(Newspapers of
Iowa, Wisconsin & Minnesota)

Misc. Iowa Newspapers
1845-1849 Articles

Up the River from Nauvoo:  Burlington, Iowa Terr.,  (late 1840s)

1836-1844  |  1845-1849   |  1850-1899

January 1845-July 1845
(Iowa Territory)
Ensign Jan '45  |  BlmH Jan 24 '45  |  DGz Jan 30 '45  |  Hawk Jan 30 '45  |  DGz Feb 13 '45  |  DGz Feb 20 '45  |  Ensign Mar '45  |  DGz Mar 06 '45
Ensign Apr '45  |  IaTG Apr 19 '45  |  IaMS Apr 24 '45  |  BlmH Apr 25 '45  |  DGz May 01 '45  |  DGz May 08 '45  |  DGz May 15 '45  |  Hawk May 15 '45
IaTG May 17 '45  |  DGz May 22 '45  |  IaTG May 24 '45  |  Ensign Jun '45  |  DGz Jun 05 '45  |  BHk Jun 05 '45  |  BlmH Jun 07 '45  |  BHk Jun 12 '45
IaTG Jun 14 '45  |  BHk Jun 19 '45  |  BHk Jun 26 '45  |  IaTG Jun 28 '45  |  LeeD Jun 28 '45  |  BlmH Jun 28 '45  |  ICR Jul 02 '45  |  DGz Jul 03 '45
BHk Jul 03 '45  |  BlmH Jul 05 '45  |  ICR Jul 09 '45  |  DGz Jul 10 '45  |  BHk Jul 10 '45  |  BlmH Jul 12 '45  |  BHk Jul 17 '45  |  IaTG Jul 19 '45
BlmH Jul 19 '45  |  DGz Jul 24 '45  |  BlmH Jul 26 '45

August 1845-December 1845
(Iowa Territory)
BlmH Aug 02 '45  |  LeeD Aug 16 '45  |  BHk Aug 21 '45  |  BHk Aug 28 '45  |  ICR Sep 03 '45  |  BHk Sep 18 '45  |  LeeD Sep 20 '45  |  BHk Sep 25 '45
LeeD Sep 27 '45  |  BlmH Sep 27 '45  |  BHk Oct 02 '45  |  BlmH Oct 04 '45  |  BHk Oct 09 '45  |  BlmH Oct 11 '45  |  BHk Oct 16 '45
DGz Oct 16 '45  |  BHk Oct 23 '45  |  BlmH Oct 25 '45  |  BHk Oct 30 '45  |  DGz Oct 30 '45  |  BlmH Nov 01 '45
ICR Nov 05 '45  |  BHk Nov 06 '45  |  BlmH Nov 08 '45  |  BHk Nov 13 '45  |  BlmH Nov 15 '45  |  BHk Nov 20 '45  |  DGz Nov 20 '45  |  BlmH Nov 22 '45
LeeD Nov 29 '45  |  BlmH Nov 29 '45  |  DGz Dec 03 '45  |  LeeD Dec 06 '45  |  BlmH Dec 06 '45  |  BlmH Dec 13 '45  |  ICR Dec 17 '45  |  BlmH Dec 20 '45

January 1846-December 1846
(Iowa Territory)
IaTG Jan 17 '46  |  BHk Feb 05 '46  |  BHk Feb 12 '46
LeeD Mar 28 '46  |  LeeD Apr 04 '46  |  IaTG Apr 11 '46  |  LeeD Apr 11 '46  |  LeeD May 09 '46
IaTG May 09 '46  |  LeeD May 30 '46  |  BHk Sep 24 '46

January 1847-December 1849
(State of Iowa)
DGz Oct 28 '47  |  DGz Nov 04 '47
DGz Feb 14 '48  |  DGz Mar 17 '48  |  DGz Mar 30 '48  |  DGz Jun 15 '48  |  DGz Aug 03 '48
DGz Aug 24 '48  |  DGz Aug 31 '48  |  DGz Sep 07 '48  |  DGz Sep 21 '48  |  DGz Sep 28 '48
DGz Oct 05 '48  |  DGz Oct 12 '48  |  DGz Oct 19 '48  |  DGz Nov 02 '48  |  DGz Nov 23 '48
BHk Jan 04 '49  |  DGz Jan 04 '49  |  FGd Feb 07 '49  |  BHk Feb 08 '49  |  DGz Feb 15 '49
FGd Feb 21 '49  |  DGz Feb 22 '49  |  BHk Mar 29 '49  |  FGd Apr 04 '49  |  ISG Apr 11 '49
ISG Apr 18 '49  |  FGd Apr 18 '49  |  BHk Apr 19 '49  |  ISG Apr 25 '49  |  BHk Apr 26 '49
FGd May 02 '49  |  DGz May 03 '49  |  DGz May 10 '49  |  FGd May 30 '49  |  DGz May 31 '49
DGz Jun 14 '49  |  BHk Jun 21 '49  |  FGd Jun 27 '49  |  BHk Jul 19 '49  |  BHk Jul 26 '49
FGd Aug 08 '49  |  BHk Sep 06 '49  |  DGz Sep 06 '49  |  FGd Sep 09 '49  |  FGd Oct 03 '49
DGz Oct 04 '49  |  DGz Oct 11 '49  |  FGd Oct 17 '49  |  BHk Nov 01 '49  |  FGd Nov 14 '49
BHk Nov 22 '49  |  FGd Nov 28 '49  |  BHk Dec 06 '49

Articles Index  |  Strang's Iowa Papers  |  Wisconsin Newspapers  |  Michigan Newspapers

Vol. I.                                Buffalo, Scott Co., I. T., January, 1845.                              No. 7.

From the New York Herald.



(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                    Bloomington, I. T., Friday, January 24, 1845.                     No. 9.

We have heard no recent revelations from the ghost of Jo. Smith, or from his dozen successors, but we have -- somewhere -- heard it proclaimed as a rule devised by wisdom, that he who loves peace, and is in want of a big house, had better cut his own logs, and mould and burn his own bricks, than to undertake to enlarge his cabin by tearing down the tenements of his neighbors.

N. B. -- Fritz of the Hawkeye, and Fair Play have not read or profited by this proclamation.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, January 30, 1845.                       No. 23.

The story of the violent deaths of the Mormons who had located above Prairie du Chien is unfounded. The representation of their starving condition is true.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, January 30, 1845.                         No. 36.

Maj. J. B. Newhall.

We perceive by the last Essex Co. Whig, that our old friend and fellow-townsman, has returned to his native country. He was, at latest dates, telling the good folks of Lynn and Danvers, all about the wonders he had seen during his late tour through England, France, and Belgium. We hope that we shall soon be able to take the major by the hand.

Note 1: Besides writing two early Iowa Territory guidebooks, John Bailey Newhall contributed several descriptive essays to the Hawkeye during the 1840s -- most notably, a report of his visit to the abandoned Mormon capital, published on Sept. 24, 1845. Newhall evidently accompanied several other Burlingtonians to Nauvoo, Illinois, to view the Mormons' elaborate celebration on July 4, 1841. What apepars to be his depiction of that festive event was published in the New-York Tribune of Aug. 6, 1841.

Note 2: Early in 1843 Newhall traveled to New England, on an informal mission of Iowa emigration "boosterism." He visited his home town of Lynn, Massachusetts and neighboring cities, lecturing on the upper Mississipi region, the red "red sons of the forest," the "characteristics and appearance of the Mormon Prophet, 'Joe Smith,'" etc. That summer Newhall sailed to England, where he continued his lectures. At Birmingham he spoke on "the Geography, Resources, and Advantages of the new Territory of Iowa;" and in Manchester is subject was "The North American Indians." In the time between those two speaking engagements, he paid a visit to the Continent and rambled through France and Belgium as a pedestrian tourist. Although European news items did not specifically mention his familiarity with Joseph Smith, Nauvoo, etc., Newhall almost certainly enlivened his lectures with firsthand accounts of the American Mormons.

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, February 13, 1845.                       No. 25.

NAUVOO CHARTERS: -- The Legislature of Illinois has repealed the Nauvoo charter. It was granted for political purposes to secure the Mormon votes for the Locofocos, it having accomplished that object, it is now repealed. We condemn the meanness which repealed the charter as much as we rejoice at its repeal.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, Iowa, Thursday, February 20, 1845.                       No. 26.

"Mormon." -- This word, it should be known by all, is a Greek word. Donnegan and other authors of Greek dictionry's, define it, “A bugbear, hobgoblin, a raw-head and bloody bones, a hideous spectre, a frightful mask, something to frighten children." It is thus used by the Greek author, Aristophanes, the comic poet.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. I.                                Buffalo, Scott Co., I. T., March, 1845.                              No. 9.


We have received eight Nos. of a semi-monthly periodical, of the above title, published at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Rev. Sidney Rigdon, lately one of the three presiding High Priests of the church of the Latter day Saints, at Nauvoo. It seems from this, together with other information from good authority, that a few days previous to the death of Joseph and Hiram Smith, after a perfect reconciliation of all previous difficulties, which had so frequently arisen between Joseph and Sidney (for Sidney always fought the spiritual wife doctrine,) it was agreed that Rigdon and family, with a few others, should leave Nauvoo and go to Pittsburgh, to preside over the church in that place and its vicinity. The feelings of President Rigdon on this occasion, may be easily imagined, if we allow fancy to place us in similar situations. For the last twelve years he has devoted himself to the cause in which his whole soul engaged, and when, at length, partial success appeared to have crowned his efforts, the calm peace invited to repose, a stress of jargon and discord again drove him from his happy home, again to plunge into an unfriendly world, and exchange the kind greetings of friends for the harsh denunciations of prejudice and infidelity.

It may be thought that we entertain too much sympathy for the President; but, if the reader could have witnessed the scenes of blood-curdling persecution through which we have passed, shoulder to shoulder with Sidney Rigdon, he would not wonder that, independent of religious feeling, we should entertain a fraternal desire to see him enjoying the comforts of life. If he had seen that man, with a few others, marched out, at Far West, as acceptable sacrifices upon the altar of mobocracy, to save the city from pillage and destruction -- if he could but hear the demoniac yells of the thousands who had collected, a motley host, when the hostages gave themselves up, he would feel the same solicitude for his happiness that we do. Rigdon had been but a short time at Pittsburgh when the news of the murder of the Smiths reached that city. Believing that the hand of the Almighty had been interposed for his own preservation, and that he was divinely pointed out to retrieve the fallen virtue of the Mormon people, he immediately returned to Nauvoo, and offered himself as their future President and head of the church. A majority of the leaders of the faction, however, had drank in the spiritual wife doctrine until, to disavow it would be to expose and acknowledge their own iniquity, and choosing rather to continue in their unhallowed practices, they rejected the man who alone could have brought them back to their primitive purity and holiness.

Returning to Pittsburgh, Pres't. Rigdon established himself and commenced the publication of the 'Messenger and Advocate.' We are glad to hear that all, who really deserve the name of 'Latter day Saints,' are flocking to his standard, and deserting the unholy clique at Nauvoo. --

Note: Elder George M. Hinkle cleverly inserts his claim to innocence in the surrender of the Mormon leaders at Far West, in 1838, as he presents this olive branch of an editorial in Rigdon's behalf. Rigdon's subsequent acceptance of the merger of Hinkle's small group with his own "Church of Christ" marked the Pittsburgh leader's implicit acknowledgment of Hinkle's artlessness in the fall of Far West and the top leaders. Following a brief visit with Rigdon at Pittsburgh, Hinkle returned to Buffalo and continued to frequent eastern Iowa, publishing The Ensign there for several months after the merger of the two Mormon groups.

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, Iowa, Thursday, March 6, 1845.                       No. 28.


A constable of Hancock county, from near Warsaw, has been arrested and imprisoned, at Nauvoo while in discharge of his duty. His jailors have expressed their determination to hold on to him at all hazards. He is charged with being concerned in the Smith murders.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. I.                                Buffalo, Scott Co., I. T., April, 1845.                              No. 10.


Having just returned from a trip to Pittsburgh, I hasten to inform you of my sayings, doings, etc. My object in going was to attend a conference of ministers from all parts of the United States, to form a general union of all who desire to live by the precepts of the Gospel, and aid in the building up of God's kingdom on earth. The proceedings of our conference, held in this place on the 24th March last, published in this number, will give a better explanation of the reason of our goings...

After the conference, with all its quorums, each in its place, was completely arranged, Pres't. Rigdon informed us that the grand quorum of seventy-three was the highest order in the Church, and that one of its members should be appointed to preside over the whole Church, in order that the kingdom might be perfect, and all things done in Gospel order. When called upon to make the choice, an unanimous cry selected S. Rigdon. The Pres't. then nominated S. James and E. Robinson as his counselors, to which the conference agreed. Being inspired from on high, the President proceeded to instruct the quorums in their several duties...In the afternoon we partook of the sacrament and felt grateful to God for the lesson he had that day taught us. On the next morning we took our departure for St. Louis....

Nothing worthy of publication occurred during our passage home, where we arrived on the night of Saturday, [April] the 26th. We heard startling tales of Mormonism, and saw a number of beautiful specimens of that ungodly people, on our way from St. Louis to Nauvoo; but we will not publish them, and seriously advise all who desire their downfall to let them alone -- do not force them to maintain their present union, and they will soon be found fighting amongst themselves...

... the matters of difficulty that have existed between Elder W. E. McLellin and myself, as noticed in the Ensign, and all other matters of difference, have been fully adjusted and settled, and harmony and confidence restored between us: and if, in any communication I have made pertaining to his character, I sincerely regret if I have unjustly or uncharitably injured his feelings or usefulness in the cause of righteousness.
                               G. M. HINKLE.

Note: William McLellin, who had previously held one of the highest positions in George M. Hinkle's church, and who had edited the church's Ensign during 1844, disassociated himself from Hinkle's group and flirted with the idea of supporting Sidney Rigdon. Both McLellin and Hinkle attended Rigdon's April conference at Pittsburgh, where they became reconciled. By May of 1845 McLellin was temporarily back in Buffalo, working with Hinkle again, and espousing with him the cause of the western Rigdonites.


Vol. 8.                            Burlington, I. T., Saturday, April 19, 1845.                           No. 41.

Mr Orson Hyde, it is rumored, is to be installed as the head of the Mormon Church.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I.                                Keokuk, I. T., Thursday, April 24, 1845.                                No. 1.

ROBBERY BY MORMONS. -- A gentleman has given us the following particulars of a robbery which occurred near Pekin sometime during last week, Three men, declaring themselves to be Mormon elders and advocating Mormon doctrines came and remained several days in a neighborhood where lived an old man, who was reputed to have a considerable amount of cash on hand. One night about three days after they had come there, the wife of the old man was aroused by some moving about in the house, and on looking up she discovered there three Mormons, or pretended Mormons, just about leaving the room. She immediately awoke her husband, who started out after them, but they were gone. He then gathered some of his neighbors and pursued them to where they had crossed the river, arriving there about a quarter of an hour behind them. They had stolen from him 6 hundred dollars; and one of them, a day or two previous, had obtained from him change for a hundred dollar bill, which proved to be spurious. -- Morgan Journal.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                          Bloomington, I. T., Friday, April 25, 1845.                           No. ?

A BLOODY AFFRAY took place at Nauvoo on the fourth inst. A man by the name of Slocum had made himself obnoxious to a charge of breaking the peace of the neighborhood and a warrant was issued for his arrest. The officer did not succeed in this; but on the following morning he came into court and cut up at such a rate, the crowd disarmed him of a six-shooter, when he promised to behave himself and submit to the court, he was then released; but began to slash about himself with a dirk knife, hitting and cutting one man severely in the side. At this stage of the game, someone drew a pistol and shot Slocum in the back, which checked his career. He is dangerously wounded, but may recover. There are many of [these desperate] characters about Nauvoo yet. The orderly citizens owe it to themselves and their town to prevent any such proceedings. Nauvoo can bear less of these characters than any other place, for the reason that it has been the place for the desperate to resort to and be protected. She must crush all such rowdyisms.

Note 1: There were several young male Mormons with the last name of Slocum living in western Illinois in 1845. At least three of these (Charles, George B. and Solomon) joined the Reorganized Church in later years. In August of 1846 Samuel Slocum (who was not a Mormnon) became proprietor of the Nauvoo New Citizen (a paper initially edited by Dr. Isaac Galland).

Note 2: The Bloomington Herald evidently ended its fifth volume at this time and re-emerged on Saturdays in a "new series." This development was probably due to a change in the ownership or management of the paper.


Vol. IV.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 1, 1845.                             No. 36.


Some time has elapsed since we treated our readers to a dish of Mormonism; nothing in the meantime of importance having transpired among the singularly infatuated people worthy of publication. Accounts all agree in representing them in a miserably destitute condition, numbers of them without food sufficient to satisfy the craving of their appetites. Yet almost every steamer deposits upon the shore of Nauvoo additions to their population. This fact may, however, determine the question, how so many persons manage to sustain life without visible employment. New-comers are general[ly] flush of means and being enthusiastic in the cause are easily prevailed upon to surrender a small amount possessed for a larger perspective.

Orson Hyde, it is rumored, is about to become the successor of Joe Smith. Whether he claims the leadership by revelation from heaven, does not appear. But no doubt he will appeal to their superstitions, -- the most vulnerable point with the ignorant -- for the accomplishment of his object.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 8, 1845.                           No. 37.

A Warsaw paper contains a long account of horrible outrages said to have been perpetrated by Mormons in Nauvoo City -- and the recital of a series of outrages committed by Hyrum Smith. The paper calls loudly on assistance. If the assertions are facts their accusations should be made the subject of Governmental action -- and as assertions they demand investigations.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 15, 1845.                            No. 38.

While the cities of the east are making every exertion to aid the unfortunate sufferers by the recent conflagration, which desolated the city of Pittsburg, the "latter day saints" paper, the Nauvoo Neighbor, indulges in the following blasphemous wish: "Hearken to wisdom. May God who never errs, sprinkle upon every man and city that belies the saints, as upon Pittsburg, now and then, a hot drop!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VI.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, May 15, 1845.                         No. 51.

(Murder of Miller and Liese
under construction)


Note: The article on the murder reprinted in the Iowa Territorial Gazette of May 17th appears to have been taken from this issue of the Hawk Eye.


Vol. 8.                          Burlington, I. T., Saturday, May 17, 1845.                            No. 45.

We are called upon to record a most horrible murder in Lee county in this Territory, to which resulted from an attempt to rob. To save ourselves the trouble of detailing the particulars, we transfer to our column the statement given by a correspondent of the Hawkeye under date of "West Point, May 13," which in the main agrees with what has reached us from other quarters.

We learn that two of the supposed murderers have been arrested at Nauvoo, and are now in custody at the place awaiting an order from the Governor of Illinois for their surrender to the authority of Iowa. They are brothers named Hodges, and we are told once lived at this place. The evidence against them is said to be strong. The cap left at the theatre of the bloodshed has been recognized as belonging to one of them, an the hair (red) which adhered to the gun used upon one of them by Miller, corresponds precisely with that of one of the persons arrested. In addition to this, they were seen about West Point a day or two before the occurrence, with clubs in their possessive, and these have been recognized as the same which were used in the commission of the murder. It is also said that there is testimony to prove that the red haired Hodges was seen to enter Nauvoo about daylight, bare-headed, the morning after the murder. The third villain has not yet been arrested, but with proper vigilance it is hoped he will not be permitted to escape.

Liese, whose life was at first despaired of, it is now thought may possibly recover. Below will be found a detail of the particulars.

An elderly man by the name of Miller and his son-in-law by the name of Liese, living on Sugar Creek, three miles from this place were awakened about 12 o'clock on Saturday night by the entrance of three men with blackened faces, one of them having a darkened lantern in his hand and all being armed with clubs, bowie knives, and pistols. The robbers immediately commenced an attack upon the inmates of the house with their clubs; and the old gentleman, Mr. Miller, seized a gun (not loaded) and one blow felled one of the robbers to the floor, when another of the robbers, with a large bowie knife, stabbed him to the heart, of course, killing him instantly.

The young man Liese, with a chair prostrated another of the robbers, who shot him through the body, while the other robber who was unhurt, cut him most frightfully with his bowie knife, and he now lied past our recovery; he has been married only a few weeks.

The robbers, made good their escape, dragging away the one wounded by the old gentleman; he is supposed to be badly wounded as they were tracked some distance by the blood.

Their object is supposed to have been to murder the whole family for the purpose of plunder. Mr. Miller having recently come from Ohio, he was supposed to have money in his house.

One of the robbers left his cap, and there are a great variety of circumstances to fix the suspicion on the two men, named Hodge and Brown. The sheriff raised a large force and searched for them, but they succeeded in affecting their escape to Nauvoo, that great receptacle of villains, where it is supposed they are concealed, the mother of one of them being a Mormon and residing there, he having also been a Mormon and Had his residence there.

The Sheriff chartered the ferryboat New Purchase, and went to Nauvoo, where he was met at the landing by men of the name of Markham who told him that he knew the house where the wounded robber was, and that they had a guard around the house to prevent his escape; but thought it would not be polite to arrest him until they could secure the other robber, whom they supposed had gone to his mothers residing some miles from Nauvoo.

Markham said however that he would go and see what could be done, and returned in a few moments, which was the last that was seen of him; having learned upon whom suspicion had fallen he doubts wished to gain time to more effectually secure the murderers escape.

The wives of the murdered men saw their husbands butchered and their agony is indescribable they represent the conflict as most horrific.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                            Davenport, I. T., Thursday, May 22, 1844.                         No. 39.


The Warsaw Signal gives the particulars of the murder of a father and son, near the town of Franklin, Lee Co., Iowa. By the account it appears that the unfortunate individuals had emigrated to Iowa this Spring, having in their possession a considerable sum of money, which they designed in investing in lands. One night three men with the design of robbing them entered their house, when meeting with resistance in the fight that ensued, the old man was killed instantly and his son mortally wounded. -- The alarm being given, the murderers hastily fled without making any search for the money. A lad was also seriously wounded. On the following day the inhabitants of Lee co. turned out in vigorous pursuit of the murderers. They were tracked through Nashville, to the river opposite Nauvoo, where it appears, they crossed. Two of them were there ferreted out, the third escaped. Their names were Hodges, brothers, and one of them an Elder of the Mormon Church. The Signal says he is but a fair specimen of the Holy Brotherhood, and that this is the third midnight robbery which has been committed in Lee co., under the circumstances which prove that the Mormons are concerned.

The St. Louis Republican says that all three of the murderers were arrested at Nauvoo but being Mormons, the authorities of the Holy City would not give them to those of Iowa, but were about proceeding to try them in their own court, last news. Such indignation is felt by the people above and below the iniquitous fraternity that it is not improbable an attempt will be made ere long to expel them.

Note 1: Oddly enough, the first news accounts circulated concerning this reprehensible crime, committed in Lee Co., Iowa, seem to have been those published in the Illinois and St. Louis newspapers. A correspondent to the Pittsburgh Gazette, writing from "Warsaw, Ill, May 25, 1845," adds the following: "A great many midnight robberies have lately taken place in Lee county, Iowa, directly opposite Nauvoo, on the west side of the Mississippi; and the Mormons justly suspected of their perpetration. About two weeks ago, in an attempted midnight robbery of a family of newly arrived German emigrants, one man was killed, and another almost hacked to pieces with bowie knifes. The robbers made their escape from their bloody work, but were traced to Nauvoo, and two of them, named Hodges, both Mormons, and one an Elder, were arrested and lodged in Jail to await trial. The third robber has so far eluded detectives. When the Mormons found that these men had been traced to the "holy city," they gave them up to avoid the effects of public indignation. If they had not done so, the people of Lee county would have attacked Nauvoo with a large force of determined men, which they were prepared to do." See also the Gazette of July 7th for more on the Hodges from the same correspondent.

Note 2: Thomas Gregg, in his 1890 book, The Prophet of Palmyra, says: "On Saturday night, May 10, 1845, a horrible robbery and murder was committed near the town of Franklin, Lee County, Iowa, on the persons of John Miller, a Mennonite German minister from Pennsylvania, and Mr. Leiza, his son-in-law... The locality is about ten or twelve miles from Nauvoo, across the Mississippi, and the murders, three in number, were traced to that city. Their names were William Hodge, Stephen Hodge (brothers), and Thomas Brown. The Hodges were arrested on the 13th, and conveyed to the Iowa penitentiary at Fort Madison for safe-keeping. On the 15th, they were indicted by the grand jury in the Lee district court, then in session at West Point, and on the 21st were arraigned for trial. They asked for a change of venue, and the cause was certified to Des Moines County. On the 21st of June they were put upon trial at Burlington... The trial lasted about a week and ended in a verdict of Guilty. Judge Mason sentenced them to the gallows, and on the 15th of July they were duly executed. On the night of the 23d of June, Irvine Hodge, brother to the accused, was assassinated in Nauvoo, while on his way home from a visit to his doomed brothers in the Burlington jail. He had, it was said, endeavored in induce Brigham Young to send and have his brothers rescued from jail; and failing, had been free in denouncing his chief for refusing to authorize the raid.... The "Patriarch" William Smith's letter to the Sangamo Journal, dated September 24, 1846 [says]... 'Irvine Hodge was murdered within twelve feet of Brigham Young's door. Amos Hodge, it is said, was murdered between Montrose and Nashville, Iowa... by Brigham Young's guard, who pretended to escort him out of Nauvoo for his safety... If Mr. Amos Hodge, the father of these young Hodges, will call and see me, I can tell him the names of persons that will put him on the track of the men who murdered his sons.'"


Vol. 8.                              Burlington, I. T., Saturday, May 24, 1845.                         No. 46.

Arrest of the Murderers.

The two Hodges suspected of being engaged in the murder of Miller in Lee county, were delivered up by the authorities of Nauvoo on last Friday, and were taken to Fort Madison and lodged in the penitentiary for safe keeping. The people of Nauvoo, it is said, acted well in the matter -- refusing to wait until a formal requisition was made upon them by our Governor for the delivery of the prisoners; Brown, their supposed accomplice is yet at large, but the officers were on his trail

The Hodges, it was supposed, would be brought before the Lee county court the present week for trial. They have probably, however, taken the case to some other county.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                Buffalo, Scott Co., I. T., June, 1845.                              No. 12.

                For the Ensign.

La Harp, Hancock co., Ill., May 28, 1845.
    Elder Geo. M. Hinkle, dear brother: I am yet confined to this section of country, in settling up my business. I have succeeded very well with the (so called) Gentile portion of the community, and with some of the Mormon portion of this county, I have done very well. With others, the law cannot be put in force on them, for the best of reasons -- have to find them first. There are still another portion of the Mormon people that are proof against collecting one's demands or dues, they will beat you in the execution. I think I will be detained here some two weeks longer. We have meetings here every Sunday at 4 o'clock p.m. Many are believing the truth, and there appears to be a general spirit of inquiry among the people. Although the president and oracles of the branches of the mormon church in this place, has used his utmost exertion to keep the people from hearing us, and as much as possible crush the spirit of inquiry... Br. Lewis James and myself visited Nauvoo a few days since on business. After putting out our horse at Mr. Loomis' inn, we went to see Mr. Cain and Mr. Taylor (editor). Called at the post office for Mr. Cain, he was at the printing office. Went to the printing office, he was at Mr. Taylor's residence. There we found him, he said he could not attend to our business until evening... We urged upon Mr. Cain the necessity of attending to our business immediately, and for that purpose we again visited Mr. Editor, who appeared to be in great haste to leave our presence. He just thought of an appointment and must fill it. He barely had time to call us murderers, thieves, blacklegs, villains, knaves and fools, and then vanished behind a cloud of anathemies, and we lost sight of him forever. -- ... We returned to Mr. Loomis' and called for our horse and carriage, followed by a gang of ruffians armed with clubs. After we entered the tavern they guarded the door. Our carriage came to the door and we entered it and proceeded on the La Harp road. -- We soon found that the banditti had guarded the road on the hill, to prevent our passing. We went on foot to the hill in front of the temple, and then turned to the right and made our way on the Carthage and Warsaw road. The villains, on seeing us take this course, rushed toward the Carthage road in order to interrupt us, whilst some followed us. Others passed us and went on to the junction of the Warsaw and Carthage roads, to intercept us there. Instead of our going those roads, or either of them as they supposed, we again made our way for the La Harp road, and by letting down fences, we succeeded in getting into that road some six or seven miles from the city. We expected to have had to contend for our freedom by the strength of arms; but, Washington said that a politic general always looked out for a retreat. We claim no little honor on this score. We do not say that our legs were altogether free from fear, but we certainly think our hearts very courageous. Wisdom, also, dictated our course. To throw away our lives for the lives of such wretches, would be doing a manifold injustice to the public.

These are the persecuted people, Latter day Saints! These are the people of whom all manner of evil is spoken -- shall I say, falsely for Christ's sake? No! no!! no!!! but, justly for their folly and crimes. They attempt, and actually do, make capital of such persecution. I will write you again soon. Yours, in view of the rest of God.
                               GEO. W. ROBINSON.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                          Davenport, I. T., Thursday, June 5, 1845.                        No. 41.


A letter in the St. Louis Republican says that the Circuit Court of Hancock County commenced the trial of the persons indicted for the murder of Joe Smith and Hirum Smith, in June last. The individuals indicted are J. C. Davis, late Senator of said county, T. C. Sharpe, editor of the Warsaw Signal; Mark Aldrich, W. N. Grove, and Col. Levi Williams. Three others were indicted but did not make their appearance at the trial. A considerable array of legal talent is displayed for the defence. Owing to peculiar difficulties in attaining a jury, the trial was postponed for a few days. Great excitement prevails. Everybody that attends court comes armed to the teeth. The Mormons are said to had expressed a determination to take revenge, in case the defendants should not be convicted.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                           Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 5, 1845.                              No. 2.

The Mormon Trials.

By a perusal of the interesting letter from our correspondent, which may be found in another column, our readers will see an account of the trial for the murder of Jo Smith. As was anticipated by our correspondent we learn from Mr. Browning who was one of the counsel that the jury brought in a verdict of acquittal for all the accused. The trial for the murder of Hyrum Smith will lake place at a special term of the Court in a few weeks.

As the County Commissioners who selected the Jury and as the Jury themselves were supposed to be tinctured with Mormonism, the prisoners made affidavit that they were fearful of going to trial with the jury selected by these County Commissioners and prayed the Court to set aside the array and appoint Elisors -- a Sheriff's substitute to return a Jury -- to select a fair and impartial Jury. After hearing arguments on this question, Judge Young decided that there was good cause for quashing the array, as set forth in the affidavits. Elisors were accordingly appointed, who reported a new jury. The decision of Judge Young will hereafter be plead as a precedent wherever a Mormon Jury is to sit in judgment in the trials of anti-Mormons, and will in a great measure lessen the power the Mormons have heretofore possessed in controlling the Courts of that County. If the Grand Jury can be set aside in the same way, some of the guilty Mormons must look out for breakers. Although two or three of the Mormon witnesses at the late trial were known to have committed perjury, the present grand jury could not be prevailed upon to indict them. We learn that the verdict was received with the utmost decorum.

Some of the testimony approached the miraculous. One of the witnesses declared that when Jo Smith fell he saw distinctly a bright light proceeding from each of his wounds, and that four of the men who shot him were transfixed to the spot from which they fired, and remained paralyzed, without being able to move, until some one came to their assistance. Several specimens of testimony as marvelous and some more absurd might be noted.

Trial of the Hodges. -- Death of Liese -- Arrest of Brown. -- The District Court is now in session in this town. The trial of the Hodges for the murder of the Germans in Lee County will not take place until new week.

Liese, the son in law of the murdered man, died on Sunday morning last from the wounds he received from the murderers.

Intelligence has been received and we hope it may be true, that Brown, the accomplice of the Hodges, was arrested in St. Louis, to which place he was traced, a few days since.

From our Correspondent.             
CARTHAGE, May 28th, 1845.                                
Mr. Edwards -- Dear Sir: -- As I suppose you feel an interest in a trial now in progress here, I take pleasure in throwing together a few items to enable you to form an opinion of the state of the case. You are aware that five were indicted for the murder of the Smiths: Sharp, Davis, Williams, Aldrich, and Grover. They were first arraigned for the murder of Joseph Smith, and if acquitted on that indictment, will probably be arraigned for the murder of Hiram Smith. I say probably, for the Prosecuting Attorney may abandon the case if unsuccessful on this indictment. The regular panel has been set aside and a new Jury empaneled. The Sheriff shared the same fate, on an affidavit of his partiality, and Mr. Bedell of Warsaw supplies his place. So far every thing has been orderly and decorous and the interest in the case, though deep, has not manifested itself in any undue form. -- There are but few Mormons in town except the witnesses for the prosecution. Mr. Laborn of Springfield is the Leading Attorney for the State, sent down, I understand, by the Governor. (Query, Is not such a proceeding an unconstitutional stretch of power?) -- Messers Browning, Warren, and Skinner conduct the defence. You will at once perceive that there is an array of legal talent in the case which adds much to its intrinsic interest.

The evidence (quite voluminous) was closed today. The evidence for the prosecution has been very positive and to the point nominally, but never were witnesses more thoroughly riddled in the cross-examination. So completely and effectually were they discredited, even from their own mouths, that the Prosecuting Attorney felt himself obliged to declare three of them perjured scoundrels. I cannot give even a synopsis of the evidence, from its length; but it will probably be published, together with the speeches of the attorneys engaged. The publication must be interesting. The speaking commenced today. Mr. Warren spoke for an hour and a half in his best style. He is an able and effective speaker, and his biting sarcasm and keen wit had every chance for display. O. H. Browning, Esq., speaks tomorrow, and you will be aware that he cannot surpassed be as a vigorous and powerful speaker. The Jury will probably retire tomorrow night, to make up their verdict, but there seems to be no doubt of the result. It is generally thought that the Jury will not be out half an hour, and that a verdict of 'not guilty' will be rendered for each defendant. Two of them, Davis and Grover, are virtually clear, as the prosecution admits that there is no evidence against them.

The whole appears more like a farce than a solemn trial, involving the lives of five men. The defendants are at large without bail, the most unconcerned men of any engaged in the proceeding. This fact itself shows plainly what the general opinion is as to their guilt, and how certain is their acquittal.

As I mentioned before, there is a great interest in the proceedings, although not from any fear of the result. Still every thing is quiet, and likely to remain so, so far as the present proceedings are concerned, but it cannot be supposed that the ill feeling already existing in the county will be allayed by this trial. On the contrary it must be increased and there is no probability that the 'Old Citizens of Hancock,' and the Mormons can ever inhabit peaceably the same county. Which of them will give way to the other, time only can determine.   J. T. M.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, June 7, 1845.                           No. 12.

The persons indicted for the murder of Jo Smith, the Mormon Prophet, have been acquitted. Those charged with the murder of the Prophet's brother, Hiram, are to be tried immediately.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                          Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 12, 1845.                             No. 3.

Great Crowd -- Arrival of the Prisoners.

A vast crowd assembled at our landing on Monday last to witness the arrival of the steam ferry boat New Purchase from Fort Madison, which brought up the Hodges from the Penitentiary. The prisioners were in chains and the Sheriff of Lee county, and Mr. Guthrie, Warden of the Penitentiary, handed them over to Sheriff McKenney, as soon as they landed. -- They were immediately after put in a wagon and taken to jail, where they now are awaiting their trial.

The  Trial  of  the  Hodges.

An effort was made by the counsel for Hodges to postpone the trial until next Court. The Judge over-ruled the motion and Tuesday next is set for it positively to come off. In the meantime opportunity is afforded for the prisoners to obtain such important witnesses and affidavits as they say they need.

We learn by the Missouri Republican that Brown, one of the accused with the Hodges, was not taken in St Louis. We believe he is still at large, but his pursuers have scent of him.

Note: The two Mormon Hodges arrested for the murder committed in Iowa were William and Stephen Hodges. They were later tried and executed for the bloody deed. Subsequently, their brother Irvine Hodges was murdered in Nauvoo and died practically upon Brigham Young's back doorstep. According to notes in William Shepard's "Mormon Banditti," the parents of these three ruffians "had joined Rigdon... parents lived in Pittsburgh." According to an 1846 report made by Apostle William Smith, a fourth brother was murdered "by Brigham Young's guard" and the father of all four was "Amos Hodge." More likely their father was the same Curtis Hodges whom Rigdon ordained as one of his splinter group's high priests, at Pittsburgh on April 9, 1845. See notes attached to June 26, 1845 Burlington Hawk-Eye for more on Curtis Hodges and his children.


Vol. 8.                                Burlington, I. T., Saturday, June 14, 1845.                              No. 49.

Trial of the Hodges.

The two Hodges, who were indicted at the late term of the Court in Lee county, for the murder of two Germans, and who took a change of venue to this county were brought to this city on Monday last, in order to sand their trial at the present term of the Court, now in session. On Tuesday they were brought into Court and applied for a continuance, on the ground, as stated in their affidavit, that some twelve or more witnesses resigning in Nauvoo and St. Louis (and by whom they expect to prove as alibi,) would not be in attendance and that they could not safely go to trial without their testimony. The court, however, refused to give them a continuance, but allowed them time until Tuesday next to get their testimony - on which day, we understand, the trial is to commence. There has been considerable excitement occasioned by these murderers, and there seems to be a determination among both the officers of the law and the people, that the murderers shall not go unpunished.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                          Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 19, 1845.                             No. 4.


The trial of these two young men for the murder of Miller and Liese, commenced on Tuesday last. A jury was empanneled on Monday and the trial is now progressing slowly. Out of about fifty witnesses but six were examined up to Tuesday evening. But these were so important that more time was probably taken up with them than will be with others. The Methodist Church is occupied as the Court room, and that building has been crowded during the progress of the trial. The utmost decorum prevails. There is but little perceivable excitement and there is every disposition to give the prisoners a fair trial. The trial will hardly close before the end of the week. We shall endeavor to lay the trial before our readers, but fearing it might influence the jury or frustrate the ends of justice, we have not thought it advisable to publish any of the testimony until after the verdict.

We understand that Mr. Newhall will lecture again at Griffey's Hall on Friday evening next, upon his recent travels in Europe. Since his return, Mr. Newhall has been almost constantly engaged in lecturing at the different County Seats, in various portions of the Territory. To those of his friends who may be in town, spending the week at Court, we will say an evening cannot be more profitably or agreeably spent, than in listening to the various descriptions and incidents that marked his recent journeyings in the "old world."

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. VII.                             Burlington, I. T., Thursday, June 26, 1845.                             No. 5.


The trial of William Hodges and Stephen Hodges, who were indicted for the murder of John Miller, on the 10th of May last, in Lee County, took place before the District Court of Des Moines County, on last week

The following jurors were empanneled on Monday:

David Leonard, Eli Walker, Robert Mickey, James Sow, Isaac Chandler, Vincent Shelley, William Bennett, Joel Hargrove, Moses B. Nutt, John Smith. Thomas Stout and John D. Cameron.

David Rice was sworn as Baliff and charged by the court to keep the Jury together at all times, and not to suffer any one to converse with them, except in his presence.

On Tuesday morning the witnesses on both sides were called and sworn, and on motion of the counsel, were placed in the charge of an officer with directions not to come into the Court room, or within hearing of any witness while on the stand.

L. D. Stockton opened the case to the jury on the part of the United States; F. D. Mills replied for the defense. The prosecution proceeded to call their witnesses and introduced

Jacob Risser. -- I am a son-in-law of John Miller and lived at Leisi's. We went to bed abut ten o'clock on Saturday night May 10th, fastened the door by a latch: -- about half past eleven heard a noise in the house; opened my eyes and heard a striking and a shot with pistol. I jumped out of bed: I expected nothing but murderers; I saw the struggle between Leisi and Miller and the men; knew them by their being in their shirts. -- I heard another shot and I saw Leisi fall, and went towards the door and nothing more was seen. After all was over I found Mr. Miller outside of the door, about five feet from the door, on the ground; for he was dead; lying with his face to the house; he was lying more on his face than his side; he was stabbed in his left breast; had a bad blow in his forehead, and blows on his head and on his body (describes the position they lay in.) -- There was light in the room when I awoke, but just as I awoke the light went out. We had just moved into the house about two weeks before from Ohio. Mr. Miller came with us; Mr. Leisi came with us; he had gone to Ohio in winter; he was a son-in-law of Miller; had been married about two months in Ohio and came with us. -- Miller was about 58 years old; was a Minister. Leisi was shot in his right breast; had a cut with a knife on his skull about an inch long; through the skull; had a cut with a knife on each shoulder blade; had also a cut across back on his neck. -- The wound in Miller's breast was with a large knife; the wound was wide as the two fingers, and deep; had a wound on the back of the head. Leisi lived three weeks and two hours after that night. I got a view of the persons who broke into the house, but not such as to recognize them. I noticed that they had dark colored faces; not natural. I think I only saw two. They left three clubs and a cap; think I should know the cap if I could see it again. They did not say anything. Father called my name and that was the last he spoke. It is in Lee county, near three miles from West Point. The neighbors are Conduit, (lives south across the creek about 1/2 mile) Able, &c. I alarmed the neighbors; Jacob Able came first; Able's son went for the Doctor at West Point. Miller's name is John. On Thursday evening before, a man called at Leisi's; asked for cattle and drink of water; enquired the road for Fort Madison; said he had about 4 miles to go home; he came across the field from the creek to the back door and asked water, &c; said he was looking for oxen; described the yoke of oxen; the man was a tolerable young man; fresh looking face - don't particularly recollect his face; had palm leaf hat; was little higher than I am; did not tell his name; went off directly.

Cross Examined. -- We had been in the house two or three weeks from Ohio; Leisi and myself had been to Franklin that day and came home at 1/2 past 8; got supper and talked awhile and went to bed, think it was past 10 when we went to bed; when I awoke the struggle was going on in front part of room opposite our beds, I can't tell where the light was as I first awoke I saw the persons did not look natural; the light was put out almost directly. - The front door was on the north and another on the south of the house. - There was little light in the house when I awoke; when I stood at the table, the shot was fired that came near me; it passed though my shirt sleeve; don't know whether Leisi had one of the men down or not; Leisi fell in the corner after they had gone I put Leisi on the bed; he could not sit up; then I went out to father. He had some little life; when I was tending to Leisi the women got up. When I came to Mr. Miller I made a light. It is rather a quiet place where we lived, people seldom passerby. My wife was awake when I awoke; she tried to pull me back and prevent my getting out of bed she said "there are murderers," "we will all be murdered." Saw no person about when I went out of the door.

Mrs. Risser. -- When I awoke, a man was standing at Leisi's bed; with a club, striking Leisi, another in the middle in front of our bed with a pistol; another taller man at father's bed with a club, striking him, he jumped up and directly the light was put out and I could not see more; there was much confusion; when the man struck father he jumped up and I heard him looking for his gun; he got it and I could not see much more; when I first awoke there was enough light for me to see, and I saw them all there; the one that stood by our bed, in the middle had a pistol in his hand; I have seen this man (Stephen Hodges) three times; once on the night of the murder standing at Leisi's bed; the second time was when he was brought to our house; and now is the third time. I am confident it is the same man.

Cross Examined. -- The light went out shortly after I awoke, when I awoke I saw that man standing near Leisi's bed; the light was near the middle of the room and shone upon his face so that I saw him; there were six persons in the room sitting together when they were brought to our house and when I saw him the second time. They all had quilt thrown over them; I recognized this larger one (Stephen Hodges) then, and I am pretty certain now this is the same man I saw standing at Leisi's bed on the night my father was killed. (Describes the situation of the beds and the person standing near it.) The candle was rather behind the little one who stood at our bed; I did not say next morning that I should know the one that stood by Leisi's bed, if I saw him again; I know him by his long hair, by his black eye, by the looks of his face and his height; I had a good view of him as he stood by the bed with a club; the light shown on his face, which was not blacked all over.

Dr. Holmes. -- About day break I went to the house of Leisi; found old man Miller lying out of doors, He was dead; probed the wound in the breast; could not touch the bottom of wound with a probe; I think the wound would have gone through the body of any ordinary person. Miller was a man of deep chest; found wound on his forehead and on probing it, found that skull grated on probe, from which I judge that it was slightly fractured. I think the death was caused by the stab in the breast. I think he bled considerably; there was much blood on the ground, on the door cheeks, and on the walls of house. I observed the gun, it was shattered and the stock held on by a wire; there was a cut on the ram rod, as if received from a knife in striking and fending off. The wounds on Leisi, two on the left portion of the temporal bone, like a letter V; thinks one was nearly or quite through the skull; the other was a slight one; there was a contusion on the forehead as if by a blow, there were two severe cuts, one on each shoulder blade, they were about five inches long and into the bone. There was another cut low down on the back of the neck; there was not a deep cut low down on the back of the neck; that was not a deep cut; he was also wounded in the chest by a ball from a gun. I probed the wound and found it went round and not through; I cut out the bullet from near the shoulder blade. There was the appearance on Miller of having been struck across the back twice, as if with a stick. I should judge from the shape and appearance of the wounds on Leisi's back that they were made by a large heavy knife. Cannot say whether the ball was shot by a smoothe bore or a rife barrel pistol; rather think it was not a smoothe bore, from the ball being slightly ragged -- a small piece of bone was taken from it afterwards. The wounds on the forehead of Leisi appeared to be made by stabs with point of a sharp knife, knife something like 3/4 of an inch broad. -- I am a practicing physician in West Point.

Jas. L. Estis (Sheriff of Lee County.) I was awakened about midnight at my office in West Point. Col. Patterson and myself got lost and got to Leisi's about day light: -- the others were there; I saw the old man Miller; dead lying at the door, and where the blood had run from him. The family was in such a state of grief that I could not get any thing satisfactory from their descriptive of the men who had done it. I sent the other persons home to West Point with directions to arose every body. I found others looking for foot tracks; we saw three foot tracks leading from the house; after I followed them about a mile; I found only 2 foot tracks and a bare foot horse track. Followed these tracks to Montrose; one was a peculiar track; after I followed them some time, I found no difficulty; I could tell whether it was in a run or in a walk by the boot making the full impression when in a run, that it did not make when he was walking, owing to the toe of the boot being turned up. Think it was ten or eleven miles from Miller's to Montrose; it was half a mile from Miller's when I first found these tracks, there were 3 at first, and several hundred yards beyond; a fresh horse track bare foot about five or six miles from Miller's I observed as if where the persons making the tracks had stopped and washed themselves was at the branch; this was in a retired place, no houses near and in a very deep hollow, I first found these tracks beyond the creek from the house of Miller, the road from the upper crossing of the creek at the Mill near Leisi's was in the direction of Montrose; thinks it four or five miles from Leisi's to where they left the main road and took a bye path to Montrose; I noticed this track made by the book particularly, thinking it might be the only clue to find out the murderers. I got so I could tell it among several others near a house where persons had passed along, same track I followed from Leisi's house; Mr. Jones was with me when I started on pursuit; we separated awhile, he taking the main road, and came together again; this was May 11th 1845. I saw the tracks of Stephen Hodges in Nauvoo and compared it with the tracks leading from Leisi's; I judged it was made by the same boot; he was there in custody: I had showed Col. Patterson the track I had traced to Montrose; I saw Stephen Hodges in custody of the officers in Nauvoo, as he was walking in the dust of the Street, I measured the tracks leading to Montrose but lost the measure; I did not measure the track in Nauvoo; saw his tracks in West Point: I think them the same. There are no public roads near Miller's house; it is in the woods, the place where I first found these tracks was the road from lower crossing of Devil creek where the road from upper crossing came in.

Cross Examined. -- Almost sunrise left Miller's I made inquiry for all strangers in the neighborhood, went first in an eastern direction, crossed at lower crossing at Devil creek went on till I came to road from upper crossing and found the tracks: I measured the track when I started - measured it several times after I started; did not measure the track in Nauvoo: nor the track in West Point; the family at Leisi's told me one was a small man and two large ones.

Peter Munjor. -- I have known the prisoners now on trial and also Thomas Brown; he is about 5 feet 9 inches high, brown hair; and has had the small pox, tolerably large mouth and very thick lips; tolerably well built; not very thick set, think his face is rather thin down his cheeks, between 19 or 22; (cloth cap shown witness.) I think this is the cap William Hodges used to wear, his brother younger than either of these used to wear it; I last saw William with this cap 2 or 3 weeks before the murder; it had no fore piece.

Cross Examined. -- I lived in Nauvoo for five or six years, the prisoners have lived around there 3 or 4 years; I knew them in Missouri I knew the cap by the fur around it and its having no forepiece; Jas. Hodges, (when he went to School and wore this cap) and myself, changed caps one afternoon last winter; I last saw Wm. wear it perhaps three weeks or a month before the murder was committed, I saw William at the Stone house in Nauvoo, I was there and shook hands with him, he had this cap on; I don't know the age of James Hodges; we went to school together, two winters did not stay at Nauvoo that I had several caps like this, that I could not tell apart; did not stay at Nauvoo that William's cap had a forepiece. I had known James Hodges four years, don't swear to his age.

Thomas Munjor. -- On Saturday 10th May last, I was on this side the river near Potter's field, mowing grass on the slough above Montrose; about 2 or 3 o'clock in the afternoon, prisoner's passed in a skill, Stephen was sitting in the stern, Wm. Was in the bow, and another man was rowing, the third one was in the grayish coat with long black hair, I thought it was Tom Brown, but would not swear to it positively, as I did not see his face; did not notice his cap. I have known Wm. & Steph. Hodges, two or three years in Nauvoo since I came from Missouri. Stephen Hodges asked if there was any chance for ducks up the slough: I told him I thought there was, they were in a skiff, where I saw them was about two miles from Nauvoo. I saw no guns in the skiff, they were about fifty yards from me. I think Wm. had on such a cap as this; it resembles the cap I have seen him wear, it had no forepiece.

Cross Examined. -- Having seem Wm. wear this cap about six months ago, several times, that I can's state particularly: I notice Wm. as he passed in the skiff, he was sitting in the bow high up and he looked like a monkey, with a cap on: I know Wm. Hodges has been down the river. I don't know how long, I have seen him since he returned at meeting, about the fore part of Spring; when we boated wood together last fall. Wm. T. Outhouse was with us and Mahlon Johnson, we boated from Castoe's Island four miles this side of the city down the river, I employed Wm. to work in boating wood for Morrison who as to pay him, Morrison lives in Nauvoo, think it was late in Summer, it was not early in the Summer, I did not notice that the cap was torn any, this boating was when snakes were in the wood, a man tried to throw one on Wm. Hodges.

Dr. Holmes recalled. -- I was at Miller's that morning about 9 o'clock, day broke before I got there, I noticed blood near the door, also saw a drop of blood on the sill of the gate, there was blood out doors on the east of the house; followed tracks out of the yard into the same tracks, coming up towards the house, about a rod from the other tracks, sometimes though I saw four tracks on the route coming up, I came to a bare foot horse track with the other tracks near the fence about 150 or 200 yards south east from the house leading to the creek near the mill, this was as far as I followed the tracks, returned to the house to attend to Leisi, afterwards showed the tracks to Risser.

Mrs. Miller's testimony. -- A. W. Carpenter, H. M. Sulmon and A. F. Bruning sworn as interpreter's -- My husband's name was John Miller. On the night of the tenth of May last three men came into our house I took hold of my husband to awaken him, before he was awake one of the men struck him, I saw a man at Leisi's bed and another standing in the middle of the room opposite Risser's bed with a pistol in his hand, did not see the light when they first came in, I saw it after the light was near the middle of the room; could not awake my husband at first, I was awake when they got in, I saw the light after they struck Leisi, they had clubs, my husband jumped up after he was struck and tried to get his gun, the man got him down and I could not see his face distinctly, I saw the other two better, this man (Stephen Hodges) was the one that stood at Leisi's bed; this one (Wm. Hodges) is the size and looks like the one that stood in the front of Risser's bed with a pistol, he looks just like him but he has no whiskers, as that the one had, he is about the height, their faces were not natural, think they were muddied over, I have seen the prisoner three times or four, first on the night when they broke into our house; the second was the day they were brought to our house to try if we should know them, the third time was last week in Burlington, when they were brought to our house, there were six men sitting in a row. I did not know the other four, when I lifted S. Hodges' hat from his face I was satisfied it was the man by Leise's bed, I did not look much at the four others, there was a cloth thrown over the lower parts of their bodies, I was out of the house when the prisoners were brought in: did not see them as they drove up to the door, I was not so certain of William Hodges as I was of Stephen Hodges, being one of the men, the smaller one had whiskers on, the light shone in their faces so that I could see them.

Cross Examined. --I had been asleep before the persons came into the house, but I was awake when they came in, the noise of their coming in awoke me. They brought a light with them, but did not see the light till after they came in, don't know whether it was put on the table, it was a weak light; saw the light after they had hit him the first time, they hit him twice before he got out of bed; Mr. Miler got up before Leisi got up before the light was put out. Risser was in bed, I saw the man that came to our bed first; I do not think I would know him, it was too dark at the time: it was a tall man, do not know what he had on his head, or what any of them had on their heads. There was one at each bed, don's know how far they stood apart, does not know whether the man at our bed was blacked. The one at Risser's bed was not a black man, his face was somewhat muddied over; do not know their clothes, do not know positively whether the one at Leisi's bed was blacked or not: there was much confusion and the whole did not last two minutes.

Jacob Able. -- I was the fist one of the neighbor's there, I found old man Miller at the door on the ground dead, Leisi in he house badly wounded, I found a cap in the house that had been left there. I know this is the cap: it was on the 10th May 1845 in Lee county.

Cross Examined. -- I got there about midnight, found the cap on the floor near the door; noticed the rents and marks of the cap, this is the same cap I found; it is ten times to Montrose; I also found three clubs at the house left by the murderers.

Armstrong Walker. -- I got there shortly after the affair, I noticed the bruise in the forehead of Miller and the wound in Miller's breast. I saw the cap directly after I got there, noticed it particularly and gave it to the coroner: Miller had a stab in the left breast nearly twelve inches deep, as far as the hilt would let the knife go, saw this cap or a full brother to it when I got to Leisi's I noticed the specks of blood on it, when I see now, noticed the same rent in it.

John Walker. -- I saw Stephen Hodges first last spring a year ago, also saw them in Ohio or Indiana, I saw William Hodges at my father's house on the Wednesday before for the robbery of Smith, he asked me if I had any conversation with Stephen, I told him I had -- also asked if I had had any conversation with Irvine Hodges; he then asked me how much money was lost at Smith's I said about fifty dollars, he said he did not think there was more the murder. There was a man with him he introduced by name of Wilson, he was about my height, not quite so heavy, he had long dark hair. I had a conversation with William, I was planting corn when they came, I did not know William when he made himself known, I was planting corn, he told my wife he would drop for me. I asked him if he knew who robbed Smith last Spring, he did not say. Then asked me if I knew what had become of the writ against Stephen for that robbery -- if there was one still out. It was about four o'clock on Wednesday, they staid all night: I saw them there about noon next day, he came to me in the field to talk privately and then said that before they catched Stephen he would kill some of them or die before he would be taken, this for the robbery of Smith, he asked me if I had any conversation with Stephen, I told him I had -- also asked if I had had any conversation with Irvine Hodges; he then asked me how much money was lost at Smith's I said about fifty dollars, he said he did not think there was more than twenty-five dollars got, he asked me then if there was not a man by the name of Carmike had sold out: I told him I thought not; he asked me if there was not a man lived near there had a double log house, whose son had gone east for money -- a thousand dollars -- I told him I did not now, he then asked if I could not recollect a place where a man lived in a double log house; he then said if I would find out where was any hard money and tell him, he would give me part. He then asked me if there was not a Dutchman making a farm on the prairie that had money: told him I did not know: that some one had borrowed twenty five dollars to my father; Meaman had borrowed money of Haws. Haws lived on the road from West Point to the mill; this was a mile from where Leisi lived: asked him who was present at the robbery of Smith: he said they were some more of our boys and took him to mean his brothers: he said Amos was a "damned first rate fellow," stayed around Nauvoo and laid low, and was not much suspicious: asked him how many there was connected with them: he said there was a good many: said when one got into a scrape they would help one get the another out: if they could not one way, they would another. My first acquaintance with them was when we first moved to this country. Wm. Hodges said if any of the company ever told any thing that he or the balance would kill him: if ever I told any of the conversation, they would kill me: said there was a better way to make money than by work, that they could make a living so and meant to have it, without work. They made known no business except to have a note on father, Wilson had on a sack coat of a grayish color, rather brown pantaloons and a fur cap; never saw Wm. Hodges with whiskers on: never saw him for eleven years, notice he came to our house that day: did not know him, thought I knew his countenance but did not know his name: he asked me about Jacob Dodge who was moving with us to this country, and what a devil he was: we live 2 or 3 miles from Leisi's father from Nauvoo -- up the creek.

Cross Examined. -- I live in the same house with my father; father was not at home when they came. As I started to the field I saw two men below the field, coming to the field, it was about 4 o'clock, the field was close to the house: think I was furrowing off, father came home about 10 o'clock at night; his horses had got away and broke his wagon, that detained him. -- Frank Osborn was there: I had two pet wolves, we were talking about the wolves, till mother came out and wanted me to go to work; I have generally known my father's accounts; knew who owes him, and who he owed; William never told me he had a note against my father, he told Frazer so that I heard him: Frazer was living there, he asked me if my father had any money, never knew of my father owing Hodges. Frazer was making some doors; if any one has a note against father he generally tells me of it and also who owes him: my father started to New York two weeks last Friday; I told my father next morning that Wm. Hodges had a note against him, he said he did not owe him any thing, I told him before he was up; same morning I heard Hodges tell Frazer about the note. William asked me if there was not a man there doing some breaking: did no say what he wanted with money; did not say he wanted to find out who had money to get the man to share the note on my father, he asked me to join the company and I refused: he said if I ever told about the gang, &c, he would take my life or have some one to kill me; I first told of it about two weeks ago to Dr. Sala and others: I told my mother, that they had threatened to kill me if I told of it; did not tell my mother what Wm. had told me. Dr. Sala and Mr. Barton came to me, and said the citizens thought I knew something about the murder, that I would not tell; said citizens would raise a mob and take me if I did not. Before they told me, I heard the same thing flying about the country -- the same report.

Re-examined. -- States that he was promised protection by those to whom he told what Wm. Hodges had told him and he was summoned here as a witness by Hodges defendants; don't know whether W. G. Walker is my father or not.

Jacob Risser again. -- The man left 3 clubs and a cap at Leisi's house (identifies the cap produced,) went with Dr. Holmes through the field and found three tracks going from the house angling across the field and another set of tracks coming to the house. We had planted the field Thursday and Friday before in corn, our track went straight along the rows, think the other tracks seen by Dr. H. and myself were not made by any person of our house. We generally came up to the house another way.

Mrs. Conduit. -- Wm. Hodges and another man, neither of whom I knew at the time, stayed at my house on Thursday night previous to the murder of Miller. My house is about a quarter of a mile south of Leisi's; in the morning the other man offered me a one dollar bill to pay me, and I had no change, the young man living at my house said perhaps Mr. Leisi could change it for him. They asked who lived at the Jim Stout place, I told them Mr. Leisi lived on a place bought it of Mr. Stout; the other man was taller than Hodges, he had on a gray sack coat. They left about sun rise in the morning, they came between sun down and dark the taller man had on a cap, and Wm. Hodges had on a hat, they aid they were hunting oxen; think they said they were mostly red oxen, don't recollect any other [particular] description given of them, said they were moving and lost them two miles this side of Madison towards West Point, said the oxen had stayed round a day or two and had then left they asked if the road they took led to Madison, I told them it did lead to Madison as I supposed, they named the country in Illinois they had moved from it was not Hancock, they said they were going to New Purchase or might stop this side of there, said they had a yoke of oxen at Haws' it was abut a mile from our house. They said Haws' had a large family of children, it must be Dutch Haws, I said the Haws I knew had no children. Haws is understood to have money, they said Leisi would not change it unless they would buy half the worth of it, and being a Dutchman he would not take paper money.

Cross Examined -- I recollect it was Thursday night when they were there, by my husband being away, my husband being away at Denmark, he got hurt on Thursday and came home the next morning, and told him of persons staying there. It was the taller one that spoke of moving, and of their losing the cattle, the tall one had long dark hair, was not above the ordinary height, some taller than Wm. Hodges said "we" and "they" when speaking of moving and hunting cattle, and seemed both to be interested in them.

A. K. Drollinger -- Saw Stephen Hodges on the Friday evening before the murder of John Miller; Thomas Brown was with him, near my house, it was on a by-road, it was seven miles from Leisi's, it was about half an hour by sun, met them in the road. Stephen Hodges first, Brown had gone to the sugar camp fence and was pointing his gun to kill a squirrel, Stephen inquired for two stray yoke of oxen, said one was a large red ox with a large bell on, that they had lost them just below Fort Madison, had strayed from some movers they were in company wit, who were then camped just below Devil Creek bridge, only described one big red ox, said they were calculating to stay all night with the movers at the bridge, passed by Stephen Hodges when Brown came up, he first inquired for one yoke of oxen yoked up; Brown had the gun, did not notice whether a rifle or shot gun; Brown had a large bowie knife in his pantaloons fastened to a piece of cloth around his neck. I took hold of it to pull it out, he jumped back drew it out and showed it to me, asked him what he did with it, said he had it for "greens." Brown inquired where I lived, pointed my house out to him; asked if I was married, told him I was, asked how they could get back to Madison, and not to go over the same ground; told them which way to go, they went a different way, went up the bluff where cattle do not range. Harvey Hart was with me, this was about two miles above Devil Creek bridge, they were coming from the bridge and going towards West Point, the last time I had seen them before Stephen was living in Nauvoo, and Thomas two miles above, about six months before, said they were in company with three movers who had come from Ohio. Brown stated they were going back to Devil Creek bridge that night to stay all night. Brown's hair is, I think black and he wears it tolerably long. he had on no vest, he had on a sack coat, it was mixed Ky. jeans, had on a fur cap; Stephen Hodges had on a cap just like this one (showing the cap found at Leisi's) think it had no fore piece, the fur was before: noticed the torn place, if there was a fore piece it was behind or even over his shoulder. Stephen was in his shirt sleeves and had his coat on his arm, knew Thomas Brown better than Wm. had not seen Wm. for a year.

Cross Examined. -- This was on Friday evening, had just returned from hearing Mr. Smith preach, am a Methodist, did not shake hands with Steph: Hodges, don't speak to him generally when we meet, and I was surprised they did not ask for lodging, as Thos. Brown and myself were old acquaintances, Hodges and myself had not been much acquainted, am certain I saw Steph. about two miles above the bridge on that evening: was surprised at meeting them at that place, was an old bye-road, did not ask them to stay all night nor did they ask to stay with me.

Doctor Knowles. -- Describes when prisoners were taken to Leisi's and their different positions in the room.

D. M. Repshire -- I am an officer in Nauvoo, town constable, arrested the prisoners near the limits of Nauvoo on May 13, 45: their brother Amos Hodges was arrested with them, a man by the name of Smith lived in the house, they made no opposition when I arrested them, with a process on Tuesday evening, the night before they had resisted being taken, they surrendered on Tuesday morning, and agreed to go to a Justice. On Tuesday evening they were arrested my me with a writ; they were taken before a, the trial not coming on then, moved them to the Mansion House; shortly after I took them to the Mansion house, on searching them I found no arms on them, found none on them afterwards, had agreed to remain until a proper writ could be made out to arrest them.

D. Davis. -- The prisoners were in my custody in Nauvoo, went to arrest them on Tuesday morning at the house of Amos Hodges in Nauvoo just before day, said they would not give themselves up until day break, after they were in Repshire's possession at the Mansion House, saw them searched on Tuesday evening, the bright pistol was taken from Stephen, the smaller pistol and bowie knife from Amos Hodges, the morning before saw Wm. Hodges with the smaller pistol.

Scott. -- The prisoners were in my custody on Tuesday night the 13th of May last, searched them and found a pistol, and bowie knife on Amos Hodges, and a pistol on Stephen Hodges, did not notice any blood on the scabbard of the bowie knife, they rather resisted being searched, we said we intended to use them as prisoners, and intended to search them thoroughly, they then submitted to be searched.

Col. Patterson. - Have the ball extracted from Leisi by Dr. Holmes, this is the same ball, on Sunday morning picked up the same at the house, it had the marks of blood upon it. Noticed the tracks on the road from Leisi's to Montrose, and the tracks made by Stephen Hodges in Nauvoo, they resembled each other in size and length, in Nauvoo the track was in the sand, the others were in the dust.

A. J. Stewart. -- Was present in Nauvoo when the prisoners and their brother were arrested, it was just after midnight, went to Amos Hodges on Monday night, they refused to be taken, they were taken next morning, they said that if they would wait till morning, they would meet us at any place we should mention and go into trial. I looked into the house and saw Amos had a knife and pistol, Stephen had a pistol and knife in his clothes, there was a light in the room, could not see William whether he had any weapons or not, they said they would shoot anyone who came in, they had weapons holding in their hands.

Cross-Examined. -- In the morning they gave themselves up. saw no arms when they surrendered, heard nothing said of any ordinance or city law, we had no process, they asked for process.

Re-Examined. -- There was at the house about forty persons or over, when they have themselves up in the morning, they gave themselves up to the company, and the captain of the police took charge of them, principally all the watch was called in, they had arms, a good many in Nauvoo go armed, don't know that we are obliged to carry arms.

Belknap. -- Saw Amos, Stephen, and William Hodges at Nauvoo in April last grinding two large bowie knifes, it was 3 or 4 weeks before Miller was murdered, it was at a shop where I worked.

Mrs. Leisi. -- I recollect the night the men broken into our house, they left 3 clubs and a cap; when I awoke the light was out; heard the firing and saw the flash, my father and husband struggled with the men: my husband had one of them down, as he got him out of the door he shot him: it was 10th May last. The cap does not belong to our house: my father was a minister of the Gospel, near 60 years old. He was from Germany 5 or 8 years.

(The Counsel here offered to give evidence, the dying declaration of Leisi, to his wife and his physicians, who the identify of the prisoners, and their being the persons who broke into the house of Leisi. The Court refused to permit the testimony to go to the Jury).

Evan Evans. -- I have seen Wm. Hodges, the prisoner; think he wore such a cap in Burlington 2 or 3 years ago, as this.


Samuel Walton. -- I was in Nauvoo on Saturday night the 10th of May; I recollect it was Saturday the 10th because I stood on guard that night. I saw Wm. Hodges at Geo. Broffet's on Saturday night. At 9 o'clock I inquired for Geo. Broffet who was also going on watch; I was on watch from 9 [or, sic to?] 12 o'clock, I saw Amos, William, and Stephen Hodges together, coming down from main street, that night.

Cross Examined. -- Came from Maine on account of my belief; had been there 8 weeks; came the 13th of April; I m not of City Police; standing on watch was about the first job of work I got in Nauvoo. It was bright moon light night; moon set about 11 o'clock. It was quite light, I could see all along the river shore up and down for near half a watch, I stood all along short from lower stream mill; it took fifteen minutes to go from one end to the other end of my watch. I could see from lower mill half mile up river. We wee eyeing the river all the while, kept our eyes skinned for looking every way. I set down the day of the month so as to know when I commenced boarding at Moore's. My watch extended more than half way from the tower stream mill to upper stone house; it is pretty level from lower stream mill to upper steam mill. I did not know Wm. Hodges before that night; I saw Stephen Hodges and his two brothers on the common near the house. From dark till nine o'clock I was at Moore's waiting to know whether I was to go on the fore or the after part of the night. I went from Moore's to Broffet's hence to Manheart's, then on watch till 12 o'clock. I was right close to the three brothers Hodges on Saturday night; they passed quite near me, I am certain it was Amos, William and Stephen Hodges; they had caps on; I met them little past 8 o'clock; after that I went no the house, after that George Ellis came and told me they wanted me to watch, and I went to Broffet's It was Saturday night, there was no frost that night, too warm for frost. Don't know that I saw them (the Hodges) all three together again.

Sarah Ann Wood. -- I live in Nauvoo in Main Street. I know Stephen an William Hodges; first saw them in Nauvoo passing by our house on Main Street, this was about 4 months ago, I have been pretty well acquainted with them since that, I was at Amos Hodges on Saturday night May 10th. I saw William and Stephen at Amos Hodges, they were there when I got there; when I left there it was about 8 or 9 o'clock. I then went home; I don't remember anyone else there. It was in May; I recollect it, because it was talked about, it was the same night the murder was committed. I did not hear of them being taken till after I heard of the murder. (Here a cap is produced by defence and shown to witness.) I have seen William wear a cap like this one; I know James, younger brother than these, he had a cap and cap something like this.

Horace Braffett. --I was at William and Stephen Hodges on Saturday the 10th of May. I saw them the next day before I heard of the murder committed: saw William on Saturday night May 10th, at our house for a pail of water, ours was the nearest well, it was about 9 o'clock -- did not see Stephen after dark -- he got a bucket of water and went home. Saw Amos, William and Stephen coming down from Main Street about dusk on Saturday, William wore a straw hat that night. Don't think I ever saw him with this round crown hat on.

Cross Examined. -- I moved to Nauvoo a year ago this Spring, have known the Hodges abut two weeks before they were taken up. Never saw Thomas Brown. When I saw William he was always wearing a straw hat; the last time I saw William was on Saturday evening five or ten minutes after sun down, May 10th. Always saw William wear straw hat. Saw William at our house at 9 o'clock for water. Walton came down and asked father where he was going to stand; Walton came after dark a while, Walton had gone when William was there. William had on a palm or straw hat. Father has lived in Nauvoo a year, he lived in Iowa three years. Father came home at 12 o'clock. Amos Hodges asked me to come here as a witness, father lived 3/4 back of Montrose in Iowa 3 years, I lived there with him.

Mrs. Artemas Johnson. -- I first saw William and Stephen at Nauvoo about 6 weeks ago, The smallest one, William was at his brother's, Amos Hodges. I saw them at 9 o'clock at Amos Hodges, on Saturday May 10th, it was Saturday night before they were arrested, two women staid at house that night, Harriet St. John and Miss Hoskins.

Cross Examined -- I lived at Geo. W. Braffett's at that time, my husband is Artemas Johnson. He was at home that night, he was home when I went to Hodges, he is not in Nauvoo now. I don't know where he is, I had known where he was on the night of the murder and knew it would be said of him that he was concerned in the murder, as he lived on this side of the river. I got the Almanac and looked for the day of the month. It was about 9 o'clock when I went to Hodges', Wm. Hodges was at our house for water that evening, staid a few minutes, and Stephen fetched their water from my house. William always wore a wide rimmed hat, drab color, he only wore that hat, never saw him wear a cap or straw hat. When he came for water that night he had on this drab hat, staid about 15 minutes talking to the girls; this was not far from 8 o'clock. It was not very dark nor very light, just middling, don't recollect the moon. Braffet went away about dark and told us to tell Walton where he was, my husband was there the time, my husband left Nauvoo five weeks ago to night. Don't know where he is gone. I know Thomas Brown, have not seen him for some months. Walton came about 8 o'clock; middling warm don't recollect who got me to come up here as a witness, came of my own accord, no one requested me before this week, thought I would not see anyone injured when I could do them any good. Am a member of the Mormon Church. Thought my husband would be suspected of this murder because he lived this side of the river and was a Mormon, we lived at Montrose six months, six years ago this summer.

Jno. Court -- I live now at Amos Hodges in Nauvoo, know the prisoners; William since April last and Stephen since last summer. Stephen wore a short wool fur hat this spring, he had a cloth cap with fur around the edges, saw Wm. Hodges have the same cap this spring, he wore it with the fur piece inside.

Cross Examined. -- Heard William say his cap was at his brother's at Mechanicsville that he wore a hat; heard this when I went back to Nauvoo from the Territory, stayed at Amos Hodges all night.

Was acquainted with prisoners in N York, Amos was with him, a Mormon preacher; noticed the cap; that Stephen wore had a fore piece, William wore the same when I came back and Stephen a hat. Saw this (the clothe cap produced by) when it was brought back from Mechanicsville, noticed it particularly, notice caps to see what they are made of. Amos and Stephen were living in N. Y. last summer. Amos was preaching there three years ago. The cap was left at Mechanicsville the last of April or first of May.

[Emeline] Campbell. -- I am a sister of the defendants, have another brother James In Pittsburg, know of his having a cloth cap, made it myself, burned it up before I went away; it had no foe piece on it. James always wore it, William never wore it, Stephen wore this cap shown to me. (This was the cap produced by prisoners.)

Cross Examined. -- Amos Hodges' wife made this cap, (produced by defendants.) she made it for Stephen Hodges. I went to St. Louis in February and returned a week ago last Monday, this cap fitted Stephen very well; he never had a cloth cap without a fore piece, in February last I burned up the cloth James had without a fur piece; mother was present no one else. Mother is in Pittsburg with my father, Stephen usually wore this cap, it was his. It fit William very well, he used to wear it with the fore piece turned in sometimes turned behind. Mrs. Hodges made this before I made the one for James, don't know when Amos' wife made this cap for Stephen, I made the cloth cap about a year ago for James. I burned it up in February, 2 miles this side of Nauvoo on the Illinois side of the river, James left here in February for Pittsburg; I burnt it up before he went away, told him of it. Mrs. Hodges made this cap for Stephen. I was in Vicksburg till last of July or August. Amos, his wife and Stephen returned for 3 months, went in a wagon, some one returned with them, don't know who. (The cap which this witness swears was made for Stephen Hodges, by Amos Hodges' wife, is a cloth cap, resembling the one found at the scene of the murder, but it has a leather fore piece.)

Dr. E. Sala. -- Called on young John Walker in company with Barton, had a conversation with him the next day went down with Sheriff, P. H. Babcock, Estes and Barton. A statement made was taken down in writing. Have no means of knowing that Wm. G. Walker was concerned in the murder of Miller. He harbored these boys and that caused him to be suspected as they were of bad character, they were often about there. Leisi had his eyes bandaged and his head covered when they were brought in the room to see if he would recognize them.


Hawkins Taylor. -- Describes the ground at Nauvoo on the Bank of the River; can't see from lower stream mill but a short distance up the river; the shore makes quite a curve.

Peter Munjar. -- I was with Wm. Hodges when under arrest in Nauvoo when it was spoken that a cap was found at the place of murder, he then said that he had burned his cap about two weeks before that, when he bought his new hat; he asked me if I was going to be a witness. I told him I was sent for as a witness to the cap that was found at Leisi's; that I should swear to it.

Cross Examined. -- This was on Tuesday evening after they were arrested; I went to the house where they were. The Justice sent for me to be a witness, I am not a Mormon, I lived at the time at Montrose, Iowa.

D. Davis. -- The prisoners were in my custody at Nauvoo; Wm. said he had herd there had been a cap found at the place where the murder was committed: said it was not his, that he could prove he had burned his cap when he bought the new hat he then said, this was about two weeks before; he told it at different times to other persons; this was the evening after he was arrested.

Morg. Evans. -- Saw Wm. Hodges three years ago; he then had a greyish woolen cap; about a year ago; he then had a greyish woolen cap; about a year ago I saw him in this town on the river bank, intoxicated; the gray one might have had a forepiece; It was about a year ago I saw him wear this cap; looked natural as soon s I saw him put it on.

J. R Fayerweather. -- Recollect Wm. Hodges living here two years ago, might have been a year ago; he wore such a cap as this is; strikes me he wore that cap when he carried the hod for Noble -- (this is the cap left at the house on the night of the murder.)

Stephen Markham. -- I have seen Wm. Hodges in Nauvoo wearing such a cap as this, don't know that it had a forepiece. Thomas Morgan's character for truth and veracity is bad, would not believe him on oath; from what the rumor is; have known him for four or five years.

Jesse Johnson. -- I knew Wm. Hodges when he lived in my neighborhood chopping wood, he had such a cap as this, it is as familiar to me as to my father would be; it was two or three years ago; the cap had no fore piece.

The testimony on both sides was here closed on Friday evening; the jury were again addressed by Mr. Stockton for the United States, in a speech about an hour and a half long. The Court then adjourned.

On Saturday morning Mr. Mills opened the defence for the prisoners in a speech of three hours. Mr. Hall followed in a speech of about the same length, and the case was summed up by Mr. Reid on the part of the prosecution in a speech of four hours.

The charge of the Judge to the jury at the conclusion, was clear, impartial and entirely satisfactory. It was now nine o'clock on Saturday night, when the jury retired to consider of their verdict. The Court directed them to be provided with refreshments and kept together until they should agree and return their verdict into Court. Without adjoining the Court took a recess and resolved to come in on Sunday morning and receive the verdict of the jury.

At an early hour on Sunday the Court room was crowded with anxious spectators eager to know if the jury had agreed, to hear the result. The Judge on taking his seat learned that the jury had agreed, and directed them together with the prisoners to be brought into Court. It was a solemn and affecting scene; the countenances of the jury evinced, as they took their seats, showed anxiety of mind, and their solemn sense of responsibility that had rested upon them. The prisoners took their seats in the bar apparently as unmoved and as unconcerned as they had been during the whole trial. The most breathless silence prevailed in the audience, as the jury replied to the inquiry of the Court, that they had agreed on their verdict; it was handed to the Clerk and read by him: "We the Jury, find William Hodges and Stephen Hodges GUILTY of murder." The feelings of the large crowd so long kept in painful suspense, and their anxiety kept at such a faithful stretch, could not how be restrained and many of them joined in clapping and other signs of approbation, order was soon restored by the Sheriff. The prisoners received the verdict of the Jury as unmoved as ever; hardly was a muscle or feature seen in move. the Court took a recess until three o'clock.

On re-assembling in the afternoon the large room of the Methodist Church was more crowded than ever. Every disposable place was occupied . The prisoners looked a little more concerned, but their emotion was hardly discernible. They were placed on the right hand of the Judge's seat. Judge Mason in a solemn and impressive voice, asked William Hodges if he had any thing further to say why the sentence of the la should not be pronounced upon him.

He replied: "I have nothing more to say except that I am innocent of the charge; I have had the benefit of a fair trial by a Jury of my country -- I have been found guilty and am prepared to submit myself to my fate." Stephen Hodges, in reply to the Court, spoke to the same effect, both asserted their entire innocence of the charge.

Judge Mason in deep and visible emotion, proceeded to deliver the following sentence:


The trial on which your lives depended has now terminated, and to you that termination is fatal. After a full and fair investigation, that Jury to which you had entrusted your fate and which from the privilege extended to you, may almost be said to have been of your own selection, have declared you guilty of murder -- a murder too which in point of atrocity, may almost be said to be unparalleled in the annals of crime. With scarcely an apparent inducement for the commission of the most trivial of offences, you have been guilty of the greatest. You have not only with sacrilegious hand invaded the sacred fountains of life, but with an apparently deliberate purpose, dearly kin in malice to that of the arch fiend, you have entered the little Eden of love and contentment, with which a quiet and unoffending family were surrounding themselves -- cut off in the bloom and maturity of manhood two o their chief supports, drenching bloom and maturity of manhood two of their chief supports; drenched their very hearth stones with their life's blood, and brought desolation and unutterable woe into that house which for you would have been the abode of all the sacred charities and innocent pleasures of domestic life.

Now are the consequences of your crime confined to the immediate sufferers. Though lessened in intensity, they have extended to the whole community. A feeling of apprehension and insecurity has been communicated to every cottage throughout the county. When a blamelessness of life which creates no enmities - a mediocrity of condition which excites no envy -- when an almost entire absence of that motive which addresses itself to the sordid love of gain, cannot secure the slumberer form the assaults of the midnight assassin, well may the indweller of every cabin feel that anxiety and wide spread consternation which must go greatly augment the aggregate evils of human existence.

For all these evils, immediate and remote, the law holds you responsible, and is now about to apply all that there is of remedy within its reach. Blood for blood is its stern demand and never was that sanguinary requisition more righteous. -- Unable to restore the dead it accords thus much of vengeance to the living. Your lives too, are regarded as incompatible with the safety of society; and in the bloom of youth and health you are by the hands of your fellow mortals, to be consigned to the gallows and the grave. An example also seems to be called for to deter others from a repetition of like offences and you are about to be exhibited as an awful beacon to warn all others from a course like that which has resulted in your ruin. May your dying struggles, to which the eyes of thousands will soon be directed, turn back into the path of rectitude all those who are in any way disposed to pursue a course like that whose fatal termination you have so nearly reached.

You need not be reminded of the awful condition in which you are placed - of the blackness of that gulf which is not opening beneath your feet. Under the circumstances of the case you can only expect that the utmost rigors of the law will be enforced against you. The picture of the distress produced by your crime is too fresh in the memory of the community to permit the voice of pity to effect any thing in your behalf, and the horrid nature of your offence puts to silence those who are conscientiously opposed to the inhuman punishment you are about to suffer and makes them almost regard your case as a proper exception to the milder rule which they would fain substitute for that now about to be enforced. Look there for mercy only to Heaven. Expect pardon from none but your God. In the silence of your prison, with a speedy and cruel death staring you in the face, repent of your misdeeds and do all that still remains in you to atone for them, and mercy and pardon will not be sought for these sources in vain.

In the discharge of the solemn duty which is not imposed upon me, I feel almost overwhelmed with awe, as I become one of the instruments by which the lives of two human beings are about to be extinguished -- for life, how much soever it may have been perverted from its original purpose, is still an emanation from the Divinity. but as the irresponsible organ of that law which requires your death, I here pronounce its final sentence -- I direct that you William and Stephen Hodges, be taken from this place to the Jail of the county of Des Moines, there to remain until Tuesday, the 15th day of July next that on the day you be taken by the proper officer of this County to some convenient [place] within the same, an there between the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 4 o'clock P. M. that you be hung by the neck until you are dead; and may God have mercy upon you.

Note 1: Emeline Hodges was born Oct. 10, 1826, in Bath, Steuben Co., NY. Prior to 1845 she married a Mr. Campbell. On Oct. [Dec.?] 6, 1846 Emeline married Elder Elijah Banta, in Lancaster Co., PA. Banta was first a follower of George M. Hinkle; then of Sidney Rigdon, and later became a noted RLDS Elder and a Counselor to that church's Presiding Bishop. Emeline was the daughter of Rigdonites Curtis Hodges and Lucy Clark Hodges; also she was the sister of Sarah Hodges Wait Luckey (1809-1895) and the noted co-editor of the "Joseph Smith Bible," Marrietta Hodges Faulconer Walker (1834-1930). Emeline died May 14, 1876, in Sandwich, DeKalb Co., IL. -- see Saints' Herald, June 1, 1876, p. 350 and James R. Brigham, "Elijah Banta...," John Whitmer Historical Association Journal XII, 1992, pp. 52-65. -- James M. Reid (whose brother, H. T. Reid, prosecuted the Hodges), in his 1877 Sketches and Anecdotes of the Old Settlers and New Comers, the Mormon Bandits and Danite Band, alleged: "after the execution [of the Hodges brothers] one of their sisters eloped with Dr. Lyon, a married man, living then at Fort Madison, and went to Texas."

Note 2: Curtis Hodges (c. 1780-c. 1846) and Lucy Clark (1790-1867) were originally from the Bennington, VT area -- he was probably the son of Curtis and Sybil Hodges of Onondaga Co., NY. One of Curtis and Lucy's daughters was born at Pompey, Onondaga Co., in 1809. The family resided at Rochester, NY, c. 1813-1815. A Curtis Hodges, Jr. lived at Painted Post, Steuben Co., NY in 1820 and probably also for a while at nearby Elmira, Chemung Co., NY. As noted above, another of their daughters was born in at Bath, Steuben Co., in 1826. Curtis and some of his family were evidently baptized Mormons in Gerrard twp., Erie Co., PA by Elder Zebedee Coltrin late in 1832. By mid-1833 the family had moved to the Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio area, where another daughter was born in 1834 (at Willoughby). Probably the Curtis Hodges family were at Far West and then at Nauvoo before the parents followed Sidney Rigdon back to Pittsburgh in late 1844 or early 1845. Curtis Hodges, Sr. was ordained a high priest at the April 1845 Rigdon conference in Pittsburgh and his son Curtis served on a mission for Rigdon in western New York during the fall of that year (See the Pittsburgh Messenger & Advocate of Nov. 1845, p. 292). The older Curtis apparently died at Pittsburgh sometime after April 1846 (when he and his son James attended the semi-annual Rigdonite conference there).


Vol. 8.                                Burlington, I. T., Saturday, June 28, 1845.                              No. 51.

A Brother of the Murderers Murdered.

Irvine Hodges, who was here in attendance last week at the trial of his brothers, Stephen and William, left for Nauvoo on Monday morning last, and on the night of the same day was murdered in the latter place.

Of the fact of the murder there seems to be no question, but the circumstances attending it are not so well understood. Conflicting reports are in circulation on this point. The story told us is, that upon arriving at home Hodges was approached, by two or three persons and solicited to engage in the contemplated robbery of a store -- that H. consented, or seemed to consent -- that, in the meantime, he advised the owner of the store of the mediated robbery, and a guard was placed in the house -- that, upon ascertaining their intentions were discovered, the robbers, as is supposed, sought vengeance of H. for their betrayal, and killed him. This however, is not a probable tale. The supposition of many is that he was murdered by a gang of scoundrels to which he and his brothers are supposed to have belonged, to prevent disclosures which it was feared the execution of Stephen and William might provoke. He was knocked down with a club or bludgeon, and stabbed, as is reported, with his own bowie knife. Upon being interrogated, before he expired, as to the author of the deed, the only answer that could be got from him was that it was done by one he had considered his best friend.

We shall probably be able to give fuller and more authentic details in our next number. Truly, this murder of the poor old German Minister has been a tragical affair. Miller, stabbed to the heart, and sent without a moment's warning into the presence of his Maker -- Leisa, shot and mangled, permitted to live for a brief period, as if to augment his sufferings, and then doomed to die -- the murderers, brothers, arrested, tried, convicted, and only awaiting the lapse of a few days to expiate their crime on the gallows -- and now, produced by causes doubtless originating in the first shedding of blood, the violent death of a third brother, from the blows of the assassin. Bloody narrative at the recital of which humanity recoils! Let all beware of the first step in crime.

Trial, Conviction and Sentence of the Hodges.

The trial of William and Stephen Hodges arraigned for the murder of John Miller, in Lee county, on the 10th of last month resulted in a verdict of guilty against both. The trial occupied the whole week, the case not being submitted to the jury till about nine o'clock on Saturday night. The testimony, even in an abridged shape is too voluminous for our columns, and we shall not therefore attempt to publish it. The fact that a very large number of our readers were present at the trial and heard the evidence detailed renders such a publication less necessary. It is conceded on all hands that the proof against the prisoners was such as to justify the verdict. If not positive it was as nearly o as can well be imagined. Not a doubt is entertained by any of the justness of the verdict, or the guilt of the wretched men now under sentence of death.

The deportment of the Hodges throughout the trial, was marked by a singular manifestation of apparent indifference as to the result. A stranger, unacquainted with the circumstances, never would have dreamt, judging from their looks and conduct, that they were on their trial for life and death. Indeed, when the verdict of "guilty" was rendered by the jury, they received it without the slightest perceptible change of countenance, and as though they would have been disappointed at any other result. And even while listening to the touching and melting sentence ofthe Judge, dooming them to the felon's death, they manifested but little sensibility. Both avowed their innocence, and expressed readiness to meet their fate. The younger brother, Stephen, it is apparent, however, is the master spirit in daring and crime, and the foregoing remarks relative to the bearing of both throughout the trial will apply with more force to him than to William.

The jury, we understand had but little difficulty in agreeing upon their verdict. The verdict was delivered on Sunday morning in the presence of an immense concourse of spectators. Great interest was manifested on the trial during its progress, and the rush was general to learn the result.

The prosecution was conducted by Mr. Stockton, Prosecuting Attorney, and Mr. Reid, of Fort Madison. Messrs. Hall and Mills conducted the defense.

The execution, it will be seen, is to take place on Tuesday the 15th of July -- two weeks from next Tuesday.

The following is a copy of the sentence pronounced by Judge Mason. It is appropriate and very beautiful, and was delivered with much feeling and embarrassment.

Sentence of the Court.

The trial on which your lives depended has not terminated, and to you that termination is fatal. After a full and fail investigation, that Jury which you had entrusted your fate, and which from the privileges extended to you, may almost be said to have been of your own selection, have declared you guilty of murder - a murder to which in point of atrocity, may almost be said to be unparalleled in the annals of crime. With scarcely an apparent inducement for the commission of the most trivial of offences; you have been guilty of the greatest. You have not only with sacrilegious hand invaded the sacred fountains of life, but with an apparently deliberate purpose, nearly akin in malice to that of the arch fiend, you have entered the little Eden of love and contentment, with which a quiet and unoffending family were surrounding themselves -- cut off in the bloom and maturity of man hood two of their chief supports; drenching their very hearth stone with their life's blood, and brought desolation and unutterable woe into that house which but for you would have been the abode of all the sacred charities and innocent pleasures of domestic life!

Nor are consequences of your crime confined to the immediate suffers. -- Though lesser in intensity, they have extended to the whole community. A feeling of apprehension and insecurity has been committed to every cottage throughout the country. When a blameliness of life which creates no enmities - a medircracy [sic] of condition which excites no envy -- when an almost entire absence of that motive which addresses itself to the sordid love of gain, cannot secure the slumberer from the assaults of the midnight assassin, well may the indweller of every cabin feel the anxiety and side spread consternation which must so greatly augment the aggregate evils of human existence.

For all these evils, immediate and remote, the law holds you responsible, and is now about to apply all that there is of remedy within its reach. Blood for blood is its stern demand, and never was that sanguinary requisition more righteous. Unable to restore the dead, it accords thus touch of vengeance to the living. Your lives too, are regarded as incompatible with the safety of society; and in the bloom of youth and health you are by the hands of your fellow mortals, to be consigned to the gallows and the grave. An example also screams to be called for to deter others from a repetition of like offences, and you are about to be exhibited as an awful beacon to warn all others from a course like that which has resulted in your ruin. May your dying struggles, to which the eyes of thousands will soon be directed turn back into the path of rectitude all those who are in any way disposed to pursue a course like that whole fatal termination you have so nearly reached.

You need not be reminded of the awful condition in which you are now placed - of the blackness of that gulf which is now opening beneath your feet. Under the circumstances of the case you can only expect that the utmost rigors of the law will be enforced against you. The picture of the distress produced by your crime is so fresh in the memory of the community to permit the voice of pity to effect any thing in your behalf, and the horrid nature of your offence puts to silence those who are conscientiously opposed to the inhuman punishment you are about to suffer, and makes them almost regard your case as a proper exception to the milder rule which they would fain substitute for that now about to be enforced. Look therefore for mercy only to Heaven. Expect pardon from none but your God. In the silence of your prison, with a speedy and cruel death staring you in the face, repent of your misdeeds and do all that still remains in you to atone for them, and mercy and pardon will not be sought from these sources in vain.

In the discharge of the solemn duty which is now imposed upon me, I feel almost overwhelmed with awe, as I become one of the instruments by which the lives of two human beings are about to be extinguished - for life, how much soever it may have been perverted from its original purpose, is still an emanation from the Divinity. But as the irresponsible organ of that law which requires your death, I here pronounce its final sentence - I direct that you William Hodges and Stephen Hodges, be taken from this place to the Jail of the County of Des Moines, there to remain until Tuesday, the l5th of July next, that on that day you be taken by the proper officers of this County to some convenient place wherein the same and there between the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 4 o'clock P. M. that you be hung by the neck until you are dead; and may God have mercy upon you.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                         Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, June 28, 1845.                       No. 50.


A man named Irvine Hodges, brother to the men now under sentence of Death, was stabbed in Nauvoo on Monday evening last, and died in about half an hour.

There is considerable mystery connected with the murder. The murdered man was taken to the house of Brigham Young, the Mormon elder, where he was surrounded by Mormons who declared that he did not know who stabbed him -- report, however says he declared he knew the assassin and that he was a friend. It is also said that Hodges had threatened to make some awkward disclosures respecting Mormonism if the Mormons did not rescue his brothers. Report further says that W. Smith, brother to the canonized Joe, had prophesied that the deceased would never reach his home (he lived some distance from Nauvoo, and was on his way home from his brothers trial when he was stabbed,) but would be murdered by the outraged Iowans.

We know nothing of the truth of these reports and give them for just what they are worth.

One of the Hodges attempted to destroy himself on Tuesday last by strangulation. The jailer hearing a noise in his cell went to ascertain the cause when he discovered the prisoner endeavoring to strangle himself by clasping his throat with his hand. Means were of course taken to prevent him.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, June 28, 1845.                           No. 15.

We clip the following from the Nauvoo Neighbor of last Wednesday, the 25th inst.

On Monday evening last, at about half past 10 o'clock, Irvine Hodges of Mechanicsville, in this county, was inhumanly murdered, in this city, about 35 yards west of this office. He had been to Burlington Iowa, to witness the trial of his two brothers who were tried for the late murder in that Territory, and returning stopped at Nauvoo for the night. Although the blows and shrieks were heard at a little distance, yet no trace of the assassin or assassins have been found. -- The Sheriff has offered a reward of $200, for the apprehension of the murderers. An inquest was immediately held over the body, and a verdict was found as follows to wit:
That the deceased cane to his death by violence, but by some person unknown to the Jury, and the said body has upon it marks and wounds inflicted with a club, and bowie knife by some person unknown to the Jury, and which this Jury find to have been the cause of his death.
Mr. Hodges was asked by the by-standers before he died, if he knew who had stabbed him. he answered, "it was, as I supposed, my best friend." This was repeated four or five times, but he refused to [give?] the name. The place where he was assaulted are evidences of broken slivers from the rails on the fence, as if they had earnestly engaged in conversation. It is also rumored that a dispute was overheard, wherein Hodges claimed a portion of a large sum of money, to pay his brother's expenses at Burlington, which money, was understood, was buried in the ground at or near the mouth of the Illinois River.

The proclamation of the Sheriff did not prevent him from committing the crime of murder, as the following from the last Warsaw Signal shews:

A most horrid murder has just been committed in Carthage. Dr. Marshall was shot on Tuesday by Minor R. Deming, Sheriff of this county. The circumstances are these. -- The Doctor had purchased a tract of land at the tax sale, which turned out to be sold in error. Some days since he requested Deming to mark it as an error so that he could get his purchase money back. This, Deming neglected to do. The Doctor, who was noted for his punctuality, upbraided him with his negligence; a quarrel ensued, and Deming and the Doctor clinched, whereupon Deming drew his pistol and shot the Doctor dead, and the town is paralized with the blow. Deming has been arrested.

...The two Hodges have been found guilty of the murder recently committed near Float Point, and will be executed in Burlington on the 15th of July next.

Note 1: The Herald paraphrased the inquest report. The Nauvoo Neighbor text reads: "...the deceased came to his death by violence, but by some person unknown to the Jury, and the said body has upon it the following marks and wounds inflicted by some person unknown to the Jury, and which this Jury find to have been the cause of his death, to wit:  with two or three cuts and bruises on the head supposed to have been inflicted by a club, also four cuts on his left side measuring from one inch to one inch and a quarter, supposed to have been inflicted by a bowie knife."

Note 2: Although Irvine Hodges' murder occurred in Illinois, residents of the west bank of the Mississippi were especially interested in that event. Irvine's brothers had killed two Lee County citizens and the old settlers of Iowa remembered the tragic events for years thereafter. -- James M. Reid inserted these comments into his 1877 Sketches and Anecdotes of the Old Settlers and New Comers, the Mormon Bandits and Danite Band: "While the [Hodges] prisoners were in jail at Burlington, Irwin Hodges, who was attempting to raise money to defend his brothers, publicly denounced and threatened Brigham Young, and tried to induce him to send men to break open the jail and release them. That night on his way home, early in the evening, he was met by two men, who assassinated him by stabbing him with his own knife, as they afterwards confessed when arrested on a criminal charge in Adams county, Illinois. One of them was arrested next day on suspicion, but as there was no evidence against him he was discharged."

Note 3: Writing in September of 1846, William Smith, (himself a longstanding member of "The Twelve,") accused that same Quorum of being "at the bottom of all the [Mormons'] difficulties. These Twelve men have chosen three men of their own stamp as their secret agents -- spiritual wife believers, law of Moses believers, consecration believers, and believers in the doctrine of secret murder to save the souls of men; as for instance, the death of Irvin and Amos Hodge, a Mr. Daniels and a Mr. Wilcox. Irvin Hodge was murdered within twelve feet of Brigham Young's door. Amos Hodge was murdered, it is said, between Montrose and Nashway by Brigham Young's guard, who pretended at the time to escort him out of Nauvoo, for his safety..."



Vol. IV.                                Iowa City, I. T., Wednesday, July 2, 1845.                              No. 21.


A most brutal murder was committed at Nauvoo, on the evening of the 23d ult. Irvin Hodges, of Mechanicsville, Hancock Co. Ill., a brother of the two men who were recently tried and convicted of murder in Burlington had been in attendance on said trial, and had returned to Nauvoo, where an elder brother was residing, and while there, was most inhumanly murdered. Although the blows and shrieks were heard at a little distance, no trace of the assassins could be found. Speculation is rife upon the subject, and the accounts are some what contradictory.

The following paragraph from the Nauvoo Neighbor, will throw some little light upon the subject, and we suspect will prove the key to the whole matter, if it is ever ferreted out.
"It is rumored that a dispute was overheard, wherein Hodges claimed a portion of a large sun of money, to pay his brother's expenses at Burlington, which money, it was understood, was buried in the ground at or near the mouth of the Illinois River."
We learned further that the last time Hodges was seen prior to the murder he was in consultation with one, (or two), of the Mormon Apostles, who had taken him aside from a crowd, apparently to reason with him, relative to threats in which he had been loudly indulging, to divulge certain secrets; and it is probable that the dispute touching the money was between the same persons. It [is] supposed that this affair together with that of the conviction of the other two Hodges, will lead to some important disclosures.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                                Davenport, I. T., Thursday, July 3, 1845.                              No. 45.


The trial of the persons indicted for the murder of Hyrum Smith commenced on the 24th ult. Nothing was done in the case. A circumstance happened, however, which filled the community with gloom. An altercation occurred between the sheriff, Minor R. Deming and Dr. S. Marshal, which resulted in the death of the latter by a pistol shot fired by the sheriff. Dr. Marshal is spoken of as distinguished for his peaceable disposition and correct deportment in all his intercourse with his fellow men. He had filled some of the highest offices of the county.


On Monday night, 23d ult., a man by the name of Hodges, brother of those sentenced to be hung at Burlington on the 15th inst., was stabbed in Nauvoo and died in a few hours. It is stated that the victim had just returned back from Burlington where he had been to testify on behalf of his brothers; and that he was murdered to prevent his making disclosures, which he had said to have threatened.


The aspects of Mormonism are as varied as the weather and its nature as many hued as the tints of the rainbow. There is Joe Smith Mormonism and Rigdon Mormonism, and last of all Hinkle Mormonism. There are disinterested, self-sacrificing and sincere Mormons, and there are interested, selfish and hypocritical Mormons. Of the latter class are all of the small body distinguished as leaders and not a few of the others. The sincere ones are short-sighted individuals who cannot elevate their vision above the mole hill of truth in their path to behold the mountain of sin and hypocrisy beyond. They are naturally unsophisticated and greedily swallow the hook in their ignorance for the bait. Molecules of truth added to mountains of error compose Mormonism. As the former is blended with the latter the various shades of character are produced. But perhaps we are treating this subject in a style too figurative; we will at once proceed to testimony so strong as to sustain our remarks and yet so weak that the shadow of a doubt cannot hang upon it.

Imprimis, Joe Smith and his puerile imitators can lay no claim to originality. The same impostures with equal success have been made in various ages of the world. More than twenty pretended Messiahs have appeared upon the stage of life since the true one suffered. These gained sufficient notoriety to live upon the page of history whilst hosts of smaller ones have glittered with ephemeral popularity for a brief time, then character and bones rotted together in one common grave. The twelfth century alone produced no less than ten of these first mentioned arch impostors. They all pretended, as did Smith, and as does his weak imitators, to receive revelations and to prophecy, and they found dupes almost innumerable to place confidence in their pious pretensions. From the birth of Christ to the present day, men have been found wicked enough to attempt such vile impostures and others sufficiently weak-minded to embrace them. The history of these fanaticisms presents the strangest, to all appearances the most fabulous, and at the same time the darkest page in the history of mankind. One would suppose in reading it that certainly in this advanced stage of the world in an age so enlightened, that if such vile impostors were to arise they would find few or no followers....

Mahometanism has swayed its millions. Milleriam, with periodic disappointments to its blinded advocates, has existed in the world for centuries. But it has been left to these latter days for an ignorant man, skilled and cunning [in] knowledge of man's propensity to fanaticism, to originate one of the strangest illusions which any age has given birth. Though there may be great absurdities connected with the fanaticism that we have enumerated, yet there can not be a greater imposition palmed upon the uneducated than that men in this age of the world -- men who we know to be unprincipled and immoral -- should receive divine reveltion. A man pretending to such an impious assumption should be discountenanced by every sensible man in the community and treated as one of the vilest impostors and archest hypocrites.

It is not our intention to allude to any of the absurdities advocated by the various branches of Mormonism -- as we have already extended this article to an unusual length -- but merely to refer to some of the proceedings of the Mormon Convention which recently occurred in Pittsburg, at which time the Rigdon branch of that city and the Hinkle branchlet in this county moved all asperities and united their forces.

We quote from the Messenger and Advocate, the organ of the Mormon Society in Pittsburg. After the usual religious exercises President Rigdon stated that he had an unceasing desire to have the matter forever put at rest whether God would accept their work. For that purpose, he had that morning set apart brethren and consecrated them to God. During the time of prayer, he states there appears over our heads, in the room a ray of light forming a hollow square, inside of which, stood a company of heavenly messengers, each with a banner in his hand, with their eyes looking downward upon us, their countenances expressive of the deep interest they felt in what was then passing on the earth; there also appeared heavenly messengers on horseback with crowns upon their heads, and plumes floating in the air, dressed in glorious attire, until like Elisha, we cried in our hearts, "the chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof;" even my little son of fourteen years of age saw the vision, and gazed with great astonishment, saying, that he thought his imagination was running away with him, after which we arose and lifted our hands to heaven in holy convocation to God, at which time, it was shown an angel in heaven, registered the acceptance of our work, and the decrees of the Great God, that the kingdom is ours, and we shall prevail; my anxieties, therefore, in relation to our work in organizing the kingdom, and the acceptance of that organization, by our heavenly Father, is now forever at rest.

Elder Wm. E. McLellin, then, arose and bore testimony to the manifestations of the power of God in the heavenly vision; he then gave the substance of a revelation given in the morning relative to the opening ceremony of the consecration; after which he kneeled and dedicated the conference by prayer.

We also learn that it was through the prayers of Elder Rigdon that Pittsburg was saved from destruction. During his prayer at the time of the fire, we quote the account, "an escort of heavenly messengers that had hovered around as during the time of this Conference, were seen leaving the room, the course of the wind was instantly changed, and the violence of the flames were stayed "and our city saved from an entire overthrow."

We do not quote these proceedings merely to show the proneness of man to deception, of the vileness of the deceivers. but to warn those in our midst who have any feelings in common with these [deluded] people to banish them at once, and in all kindness to acquaint those who have already been led astray by the sophistry of these bad men, with a few, a very few, of the fanaticisms which have prevailed in the Christian world.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                          Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 3, 1845.                             No. 6.


This man was present at the trial of his brothers in this town the week before last. As soon as the trial ended, he crossed the ferry boat at this place for Nauvoo. We were on the same boat, and little did we think that before another sun would rise that tall and athletic frame, full of strength and animation, would be cold in death. But so it was. It appears that when he arrived at Nauvoo he began to upbraid some of the "Saints" for their want of energy and effort in their attempts to clear his brothers, and uttered some threats. The Mormons, it is thought, feared that he would in consequence disclose some of their dark and hellish practices, and fell upon him and slew him. We learn that he was first knocked down with a club and afterwards stabbed with a bowie knife. He lived long enough to say that he was killed by one whom he supposed to be his best friend, but would not divulge his name. It must be known in Nauvoo, and we hope the citizens of Hancock will ferret out the murderers. -- We learn that when his brothers, who are now under sentence of death, heard the news they fainted.

Murder. -- Carthage, Hancock county has been the theatre of another tragedy. On last Monday week, a dispute arose about some writings between Dr Marshall, Clerk of the County, and Mr. Deming, the Sheriff. Deming it is said "gave the lie" to Marshall, when the latter struck the other with a cane. Deming drew a revolving pistol from his pocket and fired three charges, the last of which took effect, and caused the almost immediate death of Marshall. -- Deming refused at first to be taken, but we learn that he has since been taken into custody.

Notes: (forthcoming).



ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, July 5, 1845.                           No. 16.

...The citizens of Burlington have held a public meeting to take measures to protect themselves from the Mormons, on the occasion of the execution of the two Hodges, on the 15th inst. Sheriff [McHenny] passed up the river a few days since to procure a hundred stand of arms for the same purpose. -- We hope our friends down the creek are not badly "skeared." If they are, the valiant [Muscatine] Dragoons are at their [disposal?]...

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                          Iowa City, I. T., Wednesday, July 9, 1845.                         No. 22.


Maj. Davenport was murdered in cold blood on the 4th inst., at his residence on Rock Island. The members of his family were absent at the celebration in Rock Island, Illinois, and he being unwell, remained at home alone. He was shot through the window; when half a dozen ruffians rushed in and rifled the house. -- Accounts are contradictory as to the booty which they obtained. He lived some eight or nine hours.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                        Davenport, Iowa, Thursday, July 10, 1845.                       No. 45.


Between 1 and 2 o'clock of the afternoon of the 4th of July, Col. George Davenport, of this place, was murdered at his residence on the Island. The atrocity was attended by such horrible particulars, that we would be spared the task of relating them. Robbery was the objective -- murder the means. Mr. Davenport was our oldest and most wealthy citizen, and whose name our town bears. For some time past he had been apprehensive of an attack upon his house for the purpose of robbery, as he had a considerable amount of money about his premises, and there were a good many suspicious looking persons in the neighborhood -- Indeed one or two noted and known villians, strangers to the towns of Davenport and Rock Island. He had every night carefully fastened his house, and prepared himself to repel any attempt at robbery.

On the afternoon of the 4th, his family and servants had all gone to the town of Rock Island to attend thecelebration, and he was left alone at his house, although there were many persons strolling about on the island. A short time after 1 o'clock he went out for a pitcher of water. (This he relates himself, as he lived after his injuried until evening.) He had just set down the pitcher on his return, when he heard a noise in the next room made by the fall of a poker with which he had fastened a back window. Col. Davenport arose and stepped towards the door opening to a back room. Here he was met by three men, one of whom fired a pistol, the ball taking effect in Col. D's thigh. He rushed back to his seat for a cane, seized it, and while in the act of striking, was hurled to the floor, his hands instantly tied with bark and his eyes blind-folded. His pistols were in a closet. The villains for a moment left him, having obtained the keys of his iron safe; but being unable to unlock it, they dragged their victim upstairs by the heels. Here, by a pool of blood, he was apparently made to kneel and open the safe. -- He was now taken to an adjoining room and thrown upon a bed, where he was repeatedly choked, and revived by the use of water, til it was with great difficulty he could breathe. Their object was to discover more money. They took from his person while in bed, about $500 in Missouri bills. It is supposed that while thus they choked him he pointed to a drawer in the library the other side of the room. A drawer was opened by the villains, next to the one to which he pointed, but it contained only a small amount of money, and they did not discover their mistake. A debate now took place between the robbers, in the hearing of their victim, upon his death. Two were for killing and burning him in his house. But it was finally concluded among them to let him remain in his present situation -- so they hastily departed, and for the time escaped. One of the robbers opposed to burning Col. D. was he who fired the shot. The number of villains is not known, but as an office of one wing of the house was broken open and the trunks in it scattered about, at the same time the horrible scene was being enacted within the house, it is presumed that there was at least some five or six.

We have thus given the particulars of one of the most cold blooded and horrible atrocities which we recollect ever to have heard being committed in a civilized community, in broad day-light, and for paltry plunder. Bold, and bloody as it was bold, we hope the authorities will not rest till the villains receive punishment for so deep a crime. Mr. Davenport lingered till 9 o'clock that evening -- breathing and speaking with great difficulty. His death was not occasioned probably by any one wound, but by a combination of causes. There had been persons of Mr. Davenport's acquaintance calling but a few minutes previous to the entrance of the robbers; and some called a few moments after their departure. Mr.D. was found on the bed with the pitcher lying at his side. He was immediately taken care of. Three men passing by in a skiff, heard the cry of murder. One of them insisted on stopping, but the others refused to get out. -- However, the man was landed, and he proceeded immediately to the house, and was first to enter, and discover the horrible deed. The cry was also heard on this side of the river. The report spread hastily, but the people instead of commencing instant pursuit after the robbers, thronged to see the victim.

The funeral of Col. Davenport took place last Sunday at 12 o'clock from his late residence on the island. A very large number of persons were in attendance. -- The services were performed by Dr. Goldsmith, of the Episcopal church of this town. The deceased was buried on his own premises in a beautiful spot, overshadowed by a large oak tree.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                          Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 10, 1845.                             No. 7.

The  Execution.

Next Tuesday is the day set for the execution of the Hodges. There will be a vast concourse of people present from all quarters, and as they will be composed of all characters, it behoves our citizens to be on then1 guard. We wish it could be so that no intoxicating drinks would be allowed to be vended on that day.

Fiendish  Outrage.

The annals of crime will hardly show a case of blacker depravity than was exhibited on Rock Island on Friday last. We visited the Island and attended the funeral of Col. Davenport on Sunday and were made acquainted with the minutiae of the nefarious transaction as related by the Col. before his death.

The family of the Col. were participating in the festivities of the 4th of July in the town of Rock Island, Ill., about one mile from his residence on Rock Island. This was the first time the old gentleman had been left alone in his house for years. He had been speaking the day before about some suspicious characters that had been seen prowling about the island and the towns of Rock Island and Davenport, and expressed come apprehensions as to their objects. He said he did not fear an attack in the night, as he could find them but they could not find him. As if they had heard this, the ruffians did attack him in broad daylight -- on a day sacred to liberty. He was sitting in one of his parlors smoking a segar and reading a pamphlet, supposing that all the doors and windows were fastened, when he heard a noise -- it was the falling of an iron poker placed over the window of one of the back rooms -- he rose from his seat, and just as he had reached the first door it was thrown open and three men made their appearance; one fired a pistol, the ball of which went through his leg, two or three inches a bove the knee; and all instantly rushed upon him -- blindfolded him -- threw him down upon the floor -- tied his hands with some bark withs -- and demanded his money. He gave up about five hundred dollars in Missouri bills, which he had on his person and told them there was some specie in an iron safe in a closet up stairs. They left him and went up to make further search. Finding that they could not discover the secret bolt; they came down immediately -- dragged the bleeding Col. up stairs and compelled him in open the safe. Not finding as much money as they expected, they throttled him, beat him and stamped upon him, and at he fainted twice from the exhaustion incident to such treatment, they threw, water in his face to resuscitate him, and then demanded more money.

In the mean time a man engaged in fishing near the island, heard the cries of the Col. and told two boys, who were engaged with him that they were the cries of murder and he must go and see what they meant. He made for the inland, and it is supposed the retreat of the murderers was facilitated by his appearance. When he arrived he saw no one in the house, but heard some one up stairs calling for help. -- Seeing much blood upon the carpet and on the stairs, he was very much agitated, and not knowing who was up stairs, he hesitated about going up; but the cries for help being repeated, he ascended the stairs and there saw Col. Davenport weltering in his blood, in a most pitiable situation. He immediately loosed the bandage from his eyes and the withs from his arms and placed him on the bed. The Col. then told the fisherman that Dr. Brown was on the island engaged with a pic nic party and that he must see him without delay. The doctor soon after made his appearance, dressed his wound and did not apprehend foul consequences. By this time Mr. Le Claire, who had heard the cries of the Col. across the river, came over with several others, and after getting a partial description of three of the murderers, although the Col. thought there must have been as many as five in the gang, they left him with the hope that in the morning he would be better able to give a more accurate description. But contrary to the hope and expectation of all, the Col. died about 8 o'clock that evening.

It is supposed that in addition to great loss of blond, the beatings and throttling that he received from the miscreants expedited his death. It was a sorry sight to see, an we did, the blood on the stairs as it fell from his wound as they dragged him up. and the puddle that accumulated around his knee as he kneeled to push open the bolt of the safe, while the side post of the door was besmeared by his bloody hand as he supported himself, to do the murderers bidding. It was indeed a sorry sight.

Col. Davenport had lived on the island twenty-nine years; and in consideration of his long residence and his eminent services as a soldier in the battle of Lundy's Lane and in other engagements, government allowed him a pre-emption to about 150 acres on the island. His house and grounds are in the most lovely situation that can any where be found. He was wealthy and no expense had been spared to make his establishment one of the most desirable residences that could be found in the country. But he has gone and can no longer enjoy it.

The funeral was attended by hundreds from both sides of the river, and the funeral service was appropriately performed by the Rev. Mr. Goldsmith, the episcopal clergyman at Davenport.

Notes: (forthcoming).



ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, July 12, 1845.                           No. 17.

The two Hodges are to be executed at Burlington on Tuesday next, the 15th inst. -- The steamer Mermaid, Capt. Glein, in order to accomodate such as wish to be present at the execution, will make a trip from this place to Burlington on that day, leaving Bloomington at 5 o'clock, A. M. precisely, and returning at an early hour of the evening. Cap. Glein always gives his passengers plenty to eat and drink, and all who wish to go cannot find a better opportunity. Fare to Burlington and back $2.00.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                           Burlington, I. T., Thursday, July 17, 1845.                        No. 8.

The  Execution.

The brothers, William and Stephen Hodges were hung in this town on Tuesday last. From dawn until the time appointed for he execution the principal avenues to town were crowded with people The Steamer Mermaid brought down a large number from Bloomington -- the Stockoquon, after bringing an immense load from the place whose name she bears, proceeded to Oquawka, from whence she landed at our wharf a crown from Illinois. In the meantime one of the Steam ferry boats from Fort Madison -- the Caroline -- came loaded to the guards with passengers -- the "New Purchase," with a large multitude from Nauvoo, and places adjacent, arrived too late for the passengers to witness the execution. - Long before the time appointed our streets were literally filled with men, women, and children.

At 12 o'clock, the guard, composed of three or four companies of riflemen under the command of Col. Geo. Temple arrived at the Jail, and soon after the prisoners were placed in a wagon, which contained the coffins, under the care of deputy Sheriff Smith M'Kenny, with his assistants. After all the necessary arrangements were made under the judicious direction of the Sheriff, John H. M'Kenney, Esq., the procession took up its line of march to the gallows. The Band and Martial Music played appropriately solemn tunes during the progress of the march. The procession crossed the square from the jail and down Court to Third street, through Third to Jefferson street, through Jefferson to the place of execution.

The place selected was on the Mt. Pleasant road, immediately west of town. It was a perfect natural amphitheatre. The gallows was in the centre of the dell and in full view of and immediately contiguous to the thousands of spectators who covered the hills. No Movement could be made -- nothing could be said -- that all could not see and hear. In fact we cannot conceive of a more appropriate location for such a scene.

On their way to the gallows the prisoners manifested no concern - no anxiety. Had they not been dressed in the habiliments of death, none would have taken them as the candidates for the gallows. This stoicism did not leave them. No change was even perceptible in their countenances when they mounted the steps and arrived on the platform they observed a demeanor which showed that it was their study and great business to go through the scene without any apparent fearfulness of their fate. Although they succeeded, their very success dried up the fountains of sympathy in the breasts of the spectators, as all felt that such conduct illy became men in their awful situation

The exercises commenced with the reading of the 51st Psalm by Mr. Coleman. This Psalm was read at the request of the prisoners, and we cannot but believe from all their conduct and their refusal to confess their crimes to their fellow-men, that they clung to this psalm and adopted its language as a excuse for their refusal. They may have thought their confessions to their Maker were sufficient, and thus they may have palliated their consciences.

After the reading of the Psalm, Mr. White gave out the appropriate hymn, "Now in the heat of youthful blood," &c. After the singing Mr. White offered a most fervent and pertinent prayer, calling upon God to shield the youth then present as spectators from temptation and sin, and ending their lives as those before them were about to do. Immediately after the prayer,

Stephen Hodges came forward to address the crowd. He was very much agitated. His address was so different from anything we anticipated from a dying man -- so much bitterness and maliciousness was exhibited in all he said - his manner became so maniacal, that although prepared and in a good situation to take down all that was uttered, we were obliged at times, in utter astonishment, to drop our pencil and look at the man. We cannot therefore give more than an outline. He said:

Gentlemen and Fellow citizens, I stand before you a dying man about to be launched into eternity. I have not much to say and shall not detain you long. - there never was a trial where men were convicted under such slight evidence as was brought against us: We have not been tried as white men ought to have been tried. There was no evidence to convict us. Can the Jury look on and see two innocent young men executed as we shall be in a few moments and feel right about it'? Can the Jury after giving such a verdict, in condemning two innocent young men as we are, one twenty-two an the other twenty-five years old, go home to their wives and children and sleep quietly? He then alluded to the evidence and in a sort of special pleading, lawyer like style attempted to show that it was inadequate to convict them. He asked why the jury did not believe the witnesses who swore that they were at Nauvoo at the time of the murder, and answered that it was because they were Mormons. He then said there have been many murders committed here, why were they not found guilty and executed? They were not Mormons, that was the reason. It must have been so. Our Counsel told us and the Jury, that the evidence was not sufficient to convict us. Examine our conduct from our youth up and see if you can prove any thing against us. That roll of flannel, oh, yes, you say that we must have been guilty of stealing that, and yet there was no proof of our stealing it

Judge Mason came to us and tried to make us confess -- and he told us that the evidence was not sufficient to condemn us, and that if we would confess he would get us reprieved. He then referred to the manner in which they taken in Lee county, said that every body wanted to hang them up without Judge or Jury. Alluded to the activity of the Sheriff of Lee county -- of the willingness of all to bring timber to erect the gallows, still repeating that there was no evidence to convict them and that it was because they were Mormons they were convicted. To corroborate this they said the Prosecuting Attorneys declared they ought to be hung for an example, if not nothing else. Here he became almost frantic and came near, we thought, of bursting asunder the ropes that bound his arms. The froth issued from his mouth and he gave other signs of extreme rage and madness. He seemed now inclined to include all the spectators in his anathemas and said the curses of God would rest upon them. He then broke out in a rapsody [sic]of benevolence and declared that he felt for the bystanders, not for himself - he would die a thousand deaths if he could bring them back to virtue. He asked how could any citizen go home and tell his wife what he had seen - two men hung without evidence -- and sleep quietly. -- He then said he was prepared to go, and stated that the Rev. Mr. White and Coleman had been with him several days, and he thanked them. He said he had been well treated while in prison. If he had been a border at Mr. Painter's the jailer, he could not have had better fare. He acknowledged that he had received the most tender treatment from Sheriff McKenny and then with the utmost coolness, thanked the audience for their attention, and retired.

It was our intention -- and we believe that thousands felt as we did, -- to have left the ground or to have turned our back upon the dreadful tragedy, as soon as the preliminary exercises were over: but the speech and conduct of Stephen dissipated those tender sympathies in their behalf which we had all along felt. This change was wrought in us by having been in possession of admissions made by both prisoners to different individuals entirely opposite to the statements they made on the gallows. Those admissions clearly prove their guilt. Soon after Stephen took his seat.

William Hodges came forward and said, Friends and fellow citizens, I am on the step that is soon to place me in eternity. I am innocent of shedding man's blood. He then in a much more subdued spirit than Stephen, reviewed the evidence adduced at his trial, complained of its insufficiency -- and declared that it was not strong enough to convict a man in a common case of assault and battery. He became quite animated and addressed the crowd at one time, as "Gentlemen of the Jury." They both seemed to have impressed upon their minds the arguments of their Counsel as they were uttered on the trial, and it was these arguments, in some instances clothed in the very language of their counsel, that they urged as a proof of their innocence on the scaffold. He urged all to repent of their sins. He then said I am prepared to go: -- and when I drop I expect to go right straight into Heaven. I bid you all farewell. I am going home to glory. I die in peace and hope to meet you all in that better world of glory. He claimed the forgiveness of all and said he forgave all and again bid the audience farewell.

Mr. White then said there was still time for religious exercises, and as the prisoners requested the time might be so filled up, they proceeded to sing a few hymns in which all could join. After which Bishop Loras read the story of the penitent thief, and made some very appropriate remarks, admonishing all to serve and fear God and never sin against him and thus avoid the doom that awaited the young men so soon to be executed. Mr. White gave a recital of the manner in which he became acquainted with prisoners and made some appropriate remarks.

Stephen Hodges then made some additional remarks as to the lameness of the evidence which convicted them -- thought the evidence against his brother was no evidence at all -- and seemed to wish to get up a sympathy in their behalf. He then bade them all farewell -- the audience and his friends in particular.

Their chains were then knocked off, and the Sheriff conducted William to the drop and put the rope around his neck. -- While the rope was being put round the neck of Stephen we would see that William was apparently engaged in prayer. The caps were pulled over their faces, and in a few moments the Sheriff with one blow severed the cord, the drop fell, and both were launched into eternity. Stephen's neck broke and he died without a struggle. William struggled nearly ten minutes before he was apparently dead. Thus ended the scene of their mortal existence. Our hope is that the impression of it on the minds of all will be beneficial, although public executions ordinarily in our opinions have a different tendency. Executions should be so conducted as to hold out no inducement for the culprit to make a hero of himself. -- Are we uncharitable in thinking that the whole conduct of these young men at the gallows and on their way there, was to gain for themselves the title of heroes? -- Are we, after we knew that they had held out encouragement to one of their counsel and to others that they would confess, and that nothing probably but the presence of their sister prevented it?

When called upon to fulfill his special engagement to do this, William, who had seen and conversed with Stephen, declared that he could not do it -- that if he revealed the secret the whole family would be murdered. At another time one of them said that they had taken an oath, and they might as well die with the secret as to break that oath. There must be some horrid secrets and oaths binding these secret societies at Nauvoo, which sets human life and common human allegiance at defiance. Nothing but the revelation of the righteous judgment of heaven can detect and bring to justice men thus bound together.

Too much praise cannot be awarded to John H. M'Kenny, Esq., our Sheriff. -- From the trial to the execution, he exhibited a humanity, a firmness and a judicious arrangement of things that could not be outdone. His conduct in this matter merits the support of every man in the country. After the bodies were taken down they were placed in the coffins and handed over to their friends on board the steam ferry boat "New Purchase." His sister accompanied their remains to Nauvoo.

The number of people at the execution has been variously estimated. We think there were from eight to ten thousand. Never have we seen more decorum or better behavior exhibited at a public, execution, and we have witnessed several in and near Boston. We have heard of no accidents. We understand that several fainted and we heard a few screams from the females as the drop fell. All seemed to realize that it was an awful and melancholy sight to see two young men, who ought have been ornaments in society thus cut off in health and in the vigor of manhood, and we hope some good impression may have been made. All must have felt that the way of the transgressor is hard. The only wise way is for youth to shun temptation and bad company.

Note: See the July 23, 1845 issue of the Warsaw Signal for a reprint of this lengthy report of the Hodge brothers' execution in Iowa.


Vol. IX.                                Burlington, I. T., Saturday, July 19, 1845.                              No. 2.


Stephen and William Hodges, brothers, expiated their crimes in this place on Tuesday last, on the gallows, in the presence of an immense concourse of spectators.

The criminals were taken from the jail in a wagon, seated upon their coffins, and having their shrouds on. They looked pale; but with the exception of this, there were no manifestations of terror at the fate that was about to overtake them. About to die the death of felons, they seemed determined to meet their fate without exhibiting any signs of fear or weakness. Indeed, if the seemingly dogged indifference manifested by them justifies us in using such language, it may be doubted whether an instance ever occurred in which men similarly situated exhibited more nerve and resolution. Nor did this firmness, if it may be so called, fail them at any one time; for throughout all the various preparations, even to the moment when the drop fell, it was manifested.

The prisoners were attended by the Rev. clergy of the town. Arrived at the scene of execution, they engaged in religious exercises appropriate to the occasion; after which both the criminals addressed the audience, and declared their innocence of the crimes laid to their charge, and for which they were about to offer up their lives. The youngest -- Stephen -- exceedingly violent in his gesticulation, and bitter and even vindictive in his words. He reflected on the jury -- misrepresented the Judge -- and predicted that the people would be visited by Divine wrath for his death. He avowed his willingness to die, and bore testimony to the kind of treatment extended to him since his confinement both by the sheriff and jailer. The other brother -- William -- spoke in a subdued voice, and in a different spirit; but he also protested his innocence of shedding blood. He said he died at peace with the world, and believed he was about entering upon a glorious immortality.

Further religious exercises were engaged in and kept up till near 3 o'clock, the hour appointed for the execution. About twenty minutes before the arrival of this hour the ropes were arranged round the necks of the convicts, the caps drawn over their faces, and the drop fell. Stephen's death must have been instantaneous as he was not seen to move a muscle. His neck was broke. William struggled for a few minutes, then all was over. Their bodies were taken to Nauvoo on the same evening, at the request of themselves and their sister.

We should do wrong to close this brief account of the first execution which ever took place in the southern portion of Iowa and the second in the Territory, without bearing testimony to the manly firmness with which the sheriff of our county, Mr. McKenny, met and discharged the unpleasant duty which the law devolved upon him. Ever since the prisoners were brought to our county for trial he has had a most severe responsibility resting upon him, but he did not shrink from its discharge. The warm approbation with which his conduct throughout is spoken of by his fellow citizens is the best reward he can covet, and the only one he can receive.

Note: This account was given in much the same language in the Bloomington Herald of the same date, in an articles also entitled "Execution."


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, July 19, 1845.                           No. 18.


The two brothers, Hodges, were executed at Burlington on Tuesday last, in accordance with their sentence. On this occasion our Territory was disgraced by a public execution, and it is computed that at least eight thousands persons -- one thousand of whom were females -- we almost said ladies -- witnessed the spectacle, a majority of them with as much interest an moral reflection as they would a circus or travelling menagerie. The young men -- one aged 23, the other 25 -- died protesting their innocence. One of them, who appears to have been a Mormon preacher, delivered a lengthy address from the scaffold, in which he severely answered the jury -- called himself and brother the victims of prejudice, and asserted that they might have approved an alibi on their trial but they were conscious their witnesses, being Mormons, would not be believed....

We understand that the; left letters which were not to is opened after their death.

Upon the question of their guilt or innocence we have nothin; to say. The evidence against them was mainly circumstantial, and, until further devclopements are made, there must exist in the minds of many a painful conviction that, possibly, two innocent men have been murdered according to law. Meanwhile we cannot avoid asking ourselves how much better off our comunity [is?], how much more the ends of justice have been subserved, than they would have been had these two young men been doomed to solitary imprisonment for the remainder of their natural lives? -- how much the execution tended to refine the feelings, improve the habits, and elevate the understanding of the spectators? -- and how much it exalted their idess of the efficiency, purity, justness, and benefioence of our existing laws upon the subject of capital punishment? It will be remembered that a brother of these men was murdered, soon after their trial, in the streets of Nauvoo.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. IV.                            Davenport, I. T., Thursday, July 24, 1845.                              No. 48.

In Nauvoo, says the New Era, there is a split between the 12 impostor apostles and Wm. Smith, the impostor Patriarch. -- Emma Smith, the widow of Joe, the impostor, is rather troublesome and obstinate. -- When rogues fall out, &c.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, July 26, 1845.                           No. 19.

...We believe there are no further traces of the murderers of Col. Davenport, and it is feared they will escape. It is presumed the evidence against Budd, new confined in jail, will not be sufficient to convict him, as it is said he was in Illinois on the day of the murder. The belief has been, and still is, that although not present at the murder, he was its instigator.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, August 2, 1845.                           No. 20.

...On Monday the 20th ult. Two persons were arrested near Hannibal, Mo., on suspicion of being the murderers of Col. Davenport. -- They are said to answer the description perfectly. The report of the arrest Peoria, mentioned in another column, is now confirmed. The [St. Louis] Reveille mentions the arrest near Hannibal.

The first settler in the county [Scott] was the late Col. George Davenport, (who was so brutally murdered at his residence on Rock Island on July 4th 1845) who established a "Trading House" near the mouth of Pappoose creek in [Iowa?]

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. V.                       Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, August 16, 1845.                     No. 5.


A gentleman residing at Nauvoo, called on us this week, and in the course of conversation about the Hodges, said he was persuaded that the man who killed Irvine Hodges is well known to many of the elect in that place.

Our informant, who is a Mormon, speaks in bitter terms of the conduct of the leaders at Nauvoo, and regrets his inability to leave the place. To use his own language "it is a perfect pandemonium, and the wrath of an offended God will inevitable descend upon it sooner or later."

We have been loath to speak, or even (as far as in us laid) to think ill of the Mormons, but we can withhold no longer.

Proofs multiply so rapidly, of the many acts of villainy which are perpetrated, or originated in Nauvoo, that our decided opinion is, that the presence of the Mormons is incompatible with the safety and well being of those in their vicinity.

We believe that a great number, a majority, of that people are innocent, and deluded. We are equally certain that there are those among them who are not deluded but the deluders; who are fattening on the spoils wrung from the mass under the name of contributions; who use the cloak of religion to cover their misdeeds; who are capable of almost every crime; and who find, in their ignorant followers, ready tools for any purpose if they are told the good of the Church requires its performance.

With these facts in view, we say to the people at Nauvoo, purge your city from the horde of scoundrels who rendezvous there -- or depend upon it, an incensed community, unable any longer to tolerate such a sink of iniquity, will scatter you once more, and the innocent will be involved in the same fate with the guilty.

Note: " incensed community, unable any longer to tolerate such a sink of iniquity, will scatter you once more" -- It was not until seven months later that Brigham Young (in a private letter, dated Mar. 9, 1846) offered this palliating reaction to such "iniquity" (notice that the tense is future, and not present or past): -- "I feel as though Nauvoo will be filled with all manner of abominations. It is no place for the Saints, and the Spirit whispers to me that the brethren had better get away as fast as they can... the dark clouds of sorrow are gathering fast over that place. It is a matter of doubt about any of the Twelve returning to Nauvoo very soon. It is not the place for me any more, till this nation is scourged by the hand of the Almighty, who rules in the heavens." (Millennial Star, Feb. 12, 1877).


Vol. VII.                    Burlington, I. T., Thursday, August 21, 1845.                       No. 13.

The  late  Election.

...1900 votes were polled at the recent election at Nauvoo. All the Mormon candidates in the county were elected, the anti-Mormons did not turn out exceptat Warsaw; they feel that the elective franchise to them is a mere farce.

Lee  County.

The large vote at Montrose and Keokuk surprises every body. Our surprise is that it was not more, considering the contiguity of those places to Nauvoo.

"We have been loath to speak, or even (as far as in us laid) to think, ill of the Mormons, but we can withhold no longer." -- Lee County Democrat.

Why so "loath?" Was it for fear of losing some of the Mormon votes, that you were "loath" lo speak or think ill of the Mormons before the election? Your alacrity in giving vent to your feelings so soon after, looks like it. But if they are such rascals it is better late than never to expose them; we therefore copy a part of what the editor further says about these "saints." --
"A gentleman residing at Nauvoo called on us this week, and in the course of conversation about the Hodges, said he was persuaded that the man who killed Irvine Hodges is well known to many of the elect in that place. Our informant, who is a Mormon, speaks in bitter terms of the conduct of the leaders in Nauvoo, and regrets his inability to leave ihe place. To use his own language 'It is a perfect pandemonium, and the wrath of an offended God will inevitably descend upon it sooner or later.'"
Proofs multiply so rapidly, of the many acts of villainy which are perpetrated, or originated in Nauvoo, that our decided opinion is, that the presence of the Mormons is incompatible with the safety and well being of those in their vicinity.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. VII.                    Burlington, I. T., Thursday, August 28, 1845.                       No. 14.

The Murderers. -- The Galena Gazette says, "Our police believe they have a clue to the Davenport murderers. It would be impolitic to give particulars at present, but a few days will show whether their information is of a reliable character."

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. IV.                        Iowa City, I. T., Wednesday, September 3, 1845.                       No. 30.

The temple at Nauvoo is now completed under cover. The publication of the Neighbor was delayed several hours to announce the nailing of the last shingle on the roof. -- Burlington Gazette.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                    Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 18, 1845.                       No. 17.

The  Crisis  has  come!
Serious doings in Hancock County.

We have a Nauvoo Neighbor Extra. of last Friday, which gives the details of the destruction of several houses belonging to the Mormons. The Neighbor declares these attacks to have been unprovoked, and that the firing on the School House which is recorded below, was made by a preconcerted plan of the anti-Mormons! This does not look probable. The Extra states that eleven buildings, eight houses and three outhouses, had been destroyed by "the Mob," as the Neighbor calls the anti-Mormons. Later news states that twenty houses have been destroyed. We shall not be surprised to hear that the incensed citizens have entered Nauvoo and that many lives have been sacrificed as well as buildings demolished. -- Our fear is that the innocent will suffer with the guilty.

More trouble wilth the Mormons. -- Our correspondent al Warsaw, says the St. Louis Republican, sent us by the La Clede. which arrived this morning, the following account of serious out breaks between the Mormons and their opponents in Hancock county:

Warsaw, 11th Sept. 1845.            
10 o'clock, A. M.           
Messrs Editors: -- On Tuesday morning last, (9th inst.) an attack was made on a school house in Rocky Run Precinct, by some persons unknown, but supposed to be Mormons, in which there was at ihe time of the attack a convention of Anti-Mormons, or old settlers of the county. The door and windows of the house were completely riddled by the shots fired by the assailants. The attacking party approached under cover of the woods and bushes, and fired one round and fled. No person was injured, but many were. I presume, munch frightened at this sudden and unexpected assault. The old settlers in that section of the country armed themselves for defence, and if they are backed by their friends in other parts of the county, blood will flow. -- By a messenger just in, who came to purchase lead, powder, flints, &c., I learn that four buildings were burned down last night, and one man shot, and very badly wounded, but not mortally. Yesterday, thirteen wagons, loaded with furniture, were seen wending their way in the City of Refuge, (Nauvoo.)

2 o'clock. P. M. -- Another messenger has just arrived from the country, and reports that large bodies of Mormons are patrolling the southern part of the county, and that a number of families from ihe interior are on their way to Warsaw, seeking protection. I can form no opinion what the result will be. The storm may pass over without any very serious consequence, and there may be much destruction of property, and the loss of many lives before peace and quiet shall be fully and permanently established in this unhappy county.
                Respectfully Yours, &c.

"Warsaw Signal." -- This valuable paper has been enlarged to our own size. Sharp is a good editor, and still keeps up a sharp fire on the "Saints" at Nauvoo. All who wish for the most authentic news about the Mormons can find it by subscribing for the "Signal."

Notes: (forthcoming).



Vol. V.                     Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, September 20, 1845.                   No. 8?


(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                       Burlington, I. T., Thursday, September 25, 1845.                       No. 18.

Late  from  the  Mormon War.

The Mormon difficulties are becoming more and more serious. Various rumors are afloat and it is difficult to get at the truth. We know not what the "Suckers" may do with the Mormons, but we opine that if any further disturbances occur they will drire them out of the Holy city and from the State, cost what it may. It is very evident that the Mormons and the old citizens of Hancock county ran no longer live together in peace and one or the other we think will have to leave. It is rumored that a compromise is about to take place between the Mormons and the citizens.

The editor of the St. Louis Republican writing from Warsaw under date of 17th August, says that *nbsp;"the Twelve or principal men of the Mormons, have addressed a proposition to the Anties, which was received on the evening of the 17th, and which he thinks may put an end to the war. The twelve propose that they will leave Nauvoo, and the county next spring, provided hostilities are suspended, and the vexatious suits which they charge the Anties to have instituted against them, are withdrawn, and they are allowed peaceably to dispose of their property, and prepare for their removal. They have appointed a committee of five, to correspond with a committee of an equal number on the part of the old settlors. This proposition is well received by many of the citizens of Warsaw, and if they do not reject it because of the language in which it is addressed to them, (they thinking it disrespectful,) it will most likely lead to a settlement, and to the removal of the Mormons from among them. It is very desirable that this should be the result."

Later. -- By the following it will appear that the old citizens did not accept of the proposition mentioned above as they have evacuated Carthage and Warsaw and the Mormons have undisputed possession. By the politeness of B. Jennings, Esq. of this city, we are favored with the following extract of a letter written by a gentlemen of Fort Madison, bareing date as below:
Fort Madison, Iowa,                
Sept. 22, 1845.                
Carthage and Warsaw have been taken possession of by the Mormons, and the citizens driven from their homes. We have about two hundred persons in our place from Hancock county, who have deserted their homes and taken shelter in Fort Madison. -- Yesterday a company of emigrants were stoped on the Carthage road and had to undergo an examination of their wagons before they could be allowed to pass, and then the male portion of them had to swear that they would not reveal any thing that occurred during the search. Since this disturbance all traveling has ceased. People are afraid to pass through the country on account of these troubles.

Still   Later.
From the Senior Editor.
Fort Madison, Tuesday                
Morning Sept. 23, '45.                
The reports from below and across the river is that Warsaw, Carthage, Augusta and other towns in Hancock County have been evacuated by the citizens and that the Mormons have taken possession of these places. -- There is an encampment near Augusta, which numbers about 700 Anti-Mormons. These are being continually reinforced, and when the army becomes sufficiently large they will in all probability unite up a serious opposition to the Mormons and I fear much blood may be shed. Some houses were burnt as late as last Sunday. This is a bad way of showing hostility to the Mormons and it is thought that such proceedings will create sympathy in their behalf. As the stage is starting I must close.   Yours in great haste.

The  Hodges.

We have been in receipt of the following for two or three weeks. It was handed us for publication by Sheriff McKenney, but we have delayed it with the hope that we could find room at the some time for a statement made by Rev. J. G. White, who was with the Hodges a great part of the time while they were under sentence of death. The statement of Mr. White is so long, occupying upwards of seventeen pages of foolscap, we find it impossible to give it an insertion and do justice to our readers. We however think the following should be published in justice to Judge Mason, as it entirely exculpates him from blame, and may be satisfactory to many who have been anxious to hear something from him on the subject.

"Understanding that mistakes and misrepresentations in relation to the case of the two Hodges have become current, and have, to a considerable extent, obtained credence, I have been induced to make the following statement, as, well in self-justification as for the satisfaction of the public in general.

Regarding my official duties in relation to them, as having terminated when sentence of Death had been pronounced, and feeling the same interest as others in obtaining security against like outrages in future -- believing also, that these misguided young men had many other associates in crime and that their death alone would not secure us the desired safety of life and property -- I felt very solicitous to obtain from them a full exposition of the workings of that system of iniquity, the effects of which were sufficiently felt and feared, but of the secret operations of which we were too ignorant to be able to apply any effectual remedy.

With this object, I visited them in prison two days previous to their execution. I made them no "promises of pardon if they would confess;" but expressly informed them that I had officially, no farther control over their fate. I then endeavored to obtain from them a full statement as to who were their accomplices and abettors, not only in this murder, but in the other recent outrages, with which I had reason to believe them to have been connected. My chief regret in relation to the whole matter is that I was unsuccessful.

Considering William -- though older in years -- to be younger and less hardened in crime, my efforts were first and principally directed towards him. I promised him that if he would make a full statement of all he knew in relation to the subject of my enquiry, such as would satisfy me of its truth, I would go at once in the proper authority and endeavor to obtain a postponement of his execution for three or four weeks, to give time to test the truth of his statements -- that if at the end of that period we should become satisfied of his truth and candor and that his information could be rendered available in bringing the other offenders to justice, I would do all in my power to have his punishment commuted to imprisonment in the penitentiary; and finally, that if after the lapse of a year or two, we should succeed through his instrumentality, in ridding the country of the band of miscreants with which it was now infested, he might reasonably expect a full and complete pardon. I then stated to him certain facts which had come to light since the trial, as well as a material discrepancy between his present statements and that of his brother -- which will be hereafter more fully described -- all which left no possible doubt as to his guilt. I spoke to him kindly for in his then awful situation, I could harbor no feeling towards him but that of pity. I told him I regarded crime as very frequently the offspring of misfortune, or the result of a train of circumstances often difficult to be withstood -- that from his appearance I would not suppose him capable of engaging in a career of crime from a feeling of wanton wickedness -- that he must have been urged on by his necessities. or by the persuasions of others, from one step to another, to the final commission of the act for which he was then doomed to suffer; and that in all this I had reason to believe he had rathter been acting as the instrument of others than the originator of any criminal purpose of his own. He burst into tears and told me that such was the truth. He then promised to tell me all but first stipulated that Amos Hodges' wife should be removed from Nauvoo, as he said they would kill her the moment they knew that he had made a confession. I promised to keep the matter secret until she could be placed in safety. He then requested me to come to his prison on the following morning, with the materials for writing down all he should have to say. I represented to him that the present was a preferable moment for that purpose, and urged him to make his statement at once. He however persisted in the postponement, and at length was reluctantly obliged to acquiesce.

Upon my calling next morning, he appeared in great agitation -- said he had passed a sleepless night and had finally concluded that he would make no revelation as he had previously promised. He said it would bring destruction upon all his friends -- that the lives of his parents would be placed in jeopardy in Pittsburgh and that even the walls of the Penitentiary would furnish no protection to himself. After a long and vain attempt to combat this idea and induce him to perform his promise of the day previous. I left him and entered the cell of his brother.

To him I made a proposition similar to that which had been unsuccessfully made to William; but with a result equally fruitless. Unwilling however, even yet to abandon the undertaking, and again saw them in the afternoon of that day, and after they had been again visited by the Rev. Mr. White. At length, they agreed to make a full disclosure, upon the following condition: -- That if I supposed what they should reveal would be of any avail in obtaining an exercise of Executive favor, I would use it -- otherwise I was to preserve it a secret.

Accordingly they commenced their statement, which I reduced to writing. Mr. White, at their request, being also present. After taking down two or three pages I enquired whether they had anything of a different character to communicate; and receiving a reply in the negative, I informed them that it would be a useless consumption of time to proceed further. They denied knowing anything of the murder -- anything of the recent robberies in Lee county -- anything of a gang of association for any criminal purpose. Confident of their insincerity in these respects, I felt that no reliance could be placed upon their statements in other particulars.

In relation to the guilt of these young men no one who understands the facts which have developed can entertain a doubt. In fact no such doubt would ever have existed, but for their own assertion of innocence to the last moment. Such an assertion at such a time almost compels belief. But in the present case it is entitled to little weight for the reason that other statements known to be untrue were made by them under the same circumstances and with the same solemnity. For instance, Stephen Hodges, on the day previous to his execution, stated to the Rev. Mr. White that he had it in his power to save William, but that he would not do so. Upon my afterwards remonstrating with him for this unnatural determination, he denied in the most positive manner that he had ever made any statement. He also denied all knowledge of Brown or any person answering the description given of him on the trial, and when asked who the person was in his company, when met by Drollenger the day previous to the murder, he denied ever having met Drollenger at all, on that occasion. He made many other similar denials, most of them known to be untrue, and many of them known to be so. But the fact more conclusive to my own mind, is the following to which reference has already been made. On Sunday previous to the execution, I was in Stephen's cell in company with several other persons, before I saw William. He then distinctly admitted that in company with William and a man by the name of Jackson, he had crossed the river into the Territory in the afternoon of the day on which the murder was committed but stated that they returned before sunset. Immediately afterwards on my interview with William, he denied being out of Nauvoo on any part of that day and asserted particularly that he had not been across the river in the afternoon. I then informed him that Stephen had just stated the contrary. He acted like one detected in falsehood -- made no further denial and shortly afterwards promised a full confession as I have above stated.

The next morning after retracting this promise he referred to this matter and made the same admission that Stephen had in that respect the day previous. Upon subsequently calling upon Stephen, I informed him that William, on the day previous had denied being out of Nauvoo on the day of the murder. After a moment's hesitation he admitted that he himself, had been mistaken on the subject, and that his brother was right. "But" relied I, "William this morning admits that he did cross the river that afternoon, as stated by you yesterday." He seemed confounded, and made no further reply. I feel, therefore justified in saying that little reliance should be placed upon their dying declarations, especially when contradicted by facts and circumstances of the most conclusive character.

There is one other subject to which I must allude. I am informed that Stephen Hodges on the scaffold represented me as having stated that there was not sufficient evidence against them to justify their conviction. This is not strictly nor substantially true. In the course of our conversations he made a declaration of that kind, and I replied that I should have felt unpleasantly on the subject, were it not for the facts which had come to my knowledge since the trial. I certainly never intended to intimate to him, that there was not sufficient evidence for their conviction, but merely meant to be understood, that where men just about to launch into eternity, solemnly continue to protest their innocence, my own mind will not be satisfied with such evidence as will, according to the rules of law, justify a verdict of guilty. The latter requires only the exclusion of doubts, founded upon probabilities, but under each circumstances, I could not feel satisfied while there was a doubt resting upon any reasonable possibility.

The necessity of all possible brevity, has compelled me to omit many particulars; some of which would have slightly modified the above statement. Substantially, however, it is correct as it now stands.
                              CHARLES MASON.

Mr. Edwards: -- Sir: Having been solicited by a number of the citizens of this, and the adjoining counties, to give a full and particular history of the sayings and doings of the Hodges brothers -- as far as the same came under my observation, and having learned that the subject had been taken by his Hon. Judge Mason and the Rev. Mr. White; I deem a recapitulation on my part unnecessary; as upon examination, I find the statements of the above named gentlemen to be in substance correct.
                  Yours respectfully,
                               J. H. M'Kenny, Sheriff
                                          Des Moines Co. I. T.

Note: "...a man by the name of Jackson...." Of course Jackson can be used both as a last and first name -- as in Joseph H. Jackson or, more likely, as in Return Jackson Redden, (1817-1891). According to an unpublished biographical sketch, compiled by his grandaughter, "Jack" was "twenty five years of age when he joined the L.D.S. Church. He was baptized in the winter of 1841 in the Ohio River and received his endowments December 25, 1845. He became closely associated with the Prophet Joseph Smith and was asked to be his private bodyguard. In this capacity he saved the Prophet many times from the mob. He was forced to go to places where the mob gathered; to accept drinks, act reckless and rough in order to find out information for the Prophet's safety... The Prophet told him not to worry but to carry out his assignments and his acts would not be held against him." -- One example of Redden's "reckless and rough" activities was narrated by Nelson Slater in his 1851 Fruits of Mormonism. -- Another interesting account (of even rougher and more reckless deeds) was written by Elder William Smith, the younger brother of the Mormon leader who employed "Jack" as his personal bodyguard: "Jack Redding, the supposed murderer of Arvine Hodge, is one of Brigham Young's strikers, and has been under the protection of Young during the past summer, in Nauvoo, and is now hid there unless he has recently fled or been taken into custody. It is well known that there is a gang of murderers and thieves, whose members are scattered up and down the Mississippi river. The death of Davenport, of Arvine Hodge, and of one or two others in Iowa, has called, and justly, for an investigation of these matters. It is further well known that, since the proclamation of Brigham Young upon the stand before hundreds of people -- 'that the murderer of Arvine Hodge had done a charitable deed, that he hoped all such men as Hodge would run against just such snags, and that the man who would follow the assassin to the Mississippi was a fool' -- that since that proclamation, Jack Redding has been running at large in Nauvoo and been left unrestrained to continue his works of destruction and ravages upon his fellow men."


Vol. V.                    Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, September 27, 1845.                    No. 9.

The following items of news we have selected from an Extra,
issued from the office of the "Warsaw Signal."


We learn that a party of fourteen armed Mormons, in disguise, having their faces blackened, are about five miles from Warsaw engaged in plundering. They have swept the country of cattle, and are carrying off in teams the grain and farming utensils of the inhabitants.

Word has just come in, that the farms north of Carthage are stripped of every thing. The Devils are revelling in plunder ...

... Col. Williams, acting Brig. Gen. of 5th Brigade, Illinois Militia, has ordered his Brigade to protect the settlers, from the many plundering parties now abroad.

We learn from Nauvoo, that about 500 head of cattle have been driven in, and the Saints are butchering them and packing the beef. They evidently contemplate a seige, and are preparing to keep off famine.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, September 27, 1845.                           No. 26.

Gen. Miner R. Deming, formerly Sheriff of Hancock county Illinois, and under indictment for the murder of Dr. Marshall, at Carthage, two or three months since, died at Carthage on the 10th inst. of congestive fever.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                       Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 2, 1845.                       No. 19.

The  Mormon  Troubles.

The almost innumerable rumors that have been put in circulation during the past few weeks in relation to the Mormon disturbances in Hancock county and the great amount of positive error and exaggeration contained in most of them cannot do otherwise than mislead the people in making up their minds as to the facts in the case. We will give a few instances which will fully illustrate to our own citizens the little dependence there is to be placed on these rumors. On Sunday week, a citizen of Fort Madison wrote to his friend in this place that the Mormons had driven out the citizens from various parts of Hancock and that 200 men had taken refuge in Fort Madison. We were at Fort Madison a day or two after the letter was written and could not find that more than a dozen people from Hancock were or had been there at any one time.

A little more than a week since a gentleman brought up a petition from Lee county, which stated that the citizens considered themselves in some danger from the Mormons and prayed Governor Chambers to give them authority to raise sufficient force to act on the defensive. The Governor, in consideration of these representations autorized them to raise two companies. We have since seen a statement in one of the most respectable papers in the west -- the Missouri Republican -- which declares that a whole Brigade has been raised in Iowa, who are to act with the anti-Mormons in Illinois in ridding them of their troublesome neighbors!

We also see it stated in a document [purporting] to be a "Proclamation by the Governor of the State of Illinois," dated on last Friday, that it had been represented to him "that divers persons from Missouri and Iowa Territory threaten to invade" Illinois, &c. All these statements are gravely put forth as if true, when it is a fact that our Governor and every friend of the Territory have deprecated any interference on the part of our citizens in the troubles on the other side of the river. It is very evident that the less Iowa is identified with the present melancholy state of things existing in Illinois, the better it will be for her.

On our recent passage to and from St. Louis, we had an opportunity of obtaining the most accurate information. We believe that the multiplication of publications which have been issued by Backenstos, the pro-Mormon Sheriff of Hancock, which he calls Proclamations, and which had reached as high as No. 5, on last Friday, have been the means, in a great measure, of keeping up the excitement. He is very obnoxious to the anti-Mormons, and he has recently rendered himself still more so, by his apparent boasting in being instrumental in the death of Worrell and the other two, who were shot and inhumanly butchered and disfigured. Had it not been for the unjustifiable course pursued by some of the more reckless anti-Mormons, to revenge the attack on the school house, in burning the Mormon houses, we have no doubt that more appropriate steps would have been taken before this time, to bring the Mormons to some reasonable terms. But such incendiary acts could not be tolerated or countenanced by the great mass of anti-Mormons. Instead of receiving aid and co-operation in their attempts to drive out the Mormons, the conduct of these house burners was deprecated by all and upheld by none. The consequence was that a sympathy was expressed in behalf of the Mormons, and it has been found difficult to raise sufficient force to bring the difficulties to a legitimate issue. -- This sympathy for the Mormons would have doubtless increased, had it not been for the subsequent acts and egotistical "proclamations" of Backenstos.

The murder of much beloved citizens is more than a set-off for all the loss of property sustained by the Mormons. The subject will now be viewed in this light, and the Mormons will doubtless be held to a strict account for this unnecessary loss of life. In addition to this, the recent losses sustained by the citizens near Warsaw and Carthage in being robbed of their most valuable stock is as unjustifiable on the part of the Mormons as was the house burning by the more reckless anti-Mormons. Our friends Marsh and Ero and Adolphus Chandler have suffered very much by these depredations, A Durham Bull and Cow belonging to the former were stolen with his other stock, which cost about $500.

On our way down we saw Williams, Sharp and others of the anti-Mormons, at Churchville. We also saw the man who was wounded by Backenstos' posse. There were various rumors of reinforcements on the part of the anti-Mormons, but nothing that could be relied on. The Mormons, about 500 in number had left Warsaw when we were there on Wednesday morning last, and the citizens were returning.

On our way we learned, on pretty credible information, that Gov. Ford had given discretionary authority to Gen. Hardin to raise a sufficient force to quell all disturbance and if possible bring the whole to a peaceful termination. As a part of the force under Gen. Hardin's command; one of the light companies of Quincy took passage on the Boreas on our upward trip on Saturday night. The company was landed at Warsaw who expected to join the main body under Gen. Hardin, who were represented to been camped near Augusta.

Previous to this, several meetings had been held in Quincy, at which eloquent speeches were made by prominent men of that place and a committee was appointed to visit Nauvoo to act as pacificators between the two contending parties and see what could be done to effect the voluntary removal of the Mormons. The Mormons made a formal answer to the committee in which they propose to remove, providing sufficient time were given them to dispose of their property, with the exception of the Temple and the Nauvoo House, and all suits against them were withdrawn! -- From the spirit manfested but little good was anticipated from the interview.

We saw several gentlemen who were at Nauvoo on Saturday. They were treated respectfully, but were not allowed to go near the Temple. They learned that it was well fortified with cannon and other arms, and instead of a Temple it was actually a Fort. It is supposed that it was well stocked with provisions recently obtained from the surrounding, settlements and that if matters came to the worst they would be able to sustain something of a siege, although the whole of the wall surrounding the Temple is not yet completed.

What the action of Gen. Hardin will be, when he arrives at Nauvoo, we cannot tell. Our hope is that some amicable compromise will be entered into by which the removal of the Mormons in the spring will be guaranteed. Perhaps some of the ringleaders such as Backenstos and Brigham Young, will be required as hostages to secure the performance of the contract and ensure peace. As yet the Mormons are as five to one in comparison to the forces arrayed against them, and what ihe result will be none can tell. Another week may give us some light on the subject in the meantime we would caution the public to place little dependence on flying irresponsible rumors

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, October 4, 1845.                           No. 27.


[In Illinois]... The mob continued to burn houses up till this evening, having burnt probably from 70 to 80, and many thousand bushels of wheat, and other grain.

The Sheriff and his posse under the second proclamation, have done much towards stilling the house burners, having cured three to-day and one yesterday of mob fever. It has been said that desperate cases require desperate doses, and if the people and authorities of either counties -- Adams having already commenced operations by indictments for house burning -- join the law party, the work will be done. Writs are in course of issuing against all that have been identified in the burning, and they will be enforced, "peaceably if they can and forcibly if they must." We feel glad that the Sheriff's posse have the power, care, and laudable humanity, to spare the mobber's wives, children, houses and property. Severe mercy mingled with "cold drops," to those who have nothing but the passions of brutes, is justifiable, legal, and highly beneficial, as a warning to desperadoes, but never tamper with women, distress children, and destroy property for sport or revenge; no body but cowards, barbarians, and murderers will do it. Nor will any but the same kind of beasts justify such hellish acts.

Since the above put in type, we learn from Proclamation No. 4 that the anti-Mormons have fled into Iowa and Missouri. The Sheriff says "peace and quiet, law and order has again been restored to Hancock county." The burning of houses, grain, &c. has ceased.

The Mormons have taken and hold Carthage, Warsaw, Augusta and the principal towns of the county. The materials of the Warsaw Signal narrowly escaped falling into their hands. The difficulties in Hancock county, Illinois, between the Mormons and the anti—Mormons still continue. -- Our latest news is contained in extracts from the Nauvoo Neighbor and the Sheriff's "Proclamation No. 3" --

The Post Master at Carthage, Chauncy Robison, Esq., who is also County Recorder, was compelled to flee from Carthage with his family in order that their lives might be spared. Capt. Rose the Treasurer and Assessor of Hancock county was also expelled from his residence in Carthage and obliged to flee to some secure place with his family for safety. At Warsaw Edward A. Bedell, Esq., Post Master of that place and a Justice of the Peace of Warsaw Precinct, obliged to flee to save his life, giving him a half minute time to prepare to go. These gentlemen have been driven from their homes by force of arms, and threats of immediate death, if they offered any resistance.

*   *   *

On the night of the 16th, I raised an armed force of mounted men to march to Carthage, to rescue my family and others threatened. On entering the town we were fired upon by some of the mobbers, who instantly fled. My heart sickens when I think of the distressed situation in which I found my family, in the hands of a gang of black-hearted villains, guilty of all the crimes known to our laws. It is however due to say, that there are few of the Carthagenians and Warsaw people, who have heretofore acted with the mob faction, who are opposed to this riot, yet, up to this tine, they have not joined the standard of law and order; the families which I designed to rescue had all fled, with the exception of Mrs. Deming, the widow of the late Gen. Deming, who was of opinion that she night escape their vengeance, inasmuch as the death of her husband so recently, it was thought, had appeased their wrath against that family.

After we had entered the town persons were seen running about with fire brands. Anticipating their intention of firing their own buildings, in order to charge the same upon the posse comitatus, under my command, we immediately took steps to prevent this, by threatening to put to the sword all those engaged in firing the place.

We then directed our march towards Warsaw, and on reaching a point midway to that place, I was informed of new depredations by the mob. I sent my family to Nauvoo for safety, under a small guard, and took up a line of march in the direction of the rising smoke. On reaching a point about three miles from the rising flames, I divided the posse comitatus in order to surround those engaged in the burning; we were discovered by them. -- On our approach the mobbers took flight, the posse pursuing with directions to arrest than if possible, and to fire upon them if they would not be arrested.

The house burners retreating towards one of their strong places at the speed of their horses, a part of the posse, pursuing at full speed, and firing upon them, killing two, and wounding, it is believed, others. This occurred on Bear Creek, about two o'clock this after noon. I commanded one of the detachments in person, and authorized the person who commanded the other. As I was then satisfied that the burners had fled from that place, we directed our line of march northwardly, when we were informed of the approach of a reinforcement of mounted men, who were ordered to reconnoitre, raise the people to defend, and aid them in defending the settlement against the deprecations of the mob. he then directed our course to Nauvoo, performing a forced march of about 65 miles in the space of 20 hours.

This expedition is the first effort at resistance mob violence in the county, Since the outbreak. I have now a posse comitatus, numbering upwards of 2000 well armed men, firm and ready to aid me in suppressing the riot, and in arresting them. I am happy in informing the citizens that 2000 additional armed men hold themselves in readiness to be called out when necessary.

Note: Sheriff Backenstos' "Proclamation No. 3" is conveniently available in Niles Register for Oct. 4, 1845 and in various other on-line sources.


Vol. VII.                       Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 9, 1845.                       No. 20.

Mormon War Ended. --
Gen. Hardin in Carthage and Nauvoo. --
Carthage garrisoned. -- Removal of
the Mormons. -- Reflections.

We learn from a gentleman who was in Hancock county last week, and who spent the last Sabbath in Nauvoo, that a compromise has been effected, and that all was quiet when he left. A large meeting had been held in Carthage, composed of numerous Delegates from the surrounding counties. Various statements were made setting forth the depredations committed by the Mormons -- the insecurity of the settlers and loss of their stock, honey, &c. -- and the incompatibility of the Mormons remaining longer among them. Strong resolutions were passed, and it was finally concluded to give the Mormons time until next spring to make their arrangements to move.

In the meantime, Gen. Hardin arrived at Carthage with about 300 men. He disbanded the posse under Backenstos and subsequently marched into Nauvoo with his small force. He had a conference with the Twelve and they agreed to leave Hancock county for Vancouver's Island, or some other distant place, by the 10th of May next.

Gen. Hardin returned to Carthage and on Friday last disbanded all the infantry under his command. He retained the mounted men, about 100 in number, and intends making Carthage his Head Quarters for the present, and may continue there all winter, to protect the settlers from all danger.

Our informant. Lieut. Noble of the U. S. Dragoons, thinks the Mormons will adhere to their pledge and remove in the Spring. He attended the meeting in the Temple on Sunday last. By count it was stated that there were four thousand people within the walls at the time. During the services one of the Twelve set forth their grievances -- told the people it was necessary for them to move and put the question to them to see if they were all willing to go. They responded in the affirmative, with a deafening voice. They were told that the Temple and the Nauvoo House were to be rented, but that all their other property could be sold. If it was not all disposed of by the time they were ready to go, the Saints had friends in the south and east to whom they would give it, rather than let those by whom they had been persecuted come into possession of any of it without full compensation.

We now hope that the crisis is past, and that there will be no more disturbance in that part of the country. It is sad to look at the results that have followed in the train of this deluded people wherever they have located. The loss of life and of property on both sides is deplorable, and it seems exceedingly desirable that they should remove. They call the opposition they have met with religious persecution. We do not look upon it as such. If their belief had been founded solely on the pure principles of the Gospel and they had assumed the character simply of a religious sect, they would not have been molested. It was not against their religion, absurd as it is, that opposition has been arrayed, unless a part and parcel of that religion is to defraud, to screen murderers and thieves and prey upon those whom they are pleased to call gentiles; -- but it was in consequence of their outward overt acts of wickedness and the inconvenience and wrong suffered by those who opposed them. Their acts may be the legitimate fruits of the religion of the Latter Day Saints. The Spartans brought up their children to steal, and considered him the best who could steal the most without detection. -- The Religion of both seem to be about alike in their fruits. But such Religion can never be tolerated among our people. If it could be, the pirate, the highwayman and the murderer might be encouraged to christen theirs as religious acts and thus escape the retributions of justice. Religion, as we understand it, always implies obedience to God and benevolence to man. This definition being correct, who but themselves can call the Mormon polity Religion? It may have a mixture of religion in its composition but it is not religion -- the religion of the Bible. It is a false system under the cloak of religion, which will work mischief alike to its devotees and all who come in contact with them. The chastisement of the Mormons then is not religious persecution. It is the reward of wrong doing and not of well doing.

The Mormons are still going on with all their might in finishing the Temple and the Nauvoo House. This, with the fact that they will not sell either, looks rather ominous.

Murder  will  out.

The large reward of $2500 offered for the murderers of Col. Davenport has led quite a number of individuals to be on the alert in securing their apprehension. A week ago last Friday a gun was accidentally found in a slough whose waters had dried up, near Devil creek Bridge. This led to further examination when a pistol was also found at the same place. When the news of this discovery reached Fort Madison, the youngest son of Col. Davenport very providentially happened to be at the Perry House, on his way up from St. Louis. He asked for a description of the gun and pistol. Upon obtaining which he declared them to be those which were taken when his father was murdered. He went immediately to the place and recognized them. He had the mate of the pistol with him.

They were found near the house of the Reddings, father and son. A force was immediately obtained from Fort Madison and after considerable resistance they, with another suspicious character by the name of Young, who answered to the description of one of the murderers, were arrested. Young was subsequently, after examination, sent to Rock Island.

In the meantime Mr. Bonney, Sheriff of Van Buren county, returned from Indiana with Burch and Long who also answered to the description of some of the murderers. Burch, on his arrival at Rock Island, confessed the whole -- the means used to effect the murder and its consummation. He told where a part of the money was hidden in Lee county and was taken down for the purpose of pointing out the place. But when he arrived it was gone.

The manner in which Bonney tracked them through Ohio, from one race ground to another, and his success in their final capture, are highly applauded in the Chicago Citizen of last Thursday. It is said they answer the description exactly. The eldest one, Burch, when apprehended tore from his breast a gold chain and seal and unperceived, as he supposed, threw them to the back part of the room. It is said they proved to be the chain and seal of the murdered Colonel. The same fellow on his passage on the Lake near Chicago mysteriously got possession of Mr. Bonney's saddle bags which contained evidences of his guilt and valuable property and threw them overboard.

Another by the name of Fox was taken, but from a handbill issued by T. B. Johnson at Indianapolis, in whose custody he then was, we learn that he made his escape.

According to the confession of Burch, there is a gang of nearly one hundred, scattered through the whole northwest engaged in the nefarious business of murder and robbery. The house of the Reddings, near Devil Creek, was one of the rendezvous of the whole Mormon gang and the Hodges were frequenters of that house.

By an examination of the affidavits of the Hodges, it appears that a great number implicated as principals or accessaries in the murder of Col. Davenport, were summoned by them as witnesses! They were doubtless linked together.

On Tuesday evening the Reddings were brought up to this place by the Sheriff of Lee county to obtain a writ of habeas corpus. As the Sheriff was bringing them from the boat, some of the crew gently pushed the Sheriff on shore while the boat was starting, thus keeping the prisoners on board and leaving the Sheriff in Burlington. Those who were instrumental in doing this assured the Sneriff that the prisoners should be safely landed where they ought to be, at Rock Island. He, of course, had to submit, and make his return accordingly. No one seems one seem to regret the transaction, who knows the character of the Reddings.

From all the circumstances that have transpired, there can be little doubt that all or most of those directly engaged in this diabolical transaction as well as others, will be brought to justice, thus verifying the old adage, "Murder will out."

The people of Lee county held a Convention at Montrose last Wednesday for the purpose of requesting the Mormons in that county to remove. We have not heard the result.

Notes: (forthcoming)


ns Vol. I.                          Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, October 11, 1845.                           No. 28.


...We are happy to learn that the troubles in Hancock county, Ill. have been adjusted, and that peace and order have been restored throughout the county. -- The Mormons agree to leave the country in the spring. They go to California, where we believe their numbers will enable them to establish an empire of their own, and to live free from molestation. It will be a matter of Mormon empire to California.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 16, 1845.                         No. 21.

The  Mormons.

We have received nothing new respecting this deluded set of people. General Hardin was at Carthage with his mounted men at last dates, and we presume he will remain there some time. The Mormons have given strong pledges of their determination to move in the Spring, which they cannot fail to redeem without being driven out by force.

A meeting was held in Augusta, in this county, on the 1st inst., which declared "that a large collection of Mormons is incompatible with the peace and quiet of any community."

It was feared by the meeting that encouragement might be offered by the Mormon residents in Augusta to those whom they considered persecuted in Illinois to come to the Territory and settle with them. Such an apprehended movement was deprecated by the citizens of Augusta, and they accordingly passed strong and appropriate resolutions to prevent such a result.

The Davenport Murderers. -- We learn that three of the murderers have been tried at Rock Island and were convicted.

Mormons in Lee County. -- A large Mass Meeting was held at Montrose, on the 1st inst., by the people of Lee county. A committee appointed for the purpose, set forth the dangerous tendency of having so many Mormons as now reside in their county as neighbors, and in most appropriate and respectful language requested all the resident Mormons of Lee county to join their brethren in Nauvoo, and remove "to some point so remote that there will be no need of difficulty between the people." The causes of such requests are sufficiently abundant and are eloquently set forth in the proceedings, and we hope nothing may occur to prevent the objects of the meeting from being speedily consummated.

Sheriff Backenstos has arrived at Quincy, under the protection of Gen. Hardin, intending to deliver himself into the hands of the law. Gen. Hardin also brought to Quincy a man by the name of Baker, who had in his possession cattle which did not belong to him. He was delivered into the keeping of Sheriff Pitman. -- Mo Republican.

The Nauvoo Neighbor says the Mormons mean to make the State of Illinois pay all the damages and expenses of the Late riots. The estimated expense for destruction of property and Sheriff's posse, is put down at $100,000. Poor Suckers, you have to be taxed for every thing.

Notes: (forthcoming).

Vol. V.                            Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 16, 1845.                              No. 8?


We were in hopes to have had much of the evidence adduced in the trial of the murderers of Col. Davenport, to present our readers this week, but by an order passed by the Court, we are prohibited publishing any of it, therefore our readers will have to restrain their curiosity until such time as the Court removes its injunction. We will, however, give them all the information in relation to the arrest and trial of the murderers that we can do, without infringing upon the wishes of the Court.

The arrest of these men has produced a confidence in community in the strong arm of the law, which the recent bold and bloody achievement on Rock Island, with the escape of the villains, had tended to impair. The lives and property of men, known to possess money, were considered unsafe, so long as a horde of scoundrels were prowling about acquainting themselves with the pecuniary affairs of each person and scrupling not to commit murder for a few paltry dollars. But now that the principals in that transaction and the leaders of the great band of miscreants that infest the western country are arrested, and will shortly be brought to justice, men feel comparative security,--they feel as if the scoundrels had been deprived of their strength and that a barricade of stern justice had been thrown up between them and us. The hanging of these men, it is trusted, will be the means of scattering the organized band of unprincipled villains who for months have infested the whole western country.

The arrest of the murderers of Col. Davenport was mainly effected through the exertions of Mr. Bonney, of Lee county, in this Territory. We are not at liberty to divulge the manner in which this was accomplished, but for boldness, skill and intrepidity, it reflected much credit upon the gentleman who planned and executed it.- From the perpetration of the murder until the villains were in custody, the eye of justice ws upon them and marked the commission of every crime that stained their progress through the western States,and when they were arrested, no exultation was manifested, as it was a result that could not be otherwise from the skillful manner in which the plans had been laid. They would have been arrested sooner had they not scattered for fear of detection in some of the villanies they committed in their progress east.

On the 8th of September, William Fox was arrested by Mr. Bonney at Centerville, Wayne county, Indiana, and given in custody of a guard of six persons to be conveyed in irons to Rock Island. It has since reported that he has escaped.

On the 19th, Robert Burch and John Long were arrested by the same officer at Sandusky, Ohio, and brought by him, by way of Michigan and Chicago, and lodged in the jail of Rock Island.

Burch is a tall, spare and altogether a good looking man, of about 27 years of age. When apprehended, Burch drew from his breast a gold chain and seal and unobserved as he thought, threw them to the back of the room. They proved to be those belonging to the watch of Col. Davenport and were thus an evidence- if evidence were wanting- of his participation in the crime for which he was arrested.--In corssing the lake, Burch mysteriously obtained and threw overboard the saddlebags of Mr. Bonney, which contained much valuable information in relation to the murderers.

This Burch is a notorious scoundrel, and the same individual engaged in the robbery of an old man by the name of Mulford, of Rock Island county. Hearing of his arrest, the old man came down to see him. They immediately recognized each other, the one as the robbed, the other as the robber. Burch says that Mulford is the only man, in his career of crime that he has yet met with, whom he could not intimidate. This was one of the coolest, most impudent robberies ever accomplished and shows Burch to be a complete adept at the business. He actually sat down fronting the old man, who was tied, after having obtained his money, and cooly counted it out upon his knee. In retiring, he took down a fowling piece from over the door, but the old man, who appears to have been as collected as Burch, called him back and requested him not to rob him of his gun.- Burch promised to restore it to him again, and, we understood, informed him where he would find it. Upon his release, the old man proceeded to the spot designated where he found his gun. At his last interview with Mulford- the relative situations of the parties being somewhat changed- Burch informed him that if he lived (quite a contingency) he certainly would restore him his money.

This Burch is the same individual who boarded at Mr. Thomas Dillon's, in this place, last winter and went by the assumed name of Haines. At that time he was supposed as an honest man, although a report has since been circulated that there were those here who were privy to the fact that a reward of six or eight hundred dollars was then pending for him.

We stated two weeks since the accidental recovery of the gun and pistol of Col. Davenport, by his son near Fort Madison, at the mouth of a stream appropriately called Devil Creek. A force was immediately despatched from Fort Madison to arrest the Reddings, father and son in, whose possession the gun and pistol were found. This force met with some resistance, but succeeded in capturing them both, together with a person by the name of Granville Young, supposed to be, from the description, as has since been ascertained, one of the murderers of Col. Davenport. Young was heavily ironed and,with the Reddings, sent to Rock Island. These latter persons are accused of having harbored the Hodges the night previous to the committal of the horrible murder for which they forfeited their lives. At all events their house is known to have been a rendezvous for scoundrels of every grade.

The Sheriff of Lee county accompanied the Reddings as far as Burlington, for the purpose of obtaining a writ of habeas corpus, but as the boat was shoving off from the landing at that place, some of the crew gently pushed him ashore, assuring him at the same time that the prisoners would be safely landed where they ought to be, at Rock Island. Of necessity, he submitted and made his return accordingly.

Last Saturday week, Messrs. Gregg, Belchner and Johnson arrived at this place with John Baxter and Aaron Long in custody; they were immediately conveyed to the Rock Island jail. The former was taken at the house of his brother-in-law, Berry Haney, of Madison, Wisconsin. He has been for many years resident of Rock Island and has always borne as good a name as one in the habit of frequenting the bar-room and billiard table could bear, until his participation in this diabolical murder became known.

Long was arrested in Jo Daviess county, Ill. on the 28th ult, by Sheriff Millard of that county. They are both young men and appeared to be much depressed at their unenviable situation. Indeed, Baxter as well he might, appeared bogged down with grief. We cound not catch a glimpse of his features. Letters were found in the possession of Long from his brother, and other members of the gang of villains who have so long infested the west, couched in language which leaves no doubt of his connection with them in many of their acts of villainy. At the time of his arrest, he and his father, who is supposed to be a member of this "secret fraternity" were residing in a board shanty about six miles from Galena. Baxter, it is said, made a full confession to Messrs. Gregg and Johnson, not only of the murder of Col. Davenport, but also of the robbery of Messrs. Knox and Drury's office last summer.

Burch having disclosed to Mr. Bonney the place where he secreted the money and watch of Col. Davenport, that officer with sufficient guards and accompanied by Burch heavily ironed, proceeded to the spot designated, near Montrose in Lee county. Upon the arrival at the place where the money was buried, it was found to have been carried away. Burch was safely reconveyed to his snug quarters in the Rock Island jail.

Last week the Circuit Court for Rock Island county being in session, Hon. Thomas C Brown presiding, the Grand Jury found a bill for murder against John Long, Aaron Long, Robert Burch, William Fox, John Baxter and Granville Young. The latter two as accessories before the fact, the others as principal. The prisoners having no defence, the Court assigned Messrs. Geyer, Wilkinson, Cornwall and Thompson to defend them.

On Tuesday, John Long, Aaron Long, Granville Young and John Baxter were brought into Court, when the indictment was read tothem as their names were severally called, each plead "not guilty." The first three plead for a change of venue, but it was denied by the Court, on the ground that sufficient notice had not been given the State's Attorney. The Court then proceeded to empanel a jury for the trial of the brothers Long and Young. The latter is described as a young man of 22 or 23 years of age, of sprightly habits and an understanding quick to discern the progress of matters around him. It was not until the close of the third day that the Court succeeded in empanneling a jury. Robert Burch was one of the principal witnesses against them. The blackest villain, it is said, is always the first to turn State's evidence. He will gain nothing by the transaction further than to partly atone for the heinous crimes that he has committed upon his fellow beings.

On Friday the evidence was closed, the lawyers did the part assigned them and the jury retired. It would seem that they were not long in making up their verdict, as it was rendered after an absence of about two hours and each of the prisoners arraigned at the bar, was pronounced guilty of murder in the first degree. The judge after an impressive appeal, sentenced them to be hung on the 20th day of the present month.

The Circuit Court for Rock Island county will hold a special session commencing next Monday. Baxter and Barch will then be tried for their participation in the horrid affair, which has thrown so deep a gloom over this community.

In the foregoing we have given a running, and we believe correct account, of matters as they have thus far progressed. In our next, we will report progress of the trial, and if permitted, lay before our readers a few incidents that will interest them.

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. VII.                        Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 23, 1845.                        No. 22.

The  Mormons.

We are sorry to learn that after all the promises and assurances of the Mormons they still continue to commit depredations on their neighbors. Two weeks ago last Friday the house of Harrison Crawford, living eight miles from Warsaw was entered during the absence of the family and figled of everything except the bedsteads and a few other articles. As soon as the news reached Gen. Hardin he ordered a detachment under Col. Warren, one of his aids, to search for the stolen goods. -- The company reached the house of Smith, who lives about one mile south of Nauvoo, unobserved. Here they found several of the stolen articles. Smith, who had been previously arrested and who was in company with the notorious Backenstos, claimed to have purchased the articles from a mover the Saturday previous, but could not tell who he was or where he had gone. The detachment next went to the house of Gardner in Nauvoo, where they found some more of the goods but could not catch the man. But [at] a signal from the cupola of the Temple a large company immediately appeared, which looked like an attempt at rescue. Below we give Col. Warren's account of this matter in his report to Head Quarters. --

By this time there were assembled at the Temple, under arms, not less than 1000 or 1500 men. I moved my men on to a third house, where we found many more of the stolen goods, with six head of Thomas Crawford's cattle, a seventh having been slaughtered in the morning; two men broke out an ran, but the boys promptly leaped their horses over the fence and caught one; the other escaped. I rode into the crowd assembled and ordered them to disperse or I should be compelled to make them do so. They professed a perfect willingness to do so, and said their assembling was owing to the fact that they did not know me. They treated us with much respect and proffered me any assistance, at that or any other time, that I should be pleased to call on them. It was now 4 o'clock, and with the two prisoners and the stolen property, I moved on to this place. The prisoners I have promised to take to Warsaw on tomorrow, for examination; at which place the witnesses have been ordered to attend. Of their guilt I have no doubt, and if committed and not bailed, I shall send them on to Quincy, unless you order otherwise."

One of the houses where they found some of Crawford's property was Walton's, probably the same English Walton, who was on guard on the night the Hodges committed the murder and who testified so roundly on their behalf on the trial at this place.

About the time of this robbery, says the Warsaw Signal, two splendid horses, belonging to S. Chandler, Esq., who lives four miles from Warsaw, were stolen, with several head of cattle in the neighborhood. During the same week, Matthew Gray of Montebello was robbed of his cattle and two horses. Mr. Sprugeon of the same place was robbed of a wagon and horse.

Gen. Hardin fill in with a "saint" while crossing the prairie a few days since, by the name of King, who was driving cattle towards Nauvoo. He was questioned as to the ownership of the cattle, but not being able to give a satisfactory account of himself and pretending to be crazy, the General arrested him and took him to Quincy as a prisoner.

Such depredations are continually occurring, and it is pretty apparent that Gen. Hardin and his one hundred mounted men will find plenty of business during the winter. The idea of keeping up such a force is a good one and seems to be the only means to secure the safety of the settlers. It is, however, melancholy to think that such a measure is absolutely necessary -- that a garrison of mounted men must be kept in a civilized community for such a purpose.

In addition to the above robberies and the murder of Worrel and McBratney during the late troubles, it appears that other tragic events have occurred. By an affidavit of Orrin Rhodes it appers that he and Phineas Wilcox, went in company to Nauvoo on the 16th ult., to mill. -- He left Wilcox at the house of E. B. Jennings that night. On his return next evening he enquired for Wilcox. Jennings told him that during his absence he, Jennings, and Wilcox went to the Temple and while there a man took Jennings aside and told him that Wilcox was a spy and accused Jennings of harboring him as such. Jennings assured the man that it was not so, that Wilcox was a connection, and that he had come to the city to mill. A few minutes after, Jennings says, he saw Wilcox with three men, proceeding towards the Masonic Hall, and that was the last he saw of him. Rhodes continued to visit the city and make enquiries for Wilcox until the 26th, when he was threatened with violence. He verily believes that Wilcox was murdered and that his body is secreted.

A German by the name of Daubonheyer, was also missing during the disturbances. His body was recently found buried in a ditch near the house of a Mormon by the name of Rice, where was kept up a Mormon guard during the disturbances. It was ascertained that a ball had entered the back part of his head. The money he had with him when he left Carthage had been taken from him.

No one, after reading the above will wonder at the uneasiness that is felt by those who live in the vicinity of the Mormons. Even travelers now avoid the route leading through their settlements, and this accounts, in a great measure, for the immense amount of immigration that has crossed at this point, Burlington, during the past few weeks. There never was any thing like it before.

Lee County. -- Anti-Mormonism.

It is known to most of our readers that in consequence of the resignation of Mr. Stewart and the death of Mr. Anderson, two vacancies have occurred in the resentative delegation in Lee County. By reference to an article below it will be seen that a meeting has recently been held in Fort Madison to nominate candidates to fill these vacancies. The meeting as will be seen, was held on the compromise principle, jointly by both of the leading parties, for the purpose of showing the resident Mormons of Lee county that their presence is no longer needed in that region of country. This must bring up the subject as a test question for the voters, and all who oppose the ticket will be looked upon as either Mormons or Jack Mormons. Col. Patterson is a Democrat, and Gen. Browne is a Whig, and there can he no doubt of the successof such a ticket.

Anti-Mormon Meeting in Lee Co.

In pursuance of public notice the Anti-Mormon citizens of Lee County, without distinction of party met at the Court House in Fort Madison,on Thursday evening, 16th Oct., for the purpose of nominating Candidates to represent said County in the next Legislature. Edwin Guthrie, Esq., was chosen President, Wm. Perdew and Captain Samuel Vance as Vice Presidents and D. A. Laymon and J. G. Wickersham, Esq., Secretaries.

F. A. Walker, being called on, stated briefly the object of the meeting and submitted the following preamble and resolutions which were unanimously adopted.

Whereas, the late difficulties between the old settlers in Illinois and the "Mormons" and the numerous offences committed in this County by persons professing to belong to the "Church of Latter day Saints," has caused great excitement among our citizens; and whereas it firmly believed that the Mormons and others who do not belong to their faith cannot reside together in peace, and whereas for the purpose of preventing future violence, it is thought advisable that the Mormons and citizens of Lee County should no longer remain together, therefore.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this meeting that the public welfare requires that the Mormons should depart from this county at as early a day as practicable.

Resolved, That this meeting deprecates all acts of violence, but stamps with contempt the conduct of those sympathising individuals, who prate about the "cruelties of anti Mormonism."

Resolved, That two Anti-Mormon Candidates to represent Lee County in the next Legislature be nominated by this meeting, whose election may fully ascertain and express public sentiment on the subject of the Mormons leaving this county.

Resolved, That a committee of ten persons be appointed by the Chairman present the names of two suitable persons as candidates and report forthwith.

Resolved, That a committee of six persons be appointed by the Chair to draft an address to the citizens of the County in furtherance of the object of this meeting. The following gentlemen were appointed by the Chair as the committee to select and report the names of candidates to the meeting, viz: I’ A. Walker, David Galland, Esq., Samuel B. Ayres, Jos. A. Clark. Esq., Absalom Anderson. Esq., Samuel E. Jack, John Millikm, Esq., Isaac Le Fever, Hawkins Taylor and Samuel T. Marshall. Esq.

The committee after being absent for short time returned and reported as suitable persons to be supported as Anti-Mormon candidates for the Legislature the names of Col. WM. PATTERSON and Gen. JESSE B. BROWNE.

On motion, these nominations were unanimously confirmed by the meeting.

The President then proceeded to appoint as a committee to draft an address to the People of Lee County the following persons, to wit:

Wm. Stotts, Jesse O'Neil, Adam Hine. Lewis R. Reeves. John Burns and Henry Cattermole.

During the evening the meeting was addressed by J. C. Hall, Esq., of Burlington, Col. H. T. Reid, T. A. W alker, Ed. Johnston, Esq., Hawkins Taylor and H. E. Vrooman.

On motion of Ed. Johnston, Esq., it was unanimously

Resolved, That the members of this meeting hereby pledge themselves to use all honorable means to secure the election of the candidates nominated this evening. On motion of H. E. Vrooman, Esq.,

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the News Papers at Burlington and in the Warsaw Signal.

Whereupon the meeting adjourned without [delay].
EDWIN GUTHRIE, Pres.         
Wm. Perdew. }                        
Sam'l Cance } V. Pres.         

D. A. Laymon, }                                
J. G. Wickersham. } Secretaries.         

Notes: (forthcoming).


ns Vol. I.                      Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, October 25, 1845.                       No. 30.


Judging from what we could learn during a recent visit to Nauvoo, we believe the Mormons intend to leave that city early in the ensuing spring. They express an intention to emigrate to California. The work upon the Temple, and Nauvoo House, is progressing rapidly. we should judge that at least one hundred men are at work upon the Temple. The Mormons say it is their intention to finish both those buildings, and [leave] them as evidence of their skill and enterprise.

We cut the following from the Missouri Republican of the 14th inst:
Considerable excitement has been created, especially in the northern part of Hancock county, Ill., by the discovery of the murder of an old citizen and Anti-Mormon, by the name of Debonaire. The facts are stated to be, that Mr. Debonaire was returning from Carthage to Pontusuc, on the Mississippi, about 12 miles above Nauvoo, where he resided. He was missed for several days, when the neighbors turned out to search for him. After a search of several days, a party, on Wednesday last, came to a place where the earth seemed lately to have been disturbed. It was in the bottom of a ditch of a prairie fence. Upon examination the body was found buried a short distance below the surface. He had been shot by some one in the rear of him, the ball having entered the back part of the head, passing through the brain, and lodging under the skin of the forehead.

The body was found about midway between Carthage and Pontusuc, and from appearances, much force had been used to get it into the small hole in which it was buried. No clue had been found to the perpetrators of the offence. Other persons in the county are missing, nor has anything yet been elicited as to the fate of Mr. Wilcox.

All these things, whether they be rightfully chargeable to the Mormons or not, contributed to keep up, and spread wider and wider, the spirit of opposition to them and may, with other exciting causes lead to serious outbreaks.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, October 30, 1845.                        No. 23.


By a perusal of the followings of a meeting at Ft. Madison, it will be seen that some of the renegades at Nauvoo and the crew and passengers of the steamer Sarah Ann, had a regular pitched battle on Saturday last. Were we disposed to fan the flame that seems on the eve of breaking out and which threatens the annihilation of the mormons, we would extend our comments on this disgraceful occurrence. But we are anxious that nothing should be done to disturb the Mormons, as a body, until the time runs out in which they have promised to leave. The disgraceful transaction of last Saturday should not be visited on the whole tribe of Mormons at Nauvoo. It should be looked upon and treated as the act of individual rowdies. These, as far as they can be identified, should be given up and dealt with according to law. If the plea which they set up is sustained, and it can be proved that Bradley had no legal process to arrest Redding, that may mitigate their punishment. But as Redding is suspected to be a fugitive from justice and is charged with a capital offence, whoever screens or rescues him from the hands of the law should be dealt with severely. We believe Bradley had a regular process, for the arrest of Redding, and as he went again to Nauvoo on Monday last, we hope that he has got him in custody by this time.

Correspondence of the Hawk-Eye.

Fort Madison, Oct. 24, '45.                
Mr. Editor: -- We have a glorious scramble going on for office in the 'Empire county.' Two of our legislators have left their seats vacant and the rush for the empty places is prodigious. We have already 'six Richmonds in the field' to supply the place of Stewart and Anderson. First then, is the Anti-Mormon ticket, second the 'possum' ticket, third and last, but not least the simon pure magnum bonum democrat (?) ticket. The meeting which took up this last named ticket met yesterday evening and was a most beautiful specimen of the harmonious Democracy: It was got up chiefly by a few who were disappointed in not procuring nominations at the Anti-Mormon meeting a few evenings before, and came together without any previous notice. A very ambitious young man who has been an applicant for all vacant offices from the highest to the lowest at home and abroad, was chief cook. It is the first opportunity he has had for a long time to figure in a public meeting and he did so 'with a looseness.'

There were about twenty active in the meeting, nearly all expecting a nomination and a considerable number of spectators. The most sensible speech was made by Dr. Galland a Whig, and a number of very witty passages took place between a great office seeker named Vrooman and a Dr. Hogan of Keokuk of the 'possum party' in which the latter floored the former completely.

A motion was made to adjourn for a few days until full notice could be given to the Democracy but this was voted down, as it did not suit the views of the aspirants present. Another motion was made to adopt the democratic mode of making the nominations in the open meeting but this was also vetoed and that duty was turned over to a committee. That committee nominated two of the weakest men in Lee county, and as they are both strong locos and division men they will get but very few votes at this precinct.

Gen. Browne and Col, Patterson the Anti-Mormon candidates, are superior in every respect to any others before the people and will be elected easily.
                 Yours, &c.

                               For the Hawk-Eye.
Public Meeting.

At a meeting of the citizens of Fort Madison on Saturday evening the 23d of October. H. E. Vrooman, Esq. was called to the Chair, and Chas. S. Knapp appointed Secretary. The report of the Officers and Crew of the Steam Boat Sarah Ann, was next read by Dr J. C. Walker, which was as follows:

We, the undersigned, passengers, officers and crew of the Steam Boat Sarah Ann, on her upward trip, Oct. 25th, 1845; bear our solemn testimony to the following facts: that on landing at the Upper Stone House Wharf in Nauvoo, officer James L. Bradley, peace officer of the State of Illinois, having in his possession a warrant for one Jackson Reddin, charged with the murder of Col. Davenport in July last; said Reddin was found standing upon the shore when the boat landed -- The officer immediately arrested the said Reddin in the name of the State of Illinois and summoned all the passengers and bystanders, officers and crew to assist in placing him on the said boat; but the fellow cried for help and the crowd of Nauvoo people, in number about forty or fifty, began throwing rocks in all directions and wounded the officer and struck the assistants with canes and loaded whips, and aided the said Reddin to make his escape, actually taking him by force of arms out of the custody of the officer. One man who called himself sheriff, threw rocks and ordered the citizens to get their guns, they were commanded to fire upon the officer and boat. The officers are badly injured, having their heads cut and otherwise mangled. The gang of Nauvooites by far outnumbering the passengers and officer, and it was impossible to secure said Reddin. We hereby give as our solemn belief that it is utterly impossible to execute any writ in that city, even upon a murderer, without the loss of life to those who undertake the same.
JOHN J. SMITH. Master.
Daniel V. Darby, Clerk,
J. I. Wagoner, Engineer,
Jas. A. Pyeatt, Engineer,
Isaac N. Wagoner, Pilot,
Jas. Wilson, Pilot,
Wm. H. Kellor, Bar Keeper.

R. D. Foster,
James F. McFarland,
W. McFarland,
John R. Drabble.
George S. Moore,
Samuel Webster,
D. Hurst,
Wm. H. Denniser,
W. Allen,
W. A. Beach,
Samuel Riggs,
Daniel Edgington,
E. R. McCowe,
A. D. Robards.
Stephen Richards,
David F. Jackson,
Harman B. Keene,
George J. Shaw,
C. Snyder.

After the above statement was read the meeting was addressed by L. E. Johnson, Esq., who was followed by Mr. Bradley giving a full and candid statement of the affair which occurred at Nauvoo.

H. T. Reid, Esq., being loudly called for, addressed the citizens concerning our difficulties with the Mormons in Lee county.

On motion of Dr. V. Spalding, the meeting adjourned.
         H. E. Vroom Vn, Ch’n.
         C. S. Knapp, Sec’y.

Trial of the Murderers.

We can add but little to our general statement of last week in respect the murderers of Col. Davenport. The Circuit Court for Rock Island commenced a special session upon last Monday. That dayand until 3 o’clock on Tuesday, the Court was engaged in the tedious and monotenous business of empanneling a jury. As soon as that rather difficult undedrtaking was accomplished, the Reddings, father and son, were put upon trial as accesseries before the fact of the murder of Col. Davenport. The case was stated to Jury by the States Attorney and the fact was impressed upon the minds of the jurymen, that the object of the evidenceadduced would be to prove that these Reddings, father and son, had a knowledge of the facts and advised in relation to the murder of Col. Davenport before the perpetration of that act. If this were proved, then, according to the statutes, they were guilty of having participated in the murder of Col. Davenport. The counsel for the prisoners cautioned the jury in response, to receiving testimony of an ultra character. With this knowledge of the case to be tried imparted to the jury, they proceeded to the examination of evidence. An adjournment was made about half past five o'clock until the next morning. At 10 o'clock yesterday morning theCourt convened and continued the examination of evidence. About 12 o'clock all the available testimony being adduced, we left the Court House. -- Davenport Gaz.

Release of Budd.

Budd, the individual who was incarcerated in the Rock Island jail, soon after the perpetration of the murder of Col. Davenport on the 4th of July last, has been released from confinement and fullyacquitted in the minds of all from any connection with the gang who committedthe nefarious act. Here is another evidence added in the mountain of testimony against the law of popular impulse. Had Budd fallen into the hands of a few hot blooded men of our community before the arrest of the murderers, he would doubtless have been strung up with as littlecompunction as the same men would have entered upon the discharge of any known duty. Simply because they _thought_ that he was guilty. Because certain circum stances were against him. How criminal is such conduct. -- Davenport Gaz.

Fortunate and Singular Escape.

We learn that one day last week Mr. Bigelow, a Mormon, who lives at Pontusac, Hancock County, sent word to the commanding officer at Carthage, that threats had been thrown out and that he expected his house to be burned down by some of the ultra anti-Mormons. To prevent this, and save his property, he requested aid from the commanding officer. Col. Warren sent back word that he could not spare any of his men, but advised Bigelow to shoot down the first man who should attempt to fire his house. On reflection, afterwards, the Colonel thought he had better send the aid required. Accordingly, he detailed an officer and four men, who arrived at Bigelow's on Thursday last. Bigelow saw them nearing his house, and supposed that these were the incendiaries. He accordingly prepared to meet them. As soon as they came near the house, and before any explanation could be made, he fired a pistol and then a gun at the officer. The contents of the pistol entered the right breast of the officer, and those of the gun struck him in his left side. The soldiers, all having six barrel pistol, well loaded, as well as other arms, were in the act of rushing on Bigelow for the purpose of riddling him on the spot, when the officer, lifting up his sword, declared that he would cut down the first man who fired. Upon examination, it was ascertained that the contents of the pistol had penetrated through the thick cotton padding, and had lodged in the vest of the officer, and that the slugs from the gun had struck through his thick belt and had fallen harmless, or nearly so, into his pantaloons pocket. -- The only inconvenience experienced was that of a slight bruise and the effect of the concussion. This, if all the circumstances are true -- and we have given them as they were related to us -- is the most singular escape we have ever heard of. It was truly providential. We have not heard the name of the officer, but learn that he was one of the lieutenants attached to the Quincy Company, stationed at Carthage. The bravery, coolness and magnanimity which he displayed on the occasion, is worthy of all praise.

The last Warsaw Signal records several new acts of robbery on the part of individual "saints."

Court is now in session in Hancock county, at Carthage. Backenstos and his Deputy have been set aside from the Sheriffalty and W. D. Abernethy and T. H. Owen, appointed in their place as _Elisors._The whole array of Grand Jurors has been set aside, and a new one summoned.

J. B. Backenstos has been held to bail for the murder of Worrell, in the sum of $3,000.

WILLIAM SMITH, brother of the late Joseph, and who signs himself as Patriarch, recently issued a Pamphlet in which he says many hard things against Brigham Young, the present head of the Mormons, Taylor and Kimball. According to the Warsaw Signal, he intimates that Young was instrumental in the accomplishment of the murder of Irvine Hodges, and that the two brothers who were hung at this place 'were no more guilty than the heads of the Mormon church, who had them given up to save themselves.' If let alone these Mormons and ex-Mormons will destroy each other.

It is said that as soon as the Court adjourns at Carthage, the Governor will withdraw the guard from Carthage. -- We hope he will not do it, as the guard may be of efficient service, as it has already been, in keeping down belligerent operations on both sides.

Notes: (forthcoming).


Vol. V.                            Davenport, I. T., Thursday, October 30, 1845.                              No. 10?


We concluded our report last week with the termination of the evidence adduced in the trial of the Reddings- George Grant Redding, the father, and Wm. Harrison Redding, the son. On Wednesday afternoon, after the pleading of the lawyers and charge of the Judge, the jury retired to weigh the evidence and pronounce life or death upon two of their fellow creatures. We understand that ten of the twelve were in favor of conviction, the other two persisted in their opinions until the following day, when one of them yielded to the majority. The other could not be prevailed upon to change his mind by the arguments of his fellow jurors, consequently on Friday the jury returned to jail to await their trial at the regular term of Circuit Court in May next.

On Thursday morning the court convened and the two prisoners Burch and Baxter were brought forward for trial. By, no doubt preconcerted arrangement, Burch being first called upon, with hypocritical voice stated the summons for trial to be wholly unexpected, that he was not prepared with witnesses, etc. He was returned to jail and the Court proceeded with the trial of John Baxter. His counsel- Mr. Wells of Galena- moved that the irons of the prisoner be stricken off; the motion was overruled by the Court. Mr. Wells then protested against the shortness of time which had elapsed since the Court had ordered an extra term for the trial of the prisoners, stating that at least twenty days should have elapsed, whereas there were only eight days between the time of ordering and convening of the extra term. Considerable discussion followed this announcement which, like the former, was finally overruled and the Court proceeded to the empannelling of jurors. Little difficulty was experienced in obtaining a panel and about the middle of the afternoon the Court commenced the examination of evidence. The principal witness in behalf of the prosecution, was a man by the name of Johnson to whom Baxter, it appears, had made a free confession of his participation in the crime for which he was arraigned. We would here contradict a rumor which has found credit with many and aggravated the already too guilty conduct of Baxter, viz:- that he in company with his sister had dined at Col. Davenport's a few days prior to the murder with the manifest object of reconnoitering the premises before robbing the proprietor. Such was not the fact, the report doubtless arose from them having taken dinner at Col. D's in the month of May last. The whole conduct of Baxter in the affair betrays indecision with some glimmerings of conscience not wholly deadened by the innocence of sin. His statement shows how frail is mortal and how puissant are the passions when left unrestrained for a series of years. Friday evening the examination of witnesses being closed and the counsel upon each side having finished pleading, the jury retired. We understand that they were unanimously of opinion that the accused was guilty. The next morning the verdict of guilty was rendered by the jury and the Judge pronounced as sentence of death upon the criminal that he be hanged on Tuesday the 18th day of November, prozimo.

Yesterday we attended the execution of John Long, Aaron Long, and Granville Young and for the benefit of those of our readers who consulted their better tastes by absenting themselves from so disgusting a spectacle, we will briefly narrate some of the particulars. In the first place, two errors were committed by the Sheriff, or those having charge of the execution of those men, which we trust may be rectified another time. One was, that the spot chosen for the execution of the criminals was in the town of Rock Island and near the residence of its citizens. The other that the gallows was erected some days before the appointed one for the execution.

*   *   *

About one o'clock the prisoners, preceded by a band of music and forming the centre of a hollow square of armed men, were marched from the jail around the Court House, and to the scaffold, which they ascended and which was immediately surrounded by the guard. The sheriff then proceeded to read the sentence of the court which was to the effect that they severally be taken from the jail upon that day and be hung by the neck until dead. That the body of John Long be then delivered into the hands of Dr. Gregg, of Rock Island, for dissection; that of Aaron Long to Dr. Barrows, of Davenport; and that of Granville Young to Dr. Knox of St. Louis. The arms of the criminals were then unloosed and they were each allowed to address the assembled people. John Long spoke first and very lengthily and after a few remarks from the other two, continued his speech for about an hour. The burthen of his remarks was his own guilt and the innocence of his brother and Granville Young. He stated the true murderers of Col. Davenport to be Robert Burch, William Fox, Theodore Brown and himself, and declared that if death be meted out to any other person for that murder it would be done unjustly. Fox, he said, shot Col. D. which, however, was done unintentionally. He himself brought up the pitcher of water for the wounded man to drink, while Burch plundered him of his watch. He accused E. Bonney of many crimes and as being accessory to the murder of the Germans, for which the Hodges suffered death, and cited those present to Mr. Loomis, proprietor of a tavern in Nauvoo and Dr. Williams of the same city as evidence of his crimes. Shall he be allowed to escape and a boy like Granville Young be punished?

About the year 1840, desiring to live above the station in life which his parentage placed him and having a desire to cut a figure in the world, Long connected himself with a gang of counterfeiters under Bridges, a man now lying in irons in the Ohio penitentiary, and whom he visited about two months since. In the year 1842 a general explosion of counterfeiting establishments occurring throughout the Union, being too proud to work he betook himself to robbing for a living. The one for which he was about to suffer, he stated, being the first robbery that he ever committed which was attended by cruelty of any kind; a victim, he continued, being as safe with his pistol to his breast as if guarded by a regular officer of justice. Although many times arrested for robberies yet- and it was a beautiful comment upon the general loose manner of eliciting testimony- he always escaped punishment. As part of his experience, and to illustrate which he cited many authorities, he stated that the general tendency of what is termed Lynch law was to make of honest men robbers and murderers, and that it was owing to the frequency which western men took the law into their own hands and administered punishment upon innocent men, that so many murders abounded throughout the west. As one instance stated that Fox, the murderer of Col. Davenport, was always an honest man until he was unjustly classed and punished with a band of horse thieves at Belleview, Jackson county, Iowa, in the year 1840. Will not those persons, who are advocates of this summary method of administering justice, as it is termed, take seriously into consideration the reflections of this malefactor?

As an important part of his confession he stated that he had desired of his counsel the privilege of confessing in court his own guilt and freeing his brother and Granville Young form all participation in the horrible deed. This his counsel refused because it would incriminate himself. In making his statement Long appealed to one of his counsel then upon the stand who nodded his head in token of assent. We suppose that they did their duty as lawyers by thus acting, but did they act the part of conscientious and upright men? If it subsequently be proven that Aaron Long and Granville Young were innocent of the charge for which they yesterday suffered upon the scaffold, and which during his remarks John Long so vehemently and repeatedly protested to be the fact, what must be the feelings of the prisoners counsel when they reflect upon their instrumentality in hastening those young men to an untimely grave?

In the whole of his remarks John Long betrayed the hardened and impenitent wretch. Remorse and contrition appeared to be swallowed up in the desire to be considered a hero in his last moments- to step off the stage of action with a proud bearing, that it might be afterwards said that John Long was no coward. His profession of robber had taught him to esteem cowardice as the worst passion ever betrayed by man and he sought to impress this idea upon the minds of those who listened to him. He appeared in his last moments to glory in the deeds that he had committed and to lament that his profession was about to lose one of its brightest constellations. As for eternity; his ideas of futurity extended no further than the bounds of the gallows upon which he stood. He feared not death and in the face of his offended God, stood before that audience and made his boasts of the fact. If ever a man deserved death, John Long, from his own statements, was that man.

But what shall we say of Aaron Long and Granville Young, they in whose innocence John Long persisted and who in their own limited remarks with tears declared the statement of John Long to be true?- They were tried in company with one who has confessed himself a participant in the murder of Col. Davenport, at a time of general excitement, and before a jury who from the nature of circumstances and as honorable men, must have been prejudiced more or less against the criminals. The testimony against Granville Young was chiefly given by Bonney and consisted mainly in the fact that he, Young, had stated to Bonney whilst on a steamboat and a perfect stranger to him, that he knew Fox, Burch and Long to be the murderers of Col. Davenport. Why were they then not tried separately? Will not the same reasons which caused those me to be tried together be apply equally well to the trial of Burch and Baxter?

One statement of John Long deserves to be remembered, and by the youth to be constantly borne in mind. He said that during his confinement in prison under sentence of death, he had had time for reflection and that the had reviewed his life from his infancy to the present time and hand then asked himself, at what period of his life was he most happy? The answer was, only during that period in which he led an honest life.

As a last request John Long desired that the bodies of himself and brother be given to his friends, who were then present, and conveyed to his parents that they might look upon the mortal remains of their only children. A beautiful and impressive prayer then was offered up to the Throne of Grace by Dr. Gatchell, after which, at the request of the prisoners, the 139th Psalm was read. The convicts then passed around on the scaffold and shook by he hand each person present. Their arms were then confined behind, the ropes adjusted around their necks, caps drawn over their faces, and at a stroke from the axe of the Sheriff, the drop fell. The rope attached to the neck of Aaron Long broke and he fell heavily upon the boards beneath the gallows. A sympathy was immediately created in favor of the criminal, who was led upon the scaffold in a very weak state, pleading in heart-rending tones that his life be spared. Some cried out, "Let him go!" others, "Let the law be fulfilled!" "Murder!" "Make haste!" and finally a panic seized the multitude- who were under the impression that a rescue had been attempted and that they were in danger of being shot- and they fled in all directions, men, women and children, while to aggravate the evil teams dashed pell-mell through the crowd, but, as it providentially happened, not a person was hurt and no accident occurred save the breaking in pieces of one wagon. Hats, shawls, chairs, and not a few shot guns belonging to the brave rifle company, who guarded the prisoners, were afterwards picked up on the field of bloodless confusion. The rope was quickly adjusted about the neck of Aaron Long, the plank upon which he stood knocked from under him and his cries were hushed in the spasmodic efforts of a dying man.

John Long fell motionless, nor moved not, as though determined previously that nothing should cause him to display the least sympathy of cowardice. The other two displayed signs of animation for some minutes afterwards.

We left the ground fully established in the conviction with which we have long been impressed, that capital punishment is a relic of barbarism, tending to the corruption of the community wherein practiced, and that sooner it be abolished and imprisonment for life substituted, the more speedy will be murder and crimes of magnitude cease to be common occurrences.

Notes: (forthcoming).


ns Vol. I.                      Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, November 1, 1845.                       No. 31.


The jury in the case of Reddings -- father and son -- did not agree, eleven being for conviction and one against. Baxter -- who was the frequent recipient of favors from Col. Davenport, and who gave information to the gang as to how they should enter the house, and where the money was generally kept -- has been sentenced to to be hung on the 18th of this month. -- Birch -- the chief villain of the gang -- is used as a witness against his comrades. He probably expects to save his own neck from the halter by this course. Fox has not been retaken.

The two brothers, John and Aaron Long, and Young, we are informed, left behind him a written confession.... We are told that upon the scaffold he asked for Bonney -- a person who arrested him -- and upon being told he was not present, replied, "That knocks fifty pages out of my speech." We are told, that he accuses Bonney of former participancy with him in counterfeiting, &c. He fully avowed his own guilt, but, to the last, declared the innocence of his brother and Young -- who died also protesting their entire innocence. Immediately after he was "swung off," the rope broke and precipated Aaron Long to the ground. He was much injured by fall, but was taken back upon the scaffold, and hung with tie ropes, amid his earnest protestations of innocence and prayers for life.

The execution was attended by the usual concourse of people, whose understandings were, we supposed, duly enlightened, and feelings refined. It seems to have been a painfully disgusting, appalling and demoralizing spectacle -- such as should be allowed in no country making the least pretence to refinement and civilisation. The figure which represents Justice as blind is not without its meaning, and in such grave matters as involves the life or death of a fellow being, the officers of justice and the people, should learn to act soberly, discreetly and wisely, and not in the turbulence of excited passion.


[A warant] was lately issued from the Rock Island county court against a young man by the name of Redding, who is charged with being an accomplice in the murder of Col. Davenport, and who is son and brother of the two already in confinement upon the same charge. Redding resides in Lee county, and this territory, and it was near the house of the family that the shot gun and pistol of Col. Davenport were recently found.

The Reddings are, we believe, known to be connected with the gang, and the warrant for the arrest of the one just rescued at Nauvoo was placed in the hands of a gentleman from Burlington, who sent word to young Redding to meet him at Nauveo, on the upward trip of the Sarah Ann, as he wished to make some arrangements with him for bailing his and (Readings) father and brother, on the return of the Sarah Ann, Redding was seen at "the stone house," in Nauvoo, and the gentleman who had the warrant went ashore and after conversing with him a few moments, invited him on board the boat, Redding advanced to the end of the plank and refused to go any farther, whereupon he was duly arrested, and the officers endeavored to convey hin on board, and called upon the people for aid. A large crowd of Mormons assembled, and instead of obeying the call, assailed the officer with stones and other missiles, and finally succeeded in rescuing the prisoner, and conveying him away. During the affray two pistols were discharged upon the assailants, one of which is supposed to have wounded the prisoner. A hat believed to have been his, but belonging, at any rate, to some of the Mormon pang, was picked up in the river, and found to be pierced by a bullet. None on board the Sarah Ann were injured, though the Mormons severely assailed her with rocks and threatened to sink her. --

We learn that Dr. Foster, formerly of Nauvoo, and a man of some notoriety in this section from his former connections with, and recent denunciation of the Mormons, was on board the boat, but so disguised that, at first, he was unknown to the Mormons. He aided in making the arrest, and fired the pitol which is supposed to have wounded Redding.

Note: "The Reddings are, we believe, known to be connected with the gang" -- The Redding (or Reddin) family were near neighbors of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, during the Mormon leaders' brief residence at Hiram, Ohio. Smith lodged with the John Johnson family there. The neighboring farm on the east was that of Symonds Ryder. The Reddings lived a few hundred yards east of Ryder (see 1832 Hiram property owners map).



Vol. IV.                        Iowa City, I. T., Wednesday, November 5, 1845.                       No. 39.


The last act of rascality which has come to our knowledge, as having been perpetrated by these people, was a successful attempt at rescuing young Redding, charged with having been an accomplice in the murder of Col. Davenport. Redding had been arrested at the "stone house," in Nauvoo, but while he was being conveyed abroad of a steamer, in order to his removal to Rock Island for trial he was rescued by the Mormons, and and the boat was [obliged to] put out into the middle of the river, under a [sharp] shower of stones from the shore.

Recent developments have been made to relation to the secret doings of the sect, by William, brother of the late Jo Smith, who, as our readers will recollect, was annointed Patriarch after the death of the Prophet. He accuses Brigham Young, the present head of the Mornons, and others of their leaders, with being instrumental in the murder of Irvine Hodges, and says that the two brothers who were hung at Burlington, protesting their innocence, "were no more guilty than the heads of the Mormon church, who had given up to save themselves."

The more we see and hear of these people the better we are convinced of the preponderance of rascality among them, in their communication with their neighbors, and that a state of voluntary peace cannot exist at any one tine, between them and the community by whom they are surrounded. It seems that even the presence of an armed soldiery is not sufficient to restrain their pilfering propensities.

Nearly every mail from the south brings us accounts of robberies -- not single, but frequent -- murders, missing horses and cattle, as well as missing men, the detail of which would be as sickening to our readers as revolting to ourselves.

Such a state of things cannot long exist. We should not wish to be understood as saying that all the inhabitants of this city "saints" are rascals; but if honest men have been deluded into connecting themselves with the Mormons, why, in view of all these facts, do they still remain among them? The hope, if any is entertained by them of recovering their property, of which many of them have been most obligingly disencumbered, is doomed to disappointment.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                         Burlington,   I. T., Thursday, November 6, 1845.                     No. 24.

Davenport  Murderers.

The trials of George G. Redding and W. H. Redding, father and son, for participation in the murder of Col. Davenport, took place during the setting of the Court at Rock Island. The Jury hung; 11 being for conviction and one for acquital. On Thursday Oct. 23d the trial of Baxter took place and he was found guilty and sentenced to be hung on the 18th of this month. Burch, who was the principal witness against him has had his trial postponed. We give from the Davenport Gazette an account of the Executions of the 29th ult. [not transcribed]

Lee  County  Election.

Correspondence of the Hawk-Eye.
Fort Madison, Nov. 5, 1845.              
Mr. Editor: -- The fight is over and 'Anti-Mormonism' has the victory. Patterson and Browne are elected, and Jack Mormonism, alias Possumism, and the Lee County Democrat party, are in despair. The simon pure magnum bonum democratic ticket is "nowhere" and the long headed and acute politicians who nominated it feel and look about this time remarkably foolish.

I think the recent demonstration of public opinion in the election of Browne and Patterson and defeat of the Lee Co. Democrat, will leave the 'Mormons' without encouragement, and their departure at an early day in the Spring may be expected. It is their true, policy and will prevent trouble in future. There is every disposition in this county to permit them to depart in peace and the excitement which has sprung up here arose from the vain and unworthy attempt of a few 'demagogues' to induce them to remain, that they might use them hereafter for their own selfish purposes.
                           Yours, &c.

==> There will be a large meeting of Anti Mormons from Lee and Des Moines counties, at Augusta, on Saturday next.

WILLIAM SMITH, brother to the late Prophet, is now delivering lectures in St. Louis. His exposures of the rascality of the Twelve are listened to by large audiences.

Notes: (forthcoming)



ns Vol. I.                      Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, November 8, 1845.                       No. 32.

...We learn from the Lee County Democrat that Bonney, -- the captor of Birch, Fox, Young, and John Long, the murderers of Col. Davenport -- is under an indictment in Lee County for counterfeiting.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                   Burlington, I. T., Thursday, November 13, 1845.                     No. 25.

Mormon  News.

The Warsaw Signal of the 5th states that E. A. Bedell and Bishop Miller were sent the preceding week by the brethren to Springfield to see the Governor. Major Warren also went. The Mormons desire the Governor to withdraw the Hancock guard -- but he has refused to do so. We notice more cases of stealing. The store of Mr. Warren of La Harpe, was broken open and goods worth about $75, were stolen. Sales of Mormon property have been effected in a few instances. We have heard of one case where the Mormon exchanged eighty acres of land for a yoke of oxen and waggon. -- Hancock county is one of the best in the State and the opportunities are now presented to persons who desire to purchase. James Arlington Bennett was at Nauvoo at last advices. The Nauvoo Neighbor has been discontinued. A few weeks since a number of Mormon buildings were burned by the Mormons themselves, it is said, to create sympathy on account of their oppressions. J. B. Backenstos, the ex-Sheriff, is running at large, though indicted for murder. He has obtained a change of venue to Peoria county. We have not heard of the arrest of Redding who lately escaped from his captors at the holy city. It is said that the Mormons have no communication with the gentiles at all; denying their entrance into the city, no matter from what quarter they come.

Vancouver's Island, the rumored destination of the Mormons, is on the N. W . coast of America and is about 300 miles in length and 85 in width. It is separated from the main land by a narrow strait and lies between the 47th and 52nd degrees of north latitude. We opine the Saints will find their new promised land, rather cold ahd bleak. It is inhabited by Indians.

It is said that Irvine Hodges, out of fear of his confessing, was killed by Jack Redding.

The Daveport Murderers.

The following particulars relative to the murder of Col. Davenport, taken from a pamphlet lately published at the Gazette and Advertiser office, Galena, may be relied upon is correct.

"It seems that the robbery of Col. Davenport had been long in contemplation, and was a favorite scheme with many members of "the gang." He was known to be immensely rich, and it was supposed, kept large amounts of money on hand at Rock Island. Birch, however, who had been a good deal about Rock Island and Davenport, had obtained some knowledge of Col. D.'s monetary affairs, and was of opinion that he kept his money in St. Louis, and never had much at Rock Island. Birch, therefore, with his usual caution and calculation of chances and profits, was at first opposed to the enterprise, but the arguments drawn from the fertile imaginations of his co-adjutors, who pictured in glowing colors the certainty of making a raise of thirty thousand dollars, in American gold and Missouri paper, as the result of this _"rulge"_ upon Colonel Davenport, finally brought him over.

Robert Birch, William Fox, John Long and Aaron Long, with others confederating with them, having talked this matter over at Nauvoo, and finally determined upon the enterprise at old Redin's on Devil creek, went to Fort Madison to take a boat going up the river. On the 27th day of June they took the steamboat Osprey, and proceeded up the river, above Rock Island, and landed at Albany, Illinois. They immediately proceeded out back of Albany eight or nine miles and encamped in the woods. They had heard of a man by the name of Miller, out there, who was supposed to have money, and Fox went there and staid all night. In the morning, he offered Miller a ten dollar Missouri bill to change, but he had not money enough to change it, so that enterprise was given up as a bad speculation. They therefore came back to Albany in the night and stole a skiff and came down the river to the island of Rock Island, and landed on the Illinois shore, and encamped on the bluff, opposite the Island where they remained until the 4th. Aaron Long went to Rock Island and purchased the provisions which they consumed during the three or four days they were encamped. John Long was in town on the 3d of July, and purchased whiskey. They sent one of their number for John Baxter, who lived at Rock Island. He met them on the bluff, back of J. W. Spencer's, and there they talked the robbery over, and finally matured their plans.

The 4th of July was the day fixed upon for the consumation of the act, as it was supposed the family would on that day all be gone from home. Baxter was to ascertain this and inform them. At 11 o'clock, on the 4th, Baxter went up and told them that the family had all left, and that the old Colonel was alone on the Island. At one o'clock. Fox, Birch, John Long and Aaron Long went down to the river, took the skiff they had stolen at Albany, and passed over to the Island. -- Birch, Fox and John Long proceeded to the house. Aaron Long was left behind to watch out. The house is situated on the northern slope of the island, and commands a full view of the river on the Iowa side of the Island, and also of the beautiful town of Davenport. The old gentleman was sitting in his parlor. He heard a noise and went to the door to see what it was. Three men -- Birch, Fox and John Long -- came rignt upon him. Long said to Fox. 'Take him, Chunkey.' (Chunkey being the name by which Fox was known among his companions in crime.) Fox then advanced and shot him through the left thigh -- the ball passing entirely through. They then blindfolded him with Fox's red handkerchief, and bound him with some bark. They then demanded his money, took him by his stock and collar and dragged him up stairs, traces of his blood being left all the way. They then took him into a closet, where his safe was, and made him unlock it. They thought he had more money than they found there and choked him to make him tell where it was, until he fainted. They then threw water upon him, and brought him to. He then pointed to a secret drawer, in which there was more money, but they could not find it. They then choked him, and he fainted again, and was again brought to. A consultation was then held whether they should kill him. One proposed to kill him, and another proposed to kill him and burn the house, but the man who shot, (Fox.) as Col. D. thought, opposed it. They then left suddenly, from seeing a skiff, as is supposed, approaching the house. They took about six hundred dollars in cash, a splendid gold watch, seal and chain, a gun and pistol. They then went back to their skiff, crossed back to the Illinois shore, and went up to where they had encamped. They there buried two coats in the leaves. That night they passed over to Wilson's Ferry, on Rock River, eleven miles. There they stole a skiff, went down Rock River some distance, and took over to New Boston hy land. At New Boston they stole another skiff, and proceeded in it to Nauvoo. From thence they passed over to old man Redin's, on Devil Creek, where they arrived on the 8th of July, four days after the murder. The next day Harry Redin and Granville Young went over to Nauvoo to hear the news about the murder. They returned the same evening, and reported that they had seen an advertisement, stating that Davenport had died, giving an accurate description of John Long and Fox, and offering $1,500 reward. The news alarmed them very much. They immediately made some division of the spoils. John Long went out and hid the gun and pistol. John Long, Birch and Fox started right off to Fort Madison, to take a boat down the river. Aaron Long remained over night, and started early the next morning for his father's at Cascade. Baxter remained some time in Rock Island, and then left, and went up near Madison, Wisconsin."

Notes: (forthcoming)



ns Vol. I.                      Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, November 15, 1845.                       No. 33.


Bad councils seem destined to prove the ruin of the Mormons. Instead of quietly making their arrangements for leaving in the spring, they are again found arrayed in opposition to the authorities of the State. We recently mentioned the rescue of Redding from the officers by a gang of Hormone at Nauvoo, and it seem: that other violations of law occurred about the same time.

On Saturday, the 25th u1t., Sheriff Backenstos was arraigned for murder and obtained a venue to Peoria county. After the adjournment of the Court, Judge Purple, Mr. Bayman the State Attorney, and Col. Warren, the officer in command of the forces in Hancock county, started for Nauvoo, and on their way encountering a body of about 200 armed men who have no satisfactory reason for being found armed. On reaching Nauvoo these gentlemen summoned the Twelve and enquired why the people were armed.

We learn that, in reply to these questions, Brigham Young and J. Taylor declared it was the intention of the Mormons to allow no more arrests to be made in Nauvoo. During the conference, an officer arrived with a warrant for the arrest of Brigham Young for being engaged in manufacturing [bogus] money, but owing to the hostile disposition of the Mormons, the arrest was deferred.

Warren departed immediately for Carthage for the purpose of raising a sufficient force to enable the civil officers to make arrests and perform their duty. He is said to be an active energetic officer, and will, doubtless, immediately quell this fresh insubordination. A new [bogus] factory belonging to the twelve apostles is said to have been been recently discovered.

The Mormons have been stimulated to this fresh outbreak by a certain braggart calling himself "General James Arlington Bennet, of Arlington House Long Island," who formerly held a commission in the Nauvoo Legion, and received the degree of L. L. D. from the University of Nauvoo. He has been telling his Mormon friends how much he could effect for them [in] 25 or 30 pieces of cannon, and a few thousand armed men. The men should be taught to mind his own business -- if he has any. We believe nothing has been heard from the Mr. Wilcox who recently disappeared so suddenly and mysteriously at Nauvoo.


It is now said, that Nootka or Vancouver's Island, on the northwest coast of North America, is to be the final destination and home of the Mormons. This Island is about 500 miles in length and from 60 to 100 in breadth. It is separated by a long narrow strait from the main land and lies between the 47th and 52d degree of north latitude. The English have one or two trading posts on the Island, but for the most part it is occupied by Indians of not a warlike disposition.

The Quincy Whig says: -- "It is a long journey, but can be accomplished. If the Mormons do emigrate to that distant land, they will be out of the reach of harm from white men, and may enjoy quiet until the devil breeds his own discord: and confusion among then. We understand that companies are rapidly organizing at Nauvoo, for an early start in the spring. The church authorities and leading men will go out in a very large company, and without doubt the remainder will follow."

Notes: (forthcoming)

Vol. VII.                   Burlington, I. T., Thursday, November 20, 1845.                     No. 26.


A pamphlet has just been published at St. Louis by O. Olney one of the Mormon Elders, from which we glean the following items in a condensed form. He says he found Nauvoo a sink of iniquity yet all are not so practicing, upon their own judgment, for hundreds have such confidence in the Twelve that they believe if they commit any sin at their command and counsel it will lie at the door of the Twelve. The building of the Nauvoo house is wholly abandoned. A desperate effort is making to finish the Temple, though thousands of the tithing are appropriated to the subsistence of the Twelve, the bishops and their prostitutes. The Twelve often meet in council and on such occasion Olney saw three revolving pistols on the table. The houses of the Twelve are guarded at night in order to prevent any intruders from entering. -- Their influence is so great that they have but to speak the word, and no crime however horrible, no act however mean or degrading but will be executed by their assistants. He has heard High Priests say if any gentile comes in the way the best method is to put him 'out of the way' as quick as possible, and this some of these deluded beings think is no sin. -- One of Brigham Young's sayings is 'The bible is no more to the people of this generation than a last year's almanac, for I am all the bible needful for this people now, if they will obey my counsel.' We close with the following extract:
Another heart rending fact in the present history of Nauvoo is, that hundreds of honest hearted females are there, who have no means with which to get away, and scarce any means of subsistence there, except at the expense of virtue, and who are continually subject to the importunities of those fiends in human shape who, after having gratified their passion for lust, will straight way upon the public stand, declare before God and the angels, that no system of spiritual wifery is practiced or tolerated by them, when perhaps some of their victims are at the very time upon their knees in secret, beseeching God to forgive them for yielding in an unguarded moment to their seducers, and to open a way for their escape from the folds of their destroyers; that, perchance, by a life of morality, virtue and piety, they may atone for the weakness of a moment, and at last gain an inheritance with the saints of God.

E. Bonney, the person who was no efficient in arresting the Davenport murderers, has written a letter to the editor of the Advertiser of Rock Island in reply to the various rumors in circulation in regard to him. He complains of editors who have endorsed the statements of felons upon the gallows -- says that he intends to have the cases for which he is indicted removed to Burlington and threatens legal redress upon all who have slandered him.

Nauvoo. -- A friend who was at the holy city informs us that all is peaceable and quiet there -- that the saints are making preparations to remove -- but at the same time are finishing the Temple, putting in the carpets, &c., and intend to hang a bell and when all is completed will endeavor to rent it to some respectable society.

We learn by a gentleman from Appanoose, Ill., that a Mr. Moffit, living south of Nauvoo, had two of his horses shot, one of which died shortly afterwards. It is supposed to be the act of the Mormons. -- Lee Co. Dem.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, November 20 ?, 1845.                          No. ?

It is well understood in the vicinity, that John Long and Granville Young made hard charges against me, when on the scaffold and upon the verge of eternity, in reply to which I shall make a brief statement, of facts and which will hereafter be substantiated by legal testimony. Soon after the conviction and sentence of John Long, Aaron Long and Granville Young, S. Haight of Keokuk, I. T., made his appearance at the jail of Rock Island, and was permitted to have an interview with the prisoners. He met them as an old acquaintance, and extended to them the hand of friendship, on the most familiar terms. After a lengthy interview with these prisoners, Haight left, went immediately to Fort Madison in Lee County, I. T., where the court was then in session, thence to Nauvoo, and procured some witnesses, headed by William A. Hickman a fugitive from justice, from Iowa, who has served one term in the Alton Penitentiary and has twice been chased from Missouri into Nauvoo, with stolen horses, within the last few months. These witnesses were privately and unknown to the officers of court slipt into the grand jury room, and there by base perjury caused to be found four separate bills of indictment against me. One on a charge of the murder of Miller and Leicy, for which the Hodges were executed, -- one for having in my possession a machine called a Bogus press, at Montrose, and two for selling counterfeit money to Granville Young.

All of this was done without the jury having any knowledge of the character of the witnesses before them.

Haight immediately employed a man to go to the Governor of Illinois with a requisition from the Governor of Iowa, and an application for respite for Young, and perhaps for the two Longs, under pretence of making witnesses of them against me, with the arrangement that the respite should be at Rock Island, on the day of execution, in time to save the criminals, also to arrest me.

In view of this arrangement with the prisoners, John Long and Young uttered the foul charges against me and made loud appeals to the people, calling for me in the crowd, expecting the officers, to step forward with the writ, for my arrest, and respite for the prisoners, but all to no purpose, the fatal hour arrived, -- the cord was secured, -- the drop fell and with it Aaron Long to the ground, whilst John Long and Young were launched into eternity. Aaron Long being taken back to the scaffold, seeing his brother and Young hanging lifeless confessed for the first time his knowledge of the crime and thereby, giving the lie to all his and John's former statements. I would to God that the ropes of John Long and Young had broke, if it would have extorted from them as it did from Aaron one sentence of truth before they took their final exit.

Having received information of the charges made against me at Fort Madison, I left on steamer St. Croix, the day previous to the execution for that place to meet the charges. After the necessary arrangements for defence, I returned to this place on Monday last after an absence of seven days; I mentioned this to give the public the reasons for my absence on the day of execution, a circumstance I very much regretted.

Note: The date for this clipping has not yet been confirmed.



ns Vol. I.                    Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, November 22, 1845.                    No. 34.

...In our account of the recent execution at Rock Island we mentioned that John Long, on the gallows, preferred grave charges against Mr. Bonney, the person who arrested them. We have also stated that Bonney is under indictment in Lee county for counterfeiting and having no disposition to do Mr. B. injustice, we publish the material portion of his reply to these charges: --

"Soon after the conviction and sentence of John Law [sic - Long?], Aaron Law and Granville Law, S. Haight of Keokuk, I. T., made his appearance at the jail of Rock Island, and was permitted to have an interview with the prisoners. He met then as old acquaintances, and extended to them the hand of friendship, on the most familiar terms. After a lengthy interview with these prisoners, fiaight left, went immediately to Fort Madison, in Lee County, I. T., when the court was than in session, thence to Nauvoo and procured some witnesses headed by [Wm. ?] A. Hickman, a fugitive from justice, from Iowa, who has served one term, in the Alton penitentiary and has twice been chased from Missouri into Nauvoo, with stolen horses, within the last two months. These witnesses were privately, and unknown to the officers of the court, slipped into the grand jury room, and their [there by?] base perjury caused to be found four separate bills of indictment against me -- one on the charge of the murder of Miller and Leicy, for which the Hodges were executed, -- one for having in my possession a machine called a Bogus press, at Montrose, and two for selling counterfeit money to Granville Young.

All of this was done without the jury having any knowledge of the character of the witnesses before them. Haight immediately employed a man to go to the Governor of Illinois with a requisition from the Governor of Iowa, and an application for respite for Young, and perhaps for the two Longs, under [the] pretence of making witnesses of them against me, with the arrangement that the respite should be at Rock Island, on the day of execution, in time to save the criminals, also to arrest me. In view of this arrangement of the prisoners, John Long and Young uttered the [following?]charges against me and made loud appeals to the people, calling for me in the crowd, expecting the officer to step forward with the writ of my arrest, and the respite for the prisoners, but all to no purpose, the fatal hour arrived -- the cord was secured -- the drop fell, and with it Aaron Long to the ground, whilst John Long and Young were launched into eternity. Aaron Long being taken back to the scaffold, and seeing his bother and Young hanging lifeless confessed for the first time his knowledge of the crime and thereby, giving the lie to all his and John's former statements.

I would to God that the ropes of John Long and Young had broke, if it would have exerted from them, as it did from Aaron, one sentence of truth before they took their final exit from the shores of time."

Note: A slightly lengthier (and more accurate) text was published in the Davenport Gazette of Nov. 20th. For more details see the Lee County Democrat of Nov. 29th and Bonney's own 1850 book, Banditti of the Prairies, pp. 218-221.



Vol. V.                    Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, November 29, 1845.                  No. 19.


A few weeks since we published the statement of John Long, one of the criminals who a short time since was executed at Rock Island for the murder of Col. Davenport, which we copied from the Davenport Gazette, in which he made some very heavy charges against Mr. Bonney, the gentleman by whom the prisoner was arrested and by whose testimony he was convicted. To which Mr. Bonney replies through the same paper, as follows: --
It is well understood in the vicinity, that John Long and Granville Young made hard charges against me, when on the scaffold and upon the verge of eternity, in reply to which I shall make a brief statement, of facts and which will hereafter be substantiated by legal testimony. Soon after the conviction and sentence of John Long, Aaron Long and Granville Young, S. Haight of Keokuk, I. T., made his appearance at the jail of Rock Island, and was permitted to have an interview with the prisoners. He met them as an old acquaintance, and extended to them the hand of friendship, on the most familiar terms. After a lengthy interview with these prisoners, Haight left, went immediately to Fort Madison in Lee County, I. T., where the court was then in session, thence to Nauvoo, and procured some witnesses, headed by William A. Hickman a fugitive from justice, from Iowa, who has served one term in the Alton Penitentiary and has twice been chased from Missouri into Nauvoo, with stolen horses, within the last few months. These witnesses were privately and unknown to the officers of court slipt into the grand jury room, and there by base perjury caused to be found four separate bills of indictment against me. One on a charge of the murder of Miller and Leicy, for which the Hodges were executed, -- one for having in my possession a machine called a Bogus press, at Montrose, and two for selling counterfeit money to Granville Young. All of this was done without the jury having any knowledge of the character of the witnesses before them. Haight immediately employed a man to go to the Governor of Illinois with a requisition from the Governor of Iowa, and an application for respite for Young, and perhaps for the two Longs, under pretence of making witnesses of them against me, with the arrangement that the respite should be at [Rock] Island, on the day of execution, in time to save the criminals, also to arrest me. In view of this arrangement with the prisoners, John Long and Young uttered the foul charges against me and made loud appeals to the people, calling for me in the crowd, expecting the officers, to step forward with the writ, for my arrest, and respite for the prisoners, but all to no purpose, the fatal hour arrived, -- the cord was secured, -- the drop fell and with it Aaron Long to the ground, whilst John Long and Young were launched into eternity. Aaron Long being taken back to the scaffold, seeing his brother and Young hanging lifeless confessed for the first time his knowledge of the crime and thereby, giving the lie to all his and John's former statements. I would to God that the ropes of John Long and Young had broke, if it would have extorted from them as it did from Aaron one sentence of truth before they took their final exit.

Having received information of the charges made against me at Fort Madison, I left on steamer St. Croix, the day previous to the execution for that place to meet the charges. After the necessary arrangements for defence, I returned to this place on Monday last after an absence of seven days; I mentioned this to give the public the reasons for my absence on the day of execution, a circumstance I very much regretted.
The statement made by Mr. Bonney in regard to what Aaron Long had said, previous to his being taken back the second time upon the scaffold, does not appear to be corroborated by the statement given by the Rev. E. S. Byron, who, at the time was a spiritual adviser of the unfortunate prisoner, and who gives the following statement of the last moments of Aaron Long.

Rock Island, Ill.,           
Nov. 1st, 1845.           
Mr. Haney, My Dear Sir: -- You requested that I would give you in writing as near as I could the purport of the last words of the unfortunate young man Aaron Long, which I do with pleasure.

It was my lot to be at the finals of those young men who died the felon's death on Wednesday last, and in Providence I was permitted to speak the word of consolation to Aaron Long.

It was my aim to direct him to seek mercy from God and confess to him what was just and true, &c. In reply he said much, but his language was confused, and so strange that it would be impossible for me to repeat it. But as far as my judgment serves me, he wished me to understand that he did participate in the murder or robbery, but that he might have known of the latter.
Yours in respect,           
    E. S. Byron.           

We also copy the following letter taken from the North Western Advertiser published at Rock Island, which has been forwarded to the Editor by the Clerk and Sheriff of our county.

District Court Clerk's Office, Lee Co., Iowa.
    Fort Madison, Oct. 29, 1845.

Joseph Know, Esq. -- By request of Mr. Bonney, we take the liberty of addressing you, relative to several indictments found at our recent term of Court, against Mr. Bonney. The principal witness against him was Wm. A. Hickman, one of the most notorious villains now unhung. He is a fugitive from justice from this county, for several larcenies which he committed in this county several years ago -- he was slipped into the Grand Jury room, without knowledge of any of the officers of the Court and as soon as we found out he had been before the Jury, we made an effort to have him arrested; but the bird had flown. We are confident that all those desperadoes are very anxious to destroy him, (Bonney.) The community here fully understand the movements of those fellows, and no one pretends to believe one word they say or swear. We have no doubt but the Grand Jury were imposed upon, or those indictments never would have been found.
                    Respectfully, Yours
                    J. C. Walker, Clerk D. C.

James L. Estis, Sheriff Lee co., Iowa.

Here we find a gross neglect on the part of our Officers in permitting, as they say, a witness to be "slipped into the Grand Jury room, without the knowledge of any of the officers of the Court," We believe it to be the duty of the proper officers of our Court to see that the doors of the Jury rooms are properly guarded -- a duty which they are sworn to perform!! Then how is it that this witness gained admittance into the Jury room without the knowledge or consent of the officer? Surely it must have been a gross negligence on his part.

Note: The modern reader can only wonder, if LDS Elder Bill Hickman bribed the guards to obtain admission to these closed proceedings, whether he might not have also paid them off with a handful of the bogus currency then so easily obtainable at Nauvoo.



ns Vol. I.                    Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, November 29, 1845.                    No. 35.


We believe it is now certain that this misguided and fanatical sect will early in the spring, emigrate to Vancouver's Island, on the Pacific coast, or to the rich and fertile prairies of Northern California. They seem determined to sweep across the prairies in a vast body of nearly one hundred thousand strong, and overawing all opposition by the force of superior numbers, found a Mormon empire upon the shores of the Pacific; when we reflect upon the incredible numbers that rally around the standard of Mormonism -- the perfectly blind and reckless infatuation with which they cling to their miserable faith, and perform the commands of their supremely selfish and ambitious leaders -- and the deep and settled hatred they are all known to entertain towards the government of the United States -- we are tempted to enquire what influence this Mormon empire upon the Pacific coast is to exert upon the extension of our possessions, institutions and government, in that quarter. We do not remember to have seen the subject referred to, but, to our minds at least, it is full of interest and meaning, and we cannot but believe that the Mormons, who are estimated to number more than one hundred thousand souls, are destined to offer a serious obstruction to the establishment of our Government over Oregon, and to the annexation of California. The Mormons openly boast that they owe the United States nothing -- not even gratitude -- a large proportion of their numbers are English -- none of them can be expected to indulge a very ardent attachment to the United States. Indeed, we do not believe there will be a single truly American heart among the Mormons -- they openly proclaim their wish to escape from the jurisdiction of the United States, and we shall be much mistaken if when firmly established west of the Rocky Mountains, they do not prefer English to American jurisdiction, and wage unceasing hostility against the interests of the United States.

...A writ of error has been granted in the case of Baxter, convicted the murder of Col. Davenport. Should the writ not be granted by the supreme court of the State, the court will fix the time for execution.

Note: -- "the Mormons... are destined to offer a serious obstruction to the establishment of our Government over Oregon, and to the annexation of California." -- On Aug. 15, 1846 the Monterey Californian editor noticed that "The Brooklyn, with one hundred and seventy Mormon emigrants on board, arrived at San Francisco, on the 3rd instant, in thirty days from Honolulu." When Elder Brannan unloaded his "emigrants" at Yerba Buena, on the Bay of San Francisco, they were surprised to see the U. S. stars and stripes flying over the Presidio. Had the federal forces not held that strategic spot at the time of the Mormon landing, those same emigrants (along with their brethren, then approaching by wagon trains from the east) might indeed have offered "a serious obstruction" to the American occupation of the Pacific coast.


Vol. V.                        Davenport, I. T., Thursday, December 3 ?, 1845.                          No. ?


We would hardly be excusable, did we issue our paper barren of Mormon news, in these times when every movement of that peculiar people is subject to editorial comment. We learn from passengers on the last boat up, that two Mormons had fallen victims to the fury of the mob, who, it seems, can scarcely bear the idea of them leaving peaceably.

O. Olney, one of the Mormon elders, has published a pamphlet at St. Louis, in which he agrees with all who have preceded him in respect to the iniquities practiced at Nauvoo. He says that many of the poor, deluded saints are fully impressed with the idea that if they commit a sin, no matter how heinous, at the command and counsel of the Twelve, that it will lie at the door of the Twelve. The influence of these leaders is so great, that they have but to utter the command to commit a crime however horrible, and it is immediately done. One of Brigham Young's sayings is: "The Bible is no more to the people of this generation than a last year's almanac, for I am all the Bible needful for the people now, if they obey my counsel!"

The editor of the Cincinnati Commercial says that he is informed that Almon Babbit, authorized agent for the Mormons, is in that city for the purpose of effecting a sale of the lands and buildings at Nauvoo, including the great temple, to the Catholic Church. Mr. Babbit states, that it is positively the intention of the Mormons to dispose of their property to the Catholic Church, and to remove out of the present jurisdiction of the United States over the Rocky Mountains, there to establish a separate government. "From what we can learn," says the above authority, "Mr. B. has as good as effected a sale of the Mormon city to the Church above named."

Mr. Curtiss can rest assured that the above is a "humbug," and that the Mormons, so long as existing an organized body, will not part with their Temple but with their lives.

Note: The date for this clipping has not yet been confirmed.



Vol. V.                    Fort Madison, I. T., Saturday, December 6, 1845.                  No. 20.

JOHNSON, who is under arrest on a charge of being accessary to the murder of the Germans in this county last spring, and for which the Hodges were executed some time ago, was brought before Justice Solomon for examination on Saturday last, but having failed to procure certain witnesses, whom he alleged were material in his behalf, the examination was continued, and the prisoner remanded to Jail.

Notes: (forthcoming)



ns Vol. I.                    Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, December 6, 1845.                    No. 36.

[the Mormon farewell says] ... We owe the United States nothing; we go out by force as exiles from freedom. The Government and people owe us millions for the [destitution] of life and property in Missouri and lllinois. The blood of our best men stain the land, and the ashes of our property will preserve it till God comes out of his hiding place, and gives this nation a hotter portion than he did Sodom and Gomorreh. "When they cease to spoil they shall be spoiled," for the Lord hath spoken it.

...Two men, hailing from Nauvoo, and answering to the names of Cyrus Chase and Rufus Adams, were last week arrested in Burlington for counterfeiting. One of the persons had in his possession a certificate from the authorities of Nauvoo as one of the policemen.

Notes: (forthcoming)



ns Vol. I.                    Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, December 13, 1845.                    No. 37.

The Mormons and Anti-Mormons in Hancock county and vicinity, seem to be doing a heavy business in the way of stealing from each other. The papers published in that section of country are filled with accounts of thefts and house burnings committed by each of the parties upon the other.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                        Iowa City, I. T., Wednesday, December 17, 1845.                       No. 45.

Since alluding to the subject as we did on the [10th] ult., we admit a communication upon the subject from a democrat of that county as an act of justice to those democrats who were engaged in bringing out the anti-Mormon ticket -- trusting that here the discussion of the matter will stop. But should this hope not be realized, all we have to say, is, that the Reporter cannot be made the medium of a continued controversy.

Taking everything into consideration -- the hitherto disorganized state of the party -- the too great tardiness in getting up a Democratic nomination -- and the state of ppublic feeling upon the subject of Mornon immigration -- it would appear that recent political events in Lee Co., were the inevitable result of the force of circumstances; and that the mutual crimination and re-crimination which has been indulged in by our friends there was in a great measure uncalled for. From our personal knowledge of Col. Patterson, the democrat elected on the anti-Mormon ticket, and from his character and standing among the citizens of his county, as a man and a democrat, we believe that he would not have suffered his name to be used as a candidate, except with the conviction that, under all the circumstances, by so doing he would best subserve the interests of the Democracy; and we are credibly informed that it was with great reluctance that he was induced to accept the nomination.

Notes: (forthcoming)



ns Vol. I.                    Bloomington, I. T., Saturday, December 20, 1845.                    No. 38.


A few weeks since we expressed the conviction that the contemplated emigration of this deluded people to northern California, bodes no future good to the interests of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains. The only effect of subsequent reflection is [to strengthen] that conviction, and lead us to fear that the settlement of the Mormons in California will be only the prelude to farther difficulties with that misguided, powerful and reckless [-----] association. -- Were they Americans and patriotic [in] their wishes and sentiments, [those fears might be] unfounded, and the immigration so large a body of citizens would be hailed as an augury a...
[illegible line]
...forth between one and two hundred thousand strong -- with most vindictive feelings towards the government of the United States -- and sure as the rising of tomorrow's sun, they are allowed to settle in their contemplated home they will be fit subjects for the tampering of British agents -- British gold will control their conduct -- British interests will find in them most unscrupulous and powerful promoters -- the Mormon Government will become a dependency of England and will, we believe, offer serious obstacles the advancement of our interests in that quarter.

The General Government should keep an eye on the movements of this sect, the expedition of Aaron Burr (granting all the allegations against it to be true) -- was mere child's play -- a matter of [small?] importance -- compared with what we believe to be the stupendous and traitorous designs of the ambitious Mormon leaders. A Mormon government upon the shores of the Pacific should be dreaded and avoided. Better, much [better for] us would it be if that sect would difuse itself among our people, and thus become comparatively powerless for evil.

With their remarks we direct attention to the following letter of James Arlington Bennett, Esq., who is a man of wealth and influence among the sect. He was an officer in the last war -- owns a residence on Long Island -- and once held, and perhaps now holds the rank of Major General in the Nauvoo Legion.


"The present organization of the church, with the twelve apostles at its head, with a president who holds the keys of the kingdom; is the one that must stand; and when these shall have gone to California, Mormonism will be no more in the United States.

"There are already organized twenty five companies of one hundred families each, to be filled up during the winter, for the march to California. Each family of ten persons will have a strong wagon drawn by four oxen, and supplied with everything necessary for the journey.

Several ships will be fitted out in England to take their people round Cape Horn, and others will sail from Few York in the spring. It this not a tempting place for an old United States officer like myself, who has been through the last war? They wish me much to join them, and I presume, if I did, I would have the first military command in the camp of the saints. They certainly require a leader with a military and mathematical head, and one who has seen active service; but I am too old to settle in the west."

...J. B. Backenstos, late Sheriff of Hancock, Ill., has been found not guilty of the murder of Francis A. Worrel, during the late Mormon difficulties.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 9.                          Burlington, I. T., Saturday, January 17, 1846.                      No. 28.

Widow Smith, late wife of the Mormon Joe, has written a letter to the N. Y. Sun, in which she says she never believed in her husband's revelations, that her husband was probably deranged in his mind, that he was martyred for his belief, that she shall educate her children in a different faith, that many of the Mormons will remove in the spring, but many more will remain. She says, "There is not a school in the city" and that those who govern do not intend there shall be any. She came down upon the Twelve with a [scorching] vengeance.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                         Burlington, I. T., Thursday, February 5, 1846.                       No. 37.

The Mormons.

Important letter from Mrs. Smith, widow of the Mormon Prophet. -- The following interesting letter from Mrs. Smith, widow of the late General Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has been received by the New York Sun, from Nauvoo. It will be read with great interest, as giving probably the most correct, though brief, view of affairs as at present existing among the unhappy people.

(read original article from N. Y. paper)

Gen. Bennett, to whom she alludes is now in New York, and on examining the above letter pronounced it to be genuine.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  February 12, 1846.                             No. 38.


Emma Smith's Letter. -- We learn that the Saints say, that Emma Smith denies the authenticity of the letter, recently published by us from the New York Sun. This we doubt. In the first place, the Sun stated in an editorial, prefixed to the letter, that it was received by private hand from Nauvoo, and that the editor had shown it to J. Arlington Bennett, who pronounced it genuine. In the second place, a friend of ours recently called on Mrs. Smith, and in the course of conversation remarked that he had read her letter to the New York Sun. 'Yes,' said she, 'I have written two letters.' She did not deny but said she had written a second letter which has not yet come to hand.

Note: The anecdotal evidence presented above does not establish that the letter published in the New York Sun was indeed penned by Emma Smith. It is possible that she first wrote that newspaper (or perhaps some other newspaper) an entirely different communication, and then wrote "a second letter," protesting the Sun's publication of something rather different from what she initially intended to say. This hypothetical set of circumstances would explain both the first and second letters -- the second of the two having been discarded by the Sun and published only as a copy in the Nauvoo Times & Seasons. At any rate, whatever the details of this tangled affair may have been, it appears likely that the letter in the Sun accurately portrayed Emma's thoughts and feelings, even if she did not intend to have those thoughts and feelings so widely publicized.



Vol. V. - No. 36.                    Fort Madison, Iowa, March 28, 1846.                  Whole No. 243.


A Fracas in the Mormon Camp. -- We learn that on the day previous to the departure of the Saints from their encampment, on Sugar Creek in Iowa, Brigham Young gave a great feast to the head men of the Church. They were served with all the luxuries that could be procured while their poor followers were compelled to appease their hunger with parched corn and corn bread. This partiality so incensed some of Brigham's body guard that they determined to have revenge. Accordingly they broke up his carriage and cut to pieces his harness. -- Brigham, on learning what had been done and who were engaged in the act, had the culprits tied and severely whipped. This they bore with saintly submission, afterwards all things jogged on in harmony. -- Warsaw Signal.

NAUVOO. -- A gentleman lately from the Holy City, stated to us last week, that the Saints are now rapidly selling their property. Many farms about Nauvoo have changed hands within a few weeks and good citizens from other States and counties have become the purchasers. He gives it as his opinion, from the intercourse he has had with the new comers, that they will give no countenance to the Jacks, and will join the old settlers in insisting on the removal of the Mormons. -- Warsaw Signal.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. V. - No. 37.                    Fort Madison, Iowa, April 4, 1846.                  Whole No. 244.


The impression is gaining strength that the Mormons yet remaining at Nauvoo, will not move westward, but will abandon their organization at the Holy City, and disperse throughout the countrty. Many of them, it is said, are flocking to the standard of Strangism at Voree in upper Wisconsin.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 9.                                Burlington, Iowa, April 11, 1846.                              No. 40.

James J. Strang.

This is the gentleman who claims to be the rightful successor of the immaculate Joe Smith, and proves the claim by a letter under Jo's own hand, acknowledging him to be the Holy successor. This letter is said to be genuine, being in Jo's hand writing and post marked at Nauvoo and Chicago. He owns an immense tract of land at the to-be Holy City of Voree, in Wisconsin; great numbers of Mormons from all parts of the country, particularly from Nauvoo, are going thither, and a few years will see Voree, what Nauvoo is now; they must mend their ways, or Strang will walk in the particular footsteps of his illustrious predecessor.

Note: Gentile prophecy?



Vol. V. - No. 38.                    Fort Madison, Iowa, April 11, 1846.                  Whole No. 245.


The Mormons we learn are now daily crossing the Mississippi in large numbers en route for their anticipated home in Oregon of California. Some are seceding from the Church and returning to the east, and dispersing throughout the country; while many are wending their way to the city of Voree, in Wisconsin, to place themselves under the head and guidance of the new Prophet, and true successor to Jo Smith, James J. Strang. At all events, their movements seem to indicate that they have at length become satisfied, that an attempt longer to remain in Nauvoo, would be fraught with consequences dangerous to their organization, and their security as a people.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. V. - No. 42.                    Fort Madison, Iowa, May 9, 1846.                  Whole No. 249.


The nororious O. P. Rockwell, was arrested at Nauvoo, on Thursday night of last week, and taken to Quincy to await his trial for the murder of Worrel and McBratney during last fall.

Rockwell it appears had returned from the camp to the city, and was amusing the citizens with some of his characteristic antics, which news reached Major Warren at Carthage, when he immediately dispatched six of his rifle men to bring him [in]. Sheriff Backenstos gave them information of the whereabouts of Rockwell, when they surrounded the house in which he was lodging and compelled him, though reluctantly, to take up his line of march in a different direction from the Oregon route.

Justice, though slow, is generally sure, as this condemner of the laws will now have ample opportunity to realize.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 9.                                Burlington, Iowa, May 9, 1846.                              No. 44.

A "Saint" in Trouble.

O. P. Rockwell, a Mormon celebrity, who has been accustomed to wear so many shooters about him, was arrested, May 1st, in the holy city, while enjoying the comforts of "balmy sleep." He was carried to Carthage, thence to Quincy for trial, to take place on Monday last, There were in his room when taken, seventy available shots, in the shape of six-shooters, rifles, &c. The name of his crimes is legion. -- Have not heard the result.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. V. - No. 44.                    Fort Madison, Iowa, May 30, 1846.                  Whole No. 251.


O. P. Rockwell, against whom indictments for murder, have been found in Hancock, Ill., passed up the river on Tuesday last on the steamer Tempest, on his way to Galena for trial, having taken a change of venue to Jo-Davies county.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                           Burlington, Iowa, Thursday, September 24, 1846.                         No. ?

DEAR HAWK. -- My powers of description are totally inadequate to give your readers any just conception of the "scenes" that now present themselves on every hand in this vicinity. On either shore of the Mississippi may be seen a long line of tents, wagons, cattle, &c. with numberless wretched specimens of humanity. Since the armistice or "treaty" the Mormons are crossing in almost breathless haste. Three or four "flats" are running constantly, both day and night. This morning' Saturday, l9th, at the solicitation of Capt. Vrooman, of the Fort Madison Guards, I crossed the river from Montrose, to take a peep at this city of Desolation We proceeded to the Mansion House, where we met with a small detachment of soldiers and a number of strangers. From thence we went to the Temple. On entering the vestibule of this renowned edifice, a singular spectacle presented itself. The seats of the High Priests of the "Twelve" and of the "Seventy" were occupied by a grim visaged soldiery. Some lay sleeping on their "arms," and others lay rolled up in their blankets. On every hand lay scattered about in beautiful confusion, muskets, swords, cannon balls, and terrible missiles of death. Verily thought I, how are the holy places desecrated! I thought of old Oliver Cromwell, when he drove the horses of his army through the "cloisters" of the Worcester Cathedral, and appropriated the Baptismal fount as a manger.

I am penning this scrawl to you in the upper seat of the Sanctuary. Over my head there is a large inscription in gold letters "The Lord is our sacrifice;" on my right lie three soldiers asleep, resting on their arms -- my feet are resting on a pile of chain shot -- and a keg of powder, just discovered, lies at my elbow.

I left the Temple "solitary and alone," to perambulate the desolate city. All was stilled and hushed as the charnel house. Not a human being was seen. Houses appeared suddenly deserted, as though the inmates had precipitately fed from a pestilence or the burning of a volcano. Some had windows open and the flowers blooming on the casements, but no fair hand was there, and no breath was heard, save the rustling zephyrs of heaven. It appeared as if the vengeance of the Almighty rested upon this doomed city.

I roamed over the vast Parade Ground where, four years ago, I beheld the soi disant "Prophet" review his Legion of 3000 strong, in all the "pride and circumstance" of military glory. Where now is the Prophet? Let the plains of Carthage answer. And where the multitudes that shouted hozannas to his name?

Verily thought I, "truth is stranger than fiction." I returned again through the desolate streets to the Mansion House. One solitary being, with a child in her arms, stood at the corner of a street, and saluted me with an imploring and almost frantic look.

"Pray, sir, are you one of the committee?" said she.

When I replied that I was a stranger, her eyes filled with tears. She related her history. 'Tis soon told, and is the history of hundreds.

"We came from Yorkshire, England. My husband died eighteen months after our arrival. He gave all his money to the church."

"Where are your friends?" said I.

"I have none -- not one. The soldiers say I must leave in two hours. This child is sick and my other is a cripple." She had flour enough for but one dinner!

On the Montrose side of the Mississippi, many of the scenes were heartrending. I stopped at the door of one tent, arrested by the subdued sobs of a young mother, whose heart was broken with grief. By her side lay her infant, a corpse. She had neither friend or relative to bury her child, nor a mouthful of food to eat.

I was informed that Gen. Brockman, to his honor be it spoken, conducted with marked discretion and humanity; and the night the army took possession of the city, not a rail was disturbed or a particle of property molested. Although they encamped adjoining an extensive orchard of choice fruit, not a hand was laid upon it. The boat is leaving for Montrose and I must drop my pen. Perhaps more anon from your fair chronicler.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, Oct. 28, 1847.                              No. 10.


We find in the National Whig an appeal to the benevolent in behalf of a portion of these suffering people. It is stated that having been driven by force from their homes at Nauvoo, and unable to find employment or to remain within the inhabited part of the country, a body numbering upwards of twelve hundred souls, made a temporary residence on the head waters of Grand River, in this State. Here they have been for eighteen months, in the wilderness, neither able to produce nor to obtain food or clothing. The clothing which they took with them is nearly worn out and their provisions are almost exhausted. Soon, unless relief be afforded them, must they perish from want. In their emergency they have deputed two of their number to bring their case before the American people. It is one of peculiar hardship and appeals loudly to the sympathy of the benevolent. Donations of clothing or provision sent to Messrs. Sproule and Keys, St. Louis, will be forwarded to the sufferers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 4, 1847.                              No. 11.


William Smith -- the surviving brother of "Joe" -- has published a manifesto, in which he condemns Strang -- another Mormon leader, as an imposter (!) and announces his separation from him. In reference to the jar between these champions of religion and truth, the Ottawa Free Trader tells the following story..."

It appears the prophet Strang needed a new house, and he determined his followers should build it for him. So he called them together, and told them in consideration that [if] they would erect the house, the Lord had authorised him to promise them an extraordinary endowment. The building was soon completed, and now they apply for their reward. All the saints were gathered together in the church, the prophet takes them through a variety of ceremonies, such as head washing, feet washing, &c., and concludes by anointing the heads of all with a composition "that had a queer smell." They are then directed to adjourn to another room that was totally dark, where they were to receive the endowment, which was to be in the shape of an extraordinary and visible manifestation of the spirit, rendering them at once impregnable thenceforth to all the shafts of Satan. Arrived in the dark room sure enough, the heads of all shone as if lit up by the brightness of the sun, and great was the rejoicing of the saints thereat. But the prophet William, who was present, although staggered a little, mistrusted that "all was not gold that glittered," so he took some of the ointment and submitted it to an examination, and lo, the discovery! He found that it was a mixture of oil and phosphorus! and that hence the whole illuminating operation was a gross cheat! He took the first opportunity to accuse prophet Strang publicly and before the whole congregation of the imposition, who so far from denying it, coolly acknowledged the [corn], and then preached a sermon, justifying the act, and maintaining that all the miracles of Christ, Moses, &c., were wrought in the same way -- that is, by natural means. Of course William could no longer fellowship with such a fellow.


Beaver Island, in Lake Michigan, has become the chosen spot of the Mormons under J. J. Strang. The island contains about forty square miles, has been surveyed by Government but is not yet in market.— Some eight or ten squatters on it have been bought up by Strang, who has issued his orders that the Mormons immediately take up their line of march to their new place of a bode. The N. W. Fishing Co., of Rochester, N. Y. had also located on this island, but Strang has negotiated with them for their claim.

Strang claims to be the Heaven appointed successor of Jo. Smith. Voree, Wisconsin, his present place of residence, contains about 1000 of his followers. His power is almost unlimited. By a bull of excommunication he recently cut off from official standing in the church, his notorious cotemporary, John C. Bennett.

The Reveille, the organ of the Strangites at Voree, speaking of this newly fledged prophet, says "there is not his equal on this earth for patience, faith, prudence, wisdom, aptness to teach, and indefatigable perseverance." Poor, weak human nature! —-

As the poet never said:

     Man's imposition upon man
     Makes countless thousands fools.

Note: The exact date and full content of the article in the Ottawa Free Trader remains undetermined. The piece was copied into an early Oct. 1847 issue of the St. Louis New Era and the Janesville Gazette appears to have taken its reprint from the latter source. As Strang himself argued, on Dec. 23, 1847, William Smith was not present at the "Illumination" and could have only received his information on the purported hoax second-hand.


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, Feb. 14, 1848.                              No. 23.


Brigham Young, the Mormon President. has issued a circular calling upon the faith ful to repair to the valley of the great Salt And Lake, between tho Pacific and the Mississippi. A city has been laid off at this point, and a temple is to be built to exceed in "glory" the former. Their present site is in the midst of mountains, on the margin of the Salt Lake, and separated from other settlements by a belt of sterile land 500 miles in breadth. They anticipate vast accessions this year to their present numbers by proselyting, and in time of becoing a large and powerful settlement.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, March 17, 1848.                              No. 27.

(from the Galena Gazette.)

                                            Monterey, Upper California,
                                           October 1st, 1847.
Friend _____: I received your letter dated January 18th, this morning... I am in good health, and would be contented, if near home, where newspapers could be had... There are but two newspapers in the Territory, both published at San Francisco Bay. In nationality, religion and politics they are of the "omniverous" species, although one, the Star, is published by Mr. Brannan, the leader of the New York Mormons, and advocates the Mormon doctrines.

The country is flooded with Mormons. Their regiment, under Col. Cook, has been disbanded, allowing each non-commissioned officer, musician and private to retain his arms and equipments -- so that they are a band of men; loafing about, some farming, some stealing, &c., ready to act for oragainst lhe United States the first opportunity. As they are regularly "drilled," and possess a large quantity of arms and equipments, it is generally supposed, they will join the Californians to help re-take the country. I think it was a great oversight to General Kearney to allow them those privileges. Besides thia, Mormon emigrants are arriving daily, by sea and land, from Europe and America -- all bringing arms and ammunition, to fight, as they say, "the battles of the Lord, and relieve their afflicted brethren from the persecutions and bondage of the Moabites, and to build up an inheritance to the Lord in the wilderness,"They have pitched upon the beautiful valley of the San Joakin and Sacramento as their future homes, and will shortly commence a city and a new temple, far superior in size, style and magnifigance, to the one in Nauvoo. They pretend to have had a new prophesy through their leader, Samuel Brannan, which is, that San Francisco valley was the Garden of Eden; the "three great rivers," as mentioned in the Bible, are the Sacramento, San Joakin and Rio Delos Americanos; that they inherit this land from Adam, the ancient gardener himself, and that they and their forefathers have, up to this time, been compelled to wander, through the world, suffering all manner of persecutions, to expiate the crime of mother Eve; all of which sin is to be pardoned, or has been pardoned, as they have got possession of the "inheritance prepared for them from the foundation of the world." They say this war with Mexico was sent to punish the U. States for the death of Jo Smith, and as a means to give them possession of the "promised land," which has been held in mortgage for sin over, four thousand yenrs; reserved especially, whereon the chosen are to build the New Jerusalem. They speak of many other visions and prophesies that Brannan has put forth; among them is one that he is to be Treasurer and Banker of all the Mormons in the promised hind. "But, they are not unanimous on that, as my informant says, "he might apostatize," -- a common word among them.

There are now more than seven thousand Mormons in, or on their way to this Territory, and if report be true, there will be twice the number by next year. Their principal settlement is Bear Valley, above Sutor's Fort, where they have laid out a city and have commenced to build it; but their principal city, which is to be called the "City of the Prophet?," will be built near the Sacramento, on the San Joakin. There they intend building their "New Jerusalem," and burying" the bones of their prophet, Jo Smith. Thus, step after step, this Brannan deludes the ignorant at every turn, until he gets his ends accomplished, after which he will be "among the missing."

"The Californian," a copy of which I send you, is published by a Louisvillian, who learned his trade with Prentice. The paper speaks for itself. The editor is a Whig, and would if necessary, be the first to advocate that cause...

Grapes are raised in abundance down about San Diego, and a great quantity of wine is exported to the Sandwich Islands. Out of the hull of the grape they distil "Aquediente," which none but a Californian will drink.

Game is plenty; Grizzly Benr in abundance. Deer, Elk, Antelope, Wolves, Ciotus, Hares, Partridges, &c. are numerous. There are no wild Turkeys or Honey Bees in the country! This company will not leave for home till the war is ower. Until then,            Farewell.
                                   B. P. K.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, March 30, 1848.                              No. 29.


We learn from a reliable source, that several thousand English families, members of the Mormon Church, will arrive at New Orleans during this spring, on their way to join the settlement formed in the" Great Salt Lake Valley. An agent of the Mormon Church has been sent to New Orleans to provide passages for the emigrants on boats to this city, as fast as they arrive. Another agent is staiioned in this city, to engage transportation for them up the Missouri to the encampment of the Mormons on the Missouri river, called "Winter Quarters." This encampment is on lands owned by the Omaha Indians, and in the immediate vicinity of Council Bluffs. From that point, or the vicinity, they expect every spring to send out all who are prepared to migrate to the valley of the Salt Lake.

It is calculated that from eight to ten thousand souls, from England alone, will join the emigrating party this season. In addition, several other large parties are expected from other quarters of Europe. At one time,"it was the intention of the Elders of the Church to send these emigrants by vessels to Chagres, and thence across the continent to the Pacific, and by vessels to California: but since thev have located their city in the Great Salt Lake Valley, and determined to build their church there; they have instructed their disciples to take the overland route from the head of navigation on the Missouri. -- Those coming from beyond the seas will as far as practicable, take vessels for New Orleans, and thence by boats reach the general rendezvous on the Missouri.

A deputation of the Elders now in this city are having printed a large edition of a Guide to the route from their present encampment on the Missouri, to their new city near the Salt Lake. It is a very complete and minute work. They have measured the entire route with great accuracy, and noticed allthe-points and peculiarities along it. They have given the latitude, longitude and altitude of all the important points, and noticed all the places where wood, water and grass can be obtained. In fact, we have not at any time seen a more accurate work, or one so well calculated to assist the traveller on his way. In other respects, it is interesting as a scientific topographical survey of a large portion of the Salt Lake basin.

A party of several thousand will leave the encampment at "Winter Quarters," this spring, as early as the grass on the plains will permit. It is estimated that there are now upwards of twelve thousand souls in the vicinity of this encampmentment. At least half of these Mormons will set out for their new residence this spring, and their places will be supplied by new comers

Their numbers are as extraordinary as movements and purposes appear to be absurd.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, June 15, 1848.                              No. 40.


The Mormon Colony at the city of the Salt Lake Attacked, and Men, Women and Children Butchered!

By the arrival, yesterday, of several boats from Missouri River, we are placed in possession of late St. Joseph papers, in which we find some exciting news from the Mormon settlement at Salt Lake. The St. Joseph Gazette, of Tuesday last, states that a Mr. Schroder passed through that town the day previous, on his way from Fort Kearney, with information to the effect that an express had just reached there bridging the startling intelligence that the Indians in that vicinity had murdered a number of men, women and children in the city of Salt Lake. No cause whatever was assigned for the outbreak. The express had been sent in for the purpose of procuring assistance, as it was feared the Indians would gather in still larger numbers, and murder all the Mormons at the settlement. From all accounts, the Indians seem determined to make battle with the emigrants on the plains this year. A military force of several thousand men, it is thought, will be requisite to keep the Indians in check, and protect the emigrants and wagon trains.

We learn from the officers of the Mustang, down from Camp Israel, sixty-five miles above Council Bluffs, that a large body of Mormons was preparing, and had fixed upon this day to start for Salt Lake; but the events recorded above will no doubt deter them from moving at an early a day. A report also reached here yesterday that the first United States wagon train that left Fort Leavenworth this spring Was attacked by Indians at Walnut Creek, and some 20 men belonging to the train killed. This report is no doubt without the shadow of a foundation. -- St. Louis New Era.

Note: Essentially the same report was also copied from the St. Joseph Gazette, and publised in the May 26, 1848 issue of the Missouri Liberty Tribune.


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, Aug. 3, 1848.                              No. 47.


The Mormon settlement in Texas, is now at a town they call Zodiac, on the Pierdenales, and four miles from Fredericksburg, now the county seat of Gallespie county, which was organized about four weeks since, the officers of the county being composed partly of Germans and partly of Mormons, who live together in utmost harmony. The Mormons number about two hundred, and though they have been at that place but about 12 months, have already built a saw and grist mill, have several turning lathes, and other kinds of machinery by water power. They have all kinds of useful mechanics who make every thing they want. They have enclosed about 500 acres, a good part of which is cultivated in gardens, producing all kinds of vegetables in abundance. They raise the Egyptian and English wheat, which yields from twenty to twenty-five bushels per acre; and some of them who have followed farming in Ohio, have assured us that the lands of the Pierdenales are better suited to wheat than those of Ohio. The mill streams there are of the finest kind, and never fail. They have thirty or forty, mostly framed, houses. They pay great attention to making butter and cheese, which will compare with the best Northern. They are now about constructing a church and public school house. Their trade amounts to about fifteen or eighteen thousand dollars annually. The town of Zodiac is situated sixty miles to the North of San Antonio. -- All this settlement of Germans and Mormons greatly need a mail [sic - mail office?], and now they have organized a county, they are certainly entitled to one. Corn is now worth there, $2.50 per bushel, and meat $5 per 100 pounds. Oak lumber is worth $30 per 1000 at the mill. -- Galveston News.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, August 24, 1848.                              No. 50.


So many and contradictory reports have reached us in relation to the Mormon vote cast at the recent election in this State, that we are almost inclined to doubt the truth of the villainous outrage said to have been perpetrated by the Locofocos. It appears that the Mormons cast their votes for the Whig ticket, thus electing Miller to Congress and the Whig State Ticket, but before the votes were all counted, the ballot boxes were stolen. What remedy will be found for this unparalleled outrage, if the above be true, we know not, but if the Governor be not as dishonest as the men who stole the ballot boxes he will immediately order another election.


The Legislature is Locofoco. In the House their majority is very large and in the Senate they have a majority of one or two. As we have remarked elsewhere, Miller the Whig candidate for Congress from the lower Congressional District, has been elected, also the entire Whig State ticket, through the aid of the Mormon vote. When the returns are more fully received we will publish them.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, August 31, 1848.                              No. 51.


We give the particulars of the above in famous transaction us we glean them from authentic sources. This last, great fraud casts completely inio the shade every thing of a dishonest nature that either party has ever breathed against their opponents. The following, giving in brief the legal organization of the Kane precinct, we clip from an extended article in ihe Hawkeye: --

"It is known to our readers that there is a large scope of country on our western border occupied by a multitude of Mormons. The bulk of that people have resided in that portion of our State ever since they were driven from their last temple home, Nauvoo. A law was passed by our Legislature authorizing the Judge of the 4th District to organize that part of our State into a county, whenever in his opinion the public good should seem to require it. That law was approved on the 24th February, 1847. Numerous efforts have since been unavailing The only remedy the Mormons possess is found in a law passed June 11, 1845 organizing Kishkekosh county, the name of which was changed by the Legislature to Monroe, Jan. 10, 1848. A clause in that law enacts "the territory west of said county -- now Monroe -- be, and the same is hereby attached to the county of Kishkekosh, for election, revenue and judicial purposes."

"The Constitution, in addition, guarantees that "any country attached to any county for judicial purposes shall, unless otherwise provided for, be considered as forming part of such county, for election purposes."

"The law is so explicit that all can see that the territory west of Monroe county is absolutely included. There is, however, quite a large number of these citizens who reside north of ithe western line of Monroe. For these there is no law. They have no means of protection -- no remedy. They may be ever so much annoyed, but the judge of the 4th Judicial District refuses to assist them in removing the annoyance. But ot these we are not to speak at present. Every humane man will say that as long as they choose to reside within the limits of the State the "public good" requires them to be protected by its Constitution and laws.

"In accordance with the law of June 11, 1845, the Commissioners of Monroe county established, some time since, a precinct for election purposes west of that county, and called it Kane Precinct. As onerous and inconvenient as it was, a large number of the citizens residing within the limits of this precinct, although living a great distance from it, attended the polls and voted at the late election. After counting and certifying the number of votes thus polled, by the judges appointed by the Commissioners of Monroe county, the Poll books thus certified were forwarded to Princeton, the county seat of Monroe county by one of the Judges of the election. A noted poltician from Burlington arrived there a day or two before, and was still there when the poll bonks arrived. By appliances which he well knows how to use, it is supposed he had prevailed upon the County Clerk to decline receiving these returns. The Clerk, at any rate, did refuse to receive them on the ground of their not having been polled within the county. The gentleman who brought them endeavored to show the clerk the illegality of such a proceeding, and finally placed the sealed document 'in the Clerks hands. He then laid the package on the table, and eitehr that evening or the next morning, the sealed packet, containing an account of the ballots cast in Kane precinct was missing. IT HAD BEEN STOLEN."

The following extract is from the Des Moines Valley Whig, the editor of which, Mr. Howell, was upon the spot at the time of the return of the votes and is, therefore, cognizant of the whole villainous transaction: --

"About thc third of July last the Commissioners of Monroe county organized precincts at Pisgah and Kanesville under the law attaching the country west of the organized counties to those counties for election purposes. This organizarion was procured at the request of the inhabitants of those precincts," and the whole superintended and arranged by Locofocos, the principal one in the business being W. Clark, a candidate on the Locofoco ticket in Monroe Co.

"In organizing the precincts these men and the Commissioners were very careful to have everything fised up according to law, so that the 'Whigs could take no advantage of it.' At that time they expected to get the vote of those precincts; and a week later than that Gen. Dodge in a public speech at Eddyville threatened the whig candidate for Senator with this "western thunder.

"But more than that, they sent out persons to make a survey that there might be no mistake in the matter and these persons reported that the precinct was due west of Monroe.

These persons were Selman, Locofoco candidate for elector, Bonny, Locofoco candidate for Secretary of State, and Townsend, a notorious Locofoco, who for his services in trying to secure the Mormon vote, had been promised by A. C. Dodge a fat job of surveying. These men were empowered by the Locofoco authorities of Monroe county to run these lines. One of them during the survey in urging that it be made correctly, is said to have made the remark, that it was 'necessary to do this lest the Whigs should pick a flaw in the business.' If the survey has been made incorrect whose fault is it? Let them prove it, if so, fraud was evidently intended. [Ed, Gazette.

"Then several of the Locofoco candidates, headed by Bonny, spent most of their time out there electioneering for this vote. Thus the party in all their movements were committed in favor of the doctrine that the Mormons of Piegah and Kanesville were entitled to vote at this election."

"More recently however suspicions began to be entertained that the Mormon vote was not 'going right.' Then Dodge and his Coadjutors began to cast round for some way of getting rid of it. First a thousand dollars was offered to a man of influence among the Mormons if he could succeed in neutralizing the vote. Failing in that they set to work to invent a scheme for throwing out the vote altogether, and we had a suspicion Of the result of that scheme some days ago when the Locofocos after holding conversations with Cutler offered to bet that Dan Miller would not get the certificate of election. But to carry out the scheme previously agreed upon; on Saturday last J. C. Hall, Bromfield, Kister, Royston and some minor scoundrels in the ranks of Locofocoism assembled at Princeton and held frequent caucauses during Sunday, we were informed, till they got Barber the Commissioners' Clerk, to agree to carry out their behests. On Monday morning the returning Judge of the Kanesville District presented the Poll Books to the Clerk who told him he had decided not to receive them at all and refused to take them. Subsequently Mr. Sloan called again and placed them in the hands of the Clerk telling him that he had now performed his duty by the delivery of the Poll Books and would have nothing further to do with them. Soon after it was reported that the Poll Books were missing and we presume they were stolen or smuggled off by some of the managers of this scandelous affair, who learned that Barber's resolution would fail before he got through with it. There was an evident shrinking on the part of Barrber from such a gross violation of his oath and his duty and his brother-in-law a black faced and blacker hearted renegade from the whig party was appointed to attend and watch over him wherever he went. In the afternoon the Clerk with two Justices of the Peace after being locked up sometime reported the vote of the county, without opening the returns from the Kanesville precinct."

In view of the above facts the case is a plain one. The Commissioners' Clerk has been induced bv a set of knaves to violate his oath, and for such violation he must suffer the penalty. If the above votes be actually destroyed, that they cannot be oblained, another election should be immediately ordered. If such an election be not ordered, then every officer who is elected by the votes of this precinct, should contest the seat of his opponent.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 7.                                Davenport, Iowa, Sept. 7, 1848.                              No. 52.


A letter is published in the Burlington Gazette and copied into the Locoforo sheets of the State purporting to be addressed by Orson Hyde, the Mormon Elder, to F. H. Warren. Esq., of Burlington, in relation to the Mormon vote. The following from the Hawkeye, flatly contradicts this Roorback and proves it to have all originated in the mind of the editor of the Gazette or some. of his political advisers: --

"In relation to the statement in yesterday's Gazette about a draft being given to Elder Orson Hyde for one thousand dollars, we feel authorized to give it a flat denial. -- It is utterly false and we call on the writer too, to substantiate his assertion that it "has even been admitted by Hyde himself." Elder Hyde has not, will not, and cannot truthfully admit any such thing. We deny that any thing in the shape of a bribe was ever offered to Elder Hyde or any one else by the Whigs. We challenge the loco foco leaders to furnish credible proof of any such transaction. -- Neither Col. Warren nor any of the Whigs have in any of their transactions with the Mormons done any thing of which they are ashamed, or any thing which they would wish to cover up by concealment. The leading loco locos, those who charge the attempt of bribery on the Whigs, know this, and all Col. W., or the Whigs ask is a full and fair investigation."

THE TEMPLE AT NAUVOO. -- We are pleased to learn that an arrangement has been made with the Trustees, or those having charge of the Mormon Temple at Nauvoo, by which that splendid edifice is to be devoted to a useful purpose. It has been leased for a term of fifteen years, and is to be at once converted into a college building and to be occupied for that purpose. -- The institution is to be under ihe patronage of the Home Mission Society, and immediate steps will be taken to put it into operation. A better location cannot be found in the western country for such an institution, and it will, if properly conducted, receive the patronage of all the States bordering upon the Mississippi. -- Missouri Republican.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Sept. 21, 1848.                              No. 2.


The Locofoco editors of Iowa are trying by "noise and confusion" to drown the effects of the nefarious transaction which they perpetrated in stealing the Mormon votes. Every sheet of that stamp in the State, appears to have caught the scent, almost intuitively, and to be hot in pursuit of some kind of rubbish wherewith to conceal from view the enormity of the outrage which the leaders of their party have committed upon the ballot box. The big dog of all, the editor of the Washington Union, has got upon the trail, but being old and the scent rather distant, he knows not exactly what course to pursue. It is something unparalleled, amid all the corruptions and intrigues growing out of the strong partisan feeling prevailing, to see the leaders of a party with so much barefaced effrontery, attempt to impute their own transgressions to their opponents and by equivocation and downright falsehood seek to lie down all opposition,

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Sept. 28, 1848.                              No. 3.


The Locofoco's of Iowa are determined to bearoff the palm from all their associates, in acts of political wickedness and disregard of the rights of the people. We are informed by the Burlington Gazette, (Locofoco organ,) of the 13th, that "the patriotism" of the clerk of the court of Polk county, (Mr. Wallace,) "has prevented another civil war and the forcible expulsion of the Mormons from Iowa." This patriotism on the part of the clerk consisted in resigning his office, on hearing that Mr. Pickett had been appointed by Judge Carleton, (Locofoco,) to organize the county of Pottawatomie, in which territory the mass of the Mormons in Iowa have a residence, and are cultivating the soil. By this patriotic movement, it was expected and intended, that the Locofoco party would place it beyond the power of Mr. Pickett to effect a"legal" organization of the county, "their being no clerk to aid in this duty." The Gazette admits that this was done to preVent the Mormons from voting in the Presidentiai election for the Whig candidates, and thereby, as it is confessed, "stifling the voice of the Democracy" -- a precious confession, that the vote of Iowa will be given for Gen. Taylor, if the Mormons shall be allowed to vote. "Civil war," too, and the "forcible expulsion" of the Mormons from the State, has been avoided by this sacrifice of the clerk, in giving up an office. We shall see how this turns out. course

The Burlington Hawkeye thinks other means may be found to bring about an organization of Pottawatomie county, and gives the following insight into the state of the affair:

In our last number we announced that Mr. Wm. Pickett had been appointed the organizing sheriff of Pottawatomie county, and that hereafter, on the organization of that county, no party could prevent them from voting. The commission was granted in accordance with law by Judge Carleton, of the 4th Judicial District. After Mr. Pickett had received his commission, in the exercise of his rights of a freeman,1 he addressed the people both at this place and in Iowa City. We presume he made some remarks displeasing to the Locofoco leaders, and led them to regret that the commission had been given. To counteract and nullify their own action, the report has reached town that they had sent an express, to Polk county requesting the Clerk of the Court, their supple tool, to resign. He did this, and by so doing, they all hope to head the Whigs and Pickett at the same time. But they'll find that they have only "scotched the snake not killed him." Mr. Pickett is required to file his bond and make his returns to the Clerk's office in Polk county. If we understand the character of Mr. Pickett, he will go on with his organization, perform all the duties required in the law and in his commission, and then if the clerk has wantonly vacated his place and he cannot make his returns, and the Monarchs in Iowa City throw out the Mormon vote in November, there is another tribunal mightier than this, who will attend to the business in a way that will cover these nulliliers with shame and contempt.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, October 5, 1848.                              No. 4.


The Locofocos or Hunkers of our State continue to trumpet their own infamy. Epithets cannot be found too severe to apply to the Mormons, who are peaceably residing within tho confines of our State, pursuing the honorable occupation of tilling the soil. So long as these Mormons voted the Locoloco ticket, that party used nought but honied phrazes in alluding to them, but no sooner do they see proper to advocate the Whig ticket, than with one accord the combined Locofoco press of Iowa hurl the most opprobrious and vile epithets at them. We defy the annals of our political history to disclose greater "proscription for opinion's sake" than that exercised towards this body of people, by the party holding power in our State. We clip from the Dubuque Express, as a sample of the language used in speaking of the Mormons, the extract countenance which fol|ows merely remarking that the reckless inconsistency of the editor will be seen, when we inform our readers that the legal forms mentioned in the extract, were conferred by the Locofoco officials of our State uupon an agent selected by themselves! --

"The Humane and Philanthropic Wallace, Clerk of Polk county, hearing of what was done, and knowing that it would result in the forcible expulsion, if not total extermination of this deluded band of fanatics, resigned his office, and left it impossible for the reckless hog drivers to go through ihe legal forms of making these wild maniacs and vile criminals, citizens and voters in our State."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, October 12, 1848.                              No. 5.


Monday morning between tho hours of 3 and 4 o'clock the Mormon Temple, the work of years and the labor of thousands was consumed to ashes! It was entered by an incendiary through a window upon the ground floor and fired near ihe roof. -- No efforts were made to save it ass all feared the falling of the cupola. As we passed passed it a few hours afterwards the wails were still standing but in such a condition, we were informed by the citizens, as to be rendered entirely worthless for all useful purposes.

No clue had been obtained to the incindiary, but it was generally believed to have been the work of an anti-Mormon. Worship had been held in it the previous evening. The Temple had been leased for a term of fifteen years to the Home Missionary Society to be used as a College. -- Agents of the Society were expected daily to seal the contract and to take charge of the building. The loss is generally deplored by the citizens and of a truth they say, that that which gave an impetus to their city has been destroyed. The whole west must regret the loss of this splendid monumental work of religious enthusiasm.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, October 19, 1848.                              No. 6.


NAUVOO -- The Temple. -- We learn that a company have purchased all the Mormon property, in the hands of A. W. Babbitt the Mormon agent, at Nauvoo, including the walls of the Temple; and that arrangements have been made to rebuild it us soon as possible. The price paid was $12,000.

We also learn that the citizens of Nauvoo are about to, or have done so already, arrest a person living in Nauvoo, who is Supposed to be the identical individual who fired the Temple. -- Statesman.

NEW PAPER. -- Mr. Orson Hyde has issyed a prospectus for a semi-monthly paper to be published at Kanesville, Council Bluffs, Iowa, to be called the "Frontier Guardian."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 2, 1848.                              No. 8.


THE MORMON PRECINCTS. -- If the parties turn out to the polls in their strength, upon these precincts will depend the result of the election in Iowa. We are happy then to learn from the Iowa Republican, that Mr. Picket who was authorized to organize Pottawatamie county, in which are these precincts, has disregarded the resignation of the great Mr. Wallace, been qualified by a competent officer, and proceeded to organize the county in accordance with his authority as organizing Sheriff.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 23, 1848.                              No. 11.


CASS AND THE MORMONS. -- We have information that some of the Mormon leaders visited Detroit, about the first of the present month, and had an interview with Gen. Cass, at his residence, and received great attention from Cass's particular friends, and in return gave confdent assurances that the vote of tbe Mormons in ihis State would he cast for Cass and Butler.

What results of a political nature are to flow from this Mormon pilgrimage, we leave for the 7th of November to determine. We will, however, venture the prediction, that if the Mormons cast their vote as the leaders in question promised in Detroit they would do, and that vote should be neccessary to give the State to Cass and Butler, it will be declared to be legal, and be counted along with the balance of the votes of the State. -- Dubuque Tribune.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. X.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  January 4, 1849.                             No. 33.


Townsend has got his reward.-- Most of our readers remember the name of Townsend... Well, by the last Reporter we see a law has passed with the Governor's signature attached giving him an exclusive Ferry Charter across the Missouri at the great Mormon thoroughfare, for twenty years... If what Picket says of Townsend is true, he is a very bad and notorious character -- so bad that the Mormons felt disgraced to have him belong to their society, and turned him out. It is painful to us to refer to these things, but as our position requires us to keep the people apprised of rascality of this kind, we must say that almost every day develops some new clinchings of this infamous bargain. The remedy is with the people.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Jan. 04, 1849.                              No. 17.


NAUVOO TEMPLE. -- The citizens of Nauvoo have offered a reward of $641 for the apprehension and conviction of the villain who fired the Mormon Temple.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, February 7, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 1.


We have just read a letter from Br. Appleby, of New Jersey, which he requests us to publish. We should be pleased to comply with his request, if the subject of his communication was not such a melancholy picture of human weakness, depravity, and woe. William Smith was excluded from the church in Nauvoo, for saying that his brethren had wronged him and sought his life. This was a slander upon the church which they would not endure. He said this to excite a sympathy in his favor that merit would never award him. As bad as he represents the church to be, he has written two or three letters to us, confessing a part of his sins, and desiring to get back into this "wicked and abominable church;" but the church would not receive his confession, and consequently would not receive him. He would confess many things that he was not guilty of, but the church required him to confess fully the things that he was guilty of. He never wished the priesthood for any other purpose than to use it as a key to sensuality, avarice and ease. Being righteously cast out from the church, he seeks the ruin of those who did it, by trying to transfer his own sins to their account.

The people in New Jersey know him so well that he can do no harm there, neither in Philadelphia. We do not wish to disgrace the columns of our paper by admitting any of his low blackguard and vulgarity. He cannot harm you Bro. Appleby, neither the cause of our Master. A pure and noble mind will never dwell upon such scenes of depravity as he seems to take delight in...

Note: The unpublished letter from Elder Appleby was evidently written near the beginning of 1849, when William Smith was in the process of establishing his own church. According to a letter from William, dated March 7, 1849, he was then in Hartford Connecticut. Perhaps he had visited Philadelphia a couple of weeks before that, and had aroused the righteous wrath of Appleby, who lived near that city and who was very familiar with its Mormon congregation. Editor Orson Hyde was probably unsure just how much press exposure to bestow upon William's potentially dangerous religion organizing efforts, so he said very little about the man's church and contented himself with delivering a few "melancholy" facts respecting Joseph Smith's wayward brother. The charge that William was seeking to re-unite with the Twelve, in Utah, even as he was establish a following of his own, must have been sufficiently disturbing to "old Mormons" who might have otherwise been curious to get a close-up look at this last surviving Smith brother.


Vol. X.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  February 8, 1849.                             No. 38.


We have read of a tyrant who had the laws of his empire posted so high that his subjects could not read nor ascertain their import... It was, however, reserved for the present epoch, amid the improved and enlightened state of society... to exhibit a specimen of more despotic tyranny... We allude to the recent attempt on the part of the loco focos in our Legislature to rob the citizens of Pottawattamie county of their dearest rights as freemen and make them outlaws.

The enormity of this attempt will be seen and acknowledged when the circumstances by which it was superintended are brought into the account... It is well known that a large portion of the citizens of Pottawattamie county are Mormons. A large portion of them resided in the western counties at the time the people voted for our present state constitution. They very generally voted for that instrument, and every one believed at the time that it was by their aid the loco foco party succeeded in asserting its adoption. This has not been denied. No attempt was then made to prevent them from voting. After the settlement at Council Bluffs on the Missouri side of our state was made, they removed their residence to that point. Like all new settlers, after the Indian title had been annulled, they supposed they had a right to settle upon those lands. They were within the boundary limits of the State of Iowa, and presumed on the protection of the State authorities. This was guaranteed to them by the Constitution for which they had voted, and the law was enacted attaching all west of Monroe county to that county for election and judicial purposes, which gave them as they thought, still stronger protection, as a large portion of their settlement was proved to be, by actual survey, included within the scope of this law. This survey was made by loco focos. Supposing they were acting under such protection they exercised the elective franchise and voted. They were encouraged to do this by loco focos of prominent standing in our State. ... As soon as it was ascertained that they intended to vote contrary to the wishes of the loco focos, a prominent member of that party, set out from this place as a voluntary express riding to Monroe county. He arrived in season to instruct the Clerk to refuse to receive the returns from Pottawattamie. But while they were debating the propriety of their reception, an officer who bore these returns deposited them in the hands of the Clerk. They were thus virtually received... While this question was under discussion in the Clerk's office, one of the boldest and most execrable assaults ever thought of was made to destroy the efficacy of the ballot box.... The package of returns of the vote of Pottawattamie county was STOLEN....

Previous to this, every appliance was employed by the leaders of the modern democracy, to dissuade the Mormons from voting the Whig ticket. Some of their renegade leaders were offered large bribes to visit their settlement and bring them back to their allegiance to loco focoism. Some of the leaders of the party visited them in person and offered them strong inducements to vote as they wished. And when they found that all these efforts had proved unsuccessful, they resolved on this last resort. This act. which the perpetrators thought would annihilate and destroy the vote of the Mormons... has already been frustrated. Duplicate copies of these returns have been preserved, and will yet rise up against these robbers of the ballot-box.

The next circumstance that renders this attempt to disfranchise the citizens of Pottawattamie the [----- some] of tyranny is worse, if possible, than what we have related. A law was in existence besides the one which we have mentionedthat authorized the Judge of the 4th Judicial District to organize Pottawattamie county whenever he should deem the "public good" required it. The law was evidently made in such a shape as to offer an inducement to the Mormons to avail themselves of it by coming back into the fold of loco focoism. When they were ready to do this the organization was to be perfected, but not till then. They had no means of securing their property -- they were deprived of the rights of citizenship -- and their situation was deplorable. A petition was sent to the Judge with a thousand signers, seeking for an organization. But it was unheeded....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Feb. 15, 1849.                              No. 23.


A correspondent of the Mo. Republican, writing from Fairfield, Iowa, thus alludes to the Mormons now located in this State, but who from the flattering accounts received from their brethren at the Great Salt. Lake, will soon be wending their way thither: --

"On my return fmm a trip on the Upper Missouri I took occasion to visit the Mormon settlement at Council Bluffs. I found the Saints in what they call a prosperous and happy condition; but which I, (not seeing things with an eye of faith,) call a most miserable and degraded state, considering that they claim to be the chosen of the Lord, as an example to all nations and harbingers of the Millenium.

"The generality of their dwellings, are mere huts formed of willow sticks, the interstices filled with mud -- the roofs, of the same material covered with dirt or long grass. There are, however, some houses of more aristocratic pretensions, among which is the Temple, although this is a perfect burlesque on their beautiful structure at Nauvoo. The Temple is built of logs (which from the scarcity of timber were hauled a very long distance,) and is as near as I could ascertain about one hundred and twenty feet long by eighty wide. The fire place extends the entire width of the building and is sufficient to render the house comfortable even during the recent extreme cold weather. I arrived in the settlement on election day, and found the polls opened in the Temple, where the [sovereigns] were congregated to vote, watched by a delegation of four staunch Democrats from Fairfield, Jefferson county, who finding their political influence not of the strongest character, concluded to turn the expedition into a frolic, and pretended they had been out Buffalo hunting."

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, February 21, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 2.

A.  W.  Babbitt's  Letter.

The following letter from A. W. Babbitt, Esq., we publish; not that we wish or intend to foment strife, but that the saints at large may have it as one reason, among others, why he was disfellowshipped from our church.

The letter was read to a large meeting or Conference of the Seventies, held at the Tabernacle, on the 19th of November last. Most of the authorities of the whole church, in this country, were present.

Elder G. A. Smith spoke on the case: He wished to be pardoned for any expressions that he might make if they were not quite so polite and mild as they might be. He looked upon the letter as a distinct insult upon the people. If he had drawn the dagger at him personally, he would have considered him (Babbitt) less guilty. But to aim at the whole people was an outrage upon their feelings that they ought not endure... We were compelled to believe that Mr. Babbitt was a very ignorant man or a very corrupt man... But he concluded by saying that Mr. Babbitt was a wise man, even so wise that he could not disfellowship him.

Mr. Hyde then spoke and said: Mr. Babbitt has asked me a number of very pointed questions, and if it were to save my life, I could not answer them all. But if I had been playing the part of a snake in the grass, or digging a pit for my neighbor, I might perhaps have been particular enough to mark days and even hours. If Mr. Babbitt has any letters from me, written from Washington, that he thinks would convict me of a crime worthy of Purgatorial punishment, let him make them public... I never told him that I had a draft on the Whig committee at Washington, or any other community for a dime.

Many remarks were made by different persons, and it was finally concluded, that Mr. Babbitt's conduct towards Mr. Hyde was dishonorable... The vote to disfellowship Mr. Babbitt was unanimous; not one hand raised to sustain him...

                              To the Editors of the Iowa Statesman:
Dear Sirs: I perceive from the last number of the Hawk-Eye that the Deacon is in direct communication with Orson Hyde; and if Mr. Hyde is to be received as an uninterested witness, we must force the be;ief that the Whigs of Iowa are like Caesar's wife, not only unsuspected but beyond suspicion; or to use Mr. Hyde's language, their intercourse has been unspotted and clear like the mirror itself. Now, I would like to ask Mr. Hyde a few questions which he may answer in his next epistle to the Deacon:

1st. Where was you at 11 o'clock on the night of the 8th of July?

2d. Where was you the next morning at 10 o'clock?

3d. Who was with you and what was the subject matter under consideration?

4th. How much did you tell me, on your return down the river, the draft for the whig committee at Washington city was for?

5th. What did you go to Washington city for?

6th. Of whom in the city of Cincinnati did you get the printing press and materials?

7th. Where did you get the money to pay for the press?

8th. What did you say to me on the subject in a letter dated at Washington, Sept. 15th, 1848?

The answers to the above questions without equivocation or anecdote may shed some light. I am aware that Mr. Hyde, in one of his letters to the Missouri Republican, undertook to give some items on this subject; and if he intended to be understood as giving the whole truth, he must have left a heavy load upon his conscience, however unspotted he may represent those who have operated with him in relation to the Mormon vote: and I can assure Mr. Hyde that few of his Mormon friends believe his whig apologies. Mr. Hyde has a style peculiar to himself in writing upon these subjects and turns many nice points with some anecdote in order to divert the mind from the point, which forcibly reminds of the Ink [of] Cuttlefish, who, when closely pursued, throws out of his mouth so much fog and offensive matter that he evades pursuit, and in this way makes his escape. Does not Mr. Hyde know the fact that an order was drawn on Chambers & Knapp, by Warren, and that the same was paid and the avails sent to the Bluffs? Does he not know that Warren acknowledged the payment of some two hundred and forty dollars to one of his coadjutors in this matter, (Mr. Pickett,) and does he not know that it is morally impossible for me to believe the statements he has made? because knowledge supercedes faith?

But Mr. Hyde announces himself a Whig, (but not an happy one,) has no set notions, has not voted but once in his life, knows little or nothing about Federal and State policy, yet he assumes the responsibility of influencing a whole community; and lest he should betray ignorance, as their guide, he directs them to a political knave to counsel them "when and where to act." Such men we might reasonably suppose would support Gen. Taylor, for their principles are in perfect keeping, and Mr. Hyde is about as capable of sounselling the Mormons how to vote as Gen. Taylor is of presiding over the people of the United States. He, like Mr. Hyde, is no politician, has not studied the science of civil government, has never voted in his life, but if elected can get Mr. Warren, or some of the same stamp, to advise him when, how and where to act.

Is it not astonishing to see the desperation of Whig disciples in their struggle for political power; no stone is left unturned, no means too holy to be used, no altar too sacred to burn their political fire, the sacerdotal tunic must be laid aside, the smutty garments of party must clothe the minister of the altar, his influence cannot be dispensed with, heaven and earth must unite their influence or their party fails.

Are not the most cherished institutions of our country endangered by the use of such unhallowed means, when the most sacred of all human rights are prostituted at the shrine of religious despots, and men cease to act for themselves. It was the language of Chief Justice Story, while treating upon the constitution of our country, that it was the work of wise master builders, the work of immortality, if human institutions might aspire to such a name; yet, it might perish in an hour by the negligence of its keepers, the people. When the people no longer act upon the results of their own judgment and convictions, but tamely submit to religious and political dictators, then we may look for the elevation to office of bold and avaricious men who will feed well their operators; and thus the glory of our free institutions will depart, and the despotism with all its horrors will enslave our children.
          I have the honor to be,
                Respectfully, Yours, &c.
                                    A. W. BABBITT.

Note: This 1849 disfellowshipping of the Mormon maverick, Elder Almon W. Babbitt proved to be only a temporary restriction; Babbitt was too valuable to the LDS Church, to be lost over such minor matters as his politics and personal quirks (which included a longstanding quarrel with Apostle Orson Hyde). On Aug. 4, 1850, Babbitt was again hauled up before the Pottawattamie High Priests' High Council, on charges of apostasy. As was the case previously, Babbitt again avoided permanent excommunication and eventually died in full fellowship, albeit under reportedly suspicious circumstances.


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Feb. 22, 1849.                              No. 24.


No.  III.

                                               At Home, Feby. 14th, 1849.
Dear Sanders: -- Having in my last recorded the death of the Attorney General bill, the violent attack upon the nervous system of the caucus nominee, and the passage of the bill creating the office of State Printer, I next come to the bill introduced in the House of Representatives by a distinguished member from the "hairy nation," which emanated in caucus, having for its object the repeal of the act organizing the county of Pottawatomie. This county was organized some time last summer by the Judge of the fourth Judicial District. The inhabitants of the county elected all their county officers, justices of the peace, &c., and its organization was made as complete as any county in this State, and by our constitution and laws the inhabitants of the county were subject to the payment of taxes, and entitled to all the immunities, the same as any other organized county in the State, and yet the Democracy in the Legislature determined that they had the right to disorganize the county, take away vested rights, leave judgments on justices' dockets standing as a perfect nullity, and cast the inhabitants out from the protection of the State nnd disfranchise them as citizens! This bill unconstitutional in its provisions, arbitrary in its principle, breathing tyranny and persecution in every section, actually passed the House... and would have passed the Senate but for reasons I will explain hereafter. This bill coming up in the Senate crented as much interest for a short space of time as any thing that came before that body during the session. The Democracy were asked to give one single reason "why such a bill should pass; what their object in thus disorganizing a county containing five thousand inhabitants." No reason could be given other than the inhabitants were mostly Mormons, "a set of cut throats and land pirates" &c. When they were told that for the safety and security of the peaceable inhabitants of the county of Pottawatamie, and the counties adjoining, there was greater reason for keeping up a more thorough organization of the county, that offenders might be brought to justice, the only reply was additional epithets and denunciations against the Mormons; that they would control the elections in the county, and people entertaining such religious notions ought not to be allowed to vote, or be recognizcd by the authorities of the State. While the Locos thus gave so many reasons for their course, it only weakened their cause in the eyes of all honorable men, and proved that they were instigated by political considerations alone.

It is well known that the Locofocos in the State of Illinois petted and upheld the Mormons in that State, and gave them exclusive privileges by Legislative enactment that they did not give to others; and when they were driven from there and settled on the frontier of Iowa, the Democracy organized their country in to a county,for the express purpose of getting their votes at elections. In this they did not succeed, for the reason that the Mormons might well distrust a party who had once courted their favor and then turned round and driven them from the State bv mob violence; hence, they preferred trusting Gen. Taylor's administration and accordingly voted for him.

The reason for disfranchising this class of people was for political effect and "nothing else;" but take it if you please upon the principle of religious tolerance and the attempt to take away from them the protection of our State government while citizens in an organized county, and the history of this country does not furnish so gross a violation of our constitution as this desperation of progressive Democracy to outlaw American citizens on account of their religious belief. I know nothing about this misguided sect of people only from information, and all accounts agree that there are good men, and bad men; sincere men, and selfish men among them. This is incident to all communities, and all denominations, consequently the greater necessity for a rigid execution of our laws that the good may be protected, and the bad made to respect our institutions....

The bill was taken from the table and being on its second reading the question first in order was on the suspension of the 13th rule, but the Whigs defeated it and thus their bantling died.
                                   ONE WHO WAS THERE.


Col. Gilpin has written a letter to some friends in Missouri in relation to the route across the country. He says:

The only road practicable for wagons at present from the States to the Pacific, is the one through the South Pass, beyond which it branches near the Salt Lake; the right hand fork descends by Snake river to the Columbia -- the left hand traverses directly west, through the Great Basin of High California, crosses Sierra Nevada by the sources of the Salmon Trout river, and the Rio de los Americanos -- descending the latter to the Sacramento, and down it to San Francisco Bay. These roads, which only four years ago were uncertain, difficult and dangerous, are now become permanently established, easy and safe. The large and prosperous settlement of the Mormons at the Salt Lake, affords a central point to rest and recruit. Families traveling with horned cattle, accomplish the trip in one hundred and twenty days, and if judicious in the management of their animals, are at no expense but the small cost of provisions and groceries -- so excellent are the roads, the climate and the pastures...

Note: See the Mar. 15, 1849 issue of the Davenport Gazette for Mr. Gilpen's letter.


Vol. X.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  March 29, 1849.                             No. 45.


MORMONS. -- Advices have been received of the sailing of five vessels, the Zetland, Ashland, Buena Vista, Henry Ware and Hartley, from England, for the United States, chartered by the Mormons. They will land at New Orleans, and bring over 1200 passengers. The Hartley and Buena Vista contain emigrants from Wales exclusively. -- Mo. Repub.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, April 4, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 5.


We understand that A. W. Babbitt, Esq., has obtained the agency of a mail route from this place to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. The mail is to be conveyed there six times in the year. If this be so, and we have no reason to doubt it, the Guardian can be forwarded as regularly to subscribers in the Valley as to any other section of the country.

We say again, to California emigrants and gold diggers, do not depend upon getting any recruits of provisions from the settlements in the Salt Lake country, for we are confident that they will not have any to part with till after harvest. Take your entire supply from the frontier and there will be no mistake.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  April 11, 1849.                             No. 40.


MORMONS. -- The London Globe says that large numbers of Mormons are preparing to emigrate from that country to California. They have chartered four or five vessels for their accomodation, and intend to leave in the spring.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  April 18, 1849.                             No. 41.


We clip the following singular paragraph from the Frontier Guardian (the Mormon paper published at Council Bluffs) of the 21st ult.:

STOLEN. -- On the 18th inst., from the pockets of an overcoat hanging up in the Union Hotel, one revolving pistol and one single barrel pistol. They are the property of Messrs. Livingston & Kinkade of St. Louis, who are here on business. If he or they who stole them will return them to this office well and good; but if not, he or they who took them shall test the strength of a Mormon prophecy. They shall be shot and killed by a pistol ball. We will give twenty-five dollars reward for any information that may lead to the detection and arrest of the thief. Cursed be that person who knows or has good reason to believe who has got the pistols and withholds that information or knowledge or belief from us; and let all Israel say, Amen!

Note: Whether or nor Apostle Hyde's "Mormon prophecy" ever came true, history does not record. The population served by the Frontier Guardian in 1849 was almost exclusively Latter Day Saint -- though there may have been a small possibility that the unknown pistol thief was an emigrant Gentile, passing through Council Bluffs.


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, April 18, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 6.


"BANEEMY'S ORGAN," alias Charles B. Thompson's Organ, who by interpretation, is an expelled member from our church. The first number of this little sheet has just been presented to us by the hand of a friend. We have only this to relate as anecdote concerning its author, or editor, as it is to be "published from to time."

Once on a time it happened to be our lot to journey from Buffalo to Albany on the cars. To pass the time as profitably as [consistent], we freely indulged in conversation with our fellow passengers upon the subject of our faith. All parties appeared quite interested. At length a merchant from Batavia wished to speak, and we all gave him an audience.

He said that not long ago, [near] his town, a Mormon Elder was preaching with much success -- many were converted, &c., to the faith, and among the converts was a newly married couple, who freely offered him a home. Not long after this, the conscientious husband had occasion to leave home on business for about two weeks. He left the Mormon Elder as charge d'affairs at his domestic court, and departed. He had not been long gone before this Mormon Elder had a vision that the husband was dead, and that she was to become his wife. This rather shocked the nerves of the devoted lady and almost threw her into a spasm. To reject and disobey the revelation or vision, she did not like to, and to marry again so soon after the death of her husband would expose her to censure, &c. She finally gathered up strength enough to tell him that she would wait awhile before the consummation of his proposal. At the time appointed the husband came home safe and sound. This broke the charm -- the lady's eyes were opened. She [denied] her faith told it to her her husband and he [denied] it also, and the minister was ordered to seek [new] lodgings. Now, what do you think of such a method, such religion? Don't you feel proud and bold with such pure specimens before you?" This [was a poser] we assure you. However we thought we could take it cooly, and make the best of the story, true or false.

We replied we were very sorry for any such occurence, yet after giving [us] to understand that one man's sins, nor fifty mens' sins could disprove the truth of any religion, and that we could not be answerable for any other man's wrongs, we acknowledged that we had some elders that were so bad that we could do nothing at all with them at home, and we sent them off to get rid of them; and when we send them away they go under this prayer and blessing, that a merciful Providence may keep them away from all good people, and conduct them only to such places where the people deserve no better. This man probably [was sent] out under these circumstances, and a Providential hand led him to your neighborhood and there [left] him. Our good merchant had occasion to go [into] another car amid convulsive roars of laughter. We have since learned that "Baneemy," alias Charles B. Thompson is the subject of that tale. Bishop Culkins' claim to that name has been jumped by a most potent rival.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. X.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  April 19, 1849.                             No. 48.


Duty to the Whig party of Iowa and justice to Col. Fitz Henry Warren induce us to vindicate both from the slanderous aspersions that have been so lavishly piled upon them by the loco foco presses...

The article in the Reporter abounds in falsehoods of a still grosser character. The old story of "Hog driving" is revamped and charged upon Col. Warren, when we know that that business was concocted by a wag, more to gratify his own joking propensities than any thing else. He sent off nine or ten loco focos into another county to seek for hogs in the summer. They should have known better than to have gone. Their votes would have made no difference however, as the whigs carried the county that season by a majority of 124.

But the next falsehood we publish entire for the purpose of better refuting it, and because a similar charge has been made in other quarters. Says the Reporter:

"At another we hear of him beyond the borders of organized Iowa, suborning renegade Mormons to march, vi et armis to vote the whig ticket at defenceless election precincts on our western frontier. Anon he is in the Mormon camp on the Missouri, armed with the authority of a sub-ecclesiastic, having in his pocket a commission from their then absent High Priest, telling the poor deluded Mormons that, in the absence of their spiritual advisor, 'he (Warren) would tell them how and where to act,' in the matter of the election."

The whole story about this Mormon business, which the locos have made such a noise about, simply to turn it to the advantage of their party, amounts to this. While Col. Warren was fulfilling his duty as Clerk in the early part of last year, he was waited on by Mr. Pickett, who had always been a democrat, and informed him that the Mormons had hitherto been faithful to the democratic party as a body, but they had been treated so shamefully by that party both in Ohio, Missouri and Illinois, that they had made up their minds to leave the democrats to themselves, and attach themse;ves to the whigs. They thought they could notbe worse treated than they had been and they hoped that a change might be for their benefit. They did not wish to avow this openly then, because the democrats had the power in Iowa, and before they did it, they were anxious to secure a full recognition of their organization as a county in Pottawattamie. For this object, Mr. Pickett, the same day had a long interview with Gen. [Dover], and we believe obtained from him some promises and a note to Judge Carleton, who had the power of organizing the county. Col. Warren was waited upon by Pickett, because he was the chairman of the Whig State Central Committee. Time and space would fail us to go into the minute particulars of the deception practiced by the loco foco leaders towards the Mormons -- their refusal, after they suspected them of being whigs, of granting them an organization -- of their subsequent reconsideration of this matter, by granting, at the solicitation of two prominent men of their party, the organization, and appointing this very Pickett organizing sheriff -- how one of these prominent men rode express to head Pickett, and prevailed upon the Clerk of the county where he had to qualify himself to resign so as to frustrate the organization -- how, at the election for Congress last year the returns of the Mormon vote were stolen while this same loco foco express rider was present for the purpose of defeating the whig candidate for Congress -- and-how the loco foco Legislature endeavored to utterly disfranchise the Mormons, and that they so far succeeded, as not to permit them to have any Judiciary. The particulars of these matters, embracing historical facts which are well known to the people of Iowa, would occupy too much room. The visit of Elder Hyde was only to confirm the statement made by Pickett in his overtures to join the whig party and support Gen. Taylor. The overtures came from the Mormons voluntarily. To this we are personally knowing. No bribe was offered the Mormons by Col. Warren or the Whigs. They needed none. They had become tired with the tyranny and duplicity of loco focoism. Col. Warren has published to the world all the pecuniary transactions he had with the Mormons, and they are anything but bribery. All the attempts at bribery were on the other side. The loco foco leaders did offer bribes to bring the Mormons back to their fold.

We might enlarge on these topics, but think we have noticed all the principal points of attack aimed at Col. Warren and through him the whig party of Iowa, and hope their edge has been somewhat blunted by this plain matter-of-fact vindication. As head of the Whig Central Committee and as a Candidate for Elector he could not have been otherwise than influential among us. It was because of this, and his success in thwarting so many of their darling plans, that lhas made the leaders in the locofouo party so exceeding mad against him. That he differed in some of his measures of policy with prominent whigs might have been expected.... That he is eminently qualified for his present high and responsible station we believe; and that he has received the appointment and fulfils the dulies so satisfactorily to the President and the Cabinet, as we learn he does, gives us heartfelt pleasure.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  April 25, 1849.                             No. 42.


The last Hawkeye has a long and eulogistic article in defence of Mr. Warren. The exposure made of Mr. W's public and private conduct are alleged to be the offspring of personal as well as political malice... The charge of introducing fraud and corruption into our elections has been too clearly fixed on Mr. Warren to be disproved... The project of smuggling in the illegal Mormon vote also originated with him; and the facts, as made public, show that a regular bargain was entered into between him and Hyde, (the Mormon Elder,) the consideration on one side being the votes of the Mormons for the whigs, and on the other, means which enabled Hyde to procure a printing press &c. Indeed it may be said that Warren executed to Hyde a regular bill of sale of the Mormon vote; for upon leaving for the East, after the consummation of this "fair business transaction," he furnished Mr. W. with a letter, directed to all the Saints in the State, in which, after informing them who and what Mr. W. was, he directed them TO VOTE AS HE (Mr. W.) MIGHT DIRECT! These things, and many more, showing the reckless character of the man selected by Mr. Collamer to preside over the Appointment Office in the Post Office Department, are notorious...

Large numbers of Mormons are coming to this country from Europe. They generally land at New Orleans, and from thence procede to the settlement on the Missouri river, or to the Salt Lake. Some two hundred arrived on one boat a few days ago at St. Louis.

The St. Joseph Gazette says that the Saints residing in Pottawatomie county, in this State, are making extensive arrangements for emigrating to the Salt Lake.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. X.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  April 26, 1849.                             No. 49.


The Gazette of yesterday was occupied to a large extent in retailing slanders against Col. Warren... How came the notorious Townsend possessor of the great Mormon ferry crossing the Missouri? It was promised him, for services rendered to the loco focos to preventing Mormons from voting the whig ticket. Why didn't [Almon] Babbitt take the thousand dollars offered him and go to the Bluffs on the same errand? Because the roads were too bad and there wasn't time to accomplish his object. We could bring up other reminiscences of a like character, by "going into details," but we have not time. As to Colonel Warren's ever having the Mormon camp or approached them in the way, or in any way, stated by some of the loco foco prints, we positively deny....

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, May 2, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 7.

From the Missouri Republican of Sept. 19, 1848.
Letter  from  Orson  Hyde.

From an article in your paper of August 30th, headed "The late Locofoco Outrage in Iowa," it would seem that some men have taken a very great interest in my affairs, and in the affairs of that people of Pottawatamie county, Iowa, over whom I have been called to preside. Charges of bribary, I discover, have been brought against the Whigs of Iowa, for the course they are said to have taken to procure the Mormon votes. I think that all parties will admit that I know as much about this matter as any other man, and I think that I am just as willing to tell the truth, and the whole truth, as any person...

I am not a political man, having never cast but one vote in my life, and that was several years before I ever heard the name of Mormon... I think that if the Democrats would go back a few years and search diligently, with an unprejudiced eye, they might find causes more potent for the late Mormon vote than their alleged Whig bribery. The floor of Carthage Jail, still stained, perhaps, with the blood of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, can witness what confifence the plighted faith of a Democratic State is entitled to. It may be urged that this foul deed was committed by a mob, without the knowledge of the Governor. The "Carthage Greys," had sworn to kill Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and this fact was generally known; yet they were detailed by authority, in preference to any other soldiers to guard the jail... This is not Whig bribery, neither newspaper froth and foam' but is solemnly, shameful and official Democratic truth!!

Again, the two letters written by Gov. Ford, one to A. W. Babbit, Esq., of Nauvoo, and the other to the editor of the Warsaw Signal, defining his position in relation to the Mormons and Anti-Mormons of Hancock county. The spirit and tenor of these letters bore an assurance to the mob, that they were at liberty to do with us as they pleased...

The foregoing acts gave strength to the mob, and weakness and discouragement to the Saints, and they exclaimed in their private councils and public walks, concerning the injustice and oppression of the Democratic administration of the State of Illinois...

Now for the Whig bribery, I left my home in Pottawatamie county on the 24th of June last. My object in going abroad was to obtain a printing press, fixtures, &c. I expected to raise the necessary funds by donations, subscriptions, contributions, &c. I left with the feeling and intention to vote for Gen. Taylor if I voted for any Presidential candidate, and I had spoken of this to many of my friends. In fact, I felt disposed, if I voted at all, to vote the Whig ticket. On my way down, I met with Mr. Pickett on his way up, and had considerable conversation with him upon various matters. As I was going to Burlington to see a small branch of our church there and to send a young man from thence to England, Mr. P. advised me to call on Col. Warren of that place. This I did, and made known to him my mission. He directly asked me my political views, and I gave them to him frankly. He asked me if I could conscientiously recommend my views to our people. I told him that I should be very sorry to receive principles myself that I would hesitate to recommend to others. Said he, are you willing to do it? I replied that I was. Well, sad he, by doing it, you will do us a favor. After some further and unimportant conversation I received several letters of introduction to gentlemen in the east, but no check for a farthing in any shape. These and other introductions facilitated my purposes, and I have got the press and intend to use it, not as a political engine particularly, but as a means to diffuse among our people, who have long been shut out from the news of the day, and also to instruct them in religion, &c....

[The Mormons] through much industry, toil, hardship and labor, are just beginning to drive want from their doors, and rise from the blow received in Illinois; and now, if we presume to cast our votes for Taylor and Fillmore, that blow is threatened to be repeated by the same hand. Ye men of this Republic, what say ye? Shall we vote as we like, or shall we not? If we are going to the Great Salt Lake by and by, are we not interested in the Presidential election? Does he not appoint the Governor over that country, and other officers? It may be that, even in that secluded place, we shall be able to render the Government some important service, and things may assume such a shape that the Government could hardly do without us there; and now shall we vote as we like at the next election, and be protected in it, or shall we not?...
                                Yours, most respectfully,
                                       ORSON HYDE.
To Messrs. Chambers & Knapp,
Editors of the Missouri Republican.

From the Missouri Republican of Sept. 21, 1848.
Letter  from  Orson  Hyde.

I would esteem it a favor if the following can have a place in your columns. I am sorry to trouble you or the public with a second communication, bordering upon matters that have caused so many unpleasant feelings. But as this article may reach many of our people through the public papers whom I cannot personally see or address, and that too, at an earlier period than I can convey intelligence to them in any other way, I hope to be parsoned for the indulgence that I ask. I would say to the good people of Pottawatomie county and to our friends elsewhere, that the advice that I gave to you, touching political matters, I gave in all good faith and conscience, and in the spirit that dwelt in my bosom, namely: in the spirit and feeling of a brother who regards your interest and your welfare, and that also of all men.

You have the laws of Iowa at the Bluffs, and I wish you to make yourselves acquainted with them, and let no political zeal carry you beyond their limits. Remember, that it is the native born male citizen of the United States, who is twenty-one years old and upwards, and also foreigners who have been duly naturalized according to the laws of the country, who are legal voters, if they have resided in the State and county the requisite term of time, and I believe that none others are.

Be particular in these matters, and let no illegal votes be cast; and let no man who claims to be identified with our church, make threats against any people...

In the midst of all these various opinions and contentions, there is an over-ruling hand that "steadies the ark," and I think that none have occasion to run mad and raise the cry of extermination against a people that have committed no legal offence...

Mr. A. W. Babbitt is a member of our church, but professes to be no religious Mormon. Time will determine, or has determined, whether he lives up to his profession. He is made to say by the newspapers, that I showed him a check for a thousand dollars, on Washington, but does not say on what house or on what institution. I here state that I never showed Mr. Babbitt a check on Washington, nor any other person, for I never had one to show. Mr. Babbitt has taken his own course in politics which is peculiar to himself, and has chosen his own mode to help his party. If I were to see him, perhaps he would tell me another story, different from what I gather from the papers. But I will close with the wish that Gen. Taylor may be elected President of the United States, trusting that a merciful Providence and patriotic men may have an eye for good upon us poor Mormons, who appear to be threatened with extermination and death, if we presume to express our minds at the ballot-box in a free country, under the influence of Democratic rule.

I have just this moment cast my eye upon a recommendation to jug me up for my crimes, and for the first time in my life, learned that Mr. Babbitt was one of the Twelve Apostles, If I really felt guilty, I should fear these threats and monstrous recommendations, but as I do not feel guilty, I have no fears....
                                 Yours, most respectfully,
                                       ORSON HYDE.
To Messrs. Chambers & Knapp,
Editors of the Missouri Republican.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, May 3, 1849.                              No. 34.


Last month a society of French came over and settled at Nauvoo, Ill., establishing themselves & community of united interests. M. Cabet, the head of the "Icarians," recently addressed a letter to the Mo. Republican, which follows and will give a general outline of their intentions and usefulness as citizens of Illinois: --

We left New Orleans on the 1st of March, arrived at St. Louis on the lllh and at Nauvoo on the 15th; having been preceded by a commission charged with the duty of preparing lodgings for our reception, we established ourselves temporarilv on the elevation near the temple.

The beauty of the situation, at the distance of a mile from the Mississippi rolling majestically at our feet, the salubrity of the climate reminding us of that of France, the resources of every kind offered by the surrounding country, and above all the kind welcome of the inhabitants caused us to form the determination of makingr our first establishment here....

As for the Temple, which was burned last year, and of which only the four walls remain, our intention is to re-establish it if we meet the support necessary to warrant such an operation. We shall maintain its present form and surround the roof by a terrace from which will he seen one of the finest views in the world...

Respecting our system of social and political organization, at present I will only say, that it is community founded on fraternity and equality; on education and on labor; we are republicans desiring the republic in its integrity....

And if I say to our brethren come! Many, a very great number, will certainly be disposed to answer my call.

We clip the following singular paragraph from the Frontier Guardian -- the Mormon paper published al Council Bluffs: --

STOLEN. -- On the 19th inst., from the pockets of an overcoat hanging up in the Union Hotel, one revolving pistol and one single barrel pistol. They are lhe property of Messrs. Livingston & Kinkade, of St. Louis, who were here on business. If he or they who stole them will relurn them to this office well and good; but if not, he, she, or they who took them shall test the strength of a Mormon prophecy. They shall be shot and killed by a pistol ball. -- We will give twenty-five dollars reward for any information that may lead to the detection and arrest of the thief. Cursed be that person who knows or has good reason to believe who has got the pistols, and withholds that information or knoweledge or belief from us, and let all Israel say Amen!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, May 10, 1849.                              No. 35.


==> The steamer Mary left St. Louis last week for Council Bluffs, having on board 350 Mormon emigrants. Before she reached Glasgow twenty-two of the number died of the Cholera, and some ten or twelve others were then stricken. The disease prevails to a great extent on the Missouri river.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, May 30, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 9.


                                                      Kanesville, May 23d, 1849.
Joseph Young, Esq.,

Dear Sir: I perceive from a number of the "Keokuk Dispatch," published in September last, that I am made to say that Orson Hyde showed me a draft upon the Whig Committee at Washington for the sum of $1000, This statement made by the Editor of the Dispatch is false. I have made no statement to any person, or in any place contrary ro those made in my letter to the Hancock Patriot in October last.
                                    I am yours very respectfully,
                                                      A. W. BABBITT.

If the statement, denying the publication of the "Dispatch," had been made at the time it appeared, we confess that it would have altered the tone of some of our letters in relation to Mr. Babbitt. If an angel from Heaven had declared that we showed him a check on Washington or on any other place or an any person under heaven, for a thousand dollars, we should have been forced to say that he told a falsehood. We borrowed the money to get our press, and we expect to pay it again honorably and fully. We have no feelings against Mr. Babbitt that we are unwilling to lay aside, either are we disposed to extort, or exact from him the last farthing.

Mr. Babbitt's statement to Mr. Young, puts the veto upon the bribery speculation charged upon the Whigs. In this, Mr. B. has done himself justice, has honored the truth, and liberated us from unmerciful censure. There were several tributary causes of difficulty between us, arising in a great measure, out of a misunderstanding of each other's position, and the consequences were, a pretty brisk and spirited fire at each other. We have concluded to drop and settle the matter, and be friends so far as the Church is concerned. Yet we confess that we have not made a Whig of him; and we think that he will do us the justice to say that he has not made a very deep democratic impression upon us.

To prevent scattering and wasting the gold dust by paying it out in small quantities, the people in the Valley have collected up all the Kirtland bills they have and put them in circulation; and when they want any amount of gold dust, they return the bills, and have it weighed out to them. This may call into the Valley all the Kirtland money that was smuggled or stolen....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, May 31, 1849.                              No. 38.


Owing to the absence of cleanliness or attention some boats on the Missouri Riverare perfect pest houses while others are almost free from Cholera cases. The Mary is particularly fated, never making a trip without an unusual nnmber of deaths occurring on board. The following from the Mo. Republican gives an account of the large number that died upon her last trip: --

The steamer Mary, Capt. Scott, returned to this city evening before last, from her melancholly trip up the Missouri river. -- She left this city about three weeks since, with a full freight and nearly four hundred Mormon emigrants on board. On the second day out, the Cholera made its appenrance among the deck passengers, and durring the trip carried off fifty-six, including all ages, and of both sexes. Mr. H. Learned, one of the engineers and a cabin passenger by the name of Nicholas, also died of the disease. On her passage up, Captain Scott found it necessary to stop and overhaul his boat frequently, and at length the ravages of the epidemic became so frightful that he was compelled to put on shore a great many of those attacked, and others likely to be so. From the time of leaving this city until his arrival at Council Bluff, there had been fifty eight deaths on board -- a much greater mortality than we have ever known before on board a single steamer. The officers of the Mary report having left Council Bluff, on the 17th, Fort Kearny on the 18th, and St. Josephs on the 19th inst. All the California emigrants had left the different points on the river for the Plains, and the Cholera is said to he making frightful ravages among them. By a letter received at St. Joseph on the 17th inst. it was ascertained that Drs. White and Brown, of this City, had proceeded about fifty miles on their way, but wore then encamped on account of sickness in the company, among whom it was reported several deaths had occurred from cholera.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, June 14, 1849.                              No. 40.


An extra from the office of the "Frontier Guardian," the Mormon paper published at Kanesville, Iowa, was received in this city yesterday. It was published on the 28th, and contains some very interesting news irom the Mormon settlement at Salt Lake.

It appears that an express arrived at Kanesville on the 27th, bringing intelligence from the Salt Lake City to the 15th of April -- forty-five days on the road -- This express met with the first California emigrants 430 miles this side of Fort Laramie. The emigrants, as a general thing, were in good health, particularly after they got out upon the Plains. Near the frontier, there were some cases of cholera, but nothing of a serious nature. On the route, they heard a report that four men, attached to one of the emigrating companies, had been accidentally shot, when taking guns out of wagons with the caps on them; but their names are not given. The emigrants were throwing out their provisions by the way, to lighten their wagons.

The express, on leaving Salt Lake City, were a whole week in beating the road through the snows of the mountains for about one hundred miles, and yet lost only one animal. The weather was fine until they arrived near Fort Childs, but after that period it was rainy and cold. They report plenty of grass on the Plains for the usual emigration.

The express reports that there is no end to tho gold in California -- though none had been found in the valley of the Salt Lake, still the regions [within] two or three hundred miles of it abounded with the shining ore. It is also stated, that the people in the Great Basin will send on Dr. Burnhyson [sic], as an agent, or delegate, with a petition to Congress for the establishment of a territorial government in that quarter. The petition is numerously signed, and the delegate may be looked for in July.

The Extra contains a long epistle from the Mormons at Salt Lake, styled "First General Epistle of the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints scattered throughout the Earth -- Greeting." It is devoted to a general review of the condition of the Church. With much of this epistle, many of our readers have little concern, and we extract only so much as is of general interest. They announce the arrival of several emigrating parties, under the lead of Messrs. Young, Kimball and Richards, in September and October of last year, and the reception of mail from Kanesville, on the 30th of November, bearing news to them of the addition of 7,000 souls to the Church, during the last year, in England and the British dominions.

Lyman Wright [sic] had been dismissed from church fellowship...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  June 21, 1849.                             No. 5.


The following, which we copy from the last received Frontier Guardian, edited by Elder Orson Hyde, shows that Babbitt himself, acknowledges that the charge of bribery between the whigs and the Mormons, was, as we always pronounced it to be, utterly false.

                                                        Kanesville, May 23d, 1849.
Joseph Young, Esq..
  Dear Sir: -- I perceive from a number of the "Keokuk Dispatch," published in September last, that I am made to say that Orson Hyde showed me a draft upon the Whig Committee at Washington for the sum of $1000. This statement made by the Editor of the Dispatch is false. I have made no statement to any person, or in any place contrary to those made in my letter to the Hancock Patriot in October last.
                  I am yours, very respectfully.
                                    A. W. BABBITT.

If the statement, denying the publication of the "Dispatch," had been made at the time it appeared, we confess that it would have altered the tone of some of our letters in relation to Mr. Babbitt. If an angel from Heaven had declared that we showed him a check on Washington or on any other place or on any person, under heaven, for a thousand dollars, we should have been forced to say that he had told a falsehood. We borrowed the money to get our press, and we expect to pay it again honorably and fully. We have no feelings against Mr. Babbitt that we are unwilling to lay aside, neither are we disposed to extort, or exact from him the last farthing.

Mr. Babbitt's statement to Mr. Young puts the veto upon the bribery speculation charged upon the Whigs. In this, Mr. B. has done himself justice, has honored the truth, and liberated us from unmerciful censure. There were several tributary causes of difficulty between us, arising in a great measure, out of a misunderstanding of each other's position, and the consequences were, a pretty brisk and spirited fire at each other. We have concluded to drop and settle the matter, and be friends so far as the Church is concerned. Yet we confess that we have not made a Whig of him; and we think that he will do us the justice to say that he has not made a very deep democratic impression upon us.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, June 27, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 11.


A MISTAKE. -- The St. Louis Union says that "Lyman White the leader of the Mormons in the Valley had been repudiated." Lyman White never was in the Valley of the Salt Lake; but was located in Texas, and rejected by the Church here and also in the Valley of the Salt Lake, and another has been appointed in his place. His circular betrayed a spirit and princiles that the Church here and in the Valley would not cherish.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  July 19, 1849.                             No. 9.


Mr. Peter Kessler, of Augusta, in this county, who left with the other emigrants in the spring for California, returned home during last week.... Mr. K. left Fort Laramie on the 7th June. The emigrants were getting along very smoothly, with little or no sickness... The entire emigration he estimates at 32,000. Eikenberry's company (of which K. was a member.) left Fort Laramie on the 26th of May... Returning, Mr. K. met several companies of dragoons, destined for the different military stations along the route; also a company of Mormons for Salt Lake, with twenty-two wagons....

Mr. Kessler was hauled down in a wagon from Fort Laramie by a Mormon, and for riding twenty-two days had to pay $75. He brought a number of letters with him to citizens of this place, all of which he deposited in the Post Office.   Iowa State Gazette.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  July 26, 1849.                             No. 10.


The Iowa Gazette has the news that "Pickett" has received an appointment from the President through the instrumentality of Col. Warren... Hear what the Gazette says, after announcing the statement: --

"We dount not that such is the fact. Warren is in Pickett's power, and he knows it. He knows too, from P's desperate character, that it will not do to let him go unrewarded. By sending him to California in some subordinate capacity, the risk of any future exposure of the Mormon fraud is greatly diminished. Hyde is still to be provided for; but he too will get his reward in good time."

... If he was such a "desperate character," why did the loco focos thus recommend and exalt him? Did they too fear him? We hope the Gazette's prophecy in regard to Elder Hyde, will come to pass.

We have news eight days later from the Salt Lake. -- to the 6th of May. Health of the settlement good -- Spring crops and wheat looked well. Wuite a number were gone and were going to Sacramento to dig gold. The bearers of this news met the first emigrants at Fort Laramie on the 22d May -- all well and teams in good order.... Grass was abundant all the way -- plenty of rain in the mountains. Cole, Loring and Backenstos were met at the South Fork in good health. -- Ill. Jour.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, August 8, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 14.


It is frequently reported that Father Cutler and the Silver Creek Branch of the Church are going widely astray, and that they are saying and doing many things -- that some of them are holding secret meetings in Missouri, &c.; and we are called upon to take further action in their case. But we here state, that Father Cutler's Mission was suspended at the April Conference. The action of that body was forwarded to the Valley by Elder Egan with all the whys and wherefores. Elders George A. Smith and Ezra T. Benson will be there to report, in person, the way Father Cutler has treated the action of the Conference in reference to his mission, also in reference to his holding in fellowship a man that was disfellowshipped by the Conference; and we will also faithfully and truly represent to the Presidency of the Church the spirit by which that branch and its leaders are actuated. We decline any further action until we get official returns from the Presidency which we shall look for, in part, by Elder Babbitt, whose return we look for about the middle or twentieth of this month....

Note: The continuing obstancy of High Priest Alpheus Cutler, in not obeying "counsel" from Orson Hyde at Kanesville, nor from Brigham Young at the Salt Lake, must have been a continuing source of frustration and apprehension among the top leaders of the LDS Church. Cutler was a well known and well respected "old Mormon," a member of the Council of Fifty and the Anointed Quorum of Seven, who had overseen the building of the Nauvoo Temple. He was also the father-in-law of Heber C. Kimball. Luckily for the LDS leadership, Cutler attracted few followers and his group never posed a serious threat to Brighamite supremacy. The members were, however, effectively cut off from the Salt Lake church before the end of 1849.


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,   Sept. 6, 1849.                             No. 16.

A  Man  of  All  Work.

Elder Hyde in his last Frontier Guardian, expostulates with his friends who write him long and illigible letters as follows: --

"We are always glad to hear from our friends and to respond to their wishes so far as it may be consistent. But consider first the very thing you want when you are going to write to us or ask our counsel verbally; preface your communication with the very thing you want and with nothing else and then [the] preface is all you need to trouble us With. Remember that our time is precious. We have the care and maintenance of the whole Church in Pottawattmie County -- have to attend at all her principal councils -- must give individual advice in every vexed and intricate affair -- preach on every Sabbath day, and on other occisions -- must give counsel and advice to the churches abroad in Europe and in America -- must select and send out elders -- give advice and direction to them when in the field; and in fact, if any body wants to hire a man or woman, or collect a debt through the county, Br. Hyde must do it or cause it to be done. He also edits the Guardian, provides for a large family -- and also for many comers and goers, and he has to be on hand, and it is without fee or reward, -- without salary, gift or donation. His own hands supply his wants and none can say they have to support him. Were it not that some rascally postamsters rob us of about fifty dollarS every now and then; with our labors in the field and in the chair, we could git along very nicely. Now just come forward and subscribe liberally for the coming six months, and we will try to find lime to read all your letters, and respond to as many as we can.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                                Davenport, Iowa, Sept. 6, 1849.                              No. 52.


Under the above caption we find a lengthy article in tho Cincinnati Police Gazette respecting this notorious individual. As that portion of his career alluding to his participation in, and doubtless actual perpetration of the murder of Col. Davenport, is filled with glaring errors, we omit it, giving the remainder of the article for what it is worth placed in such a connection:

"This murderer, counterfeiter and horse-thief, was born in North Carolina, in the year 1819, and consequently is now about thirty years of age. When William was about four years of age, his parents removed to Wayne County, Ind., where they still live. At about the age of nineteen, owing to some slight disagreement with his father, William, who was naturally of a wild roving disposition, ran away from home, leaving his parents in great tribulation, for they knew not whither he was going. After coursing through the country, doing nothing, as long as the money which he took with him, when he left home, lasted, he finally brought up, in the immediate neighborhood of Alton, Illinois, and went to wood-chopping for a living. This life was rather odious to him, who, heretofore, had done as he pleased, and worked when he saw proper, and it is not surprising that he listenedattentively to the words which fell from the mouth of a notorious character, named Proctor, who was Captain of a band who styled themselves "Regulators," and who were the terror of the country around, owing to the misdeeds and crimes committed, which were chargeable to them. The great rendezvous of the "Regulators" was the Pawpaw thicket, a dense copse of trees and bushes in the neighborhood of Springfield, Illinois, and in a very short time after the acquaintance with Proctor was formed, young Fox, then in his twentieth year, was beheld as one of the members of that gang.

"It was this gang of "regulators" that acted so conspicuous a part in the demolishment of the city of Nauvoo, and it is even said that it was members of this clan who killed Joseph and Hiram Smith, the Mormon prophets, while in prison at Carthage. Being of commanding address, and great personal bravery, in a very short time after his initiation into the band of "Regulators,"he was elected Captain, and Proctor thrown aside....

It ia to be hoped that this murderer will finally be made to atone for his sins, and to the officer or officers who would arrest him, we have no doubt the thanks of the citizens of Iowa would be tendered in a very liberal manner.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, Sept. 9, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 17.


The Rev. Simon Swan, a Mormon elder at New York, has issued a proclamation against General Taylor's for a National Fast, of a most infamous and blasphemous character. -- (Exchange Paper.

The Reverend gentleman above referred to, we never had the mortification of knowing, that we recollect; but some of our printers say that he was long since expelled from our church, and has joined his lot with Wm. Smith, who like his companion, seeks to blacken every thing he touches...

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, October 3, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 18.


The Editor of the Cincinnati Nonpariel has the following good humored reply to a communication that he received from the self-styled President of the church, Wm. Smith:


We have received a communication from a gentleman signing himself "Wm. Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," in reply to a few facts we gave in relation to the Mormons of Salt Lake and Beaver Islands. *  *  * 

We understand that this "Wm. Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," does not recognize the Mormons of the islands and the wilderness as "Latter Day Saints," -- they are "base apostates." We would like to put the question to President Smith which was put to Rolla -- "How numerous is your army?" He might resply as definitely as Rolla did -- "Count the leaves of yonder forest;" but it is probable that the followers of President Smith can be numbered by those expert in mathematics. If those who remain in the "true faith" according to him should prove to be more numerous than we suspect, he should be a little modest about pronouncing the main bodies of Mormons "base apostates." They have probably excommunicated him and his followers, and the world is left sadly in the dark as to the real "Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints."

As to the communication of President Smith, we decline publishing it because of the apparent bad temper which dictated it, and the unfounded denunciation with which it abounds. Saying nothing of the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, we think the communication unbecoming even the humblest layman among the "saints." Though "base" heretics ourselves, we could not have written so ill-natured an article. We mention these things for the improvement of our friend President Smith, that he may adorn a godly life and dignify his exalted position with patience, humility, long-suffering and charity. We have a high regard for the honor of the "faith," and respectfully commend to President Smith the Scriptures, "which are given for doctrine, for reproof, and for instruction in righteousness."

A word now as to apostacy. There was a time when apostacy was considered next to the unpardonable sin. He who should break from the evangelical fold was branded under ecclesiastical solemnity and awe, and cast out among the vilest of the earth. For what? Because in the exercise if mind he had -- of the powers he received from the Eternal, he formed a difference of opinion between himself and those with whom he was connected, and as an honest man he could no longer profess his belief in what he thought to be erroneous. The effect was, as it still is in any similar case, that the apostate was disgraced on account of his honesty; for had he been cowardly enough to fear the power of Diets, Synods, Conventicles, and Conferences, and hypocritical enough to profess what he did not believe, he would have glided on in the "true faith" respected and beloved by his brethren...

Little is said at the present day among respectable people, of apostacy; and this affair of President Smith and the Mormons is a rich burlesque on all efforts of the Church in the restraint of freedom of inquiry, and on its excommunication for heresy. President Smith is a benefactor of his race in rendering absurdity ridiculous.

No. -- every man is himself responsible for the exercise of such faculties as he has, and none can act for him. He annihilates himself in so far as he yields to others his freedom of thought and action. No sect or party can do my thinking, and I regard it as an insult for any to claim my homage. In doing so they propose to strike me from the list of freemen and merge me in a confused mess of incoherent inconsistencies,

Note: It appears that President William Smith truly "barked up the wrong tree" in submitting copies of his Mormon anathemas to the Cincinnati Nonpariel. It is difficult to imagine many other circumstance under which the dictatorial Brigham Young and his abject followers in Utah might have been characterized as innocent victims of latter-day injustice -- "disgraced" only "on account of their honesty!"


Vol. 9.                                Davenport, Iowa, Oct. 4, 1849.                              No. 4.


Late news from the Salt Lake is of a melancholy tenor, though implicit reliance cannot be placed upon it. Wagons to the number of 500 are stated to be between Green river and Fort Hall, helpless from want of oxen. Hundreds of which are daily dying from fatigue and starvation. Contentions are also reported among the emigrants, many of whom will winter at Salt Lake. The Mormons are stated to be very kind and hospitable.

==> Orson Hyde recently arrived at Keokuk with the Kanesville mail, containing abouty two thousand letters from the overland emigrants to California. The Register says: "We were struck with a very agreeable pecularity in this lot of letters -- that some four-fifths of them were directed to females."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 9.                                Davenport, Iowa, Oct. 11, 1849.                              No. 5.


We make the following extract from the correspondence of the Chicago Journal, dated at the Great City of the Salt Lake Valley, July 8th, 1849:

Friend Wilson: -- I enclose'you two dollars in gold dust. You will please send me the worth of it in Daily Journals to San Francisco....

Allow me to give you a description of this famous city. Itis situated on a slight slope or a side hill. The slope is hardly perceptible, and is about three miles square, and laid out in nineteen wards, and fenced into wards. The streets are beautiful -- eight rods wide, and every street has a small stream of water about two feet wide, for irrigating their lands... The lands are very rich. Mr. Haywood, the Postmaster, told me that he knew of one bushel of potatoes to be raised from a single potatoe.

I got well acquainted with the Big Bug here, Brigham Young their Bishop. I heard him preach yesterday. I also got acquainted with Brig. Gen. Rich and family -- also with Mr. Haywood and lady, and one of the finest ladies I ever knew. Mr. Haywood is brother-in-law to engineer Talcott. In fact these Mormons here are the finest people in the world; and in about five years they will have the finest city in America (if this is "in America.) They are building a large Council House of stone forty feet square. They are also building a mint; next year they intend to commence building their Temple. -- They find good building stone in the Kanyons, about five miles from the city. They get their woodabout ten miles in th Kanyons...

The [houses] here are mostly adobies, called dobies. These people do all they can to make it pleasant and agreeable to strangers and emigrants. We have had the finest season ever known for traveling; with cattle; plenty of grass and water. The old mountaineers and trappers, and Mr. Bridger of Bridger's fort, say that feed and water is better this season, than it has been for twenty-seven years....

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                       Kanesville, October 17, 1849.                     Vol. I. No. 19.

For  the  Guardian

                                          Kanesville, Oct. 15, 1849.
Mr. Editor: Not having stood in connection with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for some length of time, I feel it my duty and privilege to give you a small part of my experience for the last two years. Like some others that let go the I wandered to Texas and saw Lyman Wight, with the hope of finding him enjoying the light of life. But alas! alas!! "how are the mighty fallen!" I have faults enough of my own, and therefore will not dwell particularly upon my disappointment in Lyman.

I found myself in a strange country with but little cash, and every necessary very dear. Things appeared to be tapering off to a point very suddenly with me. Indeed, I hardly knew what to do. While things were thus with me, one night in my sleep, Joseph Smith, the martyr, came to me and very smilingly said, "Bro. Morse, how came you in Texas? You are the last man that I should ever thought of finding here." I then asked who was right and where was the place to gather. His countenance at once became like lightning, and he gave me a look of rebuke that I shall never, no never, forget. "The body of the Church," said he, sternly, "is the place where the Saints gather. It is not where a buzzard flies off with a bit of carrion." This language fell from his lips with more weight and power than seven fold peels of thunder. When I awoke, I said the body of the Church is at the Bluffs, and more especially in the Valley of the Salt Lake; and I immediately resolved to shape my course accordingly, and am therefore now at this place to inquire what to do, and trust my inquiry will not be in vain. This is but a dream come true, yet it has made a lasting impression upon my mind, and I am now constrained to regard Strang, Wm. Smith, Brewster, McLellin and others of the like character, as so many buzzards, having flown off with their delicate morsel.         Yours most sincerely,
                                                  JUSTUS MORSE.

Note: Elder Justus Morse's return to the Brighamite fold was short-lived. He "gathered" with the Utah Mormons, settling at their colony of San Bernardino -- but in the fateful year of 1857, when the colonists returned to Utah, Elder Morse fell away from the LDS and eventually became a member of the RLDS Church.


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  November 1, 1849.                             No. 24.


State of Deseret. -- The Mormons of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake met in convention on the 5th of March last, and organized a State government, and adopted a constitution for their government, until Congress shall otherwise provide. The new State is quaintly styled the State of Deseret, which implies, according to the Mormon history and interpretation, the "Honey Bee," and is significant of Industry and the kindred virtues.

The first General Assembly met on the 2d of July last, and Millard Snow was elected Speaker of the House. An election by the people had previously been held for Governor and Lieut. Governor, with the following result: Brigham Young received a majority of all the votes for Governor; Heber C. Kimball for Lt. Governor; Wm. [sic] Richards for Secretary of State; Jas. S. Heywood for Treasurer, &c.

The constitution thus adopted will be presented to Congress at its next session, and if ratified, two new Senators and a Representative will soon appear in that body from the State of Deseret -- a State which was without a settled inhabitant four years ago, and which is some twenty-five hundred miles from the seat of the Federal Government. It will be recollected, however, that a Convention was at last accounts in session in California, for the purpose of organizing a State government for the whole of California, including the Mormon settlements.

Note: See the Oct. 30, 1849 issue of the Ohio Huron Reflector for a similar, lengthier article on this same subject.


By O. Hyde.                   Kanesville, Nov. 14, 1849.                 Vol. I. No. 21.

Rigdon's Confession.

After Sidney Rigdon was rejected by the Church as its leader, he then, in all the bitterness and wrath of a demon, began to publish against the Church the most barefaced falsehoods and the most slanderous reproaches.

His articles would be headed, something like the following: "Horrid Disclosures," -- "Abominable Corruption," -- "High-handed Wickedness," -- "Murder," -- "Treason," -- "Indians," -- "Conspiracy to overthrow the Government," &c., &c.

He charged us with every crime that he thought might awaken the strongest prejudices against us, and create a little sympathy for himself. He appealed to the worst passions of men, and sought to fire their indignation to an extent that would insure our destruction. But we have lived it through so far, and shall be able, by the blessing of God, to endure yet longer.

Mr. Rigdon failed to accomplish his undertaking after all his pretended visions and revelations against us. He run into the most wild and criminal extravagances when he began to despair of success, if we can believe one half what has been told us by his own followers. When his affairs became so desperate that he could not stand by them any longer, he said to Mr. Price, then one of his followers in Pittsburgh, as he (Rigdon,) was about going into retirement with Robinson, his son-in-law: "If any ask to know where I am gone, tell them I am gone to Hell on a thousand years' mission."

If Mr. Rigdon has been frank enough to make this confession, the proof of which we have, what must be the encouragement of those that are pursuing just such a course, and for the very same object: Namely, the government or presidency of the Church? But one may say that Rigdon was not the heir by birth, and consequently had no just right: But sons cannot always succeed to supreme power, particularly when they seek it in an unlawful way, and for unholy purposes. Lucifer was a son of the Father and brother to Jesus Christ; but was thrust down to hell for indulging an unlawful ambition; and though he is cast out, he comes not to contend for his rights, which by birth and standing, he claims are his; when the poor devil has no rights, only to have his bosom tormented with an accusing spirit, and burning with the fire of contention and indignation that consumes him away till he looks like a stolen mummy.

It is not a little amusing to see with what untiring perseverance these pretended, and self styled presidents of the church operate, to convince the "United States" that the Mormons are laying some secret plan for overthrowing the nation. When our country was at war and in difficulty, what part did these self-styled prophets and presidents take to help the nation? Were they collecting the people and inspiring, by their patriotic speeches, a martial spirit in them to march forth into the field in the defence of our nation's honor? No! They were meanly traducing us who were doing all we could to raise men for the public service in Mexico. We not only used our influence to accomplish this; but turned out our eatables and property to sustain women and children that were left by their husbands and fathers. We are free to own that we are resolved to oppose mobocracy, and shall do our best to overthrow any unlawful combination that may arise against us. But whoever says that we are secretly combined against the Constitutional Government of our country, is a liar and the truth is not in him. He shall follow the track of Mr. Rigdon and remain where he is said to be gone, till those whom he slanders are disposed to turn the key and let him out. "Whomsoever sins ye retain, they are retained." The testimony of Joseph Smith, when living, was, "The true priesthood is with the body, and not with the fragments." "Let all things be done by common consent among you." See Doctrine and Covenants. Joseph's testimony to individuals is, "The body of the church is the place for the Saints to gather to,"

Satan himself can contend for a legitimate priesthood with equal propriety of those who have been excluded from the church; and excommunicated members from this church stand in precisely the same relation to us as Satan does to the church celestial.

Mother  Smith.

This aged mother of the martyred Prophet and Patriarch, now resides in the city of Nauvoo; and as her profligate son, William, has made statements with regard to her being oppressed and wronged out of a living by the Church in the West, we feel it our duty to say a word respecting this matter. Were none but William concerned, we should never condescend to reply, for the good opinion which that man may express of another may be regarded as a strong presumptive evidence of like depravity. He never would labor, but was ever idle, lazy and quarrelsome. More than once he attacked his brother Joseph and left marks of violence upon him. But to the subject: It has ever been considered the duty of the presidency and authorities of the Church to support Mother Smith. William , her son claims to be president of the church. If he has any faith in his own claims, he knows that it is his duty to support his mother, and not the duty of us, "wicked, corrupt, Brighamite Apostates" here in the West, as he calls us. We do not wish to be considered ungrateful, or destitute of a proper respect for the aged parents in Israel, whose early and middle days have been spent in so good a cause.

When the Church left Nauvoo, Mother Smith had the offer of coming with us if she chose; but her husband and sons being there buried, she concluded to stay there and lay her bones with those of her husband and sons.

As it fell to our lot to tarry in Nauvoo for a season to see that every thing was settled up as far as it was practicable, we proposed to furnish Mother Smith a comfortable house, free of rent, and to settle upon her one hundred and fifty dollars yearly for life; and to pay her quarterly in advance: Mr. Babbitt is a witness to this transaction or proposal, for it was made through him. William, at this time, was his mother's adviser. He was opposed to her accepting it, and concluded that the Church would go so far away that they would never pay the installments; and William thought it best to make as large a grab, at once, as he could, and let the rest go. It was, therefore, William's advice, and the old lady's conclusion to ask the Church to purchase for her a house and lot, that she might have a home that she could call her own. She selected her house and lot and it was agreed by her and William that if the church would buy that house and lot and give her a deed of it, they would release the Church from any further obligation for Mother Smith's support. We told them that they were unwise, and would probably rue their course; But they insisted, and nothing else would satisfy.

We went and borrowed the gold and paid it over to Mr. Joseph R. Noble, four hundred dollars, for his house and lot, and he, Noble, executed a deed of the premises to Mother Smith where she has resided from that time till the present; and by diligence and close financiering, we have succeeded in repaying all.

These are the facts of the case, and if William does not remember the whole circumstances, we will refresh his memory. It was just about the time that he made application to us through Mr. Babbitt to come back into the Church; but the conditions of his coming back among the apostate Brighamites, as he calls us, were too severe upon him. They were, that he go to work like an honest man and support himself by his own industry. That he cease to be idle and learn to tell the truth and to be a virtuous upright man. These were burthens too grievous for him to bear; and the prospect being so gloomy, that he concluded to say that he never made any such application. But Mr. Babbitt can say whether it is so or not. He has made some two or three applications to us since we have been at the Bluffs to come back to the Church, or to the wicked Brighamites, as he calls us; and it was done by letter from St. Louis; but the idea of labor with his own hands for a support, which was every where interwoven in the conditions of his return, was so opposed to every feeling of his nature, that he cries "sour grapes -- wicked Brighamites -- apostates -- oppressors of the Smith family -- usurpers of power," &c.

He is the President of the Church when he contemplates that there would be few to rebuke him in that high station, but could go on in his prodigality to almost any length, but when Mother Smith wants a support, then the Brighamites are oppressors if they will not support her. Shame on a man in the prime of life, that will whine because somebody else will not support his mother! Particularly a man that has the true presidency of the Church and all the influence and power connected therewith. But the Presidency is just about as much of a reality as the paddy's definition of nothing: "A footless stocking without a leg."

The Branch in Cincinnati

The branch in that place seem to be well united and in excellent spirits. We have received the minutes of their Conference, and are pleased with their promptness and decision.

The "net gathers of every kind;" and the bad ones are often drawn out by dishonorable and wicked agents whom the Lord suffers to do such work; and even sometimes actually sends them to do it, because it is so congenial with their natures, When it would be too mean and low a calling for a highminded or celestial spirit to engage in.

The Lord himself sometimes chooses agents to do his work and to execute his will that are not truthful. One of old once said, "I will go and be a lying spirit in the hearts of Ahab's prophets," and the Lord said to him, "go!"

There are those that do all they can to injure the Church, and to alienate and turn away its members; not because they are sincere in their pretensions. but to gratify a revengeful disposition whose prodigality has been checked or limited. They are a storm and a whirlwind of passion who serve to blow away the lighter substances, such as chaff. They are laboring to bring about the purposes of the Almighty with a blind and wicked zeal, and are really doing the work of the Lord, and also securing their own damnation. These very characters may ask: Have we not prophecied in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils (bad members of the Church) and done many wonderful works? Have we not eaten and drunk in thy presence, (sacrament of bread and wine,) and hast thou not taught in our streets? But, depart! depart!! is the awful sentence that rolls from the lips of the Virgin's Son, which falls upon their ears, pierces their hearts and constrains them to cry out: "Fall on us ye rocks and ye mountains, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb!"

... We would therefore say to all concerned: Covet earnestly to perform the most noble and generous deeds -- high-minded and liberal, and you shall ever have the ability to perform them to a greater or less extent: But he who will condescend to mean and low acts, will ever have them to perform, which will disqualify him for any higher station. They must be vessels of dishonor, and wholly unfit for the King's supper table.

Note 1: The article on Sidney Rigdon was almost certainly written by the Editor of the Frontier Guardian, LDS Apostle Orson Hyde. He here accuses former LDS First Presidency member, Elder Sidney Rigdon, of having attacked the Mormon apostolic leadership at Nauvoo with the "most slanderous reproaches." Apostle Hyde further claims that Rigdon had "charged us with every crime that he thought might awaken the strongest prejudices against us." Hyde's 1849 claims in reference to Rigdon's previous "wild and criminal extravagances," conform closely to statements published in the Nov. 7, 1844 and Nov. 16, 1844 issues of the LDS New York City newspaper, The Prophet. In the latter article, it is reported of Rigdon, "that while in Missouri, he stood up and cursed God to his face and pronounced Mormonism to be a delusion." It is certainly believable, that under such extraordinary circumstances, Sidney Rigdon might have told a St. Louis acquaintance, like James Jefferies, that Mormonism was a "delusion" based upon pseudo-scriptures originally authored by Solomon Spalding.

Note 2: In the second article reproduced above, Apostle Orson Hyde does a poor job in explaining to the readers of the Frontier Guardian why the Mormons in Utah and Iowa maintained so little contact with the widow, Lucy Mack Smith. Hyde was obviously reluctant to publish any of the particulars as to why the "Brighamites" did not enjoy the support and confidence of the Widow Smith and the majority of her extended family. Rather, he insinuates that the burden for her financial assistance should fall upon William's shoulders -- and that too, after Hyde has demonstrated to his own satisfaction that William cannot or will not provide the necessary resources. None of this explains very well why the remnants of the founding family of the LDS Church were essentially cut off and forgotten, after the main body of Mormons had moved west.

Note 3: Hyde does his rhetorical cause little good, when he says that William Smith "was ever idle, lazy and quarrelsome." These words sound very much like what Joseph Smith, Jr.'s old neighbors and opponents had so often said of him. Both the anti-Mormon accusations against Joseph, and Hyde's accusations against William (as "ever" having been such bad fellows) reflect very poorly upon the supposed integrity and sanctity of those two brothers' parents, and even more poorly upon the supposed holy reputation of the Smith couple's several sons having ever borne an apostolic witness and a latter day revelation of Jesus Christ. And, were the truth to have been told, in 1849. it is likely that Orson Hyde viewed the members of the Smith family with something less than the sacred awe that earlier Mormon professions had bestowed upon the "holy family." The truth of the matter probably boils down to this -- had the recalcitrant Smiths agreed to follow Brigham, (without voicing their various complaints in public) they would have been saints of the first water, no matter any profane affairs in their private lives nor disturbing ambiguities in their public reputations. The third article, regarding the situation of the LDS branch at Cincinnati, implicitly acknowledges William's building up his following there, at the expense of the Brighamites.


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  November 22, 1849.                             No. 27.


The new Mormon city of Kanesville, seems to be afflicted with rowdy boys. -- As long as those in the place keep from using profane language, breaking the Sabbath, disobeying their parents, and smoking cigars, we shall not interrupt them in their sports.

The following from Elder Hyde's Frontier Guardian, means to hit somebody:

"JUST READ THIS! -- It is sometimes the case that men will leave their residence for the purpose of gathering with the Saints at this place or at the Salt Lake; and will not discharge their liabilities in just and honorable way, and sometimes come here to avoid paying their just debts. Such may be Mormons, but they are not Saints. When persons claiming to be members of our church, leave their places of residence in a dishonorable way, after this date, to avoid paying their just debts, we wish to be informed of the same by members of our church that are in good standing and that wish to maintain just and righteous principles, to inform us of the fact, and such persons will not be received or countenanced in the church here."

Notes: (forthcoming)


By O. Hyde.                   Kanesville, Nov. 28, 1849.                 Vol. I. No. 22.

A. W.  Babbitt, Esq.

It is known by our friends and by the public, that there was a time when some considerable difficulty existed between us and the above named gentleman; but that difficulty was fairly settled in our Church; and though politically opposed to each other, we think that he cannot feel himself very highly complimented by the recommendation of William Smith as a candidate for Governor of the State of Deseret.

It matters little to us who the Governor of that section may be, if indeed a government should be there organized; if he is only a good man, and will not see his subjects unlawfully murdered in cold blood as they were in Illinois.

In olden times a wicked and familiar spirit spoke in praise of the servants of God; but they rebuked that spirit and would not suffer it to speak in their favor. We also read, that which was written aforetime, was written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Would not William like to be Governor in that country? No! for he is already a notch higher in his own estimation. He is President of the Church.

Jesus said, "my sheep know my voice and they follow me, but a stranger they will not follow." William's sheep neither know his voice, nor will they follow him; but will run away after us strangers, oppressors, tyrants, usurpers of power; traitors to the Government as he declares us to be.

We have seen in the course of our life a deranged man who really owned in his estimation, every house and all the land in the country -- he owned several banks, besides a great many ships at sea; and would count over his wealth, in his own mind, with far greater pleasure and satisfaction than William can have in his exalted notions of being the head and leader of the Church, from the fact that his delusion was an innocent one, while William's delusion is criminal because it is spurred on by a vindictive and revengeful malice that corrodes and cankers his own bosom while he affects a consciousness of right.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Burlington,   Iowa,  December 6, 1849.                             No. 29.

The Contested Seat.

The late surveying party, composed of Judge Mason, John W. Webber and others, who were employed to run the line so as to make Kanesville fall north of Monroe county, have accomplished their task... when Belman, Bonney and Co. surveyed the line they brought it down so as to locate Kanesville immediately west of Monroe county. They then thought that the Mormons would vote for their loco foco ticket. Now one of these surveying parties made a false survey, or the line has moved since the Mormons voted for the whig ticket. During the investigation it will be ascertained that as long as the loco focos were impressed with the belief that the Mormons would vote their ticket, their votes by them were held to be legal; but as soon as it was ascertained that they would vote otherwise, the most powerful efforts were made to disfranchise them and throw out their votes as illegal. If their votes were not legal why did Hall go all the way from this place to Monroe county to attend to the business of preventing the votes from being counted? If there was not virtue or vitality in the votes of Pottawatamie county, why steal the poll books?

Notes: (forthcoming)

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