By the steamer Lebanon which arrived this morning from the Illinois river, we learn that when she left Beardstown yesterday, the military ordered out by Governor Ford were still there, waiting his arrival and reinforcements under his command from the vicinity of Jacksonville. As the Lebanon passed down, a number of soldiers had assembled at Well's Landing, who were also waiting for further orders. The movements of this great Commander-in-Chief appear to be characterized by the same tardiness for which they were so peculiarly distinguished during the first Mormon Punic war. Nauvoo would be ransacked and pillaged before this renowned military chieftain could get his army together and in motion. His proclamation, we understand, called for a general rendezvous of all the forces destined for the protection of the Mormons on the 24th inst. Yesterday was the 24th, but we find his army scattered along the banks of the Illinois, not knowing whether he would come or whether they are to look for another. This grand war and protection demonstration has not been equaled since the days of the Crusades. It is indeed a campaign of surprise if not of reprisal, for it has taken the citizens of Warsaw by surprise, and we opine that the Mormons are equally as much confounded to know what all this fuss about fighting means. Our last accounts by a boat which arrived this morning, state things in the two belligerent cities, to be in a state of the utmost peace and quietude. Gov. Ford will run his State further into debt, and then retire covered with laurels gained in planning and conducting one of the smallest military campaigns, for a little political effect, which has distinguished this or any other age.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Wednesday, September 26, 1844.                           No. ?


MORMON NEWS. -- A correspondent writes us from Nauvoo, that there was no design to reject Sidney Rigdon, as first President of the church, until he declared his settled determination to purge it of its abominations -- such as the spiritual wife doctrine, false swearing, bogus making, thieving, &c. This declaration aroused the ire of the Twelve, who were too strongly attached to their idols, to consent to give them up. Our correspondent further says, that all the most respectable of the Mormon Church, and all those who have any regard for decency and virtue, are secretly, if not openly, the friends of Rigdon.

The Mormons are still leaving the country -- The Osprey took a considerable load down-stream yesterday, and many leave in wagons. It is said by persons who have had an opportunity of knowing, that about two hundred a week leave the county. The Mormons offer their property so low, that a great inducement is offered for other citizens to come in and buy improvements. -- Warsaw Signal.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Thursday, September 27, 1844.                           No. ?


MORMON WAR. -- A gentleman who came down the river informs us that the Deputy Sheriff of Hancock county came to Warsaw with a writ to arrest Mr. Sharpe and Col. Williams; the writ commanded him to take them to Nauvoo for examination. They told him that they would go before any Justice of the Peace in Carthage or Warsaw, or any Justice of Hancock county, who was not a Mormon, but that they would die before they would go in Nauvoo, or put themselves in the power of the Mormons. The Sheriff returned to Nauvoo, and came back with positive directions to seize them and take them to Nauvoo, but before he returned, Sharpe and Williams had disappeared and could not be found. He also informs us that it was reported that Gov. Ford was in Nauvoo with troops. This is probably not the case. On the same day a letter was received from Carthage informing the people that Gov. Ford had ordered three hundred troops to be at Warsaw that night for the purpose of aiding in arresting citizens of that place. It is probable that the military movement of Governor Ford will give rise to many unfounded rumors, and that it may precipitate a bloody collision between the Mormons and the citizens of Hancock county. Gov. Ford's great love for the Mormons may yet be the means of their expulsion and extermination.

The officers of the Osprey state that there was a report at Warsaw that a writ had been issued to arrest Mr. Sharpe, the editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Col. Williams; that the Sheriff had gone to Warsaw to execute the writ, but could not find Sharpe, and that it was said that he had gone over to Missouri. The Sheriff was elected by the Mormons, and was in the Mormon interest. It is said that the citizens of Warsaw and Hancock will not submit to be tried by Mormons, nor by officers and courts which are under Mormon control. More news may be expected from this quarter.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Monday, September 30, 1844.                         No. 207.


==> In the last Nauvoo Neighbor we find enclosed an Address to the Members of the Church of Latter Day Saints, signed by twenty persons, in which they express the opinion that our correspondent at one particular time, Sidney Rigdon, is, since the death of Joseph Smith, the heaven-ordained "Prophet, Seer and Revelator for the Church." They are decidedly opposed to the administration of the spiritual affairs by the Twelve, who have laid violent hands on rights of the church, and, according to these signers, are opposing the revelation of Heaven, given, as they say, to Rigdon, which enabled him to repair to from Pittsburgh, his residence, to Nauvoo, to present himself as a candidate for the leadership of the church. He was rejected, and the signers of the Address say that they believe this rejection to be "a vital departure from the order of Heaven." They give Rigdon a character of which any one might be proud; and moreover assert that it is their sincere belief that without Sidney Rigdon, there is no Mormon Church. They draw their inferences from the Book of Mormon, the rules and regulations therein laid down respecting the regulation of the church, and the revelations given to Sidney Rigdon. It is uncharitable to express opinions on these subjects -- so we state facts, and leave our readers to form such opinions as to them seems most fit.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  October 3, 1844.                            No. ?


Governor Ford disbanded his troops at Warsaw last Monday. Sharp and Williams. who fled on his approach, were subsequently arrested. Seventy writs were issued against those concerned in the murder of the Smiths, but most of the accused fled to the Missouri side of the river. All was quiet at Nauvoo and Warsaw at the latest dates. The Governor has been enabled at last to vindicate the laws of Illinois by arresting a portion of the offenders, and we trust all of them will yet be secured and punished.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                 St. Louis, Otober 6, 1844.                                 No. ?


THE MORMON WAR. -- The following letter was received yesterday, but too late for insertion: --

                                                Steamboat Galena, Sept. 30th.
Mr. Editor: -- Well, the farce is ended, and Governor Ford's army is disbanded. As was expected, the whole affair has ended in smoke, and every man is convinced that the Governor has been humbugged, except himself. He, for appearance sake, still raves and swears that he has no doubt but that there was to have been a bloody wolf hunt in Hancock; but as this appears to be his only consolation, it would be cruel to deprive him of it.

The Quincy and Springfield companies are on board the Galena, on their way home, and Messrs. Sharp and Williams are in company, on their way to Quincy to stand their examination before Judge Thomas. The mode and manner of their surrender forms a rich chapter in the history of the Mormon War. This morning, Gen. John J. Hardin and Maj. E. D. Baker were deputed by Governor Ford to cross the river and propose terms to Messrs. Sharp, Williams and Jackson. Those terms were, that they should surrender themselves to be examined before Judge Thomas, at Quincy -- the Governor to be instruct the prosecuting attorney to admit pro confessio that the presumption was not great, and waive all objections against the prisoners being bailed in case the Judge should consider the evidence sufficient for their commitment. Also, it was further stipulated, that if the bonds were forfeited at the next term of the Court, the forfeiture should be set aside on appearance at the spring term. These terms, which were more favorable than were asked, were acceded to. Messrs. Sharp and Williams (Jackson being sick) went across the river, walked into the camp at their leisure, were arrested, and are now proceeding to Quincy; being treated with great respectably the troops and officers. Neither appears to have any fear of consequences, but are very cheerful.

By the steamer Boreas, we learn that Messrs. Sharpe and Williams returned to Warsaw, by the Boreas, on her upward trip, last Tuesday. Judge Thomas, of Quincy, not recognizing sufficient authority to warrant his action in the case, declined having any thing to do with it, and so these gentlemen, who had conditionally surrendered to Gov. Ford, found themselves at liberty to return home unmolested. The Smith-killers intend to hold a grand barbecue at Warsaw, having secured Ford for a roast!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Wednesday, October 23, 1844.                         No. 224.


Sidney Rigdon, it appears, has waked up a few in Pittsburgh. A latter-day Saint has published the fact that Sidney no longer considered one of the faithful, whereupon Sidney "riles up" considerably, and swears, "'taint no such a thing." Well, today, according to the Millerites, settles the question in this world, and of course we'll find it all out in forty-eight hours.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Thursday, October 24, 1844.                           No. ?


By the Die Vernon we learn that more trouble was brewing in the Mormon country. This was the week of the Circuit Court of Hancock Co., Illinois. -- Williams and Sharp went up to stand their trial. Two hundred armed Mormons appeared at Carthage and stated that they came by authority of Gov. Ford. There were also between one and two hundred persons present, armed and disguised as Indians, and it was anticipated that they would come in collision, and if so, much murder and bloodshed would ensue. It is scarcely credible that Governor Ford should authorize an armed body of Mormons to attend Court at Carthage -- for he might have been sure that such a proceeding would lead to violence. But his course in relation to the Mormons has been that no act can now create much surprise.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Friday, November 1, 1844.                         No. 235.


==> The Mormons who have formed in Pittsburgh under the guidance of Sidney Rigdon, abjure, in the most decided terms, the doctrine of the Nauvoo Saints respecting spiritual wives.

==> Major Noah is lecturing in New York on the restoration of the Jews.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         St. Louis, Monday, Decmber 2, 1844.                         No. 261.


==> Elder S. Rigdon, the great Mormon orator, is lecturing at Boston.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           St. Louis, Thursday, December 12, 1844.                           No. ?


==> Two of the Twelve persons who rule the spiritual destinies of Nauvoo and who constitute the head of the Mormon church since the death of the Smiths, arrived here on Saturday last; they are on their way to visit some of the eastern branches of the church, where Rigdon or seceding doctrines are said to be getting too strong a hold upon the meek and lowly followers of the Holy Joseph. -- These missionaries are going on for the purpose of enlightening and preaching to them the true faith. Last evening they addressed the Mormon congregation in this city, which consists of something near one hundred and fifty persons. Their place of worship is opposite the North Market

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Friday,  March 28, 1845.                            No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- We learn from the Warsaw Signal that most of the friends of Rigdon, who still remain in Nauvoo, have been despoiled of their property, and live in constant fear of their lives. One of these, Elder Marks, a man of wealth, fled from that city last week, in the night! Others are are anxious to go, but are afraid to avow it.

A young man -- a printer, by the name of Peck, well known in Quincy -- was knocked down not long since, in the streets of Nauvoo, and after being shamefully abused, a bucket of filth was poured over him. His offence was, in having said that he wished it were in his power to prick the veins of the "twelve."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Friday,  April 4, 1845.                            No. ?


The Warsaw Signal says: We learn by a gentleman, direct from Nauvoo, that a new revelation has been received in relation to the Temple. The work, on that structure, is to be almost entirely suspended for the present, and the whole energy of the Saints is to be devoted to the building of a wall or rampart around the ediface. This wall is to enclose six acres; the Temple in the centre. It is to be fourteen feet high, six feet thick, composed of solid stone masonry. The work, on this new monument of folly, has already commenced and hundreds of hands are employed in carrying it forward.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Monday,  April 14, 1845.                            No. ?


It is said that Orson Hyde has assumed the post of prophet and head of the Mormon Church. That we believe is the station to which Sidney Rigdon aspired; but which was pronounced Anti-Mormon by the Apostles. We have not learned by what process Orson Hyde has silenced the Twelve. The division among Mormons will probably cause this delusion soon to pass away, as the thousand others which preceeded it, have done.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                           St. Louis, Thursday, April 17, 1845.                           No. 42.


ORSON HYDE, it is rumored, is about to become the prophet and successor of Joe Smith. The death of the principal impostor does not seem to stop the villainy of the other leaders of that fanatical sect. It does not yet appear whether Orson Hyde claims by divine right, by a revelation from Heaven, by pretended miracles, or by what system of humbuggery, or what devices of priestcraft and pious fraud, he sustains his religious pretensions. The gullibility of ignorant and fanatical people renders them so utterly destitute of reason and discrimination, that they can be persuaded by fraudulent priests and religious impostors to believe any absurdity, no matter how contrary it may be to their reason, the evidence of their senses, or the dictates of common sense. If people will not think for themselves freely and independently of the dictation of crafty religious impostors and fanatical leaders, they will always be priest ridden slaves, and unfit to be citizens of a free republic. There is no slavery so degrading as that of the conscience -- the want of liberty and independence in matters of opinion.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                        St. Louis, Monday, May 19?, 1845.                        No. ?


(date uncertain: article on Hodges and Iowa murder)

According to the Davenport Iowa Gazette of May 22, 1845, the story of the Miller murder and the Hodges brother's arrest was reported in St. Louis, during the week of the 19th, by the Missouri Republican.


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Monday,  May 26, 1845.                            No. ?


By a letter from Nauvoo in the Springfield (Ill.) Register of Friday last, it appears that the two Hodges and Brown, charged with the murder of Messrs. Miller and Leisel, two Germans residing ten miles west of Fort Madison, Iowa, have been arrested in Nauvoo and committed. At the suggestion of their counsel the have voluntarily gone to Iowa to await a trial there for the offence charged against them. The prisoners are not [sic] Mormons, and never were. Brown has been in the penitentiary and is about 25 years of age. The letter in the Register says:

The evidence against these men, though only circumstantial, is complete, and the most conclusive of their guilt; it could not be stronger. These men are only part of an extensive combination of villains -- murderers, robbers and bogus makers -- who are scattered over the military tract and Iowa, and who, I am satisfied, have an efficient organization to baffle pursuit or detection. These operations are put down to the credit of Mormonism, though I think, in truth, the great body of the population are slandered by such a charge. But it is undeniably true that Nauvoo, from its facilities for concealment, is a theatre for much iniquity; and it is high time that her citizens should purge her of these men; they are her worst foes; and, however deep into her body the knife may enter, the excision must separate and destroy them, if they hope to secure peace at home or abroad. And I am well assured that their own interests, the security of property and their abhorrence of crime, will lead them to persevere in their attempts to ferret out and bring to justice those that prowl from their midst upon themselves and the surrounding community.

Note: The letter to the Illinois State Register was written from Nauvoo on May 15th. According to the Davenport Iowa Gazette of May 22, 1845, this murder story had already been reported in St. Louis, during the week of the 19th, by the Missouri Republican.


Vol. ?                            St. Louis, Friday,  July 4, 1845.                            No. ?

The Lee County (Iowa) Democrat of last Saturday says: -- One of the Hodges attempted to destroy himself on Tuesday last by strangulation. The jailor hearing a noise in his cell went to ascertain the cause when he discovered the prisoner endeavoring to strangle himself by clasping his throat with his hands. Means were taken of course to prevent him.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                         St. Louis, Monday, Sept. 1?, 1845.                         No. 17.


... [Luck Mack Smith's] story in regard to the mummies, (learned from Joe,) is about as follows: It seems that, for the express purpose of corroborating the 'brass plates' which were one day to be dug up, and translated as the 'Book of Mormon' the angel of the Lord, three thousand years ago, appeared to Joseph in Egypt and delivered to him a wooden case, containing a roll of papyrus, which was to be buried by him with the family of one of the patriarchs; that Joseph did so, despositing the case on the Queen's breast, where it lay until the discovery of the 'brass plates,' the Lord then causing the bodies to be discovered also and conveyed with the identical deposit of Joseph into the hands of 'Joe.' Joe 'never had six months' schoolin' in his born days, but as soon as 'the was g'in him,' he could 'translate any thing;' accordingly having already deciphered the plates, he made short work of the hieroglyphics, and his interpretation which, while it fully proves the Book of Mormon, would enlighten even unto amazement, the Champollions of the Bibliotheque du Roi and the British Museum! Of all the bare-faced jargon that ever was uttered, the grave relation of the poor old woman was the most ridiculous; and while her pitiable conviction of its entire truth really gladdened the heart, it would be impossible to repress one's regret that the impudent impostor had left the world, without at least one especial good kicking for having so deceived his own mother. Not a circle, serpent, altar, ibis, or any of the familiar and now understood idiographic character of the Egyptian, but this shrewd yet ignorant knave had given his own interpretation to, and so committed the latter to his followers, not only braving but confidently defying inevitable exposure. The whole thing is too gross to bear patiently, too painful to laugh at; somehow or other the delusion of this bent and white headed old creature has more in it to disgust one with the memory of Smith than all his other humbug and even crime...

Note: The exact date and title of the above excerpt are unknown -- probably the article was published in either the Sept. 1st or Sept 8th issue of the Reveille. The text reproduced above was taken from a reprint in the Sept. 10, 1845 issue of Warsaw Signal.



Vol. I.                            St. Louis,  Saturday,  September 12, 1845.                            No. 236.

Bill Smith, so says the Warsaw Signal, has avowed from the stand in Nauvoo, that he is not ashamed to teach the spiritual wife system -- and that it has long been taught secretly by the leaders of that city. The Signal further states, that the Saintly William has so far practised the doctrine with an English girl in his family, that his newly married wife left him.

Note: "Patriarch" William Smith was able to get away with this shocking stunt only once, while representing the leadership of the Church in Nauvoo. Apostle John Taylor accompanied William at the time the Patriarch delivered his scandalous "gospel according to William," and tried to cover over the full significance of his companion's unexpected sermon topic. Once he was out of Nauvoo again, and attacking the leadership of the Twelve, William Smith pretended that neither nor his assassinated brothers had ever endorsed or practiced polygamy -- that the repugnant doctrine was limited to the Twelve and their apostate underlings.



Vol. I.                            St. Louis,  Tuesday,  September 28, 1845.                            No. ?

WILLIAM SMITH, brother of the Mormon Prophet, will lecture this evening at Mechanic's Institute.

Note: William Smith left Nauvoo about the middle of September, 1845. By Sept. 25, 1845 he was in Augusta, Des Moines Co., Iowa -- conferring with his old friend, Elder George J. Adams. The two men probably left Des Moines Co. for St. Louis on or about Sept. 26th, or, perhaps Smith went first and Adams met him in the city a short time thereafter. Both men appear to have been lecturing on the evils of Nauvoo Mormonism in St. Louis during the fall of that year. Not long afterward the two went east together and met with John C. Bennett (as well as a Strangite missionary, it seems), in Cincinnati, during the first weeks of 1846.



Vol. I.                            St. Louis,  Friday,  October 3, 1845.                            No. 254.

Some of Col. Davenport's Murderers Taken.-- At last, information has been received which fixes the murder of Col. Davenport upon two individuals, and they have been arrested. They were captured at the mouth of Devil's Creek, in Lee county, Iowa, and prove to be Mormons. They were taken on Sunday night last, under the following circumstances: About two weeks since a gun was accidentally discovered in a pool near the house of a Mormon by the name of Redmon [sic, Redden?]. A pistol was subsequently discovered in the same place. The arms were taken to Fort Madison, where the gun was identified as having belonged to Col. Davenport. Col. D.'s son was sent for, and identified the gun, and also produced the mate to the pistol. -- On this evidence writs were issued against the Redmons, two brothers, who, hearing that the Sheriff was on his way to arrest them, collected ten of their gang to resist the service of the process. The Sheriff then ordered out the Fort Madison Volunteer Company and proceeded to the house of the Redmons, where they surrounded the premises and took them prisoner. It is said of those men, that they harbored the Hodges, convicted and hung for a most outrageous murder, a few weeks since -- the night before the commission of the murder. Other circumstances than those which led to the identification of the Redmons, exist to make out a strong case against them. and also another of the party.   Repub.

Note: Essentially the same report was published in the Warsaw Signal of Sept. 30, 1845.


Vol. ?                         St. Louis, Friday, October 3, 1845.                         No. ?


==> The Warsaw Signal, extra of the 20th ult., contains a confirmation of the general features of the account given by us yesterday of the arrest of some persons suspected to have been the perpetrators of the murder of Col. Davenport on the 4th of July last. It seems, however, that the arms recognized as those of the murdered man were not found in the possession of the accused, but in a pond in the vicinity. There is said to be a very strong chain of circumstantial evidence against the accused.

FROM MORMONDOM: -- By the Die Vernon yesterday, we received but little additional news from Mormondom. About the only item of interest, is, that a conversation of the Anties was to have come off yesterday, at Carthage, the object of which was the final conclusion as to what was to be done with the Saints. We suppose by this time Nauvoo is made desolate -- so far as speechifying can render her so.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I.                            St. Louis,  Saturday,  October 4, 1845.                            No. 255.

Col. Davenport's Murderers.-- The Chigago Journal, of the 25th ult., contains a paragraph announcing the apprehension of two others of Col. Davenport's murderers. Their names are Burch and Long. They were in custody of officer Bonny, and were arrested at Lower Sandusky, Ohio. The Journal adds the following particulars: -- "The suspected individuals were traced by officer in pursuit, who had followed them with praiseworthy perseverance through Iowa and the western part of Missouri to St. Louis, and thence through the southern part of this State, and Indiana to the place where they were taken. Upon Burch was found the watch, chain and seals of Col. Davenport, which circumstance leaves but little room to doubt that he was engaged in the murder. In crossing the lake last night, Burch, who, no doubt, supposed the evidence of his guilt was contained therein, stole the officer's portmanteaus and threw them overboard. Fortunately, Mr. Bonney had the chain and seals about his person.

The prisoners will be taken immediately to Rock Island, there to await their trial.

The Redmons, and the two individuals named above, are no doubt four of the five murderers of Col. Davenport. We learn that the fifth man was also arrested in Ohio, about the same time, and whilst the guard were bringing him back to Rock Island made his escape He escaped from the second story of a house, being manacled, both hands and feet, by using the cord of the only bedstead in the room.

Note: Essentially the same report was published in the Warsaw Signal of Sept. 30, 1845.


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Tuesday,  October 21, 1845.                            No. 233.

MORMONDOM. -- A circular has been addressed by the "Council of Twelve" to the Mormons throughout the United States, relative to the contemplated removal from Nauvoo to some point west of the Rocky Mountains. It is urged on the saints to sell their property for horses, mules, &c., -- such articles as will be serviceable on the journey and in their distant homes.

William Smith, "the Patriarch," has also issued a "proclamation" to the saints scattered throughout the United States, warning them against the tyranny, corruption and licentiousness of Brigham Young and his associates, and counselling them to remain where they are, until a general conference can be held. He claims the right to speak for the prophet's family, and accuses Young of usurpation and the commission of great crimes, in order to control the church and fleece the faithful. He denounces the contemplated removal to the Pacific as a scheme which will benefit Young and his associates, but ruin those who follow them. He is now in this city, and says he left Nauvoo for fear of losing his life through the agency of Brigham Young, whose power there is absolute, and who has a band of desperadoes at his service, ready to assassinate him or any other person whom he may order to be destroyed. He does not object to the withdrawal of Young and his co-adjutors, to whom he imputes the offences which have been committed, and which have excited popular indignation.

The policy of the "Patriarch" is to rest Mormonism on a foundation similar to that of Christian denominations; having the saints scattered throughout the country, and living with the rest of the community on terms of equality, instead of settling in large bodies, as at Nauvoo. The Smith family, with the mother of the prophet will not go with Young to California. That expedition is considered as designed solely to perpetuate the power of Young, whilst all difficulties with the other citizens of northern Illinois, can be adjusted, with less evil to the Mormons, by pursuing the course suggested by the "Patriarch," who is opposed to all of the secret acts, licentiousness and "spiritual wife" system of the present leaders at Nauvoo. For denouncing the humbuggery of Young, his life has been threatened, and he wishes to save those who are honest, from the destructive and selfish measures of the "President of the Council."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Thursday,  October 23, 1845.                            No. 235.

Birch, one of the persons arrested for the Murder of Col. Davenport, says Jack Redmon (or Redding) murdered Arvine Hodges. This agrees with the information given us a few days ago by Wm. Smith, "The Mormon Patriarch," from whose statements it is evident that Brigham Young was privy to the crime, and probably instigated it.

Note: This report was copied into the Illinois State Register of Oct. 31, 1845, but that paper mentions no previous "statements" made by William Smith during this period. The St. Louis Reporter's previously published "information given... a few days ago by Wm. Smith," must have merely consisted of its report of Oct. 21st. See also the Oct. 25th issue for more published "statements" of "The Mormon Patriarch."


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Saturday,  October 25, 1845.                            No. 237.

MORMONISM. -- We publish a communication from the Mormon Patriarch, addressed to the Mormons and intended to dissuade them from listening to the counsel of Brigham Young and his associates at Nauvoo. The Patriarch expresses the opinion that Young and those acting with him, have been privy to all of the crimes which have been perpetrated at Nauvoo, and that their object in collecting at that place, this winter, all of the Mormons in the United States for the purpose of moving to California in the Spring, is merely to enrich themselves and perpetuate their power. When the Mormons gather at Nauvoo, they will be required to surrender all of their property into the hands of the Twelve, and if their expedition to California should prove dangerous, the Twelve will desert their followers. If, however, they should reach their destined homes west of the Rocky Mountains, the power of the leaders, through their secret organizations, will be made despotic, and be exercised for the benefit of the few to the degradation and ruin of their followers.

The Patriarch's plan is for most of the Mormons to abandon Nauvoo, and to cease to settle together in distinct communities and large bodies. He further urges that they should renounce the immoral doctrines and practices recently introduced into the Mormon church by Brigham Young, conduct themselves as all other religious sects do in this country, and trust to the same means of propagating their views. In that way he thinks further evils may be avoided, and the honest saved from the destruction which awaits them, if they attempt to follow the Twelve to California.

According to his statements, Brigham Young and his ten associates should be held responsible for the outrages which have been committed in Nauvoo during the last six months. The Mormons in Nauvoo are kept in ignorance of the secret acts of the Twelve and their agents, and should not be made to suffer for the offences of a few. The mass are opposed to immorality and crime, and only need to be convinced of the hypocrisy of their leaders there, to desert them. It may be well for the proper officers to arrest Jack Reding, and to ascertain what connexion he had with the murder of Arvine Hodge and who were the instigators of that crime. However absurd and ridiculous the Mormon faith may be, its honest followers should not be pursued with unmitigated fury. The guilty should be ferreted out and punished -- the innocent suffered to escape.

We know not what influence the Patriarch may have with the Mormons, but we suppose he will deter a portion, and perhaps the more honest and sensible portion from going to California. The removal of the Twelve and their adherents may obviate all further difficulties, as the scattering of the others throughout the country in small parties, will put an end to the evils which have been complained of. How this matter may end, we know not. There may be more trouble ahead.


MR. EDITOR: -- Feeling it a duty I owe to an honest public, as well as to thousands of Mormon Saints, so called, scattered throughout the world -- kind friends too, to whom I have preached the pure principles of truth as contained in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, whereby they have been introduced into the kingdom of God on Earth -- in view of happiness, the salvation of souls, the enjoyment of the unalloyed glories of heaven, virtue and morality -- feeling it to be my duty to warn all such, as far as my voice can be heard throughout the American land and Europe, that during the religious career of my two brothers, who were murdered in Carthage jail, none of the impurities existed that have crept into the Church since their deaths: I wish to beg a place in your columns for the insertion of this article, as I am deprived of the privilege of speaking through the Mormon oracles (papers.) I do this, to correct the evils that now exist among that people denominated Saints in Nauvoo -- a place that for the last six months has been a resort for rogues and scoundrels, and a covert for thieves and murderers. Jack Reding, the supposed murderer of Arvine Hodge, is one of Brigham Young's strikers, and has been under the protection of Young during the past summer, in Nauvoo, and is now hid there unless he has recently fled or been taken into custody. It is well known that there is a gang of murderers and thieves, whose members are scattered up and down the Mississippi river. The death of Davenport, of Arvine Hodge, and of one or two others in Iowa, has called, and justly, for an investigation of these matters. It is further well known that, since the proclamation of Brigham Young upon the stand before hundreds of people -- "that the murderer of Arvine Hodge had done a charitable deed, that he hoped all such men as Hodge would run against just such snags, and that the man who would follow the assassin to the Mississippi was a fool" -- that since that proclamation, Jack Reding has been running at large in Nauvoo and been left unrestrained to continue his works of destruction and ravages upon his fellow men. It is to show you, my brethren, the secret plans and devices of those who have assured the leadership of the Church in that place, that I now write. They have formed themselves into a combination, called a city police, with other private councils, &c., &c., by which to suppress the liberty of speech and endanger the lives of any who dare oppose their unhallowed purposes, or oppose their deep-laid plans to fleece the unwary and [more] faithful of the Mormon Church, who through hope of heaven are willing to make any sacrifice that duty might seem to require.

At this important crisis of Mormon interests, when every exertion is being made by those eleven wolves in sheep's clothing, to continue the distress of their poor brethren, by decoying them into the wilderness, thereby the better enabling these ambitious tyrants to carry out their plans of robbery and murder to increase their own wealth and make the poor poorer -- at this crisis, I take the liberty to warn you, our brethren, in due time, that you may flee the awful vortex, and not be led by such men, or such false hopes as are held out in the circular of the so-called "Mormon Twelve," who, since the death of Joseph and Hiram, have contemplated the removal to the west, but not by the prophecy of Joseph or his counsel. The name of Joseph is made use of, to carry out their plans, without the least authority; for Joseph taught no such doctrine. You must be cautious and believe no such things, and thus escape the devices of Satan! Save yourselves and property! You have only to look back a few short years or months, to see the sufferings of the Saints, many of whom during the past summer in Nauvoo have lived on potato tops and salt, and been constantly called upon by those men, until the last cent is gone. When all is gone, they will tell you it is the Lord's -- you must sacrifice -- that this is the only way to exalted glory. If you call for the return of money loaned, you are treated as dissenters, whittled and driven from their midst as unworthy members of their society, disgraced and poor, although once worth your thousands.

And will you, brethren and sisters, still be guided and flattered by them into further troubles and ruin? What credulity! My God, I would ask you, can it be possible that the experience of the past is not enough to show you the bad counsel and the impolitic course of such a move as is now advised? Look at the distressed, the aged and the infirm -- again to settle in so large a body! I should think the folly of such wild and imaginary schemes had been too plainly told in the history of the past. Again, it is evident that the designs of those men will ruin all who follow them. This manifest in the self-righteous and so very christian epistle which they have addressed of late to the Churches. "Israel," they say, "must be the head and not the tail." To translate this into its true meaning, it should read "Mormons must be the head," which plainly shows the reason why there are so many broils and evils attending them, and why those assumed heads wish to leave a land of government and go to some more infant and weakened power, in order to hide themselves from their crimes and defy the authority of every land, wherever they settle -- that they may be the head and have the sole control and under their own assumption of power, shield themselves from the penalty of their brutal acts, by their tyranny and absolute rule. So let me warn you again, my dear brethren, against these uncalled-for moves, and speculating plans to rob you of your gold, your house, your wives and children, and to make you slaves. And what, again I say, can you expect by following such men? Their struggle for power -- to rule and govern, will bring down upon their heads the same evils that have more recently distressed that people, or the Latter Day Saints. No savage nation under Heaven, would suffer or endure it. However much civilized the Spaniards, the Mexicans or the Indians may be, they would rush against them with one general consent, and an indiscriminate slaughter would be the result.

Then, brethren and sisters, fathers and mothers, and all, take warning! Be advised by one who is your friend! What, I ask, prevents the discrimination of our holy religion at home, in different parts of these United States, in towns, cities and villages. The industrious mechanic, the farmer and the soldier, as well as the humble minister of the Gospel, can find sufficient employment within our own civilized borders, in the land that our fathers have bought, and on the soil so richly wrought as to afford us all the comforts of life and the society of friends and of home. Our children could be educated here, and we could become a delightful people, beloved and respected by all; our society and schools could flourish, a delight to the nations. If our religion is good, it will benefit our neighbors; and if it be of God, it will be a light not hid under a bushel, but put on a candle-stick to give light unto all men and love our neighbors as ourselves. To do this, we must settle where, in different bodies and parcels, we can teach them our doctrine, and like our neighbors and brethren according to the flesh, build comfortable houses for worship, and study the course of economy and the art to please by works of righteousness. Thus our neighbors will bless us, and we become a glorious people in the midst of the earth, filled with joy and peace, and Josephites, in deed and in truth; for it is thus the voice of the martyred Joseph speaks to all that respect his name or hold his memory sacred and dear; but not in favor of the wild and wicked plans of these apostate eleven, for their plans Joseph does not approve, nor do they have his approval.

Ever and anon, you will hear from me again, dear brethren!

With sentiments of esteem, I once more subscribe myself,
                                Your friend and brother,
                                      And fellow-laborer in the
                                            Gospel of Jesus Christ,
                                                  And Patriarch of the Church,
                                                        WILLIAM SMITH.

P. S. Will all the humane editors copy the above and give it a wide circulation through the world, thereby obliging their obedient and humble servant?
                                                              W. S.
    St. Louis, Oct. 25, 1845.

Note 1: No original copy of this article has yet been discovered. The text is reconstructd from various reprints, including one published in The Times of London, on Nov. 25, 1845 -- probably the very day that the news of William Smith's announcement reached England.

Note 2: Compare the similar content of this lengthy letter from William Smith with that of his even lengthier "Proclamation," published in the Sept. 30, 1845 issue of the Warsaw Signal.


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Monday,  October 27, 1845.                            No. 238.


MORMONISM. William Smith, the Mormon Patriarch,has addressed a long letter to his brethren, in which he dissuades them from listening to the counsel of Brigham Young, and his associates at Nauvoo. The Patriarch expresses the opinion that Young and those acting with him, have been privy to all of the crimes which have been perpetrated at Nauvoo, and that their object in collecting at that place this winter all of the Mormons in the United States, for the purpose of moving to California in the Spring, is merely to enrich themselves and perpetuate their power. When the Mormons gather at Nauvoo, they will be required to surrender all their property into the hands of the Twelve, and, if their expedition to California should prove dangerous, the Twelve will desert their followers; if, however, they should reach their destined home, West of the Rocky Mountains, the power of the leaders, through their secret organizations, will be made despotic, and be exercised for the benefit of the few, to the degradation and ruin of their followers.

The Patriarch's plan is for most of the Mormons to abandon Nauvoo, and to cease to settle together in distinct communities and large bodies. He farther urges that they should renounce the immoral doctrines and practices recently introduced into the Mormon church by Brigham Young, conduct themselves as all other religious sects do in this country, and trust to the same means of propagating their views, In that way he thinks farther evils may be avoided, and the honest saved from destruction which awaits them if they attempt to follow the Twelve to California. According to his statements, Brigham Young and his ten associates should be held responsible for the outrages which have been committed in Nauvoo for the last six months. The Mormons in Nauvoo are kept in ignorance of the secret rites of the Twelve and their agents, and should not be made to suffer for the offences of a few.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Tuesday,  October 28, 1845.                            No. 239.


WILLIAM SMITH, brother of the Mormon Prophet, will lecture this evening at the Mechanic's Institute. See card in another column.


ELDER WILLIAM SMITH, the only remaining
brother of the deceased Mormon Prophet and
Patriarch of the Church, will lecture this evening, at the
usual hour, in the Mechanic's Institute, on Third st.
Also every evening of this week except Wednesday.

Subject for this evening -- The "Enormities of the
so-called Mormon Twelve,"
and their apostasy from the
true Church of Christ.

A good attendance is expected.
The friends and citizens of St. Louis are
respectfully invited to attend.

Notes: (forthcoming



Vol. I                            St. Louis,  Saturday,  November 1, 1845.                            No. 288.


There is more trouble brewing among the Mormons. We gave yesterday, some details of the resistance offered in Nauvoo, to the arrest by the proper officer, of a man named Reding, indicted as an accomplice in the murder of Col. Davenport. This man was rescued, and is now secured in Nauvoo -- the officers were stoned, and otherwise injured. We now learn from the Quincy Whig, and other sources, that the [Mormons] in Nauvoo have actually defied the power of the State, and declared that no more arrests shall be made in Nauvoo. On Saturday last, the Whig says:

Col. Warren, Judge Purple, and Mr. Brayman, Attorney for the State, visited Nauvoo. Near the environs of the city, they saw assembled a force of about 800 armed Mormons. This being contrary to the order of General Hardin, in relation to armed assembling in the county, Col. Warren felt it his duty, as an officer, to enquire into the matter. For that purpose, he invited Brigham Young, and others of the leading authorities, to a conference. He informed them that the armed men on the prairie was contrary to orders, and wanted to know what it meant. To this Young gave an unsatisfactory reply: he stated, however, that it was their intention to submit to no further arrests -- and ridiculed the court, the Judge, the Attorney of the State, who were present, and in substance, defied the power of the State. After him, Elder Taylor, another of the Twelve, got up and abused the Governor, State officers, &c. Brigham Young again got up, and said he was not very good at an apology -- but that they must not mind what Elder Taylor sais -- that he was always making trouble &c., -- offered to treat -- and called in a couple of gallons of wine. But Col. Warren refused to drink with them -- he got up and told them in a plain talk what he thought of their conduct, and that, as an officer, he should do his duty and carry out the law.

While this was going on, a deputy of the U. S. Marshal arrived with a detachment of the Quincy Rifles, with a writ for Brigham Young, charged with counterfeiting the coin of the United States. This becoming known in the city, the excitement was tremendous. The Mormons assembled in large crowds, and a disposition was manifested by them to resist all attempts to arrest any person in Nauvoo. After a consultation with the officer, Judge Purple and others it was deemed advisable to postpone the execution of the writ at the time -- for the personal safety of all concerned.

Col. Warren, with the force under his command, was to have marched into Nauvoo on Tuesday last, for the purpose of executing the writs against Redding, Brigham Young and others; but we are not advised of the result of this attempt to enforce the law. It is said, by the Whig, that Col. Warren is in possession of certain information, that a bogus manufactory is now, and was, before the death of the Smiths, in operation at Nauvoo, and the Twelve or some of them, are interested in it.

The Circuit Court of Hancock adjourned on Monday last. The trial of Backenstos, applied for a change of venue, alleging that Judge Purple was prejudiced against him. The application was granted, and the case removed to Peoria county. --  Repub.

Note: The issue of the St. Louis Missouri Republican in which the above article originally appeared has not been determined, but probably its date was late October, 1845. The article referred to, in which "some details of the resistance offered in Nauvoo" had been provided in the paper of "yesterday," has also not yet been located. The Missouri Republican merely mentions that the missing article told about the attempted "arrest by the proper officer, of a man named Reding, indicted as an accomplice in the murder of Col. Davenport." The fugitive spoken of was, of course, the infamous Mormon gunman, Elder Jack Redden.


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Saturday,  November 1, 1845.                            No. 243.


MORE TROUBLES. -- The Gazette of last evening contains the following additional information from Nauvoo. This new outbreak in that region will probably lead to a renewal of the late exciting scenes in that quarter; although it is hoped that the proper officers will discharge their duties fearlessly against all offenders, Mormon or Anti-Mormon:

By the Boreas, which arrived from Keokuk, just as our paper was going to press, we learn that serious difficulties are engendering in and about Nauvoo. The Saints had expelled Maj. Warren and his hundred men, saying they had no further use for them. Maj. Warren had gone off in the direction of Carthage, to get a reinforcement. The sheriff of Rock Island county was lying dangerously wounded at Carthage -- the effect of the affray at Nauvoo recently, when Redding was taken from his custody. It is reported that the U. S. Marshal for the District of Illinois, has been empowered to arrest the "Twelve," which he has intimated his intention of doing forthwith.

Notwithstanding the persevering efforts of the anti-Mormons to enlist the sympathies of the American people in their favor, their acts are condemned by nearly every paper not printed in the immediate neighborhood of the difficulties. All who are far enough from the scene of excitement to take a candid view of the subject, denounce the outrages committed against the Mormons, as a religious sect; and whatever may be the fate of that sect, their recent assailants will meet with nothing but execration from impartial men. A New York paper refers to this matter in the following language:

A whole community of the people banished! driven violently from their homes, their farms, and their Church, their blood shed by lawless adventurers in the State of Illinois, and the State either unwilling or unable to protect them! How are we as a nation to explain to the civilized world this dire calamity, this desecration of all that is free in our Government? Was it the religion of the Mormons to which objections were made? We have no right to interfere with the religion of any person, if the pursuit of that religion interferes with no man's rights of property. Were the Mormons a rascally, lying thieving race of people, as alleged? Then enforce the laws against all offenders. But to drive them, their wives and children, beyond the Rocky Mountains, beyond the barriers of civilization, to take lawless possession of their farms and property, exceeds in iniquity every thing that has been done in any country since the reign of the Goths and Vandals.

We learn from a letter from Nauvoo that the anti-Mormons threatened an attack on the night of the 22d, upon the Camp Creek settlement, but that their designs were known and would be frustrated. The Mormons are making arrangements to leave for California in the spring, in companies of one hundred each, and they will take their printing establishment with them.

Notes: (forthcoming


Vol. IV.                            St. Louis, Monday,  November 3, 1845.                            No. 244.


MORMON DIFFICULTIES. -- (under construction)


(under construction)

... On Monday last, an officer from Rock Island with a gentleman by the name of Bradley from Burlington, and a Mr. Johnson of Keokuk, went up on the Sarah Ann, for the purpose of arresting an outlaw by the name of Reding, against whom an indictment had been found at the Rock Island court, as one of the accomplices in the murder of Col. Davenport. When the boat landed at Nauvoo, Reding was standing on the shore, and the officers immediately arrested him. The Mormons soon collected and began to show hostile demonstrations -- pistols were fired -- stones were thrown, and the murderer, Reding was finally rescued from the officers, by the Mormons, and is now skulking in Nauvoo. The officers were somewhat injured by the assault, Mr. Bradley was wounded on the temple very severely by a stone, and Mr. Johnson was also hurt. The boat was stoned, and was obliged to leave to escape destruction.... The foregoing is from the Quincy Whig...

Notes: (forthcoming


Vol. II.                         St. Louis, Monday, November 3, 1845.                         No. 17.


William Smith, brother of the Mormon "Prophet," is in this city, lecturing against Brigham Young, the "Twelve," and the proposed removal to Oregon. With regard to his opposition, he would be entitled to more attention, did not the most generous defenders of the Mormons feel that it is now too late, and did he not, at the same time, bring his denouncement of Brigham Young & Co. into ridicule, by coolly declaring that there existed no abuses in the church during the lives of his brothers! It certainly does seem to be a "struggle for power" among these Mormon leaders; but inasmuch as that Young is supported in his ascendancy by a "unanimous vote," and that this "patriarch," Smith, renders his statements suspicious by evident exaggeration -- above all, in that the Mormons have publicly pledged themselves to remove, and that the pledge cannot now be violated without the renewal of fearful scenes, we deliberately think that the agitation of an opposition on the part of Smith should not be encouraged for a moment. Nor do we fear that the consenting Mormons may have been betrayed by their head men, since unanimity, and openly expressed confidence in their leader, were the striking features of the conference. Again, Mr. Smith is entirely wrong in his idea that the Mormons, who have not been able to defend themselves in a mass, would be tolerated by their enemies when scattered among them. The tree cut down, the next thing would be to burn out the roots.

As events have progressed, the best friends of the Mormons must now say "move." Furthermore, that removal becomes of the deepest interest to the whole country, and hope and encouragement should light their path. This body of people moving into Oregon, is a matter of consideration for Europe, as well as ourselves. Vancouver's Island is north of the forty-ninth parallel, which many are willing to take as our boundary: Are the Mormons going to build up an English territory, or are they going to fortify our rightful claim? However despised and condemned, we regard them as having American hearts, and we feel that their establishment at the present moment on the shores of the Pacific, is fraught with results of international consideration. We do not weigh for an instant the bug-bear of "future collisions," for we cannot command the earth to open and swallow them; -- they must live somewhere....

With regard to the lecturer, Smith, now in town, there is one common sense fact which strikes us, and that is, that could he find an audience in Nauvoo, he would not now be seeking one in St. Louis.

==> Mr. Wm. Smith, the Mormon Patriarch, yesterday gave us an interesting half hour's detail of the Mysteries of Nauvoo. By the bye, in a few years, that neighborhood will be rich in tradition, for the story teller.

Mormonism -- The Young Joseph! -- Mr. Wm. Smith, a veritable brother of the martyred Joe. lectured on Tuesday Evening, in the hall of the Mechanics' Institute, on the existing abuses in the Mormon Church. His style is of that peculiarly effective sing-song and nasal character which distinguished the primitive reformers. We have room but for the following extract:

Ses I to Brigham Young, ses I, 'How is it a-going to be about the young Joseph, who should, in right, be the head of the church, as his father and family have stood the brunt [of] the storm?' Ses he, ses Brigham Young, 'If we go to preachin' young Joseph now, these enemies on our borders will shoot the young prophet as they did his father;' and so they set the head of the church aside, and ever since it ain't bin gettin' along at all!

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I                            St. Louis,  Tuesday,  November 11, 1845.                            No. 296.


COUNTERFEITERS. -- It would seem that Bonny, the man who ferreted out the murderers of Col. Davenport, is himself a great scamp -- intimations of which we had long ago. He has been indicted in Lee County, Iowa, for counterfeiting, and a requisition made on the Governor of Illinois for the surrender of his person. --  Organ.

By your permission, Mr. Organ, we will correct you a little. A requisition was not made on Gov. Ford, for the surrender of [this] person, on account of his being a counterfeitor, but on account of an indictment found by the grand jury of Lee county for being accessory to the murder of Lice and Miller the Germans, who were murdered in that county last summer, by the Hodges.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I                            St. Louis,  Monday,  November 17, 1845.                            No. 301.


We learn by a gentleman who arrived from Burlington, by a boat last evening, that Mr. Bonny, who made the arrest of the Davenport murderers, has surrendered himself to the proper authorities, to answer the three several indictments found against him, by the last grand jury of Lee county, viz: Being accessory to the murder of the Germans, perjury and counterfeiting.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                         St. Louis, Thursday, November 20, 1845.                         No. ?


A Lecture Extraordinary.

At the new and splendid Lyceum Hall, northwest corner of Third and Pine streets, on Thursday evening November 28, at 7 o'clock.

Mr. G. J. ADAMS (formerly a Mormon) will deliver a lecture as above upon the Wickedness, Corruptions and Abominations, of the present organization of Mormons, and proposes a plan by which Nauvoo may be overthrown, with honor and credit to the country.

The following subjects will be treated upon, viz: -- The deceptions practised by their present leaders -- their designs against the Government of the United States -- also the State of Missouri -- their league with the Indians -- the plurality of wives, or Spiritual Wife Doctrine -- their object in gathering the people together -- their abominable and wicked practices -- their humbug expedition to California, &c., &c., &c.

Admittance -- 25 cents.

N. B. -- Ladies will not be admitted."

Note: On Apr. 10, 1845 Elder George J. Adams was excommunicated from the Mormons, for too openly teaching and practicing polygamy in New England. In May of 1845 G. J. Adams organized his own splinter group, located in the village of Augusta, Iowa Territory. Adams and Smith remained on good terms and, by the late summer and fall of 1845, some of the Mormon leadership feared that the two men would join forces; however, Adams' group faded away and by the late fall he was identifying himself as "formerly a Mormon." For Adams' views on succession in the Church see his letter in the July 19, 1845 issue of the New York Messenger.


Vol. ?                         St. Louis, Friday, November 21, 1845.                         No. ?

For   the  Organ.

Grand Flare-up in the Mormon Church in St. Louis. -- As the proceedings of the Church of the "Latter Day Saints" are creating some excitement and interest in this city, an account of one of the meetings of the "Stake" in St. Louis, will not, I presume, be uninteresting.

On Wednesday evening, the regular meeting of the members of the Church was held in the room of the Mechanic's Institute, when after the usual primary proceedings -- prayer and singing -- one of the brethren arose to address the Assembly. After some very pertinent and reasonable remarks on the duty of all men obeying the commandments, and their duty towards their God and fellow men, he took up the subject of the prophecies, as regarding the present state of the Mormon Church; and, in explaining his views on the subject denied the spiritual right of the Twelve to the patriarchal government of the "Saints." This gave umbrage to the Chairman, who, in the plenitude of his power ordered the speaker to sit down, as he could not sit in the Chair, and hear such sentiments expressed whilst he had the power to prevent it. This caused considerable gas to be exploded in the sound of "Sit down," "Let him speak," "Privilege," "Go on," &c., until at last the subject was settled by one of the "brothers" getting up and taking the matter in his own hand; saying he "was a free born American and a Mormon for fourteen years, and would be heard, whether they would let him or no, even though a legion of devils were in the room to prevent him," &c., and solicited but five minutes to give his "confessions," but would take the time whether they would allow him or not. After a good deal of wrangling pro and con, he at last got the privilege: and such confessions! He stated that he had lately got documents in his possession, the contents of which would "make the hair stand on end, like the quills of the fretful porcupine" -- of the enormities of the "Twelve." He said he could prove, before his God, that they were guilty of crimes that would alienate them from the name of men -- robbing the orphan -- adultery -- assassinations, and others I cannot now recollect. He said they had driven Wm. Smith from the city at the point of a bayonet and bowie knife, and no man's life was safe who opposed them. His five minutes expired, a considerable hubbub ensued; hard names passed, and anything but an appearance of brotherly love took place, in the midst of which the first speaker, "Brother Riley," as I understand his name, solicited five minutes to make his confessions, but that the Chairman denied, and vacating his seat, broke up the meeting. However, he began, and spoke of the elders, obeying the scriptures, by visiting the widow and the orphan, but only such widows as were young and handsome, and orphan girls who had no earthly guardians to protect them; and furthermore he had known them to take wives from their husbands to their [the elders'] homes for such purposes as your readers may guess. He instanced several persons who had died of starvation and neglect, who had given their all to assist the erection of the Temple, both in labor and money; and one whom our citizens have often been delighted with, by his rich musical voice, perished for want of 25 cents worth of medicine. It is a fact, he said, that while brother ____'s God -- Brigham Young (by the way, he said he "would go to h--l with him") was rolling in his carriage, the children of the poor workmen were picking potatoe peelings of the dunghills, to be cooked to appease their hunger, and one family last winter, were reduced to the necessity of killing and cooking their cat, to prevent them from starving. Much more was said; but I have already taken up too much space to go further with it. Mr. Riley was prevented from continuing his confessions by one of the Mormons renting the room for the night, and, of course, he could not be allowed to speak longer. He announced, however, that on Saturday evening, he would hold a meeting, and all who were not afraid of Brigham Young were solicited to attend.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                         St. Louis, Monday, January 12, 1846.                         No. 18.


The Illinois State Register mentions the arrest of Mr. Bonney. Its editor says he has been shown by Mr. Bonney, letters addressed to him by many respectable gentlemen in Iowa and neighboring States. Mr. B. authorizes the Register to refer to Mr. Joseph Knox, Rock Island, Judge Mitchel, Davenport, Dr. Reuben Knox, St. Louis, and the President and Cashier of the Missouri Bank, for evidence of his character.

Mr. Bonney has published a letter in which he says there is a gang of several hundred rogues, scattered throughout the west, "occupying almost all stations in life, from the pulpit to the brothel, and filling many important official stations." He ascribes to his efforts the arrest, since the 12th of May last, of ten of the most desperate members of the gang, five of whom, have been hung within the last few months. He says his arrest has been caused by some of the gang, to prevent him from bringing them to the punishment they deserve. He claims to have surrendered himself voluntarily, in order that he might met his accusers face to face.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                         St. Louis, Saturday, January 17, 1846.                         No. ?


We stated a few days ago, that [Mr.] Bonney, arrested at Springfield, Illinois had authorized the Register to refer to Dr. Reuben Knox, of this city, and the President of the Missouri Bank, for evidence of his good character. We learn from Dr. Knox that his acquaintance with Bonney extends no farther than assisting him some time ago to procure the means for detecting the murderers of Col. Davenport, and the members of the gang of counterfeiters scattered along western rivers. Bonney showed at the time a list of persons, numbering about 400, said to be implicated in different crimes perpetrated in the West, and stated that he would find the murderers of Davenport, where he subsequently caused them to be arrested.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                         St. Louis, Friday, February 5, 1846.                         No. ?


On the 17th inst., Baxter, Kingsbury and Burch, confined in the jail at Rock Island, for participation in the murder of Col. Davenport, made an effort to escape, which was nearly successful. They had sawed an opening through the floor of their cells, and nearly finished a subterranean outlet, when their operations were discovered.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                           St. Louis, Saturday, February 28, 1846.                           No. 285.


The trials of Baxter and Birch, for the murder of Col. Davenport, have, by a change of venue, been removed from Rock Island to the counties of Warren and Knox.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                           St. Louis, Saturday, March 7, 1846.                           No. 291.


The younger brother of Holy Joe, the late Mormon leader, is fulminating his decrees and prophetic proclamations from Cincinnati. He cuts off the unholy Twelve because they have been indicted for counterfeiting U. S. coin, and a brother Turley, an elder of the church, also catches it because he has been confined in Atlas [sic - Alton?] Penitentiary.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Saturday,  March 21, 1846.                            No. ?

MORMON ITEMS. -- The last number of the Warsaw Signal contains the following items in regard to the Mormons: "Some of the Mormons who left with the expedition have returned to Nauvoo. On the day previous to the departure of the Saints, from their encampment on Devil Creek, Brigham Young gave a feast to the head men of the church, while the poor followers were compelled to eat parched corn. This so incensed some of the latter that they broke up his carriage and cut his harness. William Smith, the patriarch, is flourishing in Nauvoo. Apostle Page, who was cut off from his brethren, has joined the Strangites; his place among the twelve has been supplied by the appointment of Luke Johnson. The Strang-ites are making great headway in Nauvoo. It is estimated that they will start nearly as large a company for Wisconsin, in May, as the twelve-ites will for California.

Note: William Smith returned to Nauvoo, from his travels in the east, on Sunday, Mar. 8, 1846. John E. Page was already in town and the two excommunicated Apostles no doubt conferred together upon the possibility of William joining J. J. Strang's church. Page had already announced his allegiance to Strang at the end of February. On the day after William's arrival, he, Page and Hiram Stratton, a Strangite representative, held a council together in Page's house at Nauvoo. On Mar. 12, 1846, four days after William's arrival, Page wrote to Strang, acknowledging him as "the man to fill the place of Joseph Smith."



Vol. ?                           St. Louis,  Tuesday,  May 5, 1846.                            No. ?

ORIGIN OF MORMONISM.. -- The Albany Evening Journal gives the following account of Joe Smith's early operations:

Joe Smith, previous to his becoming a Prophet, was a 'Loafer.' He resided near the village of Palmyra, spent most of his time in bar-rooms, and seemed only [anxious] to live along 'from hand to mouth,' without work. He was then remarkable for nothing in particular, but indolence and scheming on a small scale. In 1824 or 1825, he went a vagabonding off into western Pennsylvania, nobody knows how, where he got possession of the manuscript of a half-deranged clergyman, with which he returned to Palmyra, where he pretended that he was directed in a dream to a particular spot in the woods, to possess himself of an oracular slate or as he called it, a 'Golden Bible.' From this inspired slate, which he used to place in his hat, he read to the gaping 'few' new and strange revelations: and finally, he produced the 'Book of Mormon,' as the creed and faith of a people of whom he was designed by Providence to be the Prophet and Ruler. The Book of Mormon is a copy of the manuscript which Smith obtained near Pittsburgh.

A wealthy farmer, by the name of Harris was his first believing convert. Harris mortgaged his farm to raise the money required for the temporal support of the Prophet, and printing of the Book of Mormon. The Prophet and his convert (Smith and Harris) came to Rochester, and offered us the honor of being their printer. But, as we were only in the newspaper line, we contented ourselves with reading a chapter of what seemed such wretched and incoherent stupidity, that we wondered how 'Joe,' had contrived to make the first fool with it. But he went on, making not only fools, but knaves, in America and Europe, for more than twenty years.

Note 1: At the time this article was reprinted, the editor of the Albany Evening Journal was the famous Whig journalist and politician, Thurlow Weed. Mr. Weed had been publishing the Anti-Masonic Enquirer in Rochester, NY, when Joseph Smith Jr., and Martin Harris approached him, soliciting his publication of the Book of Mormon. Mr. Weed printed essentially the same information again in the Albany Evening Journal ten years later. See reports in Dan Vogel's Early Mormon Documents for more on Weed and his reminiscences of Mormon origins.

Note 2: The Albany Evening Journal's claims (that Joseph Smith, Jr., "In 1824 or 1825... got possession of the manuscript of a half-deranged clergyman...") may have originated from a story told by William H. Sabin, the brother-in-law of Solomon Spalding, in a late 1830s issue of a Syracuse or Albany paper. Such a story appears to have remained current within the late Rev. Spalding's extended family for two or three generations. For a similar claim (also probably originating with Spalding's relatives) see the June, 1851 issue of the American Whig Review.



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Saturday,  May 16, 1846.                            No. ?

MORMON EPISTLE. -- The would-be succesor of Joe Smith, Jas. J. Strang, has issued an epistle to the saints remaining in Hancock County, advising them to remove to the City of Voree, with their moveable effects, except guns and watches -- to sell their lands cheap, but by no means to give them away -- to avoid all litigation, and make haste to settle at Voree. "Come," he says, "as soon as you are able; but, until then, neither fight nor run." Voree, under the direction of Strang, is destined to be a place of considerable note.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                            St. Louis,  Wednesday,  June 10, 1846.                            No. 158.

We learn that the two REDDINGS, who have been for some time in prison at Rock Island, charged with being concerned in the murder of Col. Davenport, had their trials last week. The old man was acquitted; the [son?] was convicted as being an accessary after the fact, and sentenced to confinement in the Penitentiary for one year.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                            St. Louis,  Wednesday,  June 17, 1846.                            No. 164.

A Mormon settlement, it is said, has been commenced by the influence of Sidney Rigdon, near Green Castle, Franklin County, Pennsylvania. They have purchased a large tract of land from a Mr. [Lanaham], for which they have paid some $15,000. Upon this tract is a very valuable water power, and it is stated that they intend erecting extensive manafactories, among them a cotton factory. A considerable number of the faithful have taken up their abode at the place, Sidney being present and directing their movements.

Note: This article, on the Sidney Rigdon Mormon splinter group, also appeared in the American for Thursday, June 18th.



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Monday,  August 16, 1846.                            No. ?

MORMONS. -- A number of families of Mormons from Nauvoo, not long since, purchased a large tract of land, with a fine water power, in the neighbothood of Greencastle, Pa. [and have gone] and settled there with the view of [farming] and carrying on some kind of a manufactory. Several of them have taken a house in that town (Greencastle) and commenced merchandising, with only a tolerable show of success.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                             St. Louis, August 22, 1846.                             No. 123.


MORE SUPERSTITION. -- Wm. Smith, the brother of Joe Smith, and who styles himself as the Patriarch, has published a silly letter, in which he takes ground in favor of Strang and the church at Voree, and in opposition to Brigham Young and the twelve impostor leaders. It has some absurd statements about visions and revelations. His testimony in favor of the impostor Strang, is endorsed and confirmed by several members of the Smith family. It is humiliating to think that persons of ordinary sense, can be imposed on, or induced to lend any credit to such [ridiculous] affusions. Such lying impostors should be treated with universal contempt, instead of obtaining credit in any quarter whatever.

Note: William Smith's association with the J. J. Strang Mormon splinter group did not last for very long, but he evidently was able to temporarily convince several of his family members (including Mother Lucy Mack Smith) to support Strang's LDS leadership succession claims.



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Tuesday,  September 22, 1846.                            No. ?

A Preacher in Trouble. -- A Mormon Preacher was brought before Mayor Kerr yesterday morning, having been found in a hay loft at 2 o'clock, during the preceding night. He had regular credentials from Sidney Rigdon, and it did not appear that he had been guilty of any other impropriety than sleeping in a hay mow. He was not drunk -- he was not a vagrant, for he had $26 in his pocket, yet he was fined 67 cents.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Thursday,  October 1, 1846.                            No. ?


MORMONISM IN NEW YORK. -- Strang, the prophet, who calls himself the successor of Joe Smith, is holding forth, in New York, every Sunday, on Mormonism. Headquarters, the Temperance Hall, Grand street, next [to] "Jack Martins." There are preaching, and an odd kind of praying, and the Ceacovienne, and Yankee Doodle, and book and tract selling, and all sorts of things going on upon these occasions, one of which we happened to witness, a few evenings since. -- [New York Express.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         St. Louis, Monday, May 27, 1847.                         No. ?


STARTLING RUMOR -- MORMON MURDERS. A gentleman from Burlington, Iowa, brings news of the return of two men who left that place some time since with a company of Oregon emigrants, who report that they were forced to return by a band of Mormons who left Nauvoo last fall. They report that one of the emigrants being sick, was forced to stop at Council Bluffs, that a number of his friends, including the two that have returned, remained with him, designing, as soon as he should recover, to hasten forward and overtake their companions. After resuming the march, and being far behind the white settlements, they were attacked by the Mormons, robbed, and all murdered except the two who bring the sad intelligence, and who barely escaped with their lives. Nothing is known of the fate of those in advance. Several of the persons murdered were taking out considerable sums of money, which was made known to the Mormons by a brace of worthies, now under guard at Burlington, who have acted as runners for the Mormons during the past winter.

The above text is taken from the Painesville Telegraph of June 9, 1847. The same article was also reprinted in the June 2, 1847 issue of the Columbus Ohio Statesman.



Vol. ?                            St. Louis,  Friday,  October 8, 1847.                            No. ?


The Mormon Prophet Strang has ordered all his followers to Beaver Island in Lake Michigan. He has bought up that spot containing 40 sq. miles, and expects to gather the Mormons there this fall

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                         St. Louis, Mo., November 10, 1849.                         No. ?

The Schism in the Mormon Church.

Day before yesterday we received a visit from William Smith, brother of "Joe Smith," the founder of the Mormon church, who came to inform us that he felt aggrieved by some recent publications in the Organ -- among which, besides an editorial article, was a communication of Mr. N. H. Felt.

Mr. Smith asserts that he has never been excommunicated by any authorized act of the church; that the mantle of the first prophet, Joseph Smith, has fallen upon the son of Joseph, who is now a youth of 17, living at Nauvoo, and whom he, William, represents as Regent, during the minority of the young prophet.

Mr. Smith did not deny that the Salt Lake Mormons were true to the doctrines of Mormonism, but, he insists that they are animated by a deadly hostility toward the United States, and have taken a solemn oath on the altar to carry those hostile feelings into act, whenever it is possible for them to do so.

Upon Brigham Young, Mr. Smith reflected very severely -- alleging that he (Young) had swindled the "Mormon batallion" out of their bounty money.

By request of Mr. Smith, we insert the following extract from an appeal to the public, signed by himself and Mr. Sheen:

We would advise or recommend, that if the government grants those Salt Lake Mormons a territorial government, that they appoint men who are not members of this Salt Lake church, or the government will find that they are most desperately bitten by these wolves in sheep's clothing. We are in favor of them having a government but we think the government and laws should be administered by judicious and honest men, and not by traitors and conspirators against the rights and liberties of American citizens. But if the government will not heed our advice, and will appoint a Salt Lake Mormon to be Governor of that territory, let them appoint A. W. Babbit, Esq., to that office, for we believe that he would be the most faithful servant of the government that can be found among the Salt Lake Mormons.
                           WILLIAM SMITH.
                           ISAAC SHEEN.
Presidents of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

With but little room for comment, we can only add that the history of the Mormon church, like that of all others, shows the impossibility of saving such bodies from heresy and schism; even at a very early period of their career.

Note 1: While the above excerpt reads much like a portion of William Smith's 1849 "Remonstrance Against the Admission of Deseret," the document's recommendation, favoring the appointment of Elder Almon W. Babbit as Governor of Utah, is missing from officially published versions of the text. Smith sent two versions of his petition to Washington, D. C., but only his memorial to Congress was ever printed and distributed by the Government (in 1850). So, perhaps the mention of Babbit (Isaac Sheen's brother-in-law) occurred only in the version of the memorial Smith sent to the President. As events unfolded, during the spring of 1850, Elder Sheen learned of William Smith's clandestine adventures into "spiritual wifery" and quickly withdrew from Smith's church. Sheen then wrote to the appropriate authorities in Washington, D. C., asking that his name be removed from the "Remonstrance;" however, the document was already published by then.

Note 2: The advice given by William Smith and Isaac Sheen, that the U. S. Government appoint Sheen's brother-in-law, Almon W. Babbit, to be the first Governor of the proposed Utah Territory, put Elder Babbit into an untenable position, in respect to his top leader, Brigham Young and the LDS Church hierarchy at Salt Lake. As things turned out, Babbit was appointed in July, 1849 by the Mormons to serve as the representative in Washington for their proposed "State of Deseret." Babbit arrived in Iowa, from Salt Lake City, on Sept. 3, 1849 and then proceeded on to Washington, D. C. After Babbit arrived in the capital, he entrusted the constitution for the proposed state of Deseret, to Senator Stephen A. Douglas, who placed the matter before the Senate on Dec. 27, 1849. The Mormons' proposal was eventually rejected; in place of the State of Deseret, the Federal Government created, Utah Territory, on Sept. 9, 1850, with Brigham Young appointed to serve as its first Governor.

Note 3: See also William B. Smith's 1850 warning notice -- which purportedly revealed the Utah Mormons' depredations upon emigrant wagon trains traveling to the American west coast. That supplementary notice was first published in Smith's A&M Herald and was subsequently reprinted in numerous other newspapers -- for example, in the Mar. 13, 1850 issue of the Trenton State Gazette.

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