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By H. Greeley & Co.                   Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. VIII.                       New York City, Saturday, February 1, 1840.                      No. 20.


... IN SENATE, on Tuesday [Jan. 28, 1840], Mr. Merrick presented a petition from certain Mormons, praying for the interference of Congress to protect them in their rights as citizens, and to obtain for them a redress of grievences which they have suffered from the State of Missouri. It was temporarily laid on the table...  

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               New York, City, Friday, March 27, 1840.                               No. ?

                                                 Montrose, Iowa, March 24, 1840
Jo Smith, the Mormon leader and prophet, returned here a day or two since, and joined his followers, the "Latter-day Saints." Yesterday being the Sabbath, (notice having been previously given,) the "Saints," and not a few of the "Gentiles," assembled to hear from the prophet's own mouth "words of wisdom."

I, with other "Gentiles," had the curiosity to see and hear, and as the place appointed for him to hold forth at, was on the opposite side of the river, in a grove, I took passage on board the ferryboat, loaded with "Saints and Gentiles." When we landed, we found a large concourse. The "prophet" was seated, with bishops, elders, &c., on a staging in the center. After engaging in prayer to the Most High, and reading a chapter of sacred writ, he commenced his discourse. He told his people he was their servant; that they had a right to know all the incidents of his journey; he would therefore endeavor to give them a minute account. He did like to preach politics on the Sabbath, but he must free his mind, must tell the whole story.

The object of his visit at Washington, you well know, was to make application to congress for relief, touching their troubles in Missouri. But to the discourse. He said, on his arrival at Washington, he, with two of his elders, (Rigdon and Higbee,) called on Mr. Van Buren at the "White House" with a letter of introduction, and after making known to him the subject of their visit, and soliciting him to help them, Mr. Van Buren replied "Help you! How can I help you? All Missouri would turn against me." But they demanded of Mr. Van Buren a hearing, and he, after listening a few moments to their tale of injured innocence, abruptly left the room. After waiting some time for his return, they were under the necessity of departing, disappointed, and chagrined.

He thought Mr. Van Buren treated them with great disrespect and neglect, and in conversation, among other things, told the president that he (the president) was getting fat. The president replied that he was aware of the fact; that he had to go every few days to the tailor's to get his clothes let out, or purchase a new coat. The "prophet" here added, at the top of his voice, -- "he hoped he would continue to grow fat, and swell, and, before the next election, burst!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                             New York City, Saturday, March 28, 1840.                             No. 13.


This sect have in ten years increased from six individuals to nearly twenty thousand. In Hancock, McDonough, and Adams counties, Ill., they have increased rapidly since last fall, several influential families having joined them. They have purchased a tract of land on the Mississippi, at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, comprising about 20,000 acres. They have commenced the publication of a paper, called The Times and Seasons. They call the town Nauvoo. They denominate their church, the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints. Their twelve apostles have recently gone on a mission to England.

They appear to have mingled much evangelical truth with their daring imposture and extravagant delusion. It is by this amount of truth that many are deluded to join them. Their error does not consist so much in the doctrines they teach, for these are taken from the Bible: but in their audacious claim that their book is a revelation from God. Of this they give no proof. They work no miracles; they make no prophecies. They afford none of the evidences which we have required of men bringing revelations from God. Yet many are deluded, and become full believers, without evidence. How important is thorough instruction in the churches, especially in seasons of awakening!

Note 1: This article was reprinted in the May 9, 1840 issue of the Philadelphia Episcopal Recorder.

Note 2: It seems passing strange that the early Mormons were so often described as holding to orthodox Christian doctrines, except for their claims to modern revelation and gifts of the spirit (which most mainstream churches did not allow for in post-apostolic ages). The very doctrine that most often got the early Mormons into great trouble with their non-Mormon neighbors was the one most often overlooked by outsiders -- the LDS tenet that there was to be a literal gathering of Israel in America, prior to the commencement of the millennial reign of Christ. This doctrine of "the gathering" in the "land of promise" in the "fulness of times" comes directly out of the Book of Mormon and is further delineated in certain early LDS "revelations." Contemporary Christian observers, as well as the editors of most newspapers failed to see this pernicious doctrine "mingled much" with "evangelical truth," an oversight which caused most watchers at a distance to misunderstand Mormon intentions and mis-estimate the Mormons' potential political strength.


By H. Greeley & Co.                   Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. IX.                         New York City, Saturday,  May 30, 1840.                         No. 11.


The Mormons. -- A correspondent of the Journal of Commerce states that at the recent semi-annual conference of the Mormons, held at their new settlement in Upper Missouri [sic - Illinois?], called Commerce, upwards of eighty individuals were baptized in the new faith. At the conference, the prophet Smith delivered a violent phillippic against President Van Buren, and said the course he had pursued towards himself and his proselytes should lose him 100,000 votes.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Tuesday, July 28, 1840.                             No. ?


Since the Mormons were expelled from the State of Missouri, they have purchased the town of Commerce, a situation of surpassing beauty, at the head of the lower rapids, on the Illinois shore of the upper Mississippi river. The name of the place they recently changed to Nauvoo, the Hebrew term for Fair or Beautiful. Around this place, as their centre, they are daily gathering from almost every quarter: and several hundred new houses, created within the last few months; attest to the passing traveller the energy, industry, and self-denial with which the community is imbued. They have also obtained possession of extensive lands on the opposite side of the river, in that charming portion of Iowa Territory, known as the 'Half Breed Reservation;' and there, upon the rolling and fertile prairies, they are rapidly selecting their homes and opening their farms. As the traveller now passes through those natural parks and fields of flowers, which the hand of the Creator seems to have originally planted there for the inspection of his own eye, he beholds their cabins dotted down in the most enchanting perspective, either on the borders of the timber, or beside the springs and streams of living water, which are interspersed on every hand.

Nor are they unmindful of their interests abroad, while they are thus accomplishing so much at home. No sect, with equal means, has probably ever suffered and achieved more in so short a time. Their elders have not only been commissioned and sent forth to every part of our own country, but they have left their families and friends behind them, and gone to Europe, and even to the Holy Land, to reveal the wonders of the "new and everlasting covenant;" and to preach "the dispensation of the fulness of times." They doubt not but that they shall be endued, when necessary, with power from on high to proclaim to all the nations of the earth in their own tongues, the wonderful works of God.

The signal success which every where attends their exertions, proves how well their religious system is adapted to give expression to the various forms of enthusiasm that pervade the religious sentiment of the day. Retaining many truths which are held in common by different denominations of Christians and covering their own absurdities with imposing forms and lofty pretensions, their system opens a winning asylum for all the disaffected or dissatisfied of other persuasions, and much that is congenial to almost every shade of erratic or radical religious character. As an illustration of this, it is stated, in the last number of their own journal, called "Times and seasons," that, on a single occasion in England, one of their elders lately baptized, among others, no less than thirteen preachers of one denomination of Christians.

The name of Mormon they disclaim, and affirm that it was given to them by their enemies. They call themselves "The Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints," and number, among their chief ecclesiastical dignitaries, a prophet, patriarch, and a train of high priest[s], bishops, and elders. They are understood to disallow the truth and validity of other churches, and to believe that their own ecclesiastical constitution entitles them to expect the enjoyment of all other gifts and blessings of the church in ancient times. They teach that all who are baptized by immersion and under proper authority, are legally entitled to the remission of their sins, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. Among other religious exercises, they meet together to testify, to prophecy, to speak with tongues to interpret, and to relate their visions and revelations, and, in short, to exercise all the gifts of God, as set in order among the ancient churches. They believe that the restoration of Israel to Palestine, the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and the second advent of the Messiah are near at hand, -- and the dreadful calamities which have recently befallen some of the cities of our land, are set down upon their records as prophetic signs of the second coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of Heaven to open their millennial era.

As to the "Book of Mormon," while they place implicit confidence in its truth, they deny that it is a new Bible, to exclude the old but a historical and religious record, written in ancient times, by a branch of the house of Israel that peopled America, from whom the Indians descended. The metallic plates, on which these records was engraved, lay deposited for many centuries in the earth, until at length, they were discovered and translated by Joseph Smith Jr. and found, not only to corroborate and confirm the truth of holy writ, but also to open the events of ancient America, as far back at least as the flood. -- They believe that this book pours the light of noonday upon the history of a nation, whose mounds and cities, and fortifications, still repose, in grand but melancholy ruins, upon the bosom of the western prairies; and the reason that it is not more generally received is the same that operated to prevent the reception of the Gospel, in the early ages of Christianity.

It was a beautiful morning towards the close of April last, when the writer of the foregoing sketch, accompanied by, a friend, crossed the Mississippi River, from Montrose, to pay a visit to the prophet. As we approached his house, we saw him ride up and alight from his beautiful horse; and handing the bridle to one of his followers in attendance, he waited in front of his gate to receive us. A number of principal men of the place soon collected around, apparently anxious to hear the words which fell from his lips. His bearing towards them was like one who has authority; and the deference which they paid him convinced us that his dominion was deeply seated in the empire of their consciences. To our minds, profound knowledge of human nature had evidently taught him that, of all principles, the most omnipotent is the religious principle, and to govern men of certain classes, it is only necessary to control their religious sentiments.

After he had shown us the fine grounds around his dwelling; he conducted us, at our request, to an upper room, where he drew aside the curtains of a case, and showed us several Egyptian Mummies, which we were told that the church had purchased, at his suggestion, some time before, for a large sum of money.

The embalmed body that stands near the center of the case, said he, is one of the Pharaohs, who sat on the throne of Egypt, and the female figure by it was probably one of the daughters.

It may have been the Princess Thermutis, I replied, "the same that rescued Moses from the waters of the Nile.

It is not improbable, answered the Prophet, but time has not yet allowed fully to examine and decide that point. Do you understand the Hebrew language, said he, raising his hand to the top of the case, and taking down a small Hebrew grammar of Rabbi Seixas.

That language has not altogether escaped my attention, was the reply.

He then walked to a secretary, on the opposite side of the room, and drew out several frames, covered with glass, under which were numerous fragments of Egyptian papyrus, on which, as usual, a great variety of hieroglyphical characters had been imprinted.

These ancient records, said he, throw great light on the subject of Christianity. They have been unrolled and preserved with great labor and care. My time has been hitherto too much taken up to translate the whole of them, but I will show you how I interpret certain parts. There, said he, pointing to a particular character, that is the signature of the patriarch Abraham.

It is indeed a most interesting autograph, I replied, and doubtless the only one extant. What an ornament it would be to have these ancient manuscripts handsomely set, in appropriate frames, and hung up around the walls of the temple which you are about to erect at this place.

Yes, replied the Prophet, and the translation hung up with them.

Thinking this a proper time to propose a few inquiries relative to some of his peculiar tenets, I observed that it was commonly reported of him, that he believed in the personal reign of the Messiah upon earth, during the millennial era.

I believe in no such thing, was his reply. At the opening of that period, I believe that Christ will descend; but will immediately return again to heaven. Some of our elders, he continued, before I have found time to instruct them better, have unadvisedly propagated some such opinions; but I tell my people that it is absurd to suppose that Christ "will jump out of the frying pan into the fire." He is in a good place now, and it is not to be supposed that he will exchange it for a worse one.

Not a little shocked by the emblem employed by the Prophet, we descended from his chamber, and the conversation turned upon his recent visit to Washington, and his talk with the President of the United States. He gave us distinctly to understand that his political views had undergone an entire change; and his description of the reception given him at the executive mansion was any thing but flattering to the distinguished individual who presides over its hospitalities.

Before he had heard the story of our wrongs, said the indignant Prophet, Mr. Van Buren gave us to understand that he could do nothing for the redress of our grievances lest it should interfere with his political prospects in Missouri. He is not as fit said he, as my dog, for the chair of state; for my dog will make an effort to protect his abused and insulted master, while the present chief magistrate will not so much as lift his finger to relieve an oppressed and persecuted community of freemen, whose glory it has been that they were citizens of the United States.

You hold in your hands, I observed, a larger amount of political power, and your society must exert a tremendous influence, for weal or woe, in the coming elections.

Yes, said he, I know it; and our influence, as far as it goes, we intend to use. There are probably not far short of an hundred thousand souls in our society, and the votes to which we are entitled throughout the Union must doubtless be extensively lost to Mr. Van Buren.

Not being disposed in any way to intermeddle in party politics, I made no definite reply; but immediately taking leave we returned to Montrose, abundantly satisfied that the Society over which he presided has assumed a moral and political importance which is but very imperfectly understood. Associated on the religious principle, under a prophet and leader whose mysterious and awful claims to divine inspiration make his voice to believers like the voice of God; trained to sacrifice their individuality; to utter one cry; and to think and act in crowds; with minds that seem to have been struck from the sphere of reason on one subject, and left to wander, like lost stars; amid the dark mazes and winding ways of religious error; these remarkable sectaries must necessarily hold in their hands a fearful balance of political power. In the midst of contending parties, a single hand might turn their influence, with tremendous effect, to which ever side presented the most potent attraction; and should they ever become disposed to exert their influence for evil, which may Heaven prevent, they would surround our institutions with an element of danger more to be dreaded than an armed and hundred eyed police.

Note: Reprinted from the Alexandria, Virginia, Gazette of July 11, 1840.


By H. Greeley & Co.                   Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. IX. No. 20.                   New York, Saturday,  August 1, 1840.                   Whole No. ?


Shameful. -- Three Mormons were carried away from Illinois by a party of Missourians a few days since, and severely whipped, on a charge of stealing. The charge was a most flagrant one, but evidently untrue.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By H. Greeley & Co.                        Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. X. No. 7.                   New York, Saturday,  Oct. 31, 1840.                   Whole No. ?


Mormon Conference. -- This people held a conference at Nauvoo, Illinois, lately, which continued three days. It is estimated that there were not far from three thousand in attendance. A gentleman who was present, speaks in the highest terms of the appearance of the immense assemblege, and the good order which prevailed. The mild and humane laws of the State, and the tolerating and liberal principles which abound among the people are having their just and proper effect upon this sect. Their Society is not only increasing its numbers, but individually their condition is greatly improved, surrounded as they are by the gifts of an overruling power. They are expecting a large accession to their numbers in a short time from England -- one of their preachers, a Mr. Turley, having met with distinguished success in that country. John C. Bennett, Quarter Master General of Illinois, was baptized at Nauvoo, in the belief of the Latter Day Saints recently.

Mormons Arrival from England. -- The packetship North America, which arrived at New-York last week, brought in her steerage 200 passengers, the whole of whom were "Latter Day Saints," or Mormons, bound for the Mormon settlement at Quincy. The Liverpool Chronicle states that upwards of 2000 are in treaty to embark early next spring for the same locality. A great portion of those who sailed in the North America are members of the total abstinence society, and are from Leicestershire and Herefordshire.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            New York City, Tuesday, December 1, 1840.                            No. 3065.

THE MORMONS. -- This singular sect are determined not to be driven from the face of the earth. The recent terrible persecutions they have suffered at the lawless hands of the people of Missouri, seems to have stimulated their exertions, -- They have recently purchased the steamboat Desmoines, formerly owned by the United Stales, and have put it in complete order, changing the name to that of their new city -- Nauvoo. The boat will run from St. Louis to Nauvoo, Galena and Dubuque. The Mormon population of Nauvoo, is estimated, at the present time, at 3000, and 600 persons of the same sect are said to be now on their way from England. -- Buffalo Commercial.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By H. Greeley & Co.                        Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. X.                                 New York City, December 12, 1840.                                 No. 13,

                          For the New-Yorker.


One of the greatest literary curiosities of the day, is the much abused 'Book of Mormon.' That a work of the kind should be planned, executed and given to the scrutiny of the world by an illiterate young man of twenty -- that it should gain numerous and devoted partisans, here and in Europe, and that it should agitate a whole State to such a degree that law, justice and humanity were set aside to make a war of extermination on the new sect, seems scarcely credible in the nineteenth century, and under this liberal government; yet such is the fact.

The believers in the Book of Mormon now number well nigh 50,000 souls in America, to say nothing of numerous congregations in Great Britain. They style themselves Latter-Day Saints, as it is a prominent point in their faith that the world is soon to experience a great and final change. -- They believe, and insist upon believing, literally, the Old and New Testament; but they also hold that there are various otherinspired writings, which, in due season, will be brought to light. Some of these (the Book of Mormon for example) are even now appearing, after having been lost for ages. -- They think that in the present generation will be witnessed the final gathering together of all the true followers of Christ into one fold of peace and purity -- in other words, that the Millennium is near. Setting aside the near approach of the Millennium and the Book of Mormon, they resemble in faith and discipline the Methodists, and their meetings are marked by the fervid simplicity that characterizes that body of Christians. It is in believing the Book of Mormon inspired that the chief difference consists; but it must be admitted that this is an important distinction.

This is their own declaration of faith in that point: A young man named Joseph Smith, in the western part of New-York, guided, as he says, by Divine Inspiration, found, in 1830, a kind of stone chest or vault containing a number of thin plates of gold held together by a ring, on which they were all strung, and engraved with unknown characters. The characters the Mormons believe to be the ancient Egyptian, and that Smith was enabled by inspiration to translate them -- in part only, however, for the plates are not entirely given in English. This translation is the Book of Mormon, and so far it is a faint and distant parallel of the Koran. In much the same way Mahomet presented his code of religion to his followers, and on that authority the sceptre-sword of Islamism now sways the richest and widest realms that ever bowed to one faith. But the Mormons have a very different career before them: their faith is opposed to all violence, and, from the nature of their peculiar doctrines, they must soon die of themselves if they are wrong. If the appointed signs that are to announce the approach of the Millennium do not take place immediately, the Latter-Day Saints must, by their own showing, be mistaken, and their faith falls quietly to the ground. So, to persecute them merely for opinion's sake is as useless as it would be unjust and impolitic.

The Book of Mormon purports to be a history of a portion of the Children of Israel, who found their way to this Continent after the first destruction of Jerusalem. It is continued from generation to generation by a succession of prophets, and gives in different books an account of the wars and alliances among the various branches of the Lost Nation. The Golden Book is an abridgment by Mormon, the last of the prophets,of all the works of his predecessors.

The style is a close imitation of the scriptural, and is remarkably free from any allusions that might betray a knowledge of the present political or social state of the world. -- The writer lives in the whole strength of his imagination in the age he portrays. It is difficult to imagine a more difficult literary task than to write what may be termed a continuation of the Scriptures, that should not only avoid all collision with the authentic and sacred word, but even fill up many chasms that now seem to exist, and thus receive and lend confirmation in almost every book.

To establish a plausibly-sustained theory that the aborigines of our Continent are descendants of Israel without committing himself by any assertion or description that could be contradicted, shews a degree of talent and research that in an uneducated youth of twenty is almost a miracle in itself.

A copy of the characters on some of the golden leaves was transmitted to a learned gentleman of this city, who of course was unable to decipher them, but thought they bore a resemblance to the ancient Egyptian character.

If on comparison it appears that these characters are similar to those recently discovered on those ruins in Central America which have attracted so much attention lately, and which are decidedly of Egyptian architecture, it will make a strong point for Smith. It will tend to prove that the plates are genuine, even if it does not establish the truth of his inspiration, or the fidelity of his translation.

In any case our constitution throws its protecting aegis over every religious doctrine. If the Mormons have violated the law, let the law deal with the criminals; but let not a mere opinion, however absurd and delusive it may be, call forth a spirit of persecution. Persecution, harsh daughter of Cruelty and Ignorance, can never find a home in a heart truly republican. Opinion is a household god, and in this land her shrine is inviolate. -- JOSEPHINE.

Note 1: The above article was reprinted in the Feb. 13, 1841 issue of the Burlington Iowa Territorial Gazette.

Note 2: According to the editor of the Times and Seasons, the "Josephine," who signed the above letter was supposed to be the daughter of Gen. Charles W. Sanford (1796-1878).


By H. Greeley & Co.                        Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. XI.                                New York City, Saturday, April 3, 1841.                                No. 3.


MORMON CITY OF NAUVOO. -- As this city is in some respects a curiosity, we have watched its proceedings with interest. From the 'Times and Seasons' we learn the following facts in regard to it:

The city Council, have prohibited any person from selling whiskey in a less quantity than one gallon; and any other liquor in less than a quart, unless on the prescription of a physician.

The University of Nauvoo has been duly organized by the election of a Chancellor and Trustees, James Kelley, A. M. an Alumnus of Trinity College Dublin, has been elected President of the University.

The Nauvoo Legion has been also organized, and officers have been elected. The Council have passed a vote of thanks to the State Government, for the favors it had conferred, and to the citizens of Quincy, for the protection received, when driven from Missouri.   St. Louis Gazette.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                           New York City, Saturday, April 24, 1841.                           No. 17.

Correspondence of the New-York Evangelist.

                                                                April 17, 1841.
Before bringing my correspondence to a close, there is one subject of a novel and important kind on which I propose to furnish you several communications. I refer to the.


A rare document, relating to this subject, has recently fallen into my hands, the substance of which ought to be made known to the public. It was printed by order of the United States Senate, near the close of the recent session, for the use of the members of Congress, but not for general distribution. It was, therefore, with no little difficulty that I succeeded in obtaining a copy; but having obtained one, I feel that I cannot do the public better service, than by rendering them acquainted with its contents. Mormonism is not the farce which some have supposed. It is a tragedy. It has already proved itself so; and I venture to predict, from a knowledge of the principles inculcated in its authorized documents, that unless it is checked, it will prove far more tragical still. For years, I have been endeavoring to some extent, to improve the public mind with this idea, and not entirely without success. But such is the nature of the document that has fallen into my hands, that it is barely necessary to get the substance of it fairly before the community, to convince all of the fact.

The pamphlet under consideration, is a Document showing the Testimony given before the Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Missouri, on the trial of Joseph Smith, jr., and others, for high treason, and other crimes against that State. It gives the names of fifty-three individuals charged with the several crimes of high treason against the State....

(summary & extracts from 1841 pamphlet follow)

...thus let the public see on what a foundation Mormonism rests. And let it be continually kept in view that this is Mormon testimony, and not that of oposers, which has been produced on this occasion against Cowdery and Whitmer. And how much credit men of such a character as these two are thus shown to be entitled, I leave for you to judge.

Note 1: An excerpt from the above news report was reprinted in the June 16, 1841 issue of the Illinois Warsaw Signal.

Note 2: Although the U. S. Senate booklet above referred to did indeed contain considerable "Mormon testimony," the LDS leaders of the period were not especially supportive of anything printed in the document. For example, Apostle John E. Page dismissed the pamphlet's contents as dubious testimony, and LDS historians from his time forward have generally been reluctant to quote from the Senate document as a reliable source.


Vol. ?                                 New York City, Saturday, May 1, 1841.                                 No. ?


Messrs. Editors: -- In accordance with the proposal in my last, I proceed to give you some additional evidence in relation to the.

Mormon War.

Wyatt Cravens, who was in the battle between Capt. Bogart's company and the Mormons, on the 25th of October, 1838, testifies...

(summary & extracts from 1841 pamphlet follow)

... But the time would fail to produce all the witnesses in the case, or even to bring into a view the various points to which they testify. Suffice it to say, that enough is proved against Smith and the other leaders of the Mormons, to hang them a dozen times over, so far as being guilty of capital crimes would do it. They are proved guilty of treason, rebellion, murder, burglary, arson, robbery, larceny, and various other crimes; and as to vices, they are proved liars, swearers, traitors, and almost every thing that can be named. -- They are proved guilty of all this, by such legal evidence as proves any thing in a court of justice; and they are now fugitives from justice, having escaped from prison. ...

Note: The exact title and full text of this excerpt from the Correspondence section of the New York Evangelist are unknown. The excerpt was taken from the June 16, 1841 issue of the Illinois Warsaw Signal.


Vol. ?                               New York, City, Friday, June 18?, 1841.                               No. ?

THE MORMONS -- ARREST OF JO SMITH. -- By the annexed extract of a private letter from a highly respectable gentleman residing near the Mormon City, (Nauvoo,) it appears that the scenes which a few months since were enacted in Missouri, are in danger of being repeated in Iowa. There is a tract of 120,000 acres of beautiful land lying directly opposite the Mormon settlement on the Mississippi River. This Tract was given to the half breeds of the Sac and Fox nations by the United States, and has been purchased from them by the whites. Proceedings have been had in the Equity Court of Iowa to partition these lands, and Commissioners appointed by the Court to survey and divide them among the lawful claimants. Some months since, the title being then unsettled, Jo Smith received a revelation from God to the effect that the Latter Day Saints should go in and possess this fair land, and enjoy the fruits thereof. -- Accordingly there are said to be now about 2000 of these people residing on said lands, who claim by the highest possible title, -- a title direct from the Creator; and they seem determined to set all human decrees at defiance. In addition to despoiling the lands of much valuable timber, they now forbid the Commissioners and Surveyors, on pain of death, to attempt a survey and partition. The arrest of their leader, it is to be hoped, will prevent the execution of their threat.

Extract of a letter from the vicinity of Nauvoo. -- "The excitement on both sides of the river against the Mormons is increasing very fast. The conduct of Jo Smith and the other leaders, is such as no community of white men can tolerate. It is the entire absence of all moral and religious principle, that renders them so obnoxious to the Gentiles of all denominations, wherever they reside.

Jo Smith was yesterday arrested, between Nauvoo and Quincy, by the authorities of Illinois, on a requisition from the Governor of Missouri. May justice be meted out to him for his villainy.

Martin Harris, who was one of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon, and who has been for some time lecturing in Illinois against the Mormons, was found dead last week, having been shot through the head. He was no doubt murdered.

Note 1: The exact time of the appearance of the above article in the Journal of Commerce remains uncertain -- it may have been published on June 19th. The text is derived from a composite of reprints in various papers, all of which were published after June 22.

Note 2: The "Extract of a letter," received from a "highly respectable gentleman residing near the Mormon City," is incorrect in at least one respect -- Martin Harris was not killed in Illinois in 1841. The Painesville Telegraph of June 30, 1841 corrected this erroneous report, though not before the Editor of the Rochester Daily Democrat provided Martin with an untimely obituary in the columns of his paper on June 23, 1841. The entire misunderstanding was finally cleared up by Thomas C. Sharp, Editor of the Warsaw Signal in his issue for July 14, 1841. There Mr. Sharp explains that William Harris (no relation to Martin) had been delivering anti-Mormon lectures in western Illinois, and that a rumor of his demise "turned out to be all a hoax." In some way the name of Martin was mixed into the false story of William's assassination and a doubly fallacious news report ended up being circulated by the Journal of Commerce. Papers like the Boston Traveller enhanced the tale in their retelling of its fanciful events, and as late as Sept., 1841 sheets like the Iowa City Standard were still spreading the exploded rumor. The essence of William Harris' lectures have been preserved in the pages of his 1841 pamphlet, Mormonism Portrayed.


By H. Greeley & Co.                    Office No. 1 Ann Street.                     Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. XI.                           New York City, Saturday, June 26, 1841.                           No. 15.


THE MORMONS. -- A letter received at Philadelphia from Nauvoo, states that Joe Smith, the leader of the Mormons, has been arrested by the authority of the Governor of Illinois, -- that the Mormons had taken possession of a large tract of land without authority, and that the strongest excitement prevailed against them in the immediate neighborhood, and fearful apprehensions were entertained lest a sanguinary struggle should take place. The Commissioner sent by the Governor to survey the lands had been seized by the Mormons, and both parties labored under much excitement.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By H. Greeley & Co.                    Office No. 1 Ann Street.                     Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. XI.                             New York City, Saturday, July 3, 1841.                             No. 16.


FOR THE WEST. -- The Buffalo Advertiser says that fifteen wagons, filled with agriculturalists untainted with Mormonism, passed through that city on the 24th, bound for Iowa.

Notes: (forthcoming)


By H. Greeley & Co.                    Office No. 1 Ann Street.                     Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. XI.                           New York City, Saturday, July 17, 1841.                             No. 18.


THE MORMONS. -- A Galena paper says, "from what we hear and read, we should judge that great excitement prevailed among the other inhabitants of Hancock county and vicinity, in relation to this sect. We should exceedingly regret to see the excitings scenes of Missouri re-enacted in this State, but we consider such as not among the impossibilities. What appears to excite particular aversion or alarm, is the organization of what is called the Nauvoo Legion -- who muster every few days, ' all harnessed for war.' Their neighbors, unskilled in the mysteries of the golden plates, fear they are to be driven out, as were the Hittites, Jebusites, &c., from the land of Canaan of old, and that Smith does not place as much faith in the efficacy of ram's harns, in tearing down the walls of Gentiles, as in the shooting-iron and ball-cartridges. Our belief has been, that the Mormon Legion has been organized for defence, as in case of an attack, as in Missouri."

Notes: (forthcoming)


By H. Greeley & Co.                        Office No. 1 Ann Street.                Four Dollars Per Annum.

Vol. XI.                         New York City, Saturday, August 21, 1841.                         No. 23.


MORMONISM. -- The Ottawa (Ill.) Free Trader of the 4th inst. states that within the ten days previous between three and four hundred Mormons passed through that place, on their way to the Mormon settlement in Hancock County. -- The Editor of the Free Trader recently counted, in one day, seventeen wagons filled with men, women and childen, all wending their way towards settlements of the 'Latter-Day Saints.' They hailed from Western New-York, and their appearance was quite respectable. The settlement is now said to contain between ten and fifteen thousand inhabitants, and the city of Nauvoo is represented as being in a flourishing condition. The sect are now engaged in building a large temple, containing a baptismal font supported by twelve oxen overlaid with gold!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                 New York City,  September ?, 1841.                                 No. ?


It is stated in the Banner and Pioneer that a law has been passed by the authorities of Nauvoo, "with a heavy fine annexed, as a penalty for speaking against the Mormon doctrine." Such a measure, in this land of freedom of speech, must be suicidal to as any dogma or any set of opinions.

Note 1: The exact date of the above article is undetermined; the text is taken from its reprint in the Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Oct. 1, 1841. There the LDS Editor says: "We pronounce the above, a base FALSEHOOD, notwithstanding it came from our good Baptist friends. Comment is useless in this case."

Note 2: The N. Y. Evangelist was a weekly religious paper, published in New York City from 1830 to 1892. In Chapter 23 of his Memoirs, revival preacher Charles G. Finney says: "I must relate the origin of the New York Evangelist. When I first went to the city of New York, and before I went there, the New York Observer, in the hands of Mr. Morse, had gone into the controversy originating in Mr. Nettleton's opposition to the revivals in central New York.... At length, some of the friends of the revivals in New York, assembled and talked the matter over, of establishing a new paper that should deal fairly with those questions... The first editor of the paper was a Mr. Saxton."


Vol. ?                               New York, City, Monday, Dec. 13, 1841?                               No. ?


The delusion got up by Joe Smith, is one of the most remarkable, as well as one of the most successful of the age. Its success in fact has placed the Mormons in a situation to excite a somewhat deeper interest than mere curiosity. The Mormons are skillful in argument, so that they contend with no little success against all their opponents. They adopt the whole of our Bible, and claim that they have an additional revelation which was communicated to Joe Smith on the golden plate. They say that the spirit of prophecy is an essential sign of the true church, and boldly state their pretensions on the possession of this gift. They say that no true church has existed on earth since prophesying ceased, at or near the apostles' time, and that the church has now been restored, with the new revelation and the returning gift of prophecy. They claim of course that to the Saints belongs the earth, and seem to have no doubt that they shall possess it. They seem indeed to have some reason for their expectations, for their numbers in this country are already estimated at a hundred thousand and as many more in Europe. Their converts comprise a large number of men of intelligence smartness, and not a few who have stood high in the Christian Churches of various denominations, as men of piety and excellence. Their city of Nauvoo is growing in a manner unprecedented; men of property are constantly joining them, and adding their whole estates to the common stock. They have acquired so much political importance as to procure of the Legislature of Illinois an act of incorporation, authorizing the Mormons to maintain a standing army of a thousand men. Smith and Rigdon have ordained twelve apostles, who have been anointed for their work by a sight of the golden plates. One or two of them, we believe, have already deserted the standard and disclosed the designs of their Great Prophet. When we see a miserable creature like Smith, all at once putting on the garb of sanctity, and guided by pretended inspiration, digging into the side of a hill, and there secluding himself for months, and then coming forth with the pretence that he has found a new revelation, which revelation is nothing more nor less than a piece of imaginative writing left in a manuscript by a deceased clergyman, and when we see such a fraud believed in, and adopted by enlightened men, and spreading more rapidly than any system of truth ever did, we are amazed. What is man and all his boast of intelligence, and what has the knowledge of the present day made man, but a fool and the dupe of every knave! It is easy to see that if the Supreme Ruler should but withdraw his care from our world, delusions might spread abroad which would involve the human race in the deepest horrors. All that divines have said of the battle of Armageddon might be speedily realized.

Note 1: The exact date and content of the above article have yet to be verified -- it may have appeared in the Journal of Dec. 12th and the original publication's text may have read: "the pretence that he has found plates on which were written a new revelation..."

Note 2: The writer of the article seems to assert that Joseph Smith constructed a tunnel into the side of a hill near the scene of his 1820s exploits -- (probably in the glacial drumlin later known as "Miner's Hill") where he worked on his compilation of the Book of Mormon. This same claim was reprinted in the Palmyra Wayne Sentinel of Dec. 15, 1841, without any editorial comment. Joseph Smith's "cave" was subsequently cited in various books on the Mormons and in numerous newspaper articles -- culminating in a very fanciful story published in the Palmyra Journal of July 27, 1898. In the latter tale visitors passing "Prospect Hill," between Palmyra and Canandaigua are surprised to discover a hidden cave, and behind "a huge oaken door" the actual repository of "the original gold plates, from which Joseph Smith compiled the first Mormon bible," along with "many other curious and beautiful things..." The writer does not say whether this "Hill of Mormon" cave was located in Miner's Hill or in Gold Bible Hill, but the tale roughly parallels what Brigham related in 1877: "When Joseph got the plates, the angel instructed him to carry them back to the hill Cumorah... the hill opened, and they walked into a cave, in which there was a large and spacious room...They laid the plates on a table... Under this table there was a pile of plates as much as two feet high, and there were altogether in this room more plates than probably many wagon loads; they were piled up in the corners and along the walls."


Vol. II.                           New York City, Monday, December 27, 1841.                           No. ?

==> JOE SMITH, the Mormon Prophet, was in Syracuse last week, on his way hence to Nauvoo from an Eastern visit.

Note: Official Latter Day Saint historical sources shed no light on this reported "eastern visit" by Joseph Smith, Jr. Possibly the sighting of one of Joseph's male relatives, or another high ranking Mormon elder named Smith was the source of this report.

Vol. ?                            New York City, Wednesday, January 26, 1842.                            No. ?

==> The Paymaster of the Missouri Militia, called out to put down the Mormons, some two years since, was supplied with money some time since and started for Western Missouri, but has not yet arrived there. It is feared that he has taken the 'Saline slope.'

The "Times and-Seasons," the Mormon paper published at Nauvoo, Illinois, January 1,1842, contains a proclamation, signed "Jos. Smith, Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion," directing the Mormons of that State to vote for A. W. Snyder, and John Moore, (the locofoco candidates,) for Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, in August next. We fear that ensures their election.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                New York City, Thursday, July 21, 1842.                                No. ?

MORMONISM AND THE MORMONS: A historical view of the rise and progress of the Latter Day Saints. By Daniel P. Kidder. New York;G. Lane & P. P. Sandford, 200 Mulberry st. 1842.

This is a circumstantial and full account of the men, the books, the doctrines and doings, of this extraordinary sect, commencing with their origin, and tracing them to the present time. When we reflect upon the considerable number to which they have already increased, and the skill of its preachers, in getting hold of ignorant and excitable minds the delusion, otherwise too foolish to waste thought upon, becomes worth examining and exposing. This is ably and efficiently done in the volume before us. This, with the similar work of Prof. Turner, will set the ridiculous pretensions of the sect in the light too glaringly absurd to leave it much power.

Note 1: The above text is taken from its reprint in the Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Sept. 1, 1842. There the LDS Editor says: "Twelve years experience has already given us an assurance that the Lord is with us, and when we read such thrusts as the one before us, from the Evangelist, or the more subtle stab of its contemporary, Daniel P. Kidder, or less noted cut of Prof. Turner; or the canine-like but powerless bite of Mormonism Unveiled, by E. D.Howe; or that unchristian but harmless assault of Leroy D. Sunderland... it shows us that we are blessed when all men speak evil of us falsely for Christ's sake.... We say to all men, read what you please, but if you wish the truth and the fulness of the gospel, read the book of Mormon."


Vol. ?                             New York City, Friday, August 5, 1842.                             No. ?


THE MORMON REVELATIONS. -- We watch the further movements of the Mormon expounded, and the Anti-Mormon expounder, with some degree of anxiety, as affording a thorough explanation to the philosophy of fanaticism, whose victims we so frequently find recorded in the history of civilization. This pretty family quarrel between the Mormon chiefs, whether it originated in motives of purity or in pitiable incentives to gain, will carry its salutary effects throughout the controversy. We doubt not that Joe Smith is a shrewd and cunning man, but John C. Bennett is more than a match for him even in these qualities of modern science. There was an almost inconceivable moral courage in a man of our age, who, uneducated in political sciences, could call together a mighty host of uncivilized human beings, and finally adopt the holy privileges of the ancient prophetic race.

The rule of our male Cassandra, our modern Jacob -- a combined prophet and patriarch -- could not last forever. He has degenerated from the religious moralist and priest into the lowest grade of chicanery and vice; he stands before us a swindler of his community, an impious dictator over free will, and now in his most glaring, and even hideous, aspect -- a libertine, unequaled in civilized life -- a Giovanni of some dozens of mistresses, and these acquired under the garb of prophetic zeal. However unworthy may be the instrument of this exposition, he is deserving of thanks, and may be absolved from some taints of immorality by becoming an evidence for the moral commonwealth. The state of these revelations, although not contained in the 'Book of Mormon,' or viewed by the divine inspiration of Joe's stone spectacles, will soon assume the settled principles of truth, and must bear conviction to the misled and ill-treated sect.

Bennett now has blasted the spiritual and temporal Joseph Smith with a charge of horrid crimes; and Joe, in return for these favors, will attempt to blast the temporal and mortal John C. Bennett with a charge of still more horrid gunpowder. Both explosions will make a noise in the world; the moral one from the mouth of fame, the igneous one from the mouth of a pistol. At all events, both combatants appear booked on the calendar of fate -- one for punishment in the next world, the other for a still less agreeable infliction in this small sphere. Up to this time, however, the only murder committed, is that of the 'King's English.'

We firmly trust the punishment of Smith will be heavy in the extreme: his fate should be a warning to those itinerant mongers of religion, who, in every guise and form, infest the community; who steal away the dearest gifts of God, and render desolate firesides by their obscenity and lust. We have now an experiment of the modern philosophy of religious fanaticism; the rise of Mahomet is no longer a problem; his effigy of the nineteenth century has been destroyed. We have long expected this discovery, and now it comes; the wires are withdrawn from the animated puppet, and the excited Fantoceini twist and turn, without harmony or concord. The ruler and the skeptic have passed away; hypocrisy and error can no longer bear the powerful test of sincerity, truth, and morality.

'Error,' observed a scholiast, 'begets a legion of followers,' and the Mormon fanaticism has fulfilled this prediction. It has conquered the Nauvoo Legion, but soon it will exist in name alone; its numbers are fast diminishing. Combination of societies, founded on religious and social basis, will be henceforth regarded with distrust, as weapons of misrule -- instruments placed in the hands of designing oligarchs. Charity, benevolence, sympathy, and pure religion, require no associations to forward their plans; they are the ingredients of every well-formed, cultivated mind.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                             New York City, Saturday, August 13, 1842.                             No. 48.

A Visit to Joe Smith.

We present the following extract from a letter received, a few days ago, from a clergyman now in Illinois:

"I went by stage from Burlington to Nauvoo. I spent the night in the city of the 'Latter-Day Saints.' In the morning I visited the lions of the place. The stone edifice which they are building under Joe Smith's direction is situated about half a mile back from the river, on the bluff. The basement is built; dimensions, one hundred feet or thereabouts by sixty or seventy. It is to be a very imposing building. Nauvoo contains a population variously estimated at from five to ten thousand. Probably there are six or seven thousand people there. It is a beautiful location. The city is laid out in acre lots, each lot having a house, generally of one story; it extends from three to four miles along the river, and runs back about the same distance, and this space is all built on. I called to see the Prophet, and had a short but very pleasant interview with him. He was quite communicative. I asked him about the gold plates which he professes to have dug up and translated into the Book of Mormon. He said, 'Those plates are not now in this country; they were exhibited to a few at first, for the sake of obtaining their testimony -- no others have ever seen them, and they will never be exhibited again.' He showed me some specimens of hieroglyphics, such as he says were on the plates. I told him I had heard some pretty bad stories about him and the Mormons, and had come to see if they were true. 'Well, you have come to the right place,' he replied. ‘Are you not a clergyman?' he says. 'Yes, a Unitarian clergyman.' 'Well, I should like to sit down and have a long talk with you.' 'So should I with you, Mr. Smith.' 'What is the fundamental doctrine of your faith?' 'The unity of God -- one God in one person.' 'We don't agree with you. We believe in three Gods. -- There are three personages in Heaven -- all equal in power and glory, but they are not one God.' I suppose, from what I heard, that Smith makes it a point not to agree with any one in regard to his religious opinions, and adapts himself to the person with whom he happens to be talking for the time being. He was about going to ride in his carnage, which stood waiting at the door, and I was about coming away from the town, so that I saw him only about ten minutes.

As I came out of his house, I saw two cannon mounted in the yard of this Prophet. Can this be a prophet of God, thought I, who must have cannon for his guard, and must convert all his followers into soldiers, and excite in them a warlike spirit? It is certainly strange that this man, of ordinary ability, should exert such an influence as he does, and that converts are flocking into the miscalled Zion by hundreds. But so it is. The simple religion of Jesus is not sufficient, but men must have something outward and visible, and with this show they are satisfied. I know not how this great body of men are to subsist in this city. An acre of ground to a family gives not much for support." [Lowell Courier.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                         New York City, Monday, September 5, 1842.                         No. ?

The exposures which General J. C. Bennett is making of the Mormon humbug in the west, are unique, rich, astonishing, and comical beyond precedent. It seems that there is a systematic course of carnal delight, for the especial behalf of Joe Smith and his favored few.

We think the effect of making these scandalous things public will be to deter people from giving any credence to the Mormon fanatics.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               New York, City, Monday, September 5, 1842.                               No. ?

Gen. Bennett. -- We heard this expositor of Mormonism for a short time on Friday night. The General is not fitted to make a very deep impression, either by the intellectual or moral qualities which he exhibits. A considerable portion of what he stated was written on detached sheets of paper, and read rather poorly; and the gross facts which he stated were interspersed with eloquent reflections and quotations in prose and poetry. His stories of the lewdness which he says was practiced by Joe Smith and the other leaders of the Mormons, were told with a particularity, and a lear and length occasionally, which showed that the lecturer's mind was in a vulgar and debased condition, and totally destitute of that serious and stern disapprobation of crime which should characterize a reformer. If Gen. Bennett's statements were correct, Mormonism must be a clumsy copy of Romanism as it existed at the time of the reformation, and as it exists now in some European countries. But we do not think that the General carried any very strong convictions to the minds of his audience, that what he said was conclusive evidence of the real state of things at Nauvoo. It is, however, a strange place, without trusting to Bennett's testimony; and the scenes which he relates are very like those which almost always occur in such assemblages of imposture and fanaticism.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            New York City, Thursday, October 27, 1842.                            No. ?


The Bennett of the Herald applied to Bennett of Nauvoo for the job of printing his book. The offer was rejected; and since that time Gen. B. and his forth-coming book have been steadily abused. As every body knows, it would be strange if the Herald had taken any other course.

Note: It seems unlikely that James G. Bennett of the New York Herald would have had any desire to publish the accusations of General John C. Bennett "of Nauvoo." Whatever the case may have been, the Herald maintained a sympathetic editorial policy in regard to the Mormons for many months after the book came out. The New York Tribune, on the other hand, published numerous articles in support of the Saints, well into the 1850s.


Vol. ?                            New York City, Tuesday, November 1, 1842.                            No. ?

THE HISTORY OF THE SAINTS: or, an Expose of Joe Smith and Mormonism. By John C.Bennett, New-York, Bradbury & Soden, 127 Nassau-street.

This book has been made up ''to sell'' -- but we shall be somewhat disappointed if even this low aim be reached. That there is iniquity of all possible shades and degrees very partially concealed under the Mormon cloak, we have no doubt, and we have as little that Gen. Bennett is fully competent to speak of it from the best possible acquaintance. This book may all be true, but it is nothing more than a collection of all the newspaper trash about the Mormons that has been published for the last few years. More than three fourths of it is too stupid and heavy ever to be read by any body; and the other part is too disgusting, not so much from what is told as from the manner of telling it, for any decent man to look at. It is in every respect a wretched attempt at bookmaking.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIX.                             Hudson, N. Y., November 5, 1842.                             No. 11.

Eastern View in Main-Street, Palmyra.

[graphic not copied]

PALMYRA was organized by the general sessions of Ontario county pursuant to the act of 27th of Jan. 1789; since modified. It comprised two townships of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, being No. 12, in the 2d and 3d ranges. The surface of the town is gently undulating, and the soil of a superior quality. Pop. 3,550.

The village of Palmyra is situated on Mud creek and the Erie canal, 196 miles distant from Albany by the post route, 11 from Lyons, 13 from Canandaigua, and 22 from Rochester. It is a place of considerable business, containing about 250 dwellings, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist church, a bank, 2 newspaper printing offices, a number of mills, &c. The accompanying engraving shows part of Main-street, looking westward.

Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon sect, began his public career in and near this village. The following account of Smith and his operations, is derived from authentic sources of information.

Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, was horn in Royalton, Vt., and removed to Manchester, Ontario county, N. Y., about the year 1820, at an early age, with his parents, who were in quite humble circumstances. He was occasionally employed in Palmyra as a laborer, and bore the reputation of a lazy and ignorant young man. According to the testimony of respectable individuals in that place, Smith and his father were persons of doubtful moral character, addicted to disreputable habits, and moreover extremely superstitious, believing in the existence of witchcraft. They at one time procured a mineral rod, and dug in various places for money. Smith testified that when digging he had seen the pot or chest containing the treasure, but never was fortunate enough to get it into his hands, He placed a singular looking stone in his hat, and pretended by the light of it to make many wonderful discoveries of gold, silver, and other treasures, deposited in the earth. He commenced his career as the founder of the new sect when about the age of 18 or 19, and appointed a number of meetings in Palmyra, for the purpose of declaring the divine revelations which he said were made to him. He was, however, unable to produce any excitement in the village; but very few had curiosity sufficient to listen to him. Not having the means to print his revelations, he applied to Mr. Crane, of the society of Friends, declaring that he was moved by the spirit to call upon him for assistance. This gentleman bid him to go to work, or the state prison would end his career. Smith had better success with Martin Harris, an industrious and thrifty farmer of Palmyra, who was worth about $10,000, and who became one of his leading disciples. By his assistance, 5,000 copies of the Mormon Bible, (so called,) were published at an expense of about $3,000. It is possible that Harris might have made the advances with the expectation of a profitable speculation, as a great sale was anticipated. This work is a duodecimo volume, containing 590 pages, and is perhaps one of the weakest productions ever attempted to be palmed off as a divine revelation. It is mostly a blind mass of words, interwoven with scriptural language and quotations, without much of a leading plan or design. It is in fact such a production as might be expected from a person of SmithÕs abilities and turn of mind. The following is a copy of the title page:


"Wherefore it is an abridgment of the record of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites; written to the Lamanites, which are a remnant of the house of Israel and also to the Jew and Gentile, written by way of commandment, and also by the spirit of Prophecy and Revelation. Written and sealed up and hid up to the LORD that they may not he destroyed, to come forth by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof, sealed by the hand of Moroni and hid up unto the LORD to come forth in due time by the way of the Gentile: the interpretation thereof by the gift of God, an abridgment taken from the book of Ether. Also, which is a Record of the People of Jared, which were scattered at the tune the LORD confounded the language of the people when they were building a tower to get to Heaven, which is to shew unto the remnant of the house of Israel how great things the LORD hath done unto their fathers, and that they may know the covenants of the LORD, and that they are not cast off forever; and also to the convincing of the Jew and Gentile, that JESUS is the CHRIST, the ETERNAL GOD, manifesting Himself unto all nations. And now if there are faults it be the mistake of men, wherefore condemn not the things of God that ye may be found spotless at the judgment seat of Christ.

"By Joseph Smith, Junior, Author and Proprietor, Palmyra. Printed by E. B. Grandin, for the Author, 1830."

At the close of the book is "the testimony of three witnesses," viz: Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, in which they state unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, that they have seen the plates containing the record, and the engravings upon them, &c. On the last page is contained the testimony of eight witnesses, of which the following is a copy:

"Be it known unto all nations, kindred, tongues, and people, unto whom this book shall come, that Joseph Smith, Jr., the Author and Proprietor of this work, hath shewed unto us the plates of which hath been spoken, which have the appearance of gold; and as many of the leaves as the said Smith has translated we did handle with our hands, and we also saw the engravings thereof, all of which had the appearance of ancient work and of curious workmanship. And this we bear record, with words of soberness, that the said Smith has shown unto us, for we have seen and HEFTED, and know of a surety that the said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken. And we give our names unto the world that which we have seen and we lie not, God bearing witness of it. Christian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Jr., John Whitmer, Hiram Page, Joseph Smith, Senior, Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith."

In the preface, Smith states "that the plates of which have been spoken, were found in the township of Manchester, Ontario county, New York."

It is stated by persons in Palmyra, that when he exhibited these plates to his followers, they were done up in a canvas bag, and Smith made the declaration, that if they uncovered them, the Almighty would strike them dead. It is said that no one but Smith could read what was engraved upon them; which he was enabled to do by looking through a peculiar kind of spectacles found buried with the plates.

Soon after the publication of the Mormon Bible, one Parley B. Pratt, a resident of Lorrain county, Ohio, happening to pass through Palmyra, on the canal, hearing of the new religion, called on the prophet and was soon converted. Pratt was intimate with Sidney Rigdon, a very popular preacher of the denomination called "Reformers" or "Disciples." About the time of the arrival of Pratt at Manchester, the Smiths were fitting out an expedition for the western country, under the command of Cowdery, in order to convert the Indians or Lamanites, as they termed them. In October, 1830, this mission, consisting of Cowdery, Pratt, Peterson, and Whitmer, arrived at Mentor, Ohio, the residence of Rigdon, well supplied with the new Bibles. Near this place, in Kirtland, there were a few families belonging to Rigdon's congregation, who having become extremely fanatical, were daily looking for some wonderful event to take place in the world. Seventeen of these persons readily believed in Mormonism, and were all re-immersed, in one night, by Cowdery. By the conversion of Rigdon, soon after, Mormonism received a powerful impetus, and more than one hundred converts were speedily added. Rigdon visited Smith at Palmyra, where he tarried about two months, receiving revelations, preaching, &c. He then returned to Kirtland, Ohio, and was followed a few days after by the prophet Smith and his connections. Thus from a state of almost beggary, the family of Smith were furnished with the "fat of the land" by their disciples, many of whom were wealthy.

A Mormon temple was erected at Kirtland, at an expense of about $50,000. In this building, there was a sacred apartment, a kind of holy of holies, in which none but the priests were allowed to enter. An unsuccessful application was made to the legislature for the charter of a bank. Upon the refusal, they established an unchartered institution, commenced their banking operations, issued their notes, and made extensive loans. The society now rapidly increased in wealth and numbers, of whom many were doubtless drawn thither by mercenary motives. But the bubble at last burst. The bank being an unchartered institution, the debts due were not legally collectable. With the failure of this institution, the society rapidly declined, and Smith was obliged to leave the state to avoid the sheriff. Most of the sect, with their leader, removed to Missouri, where many outrages were perpetrated against them. The Mormons raised an armed force to "drive off the infidels;" but were finally obliged to leave the state.

By the last accounts, they were establishing themselves at Nauvoo, Illinois; and it is said are now in a more flourishing condition than ever, rapidly making converts by means of their itinerant preachers in various sections of our own country and even in England.

Note: The above text was reprinted from pages 580-582 of John W. Barber and Henry Howe's 1841 book, Historical Collections of the State of New York... The text was expanded and changed somewhat in subsequent editions of that book, so the wording found in later versions is not identical with the article in the 1842 Rural Repository.


Vol. ?                             New York City, Friday, December 23, 1842.                             No. ?


Mormonism has deluded so many persons that the imposture has been deemed worthy of notice, even by some of our intelligent clergy. Missionaries have been sent by Joe Smith and his confederates, not only to the principal cities of the United States, but to many of the towns of England. Indeed, we perceive by some of the late English journals, that this fraud upon the credulity and fanaticism of the human mind, has influenced so many of the simple-hearted people of one or two of the country towns, that it has been necessary to publish in detail, a history of this false religion of these latter days, with the object of throwing light upon the true character of its founders, and the absurdity of the early movements connected with the alleged discovery of the golden plates.

The Rev. Henry Caswell, Professor of Divinity in Kemper College, St. Louis, passed three days at Nauvoo, not long since, and recently published a little work upon the subject. The authority of this gentleman must be regarded as of far more importance than that of Gen. Bennett, who sometime since figured in violent letters, addresses, &c., in New York and Boston. Indeed, when we remember that thousands of poor and honest people, have been entrapped by the so called prophet -- it is rather remarkable that some of our philanthropists and seekers after truth have not deemed this humbug of sufficient importance, to require serious notice and exposure. With this view, therefore, Mr. Caswell deserves credit for his publication. On his route to Nauvoo, he found himself in company with three hundred English emigrants, all about to join Joe Smith. They were from the neighborhood of Preston, in Lancashire, were decent looking people, and by no means of the lowest class. They listened patiently to what the clergyman had to say, but could not be deterred from following their journey.

Mr. C. was informed a t first, that the population of Nauvoo was about 10,000, but subsequent inquiry induced him to place it about 3000 or 4000 lower. The city is beautifully located on the Mississippi; and the Temple was at the time of his visit still unfinished. About 2000 persons, however, assembled in a grove at a short distance from the sanctuary, to worship according to their peculiar notions. Many gray headed old men were there, many well dressed females, groups of the peasantry of Old England, and many bright and innocent little children....

The temple is one hundred and twenty feet in length, by eighty in breadth, and is designed to be the finest building west of Philadelphia. Mr. C. gives the following account of an interview with Joe Smith:
He is a coarse, plebeian person, in aspect, and his countenance exhibits a curious mixture of the knave and the clown. His hands are large and fat, and on one of his fingers he wears a massive gold ring, upon which I saw an inscription. His dress was of a coarse, country manufacture, and his white hat was enveloped by a piece of black crape as a sign of mourning for his deceased brother, Don Carlos Smith, the late editor of the "Times and Seasons." His age is about thirty-five. I had no opportunity of observing his eyes, as he appears deficient in that open, straightforward look, which characterizes an honest man. He led the way to his house, accompanied by a host of elders, bishops, preachers, and common Mormons. On entering the house, chairs were provided for the prophet and myself, while the curious and gaping crowd remained standing. I handed the book to the prophet, and begged him to explain its contents. He asked me if I had any idea of its meaning. I replied, that I believed it to be a Greek Psalter, but that I should like to hear his opinion. "No," he said; " it aint Greek at all, except, perhaps, a few words. What aint Greek is Egyptian; and what aint Egyptian is Greek. This book is very valuable. It is a dictionary of Egyptian hierogyphtics." Pointing to the capital letters at the commencement of each verse, he said: "Them figures is Egyptian hieroglyphics; and them which follows is the interpretation of the hieroglyphics, written in the reformed Egyptian. Them characters is like the letters that was engraved on the golden plates." Upon this the Mormons around began to congratulate me on the information I was receiving. "There," they said, "we told you so -- we told you that our prophet would give you satisfaction. None but our prophet can explain these mysteries."

The prophet now turned to me and said, 'This book ain't of no use to you, you don't understand it.' Oh yes,' I replied, 'it is of some use: for if I were in want of money I could sell it, and obtain, perhaps, enough to live on for a whole year.' 'But what will you take for it?' said the prophet and his elders. 'My price,' I replied, 'is higher than you would be willing to give.' 'What price is that?' they eagerly demanded. I replied, 'I will not tell you what price I would take; but if you were to offer me this moment $900 in gold for it, you should not have it.' They then repeated their request, that I should lend it to them until their propnet should have time to translate it, and promised me the most ample security; but I declined all their proposals. I placed the book in several envelopes, and as I deliberately tied knot after knot, the countenance of many among them gradually sunk into an expression of great despondency. Having exhibited the book to the prophet, I requested him, in return, to show me his papyrus; and to give me his own explanation, which I had hitherto received only at second hand. He proceeded with me to his office, accompanied by the multitude. He produced the glass frames which I had seen on the previous day, but he did not appear very forward to explain the figures. I pointed to a particular hieroglyphic, and requested him to expound its meaning. No answer being returned, I looked up, and, behold! the prophet had disappeared. The Mormons told me he had just stepped out, and would probably soon return. I waited some time, but in vain; and, at length, descended to the street in front of the store. Here I heard the the noise of wheels, and presently I saw the prophet in his wagon, flourishing his whip, and driving away as fast as two fine horses could draw him. As he disappeared from view, enveloped in a cloud of dust, I fell that I had turned over another page in the great book of human nature. Pp. 34-37.
Mr. Caswell gives a good many anecdotes illustrative of the actual standard of Mormon morality, which is not high, if we judge from a list of robberies suffered by his host, one Mr. K., during the three years since the settlement of these religionists at Montrose and Nauvoo. The list is as long and copious as the catalogue of a good auction sale; one only wonders how Mr. K. was able to replenish his store in pace with so rapid a process of exhaustion. He must have charged very high to his lawful, that is, his daylight customers, to make up for those who took what they wanted without the regularity of mercantile transactions. His estate was treated as Penelope treated her web. But then it must be remembered that he was not one of the Saints, and Joe Smith had publicly sanctioned the principle of spoiling the Egyptians. Of this prophet himself some amusing stories are told, he appears not to burden himself and his position with any very troublesome sense of dignity and responsibility; and when occasionally off his guard, exhibits a humor approaching to naivete. That the system, mad as it is, has some method in its madness, and has a good many shrewd and calculating heads at work in its maintenance and propagation, any one may see from only a cursory look over the pages of the "Times and Seasons," which is the Mormonite Gazette, and is written with a wonderful degree of ingenuity and acquaintance with the popular theology of the day.

It is Mr. Caswall's deliberate opinion, from what he has seen, that whatever may befal the originators of this villany, it has the elements of increase and endurance. "It remains (under God,)" he says, "for Christians of the present day to determine whether Mormonism shall sink to the level of those fanatical sects which, like new stars, have blazed for a little while, and then sunk into obscurity; or whether, like a second Mahometanism, it shall extend itself sword in hand, until, throughout Western America, Christianity shall be levelled with the dust."

We may add here, that our western contemporaries, who have opportunities of hearing well authenticated facts connected with the subject of Mormonism, or who meet with persons who have had the scales taken from their eyes, would do well to give publicity to such statements as may serve to expose the absurdities of this imposture, and thus prevent hundreds of credulous people from directing their footsteps towards Nauvoo.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXIV.                       New York City, Monday, January 30, 1843.                      No. 2728.

MORMON CHARTERS. -- The Springfield (Ill.) correspondent of the St. Louis Republican writes, under date of the 12th inst.

"The bill for the repeal of the Mormon charters came up on its third reading, and elicited a warm and somewhat acrimonious debate. Mr. Smith, the _member from Nauvoo,_ and brother of the imposter Joe Smith, made a violent and unjustifiable attack upon the citizens of Missouri in the course of his remarks, denouncing them as a set of banditti, &c., &c. The bill was laid upon the table by a vote of 50 to 43, thus clearly defining that Joe Smith yet controls the action of the Legislature in regard to his charters, which all admit, contain anti-republican, dangerous, and unconstitutional provisions.

JOE SMITH. -- The Springfield, (Ill.) Journal of the 12th inst. says:

We understand that another requisition will be made upon the Governor of this State, for Joseph Smith under the former indictments, which charge him with robbery, arson, treason and murder. For this purpose the indictments referred to are to be reinstated. The requisition will probably include many individuals. The affidavit under the last requisition was manifestly defective; but in this case, those concerned do not believe that any legal objection against the requisition can be made.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Tuesday, February 14, 1843.                             No. ?

==> The Burlington Hawk-Eye of the 19th ult., says: -- "A friend of ours visited Nauvoo on Monday last. Joe Smith was bragging of his recent release, and the Mormons seemed as fond of him as ever. The story in the eastern papers about the completion of the temple is all a hoax. Our informant, with some others, went into some of the cells under the temple, which are separated by walls several feet thick."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Thursday, June 8, 1843.                             No. ?

A NEW DELUSION -- SPLIT AMONG THE 'MORMONS.' -- An Iowa paper says: A Mr. Hinkle, who is said to have been formerly a Mormon, but left them, has located himself near Blue Grass and began propogating a new religion. Four have already been baptized into this man's opinions, which are after this manner; After baptism he lays his hand upon their heads when they receive power from on high to prophecy, cure the sick, heal the lame, and perform miracles as did the Apostles. In their meetings they give the holy kiss, wash one another's feet, &c. This delusion throws that of Joe Smith's into the shade. If the above are not Mr. Hinkle's opinions we trust that he will inform us, as we obtain the information from the most undoubted source.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Monday, June 19, 1843.                             No. ?

==> We learn by the Cleveland Plain-dealer that a large number of Mormons have just passed through that city, where they purchased a canal, boat to convey them to Beaver. Pa. At the latter point they will charter a steamboat, which will convey them direct to Nauvoo, They are from Massachusetts.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                     New York City, July ?, 1843.                                     No. ?


This Joe Smith must be set down as an extraordinary character, a prophet-hero, as Carlyle might call him. He is one of the great men of this age, and in future history will rank with those who, in one way or another, have stamped their impress strongly on society.

Nothing can be more plebeian, in seeming, than this Joe Smith. Little of dignity is there in his cognomen; but few in this age have done such deeds, and performed such apparent miracles. It is no small thing, in the blaze of this nineteenth century, to give to men a new revelation, found a new religion, establish new forms of worship, to build a city, with new laws, institutions, and orders of architecture, -- to establish ecclesiastical, civil and military jurisdiction, found colleges, send out missionaries, and make proselytes in two hemispheres' yet all this has been done by Joe Smith, and that against every sort of opposition, ridicule and persecution. This sect has its martyrs also; and the spirit in which they were imprisoned and murdered in Missouri, does not appear to have differed much from that which has attended religious persecutions in all ages of the world.

That Joe Smith, the founder of the Mormons, is a man of great talent, a deep thinker, and eloquent speaker, an able writer, and a man of great mental power, no one can doubt who has watched his career. That his followers are deceived, we all believe; but, should the inherent corruptions of Mormonism fail to develop themselves sufficiently to convince its followers of their error, where will the thing end? A great military despotism is growing up in the [far] West, increasing faster in proportion, than the surrounding population, spreading its influence around, and marshaling multitudes under its banners, causing serious alarm to every patriot.

What is the reason that men are so blind that they cannot or will not see the hand of the Lord in His work of the last days!

Note: The exact date of this article is uncertain. The paper was being read in Pittsburgh at the end of July and in Nauvoo on or about the 4th of September.


Vol. ?                             New York City, Friday, July 14, 1843.                             No. 703.

JO SMITH, THE MORMON PROPHET. -- We have almost determined not to give publicity to any of the rumors in circulation in regard to the whereabouts of this individual, and the proceedings of his friends and enemies. Each day brings a new series of reports, and all of them of a very contradictory and confused character. -- On Saturday, there was ground to believe a report that Jo Smith had passed through Peoria, on his way to Springfield, escorted by the officers of the law. To-day this report is discredited by news from Nauvoo, that the Prophet was at that place on Saturday last, having been rescued by his followers from the hands of the persons who had seized him.

The place of capture has not been ascertained, but we are told that the persons having the re-quisition in their possession, two of whom were citizens of Missouri, were taken in charge by the Mormons, carried to Nauvoo, and were there to undergo an examination on Saturday last. This proceeding will involve Smith and his friends in new difficulties, inasmuch as they have placed themselves in an attitude of direct hostility to the legitimate authority of the State. It is admitted that the requisition was made by the Governor of Missouri, and that Gov. Ford, of Illinois, so far complied with it as to issue the necessary warrant for his apprehension. At first, we were under the impression that this new movement against Jo. Smith grew out of disclosures made by Rockwell in regard to the attempted assassination of Gov. Gov. Boggs, but this seems not to have been the case.

The occurrences which led to the expulsion of Mormons from Missouri, and which were signalized by a savage and brutal vindictiveness on the part of a portion of our citizens, are said to have formed the groundwork of this charge. If so, there can be little doubt that Jo Smith will escape from this new attack upon him, and thereby obtain still greater popularity with his followers. In this affair, the Mormons were more sinned against than sinning, and regard for the character of the State should lead us to say as little about it as possible. The indictment is a recent one, procured, it is said, sometime last month, and this circumstance induces us to believe that there are other motives than a desire to see justice administered upon Jo Smith, at the bottom of a proceeding which, if instituted at all, should have commenced years ago. -- St. Louis New Era 3d.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Tuesday, October 10, 1843.                             No. ?


Farther intelligence from the border tribes of Indians, especially the OTTOES, who have recently committed several outrages. Two Indians were sent to Fort Leavenworth for confinement. About the third day of their imprisonment they made a rush on the sentinels. One was shot down and died immediately; the other seized a musket, bounded over the hills, and was heard of no more...

The Mormons, it appears, have been sending missionaries among several of the tribes, but for what purpose is not clearly ascertained, though measures have been taken to have them closely watched and promptly apprehended, if necessary...

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IX.                   Jamaica (New York City), Tuesday, January 2, 1844.                   No. 35.


Some time since, Professor Caswell, late of Kemper College, near St. Louis, an Episcopal Clergyman of reputation, being about to leave this country for England, paid a visit to Smith and the Saints, in order that he might be better able to represent the imposture to the British people. -- It so happened that the Professor had in his possession a Greek Psalter, of great age -- one that had been in the family for several hundred years. This book, as a relic of antiquity, was a curiosity to any one -- but to some of the Saints, who happened to see it, it was a marvel and wonder. -- Supposing its origin to have been as ancient, at least, as the Prophet's Egyptian Mummy, and not knowing but the Professor had dug it from the bowels of the same sacred hill in Western New York, whence sprung the holy Book of Mormon, they importuned him to allow 'brother Joseph' an opportunity of translating it!

The Professor reluctantly assented to the proposal; and accompanied by a number of the anxious brethren, repaired to the residence of the Prophet. The remarkable book was handed him. Joe took it -- examined its old and worn leaves -- and turned over its musty pages. Expectation was now upon tip-toe. The brethren looked at one another -- at the book -- then at the prophet. It was a most interesting scene!

Presently the spirit of prophecy began to arise within him; and he opened his mouth and spoke. -- That wonderful power, which enables him to see as far through a mill-stone as could Moses or Elijah of old, had already in the twinkling of an eye, made those rough and uncouth characters as plain to him as the nose on the face of the Professor. 'This Book,' said he, 'I pronounce to be a Dictionary of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics.'

The brethren present were greatly astonished at this exhibition of their Prophet's power of revealing hidden things. After their exaltation had somewhat subsided, the Professor coolly told them that their Prophet was a base impostor! -- and that the book before them was but a plain Greek Psalter! -- Joe 'stepped out.'

Professor Caswell, since his sojourn in England, has published a work entitled 'Three Days at Nauvoo,' in which this rich scene is represented in an engraving. -- Warsaw Magazine.

Note: See also the New York Sun of Dec. 23, 1842.


Vol. ?                           New York City, Saturday, February 3, 1844.                           No. 125.

The Mormons and their Prophet --
Legislation at Nauvoo -- The Temple.

Near the Temple of Nauvoo, Jan. 10, 1844.          
To the Editor of the N. Y. Tribune:
        I take my pen to day to give you some account of the Mormons and their Prophet -- about whom much is said abroad, and but little known.

No one acquainted with this section of the country, since 1837, can realize the extent to which its prosperity has been impeded, by the settlement of the Mormons amongst us, on leaving the scenes of their difficulties in Missouri. That section of country, embracing an extent of fifty miles, having the Des Moines Rapids and the City of Nauvoo for its centre, possesses natural advantages, in my opinion, not equaled by any other of similar extent in the Mississippi Valley. At the date alluded to, this region was rapidly filling up with an enterprising, moral, and intelligent population; now, since the sojourn here of the ragamuffin imitation of Mahomet and his servile followers, an effectual stop has been put to emigration -- excepting, indeed, such as is intended to swell the number of adherents to the fortunes of the Prophet. And it is not unreasonable that it should be so. It is not to be expected that peaceable and inoffensive citizens would desire for their neighbors a set of fanatics, whose fundamental doctrine is, that the Earth and its good things are theirs, and that they will shortly inherit them; many of whom are not willing to await their appointed time, but proceed to take their portion from the Gentiles in advance.

I am far from casting reproach upon the whole body of the Mormon people. There are, doubtless, many exemplary and estimable citizens among them, whose chief aim is to live "righteously, soberly, and godly, in this present world." Their greatest failing is in that they are yielding too implicit obedience to the mandates of a most wicked and corrupt man. But, after an intercourse of six or seven years with numbers of the sect, the unwilling conviction has been forced upon me -- that a large number of them are evil disposed men -- men, who like their leaders, embraced Mormonism for the sake of more effectively preying upon their fellow men.

Of the Prophet himself, none who know him can respect him. They cannot respect him for his sincerity -- for he CANNOT BE SINCERE; he cannot be the victim of his own delusion. They cannot esteem him for his piety -- for he does not even profess to be pious -- and he is notoriously the greatest blasphemer and railer in the country. They cannot respect him for his talents -- for he has none. He is uneducated and ignorant -- possessing no more of the qualifications for a great Reformer (as he professes to be) than can be found in fifty grog-shop loafers in your city. Let me assure you and your readers, that this man is much more indebted to circumstances for the unenviable position he occupies, than to any ability of his own.

He has obtained a strong ascendancy over a mass of mind -- uneducated and vicious, as it undoubtedly is. For this, as I have said, he is indebted to circumstances -- and by the force of these circumstances alone is he able to maintain it. His own people do not love or respect him. Many are jealous of his power; and only submit to it because their present interest seems to require it. Even SIDNEY RIGDON, (who has been the main pillar of Mormonism, in its earlier days,) I am assured, is only waiting for a favorable opportunity to withdraw.

In Smith centres all power -- spiritual and temporal. He is Prophet, Priest, President, (an office in the Church,) General, Mayor of the City, and Landlord!

The organization of the City, under a charter obtained from the Legislature of Illinois, is complete. They have a City Council, whose acts are but the echo of the Prophet's will.

I send you two specimens of their legislation. Both are now in full force in the city.

"An extra Ordinance for the extra case of Joseph Smith and others."

(Preamble -- recounting Smith's difficulties with Missouri.)

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, according to the intent and meaning of the Charter for the "benefit and convenience" of Nauvoo, that hereafter, if any person or persons shall come with process, demand or requisition, founded upon the aforesaid Missouri difficulties to arrest said Smith, he or they shall be subject to be arrested by any officer of the city, with or without process, and tried by the Municipal Court upon testimony, and if found guilty, sentenced to imprisonment in the City Prison FOR LIFE, which convict or convicts can only be pardoned by the Governor, with the consent of the Mayor of said City.
    *     *     *     *     *
Passed December 8, 1843.
                        JOSEPH SMITH, Mayor.

What beautiful legislation! The pardoning power taken from the Governor! -- and life imprisonment under a city ordinance!! Here is another less dangerous one:

"An Ordinance for the Health and Convenience of Travelers and other persons."

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of Nauvoo, that the Mayor of the City be and is hereby authorized to sell or give spirits, of any quantity, as he in his wisdom shall judge to be for the health, comfort, or convenience of such travellers or other persons as shall visit his house from time to time.
     Passed December 12, 1843.
JOSEPH SMITH, Mayor.          

The sole intent of this ordinance is to give to the "Mayor of the City" -- Joseph Smith -- who, it will be recollected is a tavern keeper, a monopoly of retailing liquors to "travelers and others," without license!!!

Should the Temple ever be finished, on the plan originally contemplated, it would be the most magnificent building in the West. But it will not be finished! At the rate it has progressed, since its foundation stone was laid, it will require 20 years to complete it -- and a sum of money not far short of half a million of dollars. I have good grounds for the opinion, that large sums, bestowed for that purpose, never have been, or will be, expended on that splendid monument of folly and wickedness.    Yours,       'Westward Ho!'

Note: See also the reprint in the Feb. 21, 1844 issue of the Quincy Whig.



Vol. IX.                            New York City, Saturday, April 27, 1844.                            No. 24.

A Visit to Nauvoo.

Having been repeatedly urged to redeem an accidental promise I was so unlucky as to make in my Itinerary of a Journey through Illinois the last season, I will, at this late day, attempt an account of a visit to the city of the "latter-day saints."

On the 20th of August, I left Galesburg, the residence of my sister, in company with my brother-in-law, to take a view of the country lying at the South, between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, in what is called the "Military Tract," to take a look at the Mormon settlement, and visit a part of Iowa. The weather was very fine, the roads excellent, and the country most beautiful. There probably is not in Illinois, not any portion of the world, a more excellent soil, a more healthful climate, or more beautiful landscape, than along the ridge between the two rivers above named. The prairies, generally, are abundant, and the surface is gently and beautifully undulated. There is always change and variety enough to destroy the "endless tedium" which some people have so much apprehended should they ever be so lucky as to travel over what they have erroneously thought to be a flat state.

A leading difficulty, which will in a measure retard the settlement of this section of the State, is, that the title to much of the land is in dispute; some claims by Patents from the General Government, called "soldier's rights," and others by tax titles from the State. In many cases suits at law, subject to the decisions and revisions of courts, are now pending, and others will be likely to arise. Few people are willing to buy into litigation while there is room enough in other places, without it.

The travelling in this section of the State was rendered more interesting to me, by being brought into connexion with many of the earliest settlers, some of whom "squatted" here fifteen or twenty years ago. In their notions and habits of life, these people were to me exceedingly novel and somewhat eccentric; but they all exhibited an honesty, and frankness, and hospitality I could not fail to admire. I tarried the first night with an immigrant from the Emerald Isle, who had taken to himself a fair daughter of Kentucky, with whom he was spending the days of his life in apparent happiness and independence. I need not linger here to describe the domestic arrangements of the household to any great extent, because I do not consider it a fair specimen of home-life in Illinois. I prefer rather to give utterance to an opinion favorable to the settlement of the floating and superfluous population of our large cities and towns in the agricultural sections of the great West. Here was an Irishman, every inch of him an Irishman, and there was no attempt, as there was no power to disguise it. The voice, the look, the wit, all proved it, and his own tongue confessed it as he told us his story, in the most perfect good humor, and with great apparent satisfaction as to the result. He left Ireland some fifteen years ago, and, pennyless, came to this country to seek his fortune. After working at brief intervals in different places, he strolled into Kentucky. Here he earned a little money and, somewhat in the style of Jacob in the service of Laban, won, at length, a wife. Having the offer of a "Soldiers Right," by one of the famed Kentucky riflemen of the last war, he purchased it and then came here to establish a home for himself and wife. He is now the rightful owner of some three hundred acres of excellent land, has comfortable dwelling on the borders of a fine prairie, close under a grove of heavy timber, and lives in the midst of plenty, owing no man a farthing, and dependent only and directly upon God for his blessings.

I could not refrain from contrasting the peaceful and happy condition of the open-hearted Irishman with the herds of his countrymen who clan together in our cities and towns, and along our public works, waiting in the most suppliant dependence for something to do. Nay, even compared with the dependent condition of thousands and tens of thousands of American families, who "live from hand to mouth," in our "factory villages," and in the lanes, cellars, and garrets of our crowded cities, how greatly is he to be envied more than they. I am astonished when I look upon their wretched condition, compelled to work from early dawn till late at eve, often past the midnight hour, for a miserable and precarious subsistence, while their employers revel in affluence from the profits of their tear stained labors, and then reflect that here are millions of acres of the richest soil, on which the foot of man has not yet trod, beautiful even in its desolation, which are sufficient to give abundant support, if not to all the needy of the whole earth, at least, to all the poor of the Anglo-Saxon, Celtic and Gaelic races. Why will the poor cluster in large towns where they are doomed to remain, like Lazarus at the gate of the rich man, begging for a few crumbs to keep soul and body together, while they might make themselves as independent as these men who now fatten upon the sweat of their brow? Why is it that parents can consent to bring up their children amid the pride and folly, the distinctions and temptations, the crime and misery to which their young minds are exposed, while a retreat, decorated in the finest display of nature's drapery, invites them to study, admire and adore the true, the real, the permanent, instead of the false, the artificial, and the ephemeral, and to form their modes of thinking and acting according to innocence, beauty and truth? Will it be replied that many have alliances they cannot break; and others are too poor to be able to grasp the proffered competence? I answer, no power of earth should deter man from duty, from seeking for himself and others the highest state of happiness and freedom which can be attained, that the mind and body may in harmony develop the mighty resources of power, wisdom, goodness, and moral, intellectual and physical enjoyment, of which the bountiful Creator has made him capable. And as to poverty, few men in the possession of health, are disqualified, by honesty and industry to remove to the land of abundance, and secure them a home there. Such need not wait to realize the dreams of the Agrarians, who would pray government to give them land; for such would want government to remove them to it also, and cultivate it for them after they got there! No, let a man once resolve to forego the miserable comforts of a city life in poverty, and all will be made plain. "Where there is a will, there is a way." The troubles, sufferings, and expense of obtaining a comfortable home in the West, has been greatly exaggerated. The only difficulties in the way are the want of the right disposition, and the requisite knowledge. The doleful tales of unenterprising men, who are too lazy to work, and lack the capital necessary to get a living by their wits, who have gone to the West expecting to find doughnuts ready fried, and pigs ready cooked, have been related ever since the Dutch came to Communipaw, or the Yankees undertook to settle on the German Flats; and would make a fair counterpart to the story of Alladdin's wonderful lamp, and might deserve a place in the same series. The means of conveyance are so comfortable, expeditious and cheap, that any man of industry and prudence may, in few weeks, earn enough to remove his family there, and if he is honest he can always find the opportunity to add rapidly to his own means of comfort.

Don't become restive, kind reader, for we are one day's journey towards Nauvoo; and another will car us safely there. I have wandered of choice, not of accident, that we might be prepared to solve questions often proposed -- How can such a man as Joe Smith dupe so many persons, and enlist them in his crude notions and strange habits? To fill up my sheet I may as well show my opinion of the answer, in part, here as any where else.

Joe Smith is not a fool, though he is somewhat of a jockey. He has a clear insight into the grosser principles of human nature; and adapts himself and his theories to a taste and disposition he finds common enough among men -- credulity and self-interest. Assuming much for himself, and promising every thing to his followers, he is able to draw around him a class of men who prefer being led, to being starved. He decries learning, talents, and what men term honesty, and sets up that he and his true followers are superior to all other men, in knowledge of things human and divine; that he is a Prophet, and enjoys direct communication with God, and angels, and is equal almost to Christ himself; and that whoever adopts his theory, and submits to his ordinances, shall be one among them here, and is certain of endless happiness hereafter. In the practical application of his theory, he has separated his followers from the rest of the world, and taught them to regard themselves as distinct from all others in character, interests, and destiny -- and hence in feeling and action they have become exceedingly Ishmaelitic, suspicious, selfish, revengeful, domineering towards all others, but leagued in all the strong powers of combined selfishness. Theirs is the crudest kind of socialism; and as the crudest materials often make strong, though most ill- shapen fabrics, so Mormonism has grown to a huge and frightful monster.

It is not difficult to see how poor and ignorant men may be induced, by flatteries and the promises of every thing desirable to them by the emissaries of the prophet, to start off for this El Dorado of religious and physical enjoyment; especially when every convert is assured that he can reach it without expense, by begging as he goes; for it is a well known principle of the Prophet, both in theory and in practice, to pay for nothing, unless compelled to do it, and then only at the last extremity. So his disciples go begging, spunging, and stealing from place to place till they are received into the "city of saints." What I here state is a notorious fact, which all will testify, who live near them, and of which my own sad experience convinced me. So strong is the feeling against them on account of their dishonest spunging, and thieving practices, that all who live near enough to come in contact with them, shun them as they would a pestilence. The night after leaving them, as the evening was cooler than the day, we rode some fifteen or twenty miles, before seeking a place to lodge. It was near 9 o'clock when we asked for entertainment at a comfortable looking log-house on the Mississippi bottom. We were denied. It was already dark, the forests were dense, and the sloughs without bridges. We passed on to meet the same luckless fate at the next dwelling. We entreated, but the good man of the house persisted. After stumbling and tumbling, turning and twirling over, among and around trees and through brooks, the only guide being my white hat, which I carried on my head as I felt out the way in advance of my carriage. At length we found a cabin towards which I sped my way. After knocking my knuckles against the door till they were well nigh divested of skin, I succeeded in arousing the sleepers, who demanded my business. I told them my principle business just then, was to get lodging for myself and friend, and keeping for our beast. He very sternly denied us. I insisted. He refused. I plead, he was unyielding. I argued. He muttered. I demanded in the name of humanity. In the name of humanity and justice he resolutely declined the honor. What was to be done? Here we were in the midst of a wilderness; the night was dark; there was no road, and no other buildings near. We consulted together about taking possession of the barn, upon which we had about concluded, when the thought struck me I would go back and make one more attempt. By the lime our host that was to be, had fallen into a drowse, I rapped again. A surly voice within inquired, "What now?" "See here friend," said I, "I do not want to part in this way, I fear we shall not feel well about it hereafter." He was going on to tell me I had better go about my business, and not be there to disturb his sleep and the quiet of his family, when the secret of the whole difficulty darted into my mind. "Look here, friend," said I, "I have found it." "Found what," said he, "it is so dark I can see nothing." "We are not Mormons," said I, "but decent men. I am from the city of New York, and my companion is from Galesburg in your state; we have money, and design to pay you for all your trouble." "Oh, then, if you are not Mormons, I will be most happy to accommodate you," said he, and down he came at a bounce upon the puncheon floor, and welcomed us most heartily, and provided most hospitably every comfort in his power for us and our tired animal, for which he would not receive, only at our urgent solicitation, a single farthing. He was a good looking six foot and a half Kentuckian, very kind and communicative, but a righteous hater of Mormon dishonesty.   W. S. B.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IX.                            New York City, Saturday, May 4, 1844.                            No. 25.

A Visit to Nauvoo,

(part two)

About noon we came upon the high land which overlooks the valley of the Mississippi. The view was most imposing. Any description from my pen would give but a faint idea of its grandeur; so I forbear the attempt.

Our attention was now directed to the main object of our visit, and we kept a strict look-out for the metropolis of self-sainted Mormonism. As we approached nearer, our anxiety became more intense to catch the first glimpses of its golden gates and sapphire walls, its glittering towers and splendid palaces; and I kept humming, "The city of saints shall appear." The slow pace of our tired steed seemed to mock both the music and truth of my song.

The first tangible proof that we were approaching a large town was beautifully convincing. A herd of one hundred and sixty-seven cows, of varied colors, were seen feeding on the fine undulating prairie over which we were passing. A little farther along we passed some large fields of corn and other grains, and very soon come to some small and inferior looking buildings, apparently well stocked with growing saints. A turn in the road brought us in view of the half-built walls of the Temple itself. The buildings now began to assume the form of streets, but were of every grade, in form and size, from a decent two story house down to a cabin with ragged bed-quilt doors, and sheet partitions. We soon passed the Temple and descended the bluff to the bottom below, on which the town is mainly built. Having refreshed our outer man at a very passable hotel, we prepared to enter the august presence of the Prophet, in whose dominions we now were. -- As we had neither friend nor acquaintance, it became a matter of some perplexity on what pretence we should gain admission, and secure his attention long enough to form an opinion of his real character. We saw his prime minister, Signior Rigdon, at the hotel, in a warm controversy with a Philadelphia lawyer, on the subject of the election which had just past. In order to start an acquaintance I became a party in the debate, in what way need not here be related. Soon after, Signior withdrew to his office, (he is Post Master,) and we followed with a letter we wished to have mailed, about the postage of which we made as many words as possible. I then ventured to tell him we desired to see the Prophet, and hinted that we should like to have him introduce us. He told us to go right in, as Mr. Smith would be glad to see us. This Signior is a shrewd man. His very look indicates his character. He is the "power behind the throne," the prime mover in all the councils of the "saints" - an indispensible co-worker with such a man as Joe Smith. -- I formed a very favorable opinion of his talents.

We now started for the home of the Prophet, which is most delightfully situated close on the bank of the river, and opposite the foundation of the is-to-be splendid Nauvoo House -- for the Prophet has, according to report, to do with the spiritual in taverns as well as in religion. Our hearts failed us as we approached the almost immaculate presence, and so we passed by to examine the plan of this magnificent hotel, in which the Prophet, "ex-officio," is to have rooms, "in perpetuo." It is to be a splendid superstructure, if ever completed, most elegantly situated, having a full view of the river which here makes a beautiful curve, and winds away among the bluffs some miles below. The basement is already built of marble, but the sound of the hammer is no longer heard upon it. The project is apparently abandoned for a time.

Having looked about for sometime, we screwed up our courage and resolved to "make a presentation" without farther delay. Some how or other religious pretensions, though we esteem them false, and even despise the man who makes them, inspire us, nevertheless, with very peculiar emotions. The christian has little respect for Mohammedanism, and yet he feels a shudder run through him as he approaches the Kaaba, kisses the Black Stone, or drinks the sacred waters of Zemzem. The Protestant may feel the most utter abhorrence for the Pope and the superstitious flummery of the palace, and yet he cannot pass the vestibule and wander through the resounding arches of St. Peter's, or look upon the interior of the Vatican, without an emotion of awe, amounting almost to reverence. So we could not enter the dwelling of a man claiming direct inspiration from God, and talk with him face to face, without mingled emotions of respect, pity, and contempt. We entered, and were met by the Prophet in person, and asked to sit down in the dining room. The table was yet spread and a portion of the family were eating, among whom were Mrs. Smith and some of the "children of the Prophet." Three or four other persons were present, among whom was brother Hiram, on whom the prophet's mantle has already descended, though the original has not yet gone up in a chariot of fire. I introduced myself and brother-in-law, with the usual formalities, and were asked to sit down, when the following colloquy took place. I repeat but a small part of what was said, but enough to give the reader an idea of the man.

Myself. I am a traveller from New York, passing through the great West, for the purpose of information. I was desirousof visiting the most distinguished places, and distinguished men of the places. For this reason, though I have no particular business, I have taken the liberty to call upon you.

Mr. Smith. "A good many call on me in that way, to satisfy their curiosity; and go away and say, Well, I've seen Joe Smith. Some of them say he is a pretty good looking, smart fellow. He looks as though he knew something, (he looked about and laughed) as if he was not the fool and knave he has been called. But others go away and say, Well, I've seen Joe Smith -- he is a great blubber mouthed fellow, a knave, a drunkard, a mean, ignorant fellow. I take you to be a Methodist preacher. Ayn't you?"

Myself. No sir.

Mr. Smith. "What are you, then? What is your business? You look like a preacher. Are you?"

Myself. Yes, sir.

Mr. Smith. "Of what order are you?"

Myself. I am a preacher of the Gospel of a free and full salvation; what is usually called a Universalist.

Mr. Smith. "Oh, if you are a Universalist I can convince you in fifteen minules that I am right and you are wrong."

Myself. If that be the case, I shall be most happy to hear you, for it has been the study of my life to find the right and shun the wrong.

Mr. Smith. "Well, I can do it. (He quoted Math, xii. 31, 32, and Heb. vi. 4-6, and went on with a long string of words which need not here be repeated, and concluded by saying,) so you see such persons shall not be forgiven in this world, nor the next."

Myself. You are probably aware, Mr. Smith, that the word world in the passage quoted applies to time, and usually means an indefinite period, an age, and that ---

Mr. Smith. (Abruptly) "You need not talk to me about Greek. I can read Greek as fast as a horse can run. There was two men, one Skinner of Utica, and one Campbell, who wrote a whole book about a single word, what they called nolom, and only showed their own ignorance, for there is no such a word in the Hebrew. Had they known what we know about the gift of tongues, they could have told all about it in five words. It is -- (and here he twisted his mouth and distorted his face in all manner of ways, so as to produce the strangest sound I ever heard in the shape of a word. The following letters will come as near to a representation of it as my art of spelling unknown languages can do -- Gncou-law-umph. He then looked round to Hiram, and another man sitting on his right, and said,) -- Yes, it is Gneou-law-umph. (He gazed at them some moments, while they looked most awe-stricken and deferential. One of them bowed and said, "Yes, that's it, that's it." I bit my lips, and my friend turned round to suppress a laugh, but his sides shook as if an earthquake was laboring beneath the surface. Mr. Smith now went on with a long and swaggering flourish about various doctrines, a future judgment, endless perdition for the ungodly, the dangers of denying so important and safe a doctrine, the superior advantages possessed by the Mormons for knowing all these things.) "Why," said he, "we not only know all that other men have known about these subjects, but we know more, for we have direct correspondence with God, and he interprets all these dark things to us. What do you think of that?"

Myself. Of such things I claim no right to judge. Your pretensions transcend my capacily altogether, and in such cases I submit without argument.

Mr. Smith. "Well, I'd like to have you stop and preach with us to-night. Will you?"

Myself. I think it will not be possible, as I ---

Mr. Smith. "Well, there, now you see just how it is! I can't tell why, but some how nobody will stop and preach with us, though every body pretends to think us wrong. We invite all who come along, but they are all in a terrible hurry. I suppose they are afraid their follies will be exposed. I teach my people to hear every body, and not disturb them. You need not be afraid of a disturbance."

Myself. I will tell you how I am situated, Mr. Smith, and you can decide, whether it would be proper for me to tarry. It would surely afford me great pleasure. I have an engagement to be in Monmouth to-morrow evening. Perhaps we can reach there if we wait till to-morrow. I think we can, said I, winking at my friend; who replied that he thought we could do so easily.

Mr. Smith. "Oh no, that would be impossible. It could not be done. It is two days drive." "All of that," said the gentleman who sat with him.

Perceiving that he was no more anxious for me to remain, than I was to do so, I now began inquiries about his city, its prospects, etc. He boasted very largely about it, and of what he was doing for the country and the world. In the course of the conversation, I remarked that he had a beautiful location for his residence.

Mr. Smith. "Yes, but I shan't stay here. I am going to move over the way there, (pointing to a brick house nearly opposite,) and keep tavern. I can't stand it to entertain all who come to see me -- I wish I could -- but I am not able; and so to get clear of it, I am going to keep tavern; then they can come and see me and stay as long as they choose, and when they are satisfied, they can pay me and go away. Isn't that right?" said he exultingly.

Of course I could not but approve and admire the economy, as well as the justice of the plan, and I told him so; remarking that it might be a very prudent measure for many others to profit by his example. At the same time it struck me very forcibly that there was a strange discrepancy between his theory and practice; for, while he makes it the duty of all his followers to give and take nothing for the entertainment of the saints, he is about to open a tavern to rid himself of the burden he so indiscreetly imposes upon them. But his is not a solitary case, where precept and practice are at variance, nor where the very imposers of "burdens grievous to be borne," seek to rid themselves from a participation in them. The condemnation does not fall upon his head alone. Still it struck me as very queer that a prophet of the Lord should turn tavern-keeper, and especially one who should deal out ardent spirits by the glass, for a picayune a drink. I could not refrain from comparing him to the Kentucky Giant, who keeps a Grogery at the Locks in the canal at Louisville, and exhibits his ghastly proportions as an inducement for others to buy a drink. Had I been a few days later in my visit to Nauvoo, I could easily have found an excuse for seeing the prophet, by simply violating the pledge.

After spending near two hours with the Prophet, and hearing him swagger and brag to my entire satisfaction, I look my leave of him. All I could say when in the street, was, "We have seen Joe Smith." "Yes," said my brother-in-law, "we have seen Joe Smith!" What utter astonishment filled my mind when I thought that such a man was surrounded by persons who honestly believed him inspired, a revealer of truth. Alas for poor ignorant humanity, when such impositions can find supporters.   W. S. B.

(To be continued.)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IX.                            N. Y. C., Saturday, May 11, 1844.                            No. 26.

A Visit to Nauvoo,


The natural position of Nauvoo is very fine, quite romantic. The Mississippi makes a sweep around to the west, leaving a triangular area of bottom land of about two miles in length, and less than one in the deepest: part, upon which the town is principally built. A bluff of rather steep ascent arises in the rear, in a direct line, nearly north and south. On an elevated point of this bluff stands the Mormon Temple, and back of it several : streets extend towards the prairie. There are some very good buildings in: the lower town. The whole place bears evidence of newness; and when we remember that it is only four years since the "Saints" pitched their tabernacle there, we cease to be surprised at the disorderly state of things. We rather admire the rapidity of its growth.

The opposite side of the Mississippi is very beautiful. A high bluff projects into the river just below Nauvoo, which extends back several miles, then sweeps round to the north, making a sort of Amphitheatre. The bank of the river is fringed with a sparse growth of timber, back of which is an open prairie which ascends, in swelling undulations, till it reaches the high prairie bluff in the rear. At the south the view is shortened by the high lands among which the river meanders in its course to the ocean. Towards the north the eye ranges over an interminable extent of splendid country. On the whole Nauvoo is a beautiful, and admirable location, well fitted to please the imagination of an enthusiastic population. Persons who have never visited the far-famed valley of the Mississippi, and travelled along the borders of the "Father of waters," can have no adequate notions of the grand scenery it presents; and those who travel upon its bosom, pent up in a steamboat, see not half the real "beauty of the land."

The Temple, like much else connected with Mormonism, is original in its style. I should judge it was near 120 feet long, by 80 or 90 wide. The walls are 6 feet thick in the basement, but thinner above. It is to be two stories high, with two tiers of windows. It has in front 6 pilasters, and 9 on either side. The basement rises about 6 feet from the ground, at the top of which the wall recedes so as to form a sort of pedestal on which the pilasters stand. Above the plinth of each pilaster is placed the segment of a globe with a crescent inscribed upon it, with a huge human face in relief, facing down, the back of which recedes imperceptibly into the globular die. Whether this emblem is in any way connected with the worship of Iris, Diana, or the bull Apis, does not appear; and if it has, it seems to signify an elevation above them, for here the crescent is inscribed upon the base, and not upon the minaret and topmont objects as is the case with good Mussulman. What shall be the style of the capital of the pilasters and entablature, I did not learn, as no part of the building was completed.

The basement of the building is partitioned by massive walls of stone into ten or twelve apartments, the largest of which is the centre, and is already fitted up in a very rude manner for some of the rites of Mormon worship. In the centre of the area is placed the great laver, which is a hexagon, represented as being supported upon the backs of twelve white oxen, facing outwards and standing in a pool of water up to their knees. The deception is not very perfect, for the crevices between the boards, out of which the oxen are carved, are very distinct, reminding the beholder of the striped pig; and the aperture between about the fifth rib and the brick wall against which they are hacked up, is so obvious, that the sight of the severed oxen begets feelings of pity and loathing, rather than devotion. The laver is so elevated that the people standing in the area below, are prevented from witnessing what is done in the basin above. Flights of steps, constructed of rough boards, are placed on two sides by which the pool is entered. A rough wooden pump stands beside the laver; and the whole is covered by a battened roof of the coarsest kind. The whole character of this sanctum sanctorum of the great Mormon temple is most laughably ridiculous. What is the design of the thick stone partitions of this basement I did not learn. They certainly are not necessary to support the floor. They look very prison-like, being more massive than most prison walls in the country. I could not help thinking of the ruined temples of Egypt, of the Bastile and Inquisition. It looked gloomy and suspicious. What strange orgies are here to be performed, thought I, as I passed through the doors of these dungeon looking walls. Are strange sacrifices here to be made? Are infidels to Mormonism here to be incarcerated? What mean these strange looking enclosures -- these inner rooms which have no windows for heaven's light to penetrate? There must be some idea which is here partly developed in a most suspicious mauner; but what it is may never be known.

The exterior of the Temple is constructed of blocks of hewn marble, of a grayish color, which gives it a very fine appearance. The south wall is nearly completed, the north is about mid-way up the first story; the front and rear are some higher. The work progresses very slowly. It is built by the contribution of labor, each good Mormon being required to devote so many days to help it forward, after which he may give as much as he chooses. The sight of the Temple when completed, taking into view its grand location, will be most imposing, especially when seen from the river and the opposite shore.

The internal policy of Nauvoo is as original as every thing else in and about it. It is neither Theocracy, Democracy, nor Aristocracy; Monarchy, Oligarchy, nor Anarchy; Despotic, Constitutional nor Republican. It is some of all and not much of any. Its true character is not yet developed as it will be hereafter. Joe is manifestly the ruling spirit, but he is not a king. He called himself prophet, but his mantle is already upon the shoulders of another. He is a common tavern-keeper; that is all; and that can not mean king, priest, or prophet; nothing more than knight of the toddy-stick and public Cuisinier. Signior was deposed from the exercise of his proper functions, and no man has yet arisen to fill his place. The military Bennet has apostatized, and so the realm of the "saints" is without a settled form of government.

The Mormons, though greatly overrated, are very numerous in Hancock county, having a majority of the legal voters. They are scattered through the vicinity; but their main settlements are at Nauvoo and La Harpe, fourteen miles inland. Great uneasiness is felt among the inhabitants in that region respecting them, as their conduct is not generally the most neighborly. They are clanned together for the protection of each other. They have filled the County offices with their own men, and so wield the law for the protection of themselves, right or wrong. I fear greater troubles will yet arise, and sanguinary acts be perpetrated. Nay, I am confident that troubles will continue to increase till like the Hittites, and Slivites, and other ites of ancient Canaan, they are driven out. Joe Smith has managed to protect himself from a trial for the murder of Gov. Boggs of Missouri. If he is able to resist thus successfully now, what may he not do when his reinforcements are come in from all the ends of the earth, whither he has sent his missionaries? It is greatly to be lamented that so large a company of ignorant enthusiasts have collected together, whose religion teaches them to intermeddle with, and resist existing forms of government, by assuming to themselves privileges they deny to all who will not unite with them. Such exclusiveness, cannot add to the prosperity of any government. What the end of these things will he, cannot be foreknown. Were I to hazard an opinion, it would be that the conduct of Joe Smith, and his habits, will soon be shown to be too scandalous to be screened or tolerated by his purblind followers, and thus a full exposure of his follies, and vices be made, and those so basely deluded by him become liberated from his influence. It is a fact that many who leave their peaceful homes, and travel hundreds of miles to see the Prophet, and listen to his words of wisdom, and settle among the "saints," are, as I was, disgusted with him at the first interview, and leave him and his fooleries forever. A case of this kind was related to me by the inn-keeper where we stopped. A gentleman of some information and property became a convert to Mormonism. He removed with his family to Nauvoo, and stopped with my informant. He attended service, and heard Joe hold forth in person. He became perfectly disgusted with him, and, after a few days, with the whole concern. He said to one of the saints, "Last week I was as good a Mormon as any of you, but this week I am no Mormon at all." He related that Joe said in substance, during the service, "I suppose some of you saw me drunk last week. If you did'nt, I was. I am able to bear such things. The Lord will uphold me. I wanted to show you how disgraceful, how like a brute, a man appears who gets drunk, that you may leam to avoid drunkenness. Such things can't hurt me; God is my supporter." Whether true or not, our host would not swear, but it was commonly reported, and extensively believed. He advised us if we wanted to see the real Joe Smith, to challenge him to wrestle for a bottle of wine, for he claimed to be great at the first, and able to bear a full share of the last.

These things, judging from his personal appearance, cannot long be disguised, and when his deluded followers come to know them, the sober and enterprizing will break away in abhorrence from so gross a deception, and detest the mun who has played the hypocrite so Iong. Mormonism, like other religious delusions, may beguile the credulous, and control the weak for a time, but it cannot be permanent. It may do much mischief to its votaries, and to those who come in contact with it, but it will pass away and be forgotten. It may do some good, by taking the poor and incompetent from their homes of servitude, amounting almost to vassalage, and transplanting them to a region where they may be able to support themselves. But like wars and revolutions, and disease, and pestilence, much present evil must attend the dark passage to the ultimate good. But there is a God who overrules all things, and by ways past finding out, executes his own purposes for man's good and his own glory. To His government the wise should always submit, and never shrink from any duty which He requires; for His strong arm will sustain us in its discharge.   W. S. B.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                            New York City, Saturday, May 25, 1844.                            No. 36.

MORMON POLITICIANS. -- The Mormons recently had a meeting at Gen. Smith's Store, in Nauvoo, to consult upon measures for the furtherance of their designs in the next Presidential election. Several gentlemen addressed the meeting on their grievances, their rights, numbers and political influence. The official proceedings say: "From the statements presented, we have no reason to doubt but that we can bring, independent of any party, from two to five thousand votes, into the field. Several gentlemen were nominated to attend to the Baltimore Convention, to make overtures to that body."

NAUVOO. -- The Boston Post says Jo Smith's wife, as the Editor has just heard, "did not leave him for good." We suppose not -- but rather for evil.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                                 New York City, Saturday, July 6, 1844.                                 No. 77.

LATER FROM THE MORMONS. -- The following is from the St. Louis Reveille of the 25th ult.

By the clerk of the steamer Ohio, which arrived yesterday morning, we are informed that Joe Smith and his council, at the latest accounts, were not to be found, although in answer to the requisition of Governor Ford, although they had agreed to surrender themselves up and abide the consequences. The Governor has ordered out 10,000 men and appears to be determined that the delinquents shall not escape the law.

Martial law had been revoked at Nauvoo, when the Ohio left there on her downward trip, and things had assumed a more peaceful appearance.

A great deal of hostility, we are told, had been manifested by the people of Warsaw against the steamer Osprey, on the alleged charge of rendering assistance to the Mormons. They desired to search the steamer as she lay at the landing, and Captain Anderson objecting, they brought cannon to bear upon her unless the search was allowed. Captain Anderson, of course, unprepared for resistance, permitted the search, what the result of the same was, we are not able to learn. The Osprey, however, shortly after, resumed her course up to Bloomington.

The Reporter of the same date says:

The Mormon excitement is probably at an end. -- Joe Smith and the most obnoxious of his co-laborers have fled to Iowa. Gov. Ford demanded the State ams a Nauvoo, and ordered out a number of military companies. The Prophet became alarmed and escaped, On Saturday Nauvoo was quiet, but Warsaw wore the appearance of a military encampment. Gov. Ford addressed the people of Carthage and assured them that the offenders should be brought to punishment. The difficulties are now probably to a close, inasmuch as Joe Smith and his council have fled from Illinois.

==> The Reveille of the 26th says:

We have nothing later of importance in relation to the troubles at Nauvoo, with the exception of some information given us by the polite and attentive, clerk of steamer Boreas, to the effect, that four of the Mormon leaders had surrendered themselves to the authorities at Carthage, and informed Governor Ford that Joe Smith and others would do likewise, if they were insured protection against the citizens.

STILL LATER. -- Since writing the above, we have received the following communication from Gov. Ford to the Editor of the Warsaw Signal:

Carthage, June 24,1844.        
Dear Sir. -- Some misunderstanding between the constable and the persons accused in Nauvoo, as to the time of departure, caused the constable to return yesterday without prisoners. In the evening four of the prisoners came in, and surrendered themselves. A request was made for another escort for Smith, and the others accused, for to-morrow, which upon due deliberation was refused.

Early this morning, I despatched Capt. Dunn with his troop, to demand the artillery and public arms in Nauvoo. On the Prairie, four miles on the way to Nauvoo, Capt. Dunn met Smith and the others, coming out to Carthage. The order for the arms was endorsed by Smith, who returned to Nauvoo to deliver the arms as requested. I am assured that the arms and artillery will be delivered, and then all persons required, will return with Capt. Dunn to this place.
I am most respectfully, &c.
                  THOMAS FORD.
To the Editor of the Warsaw Signal.

N. B. A large portion of the militia will be discharged this evening. I have the most satisfactory information that the Nauvoo Legion has been discharged, and that the Mormons from the country, assembled under arms in the city, have returned to their homes.     THOMAS FORD.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           New York City, Saturday, July 6, 1844.                           No. 147.

The Mormon Disturbances.

We have received little farther direct information from Nauvoo since Saturday. A correspondent of the St. Louis Republican writes thus:

WARSAW, June 16, P. M.          
Nothing of any importance has transpired since my last, in relation to the Mormon difficulties. Yesterday the constable of this township summoned the entire force of the township to hold themselves in readiness to assist the officers who have the writs for the capture of the Mormons engaged in the destruction of the printing office. They will rendezvous here to-morrow (Monday) far the purpose of drill, and will be joined by the posse of two townships below this -- part of the Force will be armed with muskets and part with their own trusty rifles; they will probably move to Carthage on Tuesday or Wednesday to co-operate with the balance of the County. We have no intercourse at all with Nauvoo at present, but learn that numbers of the Mormons are leaving; an ordinance has been passed by the City Council preventing persons from going out of the city, by which means several merchants who designed leaving, have been prevented.

The St. Louis New Era of the 20th says:

The steamer Osprey arrived to-day from the upper Mississippi. She left Nauvoo yesterday. Things in the Holy City were in pretty much the same condition as previously reported. We are informed by the officers of the boat that martial law was proclaimed by the city council on last Sunday, and that since then the Mormon legion has been under arms, patrolling the streets night and day; another edict has also been issued by the same body prohibiting any one from leaving the city under a severe penalty.

Several Mormons arrived here to-day from Nauvoo; Sidney Rigdon, the Prophet's principal adviser, was of the number. He is on his way to Pittsburg, in the vicinity of which he has been ordered to reside, in pursuance of one of Jo Smith's convenient revelations.

The steamer Di Vernon took from St. Louis to the Mormon country a liberal supply of arms and ammunition on Monday last.

As one of the curiosities of the day, the St. Louis Republican publishes an official copy of the resolution adopted by the Council declaring the "Expositor" a nuisance, and the orders consequent thereon. The Nauvoo Neighbor gives a long and particular history of the investigation had before the Council, concerning the Expositor, and the character and conduct of the owners and publishers. Mayor Smith figures largely in the proceedings. His statements are sworn to -- and upon his suggestion the Council declare the establishment a nuisance. It is apparent from this investigation, if the statements are true, that the morality of the high men of the church is very questionable, and chastity rather an obsolete idea, at least in practice. The principal charges against the Laws, Dr. Foster and their associates, are seductions and debaucheries, all of which appear to be of old standing, and long known in the Church. We strongly suspect (says the Republican) that the Mormons concerned in getting up and publishing the Expositor, in character and honesty, are about on a par with the Mormons opposed to them.

The Proclamation of Joe, embraced in the documents alluded to by the Republican, is a paper of a very stringent character. The concluding portion of it reads as follows:

Our city is infested with a set of blacklegs, counterfeiters, and debauchees, and that the proprietors of this press were of that class, the minutes of the Municipal Court fully testify; and in ridding our young and flourishing city of such characters, we are abused, by not only villainous demagogues, but by some, who, from their station and influence in society, ought rather to raise than depress the standard of human excellence. We have no disturbance or excitement among us, save what is made by the thousand and one idle rumors afloat in the country. Every one is protected in his person and property, and but few cities of a population of twenty thousand people, in the United States, hath less of dissipation or vice of any kind, than the city of Nauvoo. Of the correctness of our conduct in this affair, we appeal to every high Court of the State; and to its ordeal we are willing to appear at any time that His Excellency Gov. Ford shall please to call us before it. I, therefore, in behalf of the Municipal Court of Nauvoo, warn the lawless not to be precipate in any interference in our affairs; for as sure as there is a God in Israel, we shall ride triumphant over all oppressions.
JOSEPH SMITH, Mayor.            

We yesterday received a number of 'The Nauvoo Expositor,' the paper which was denounced as a nuisance. It is quite the most intelligent and respectable printed affair that has emanated from the 'Holy City.'

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XV.                             New York City, Thursday, July 11, 1844.                             No. 28.

Death of Joe Smith the Prophet.

On the 26th of June, this miserable fanatic met with a sudden and awful death at Carthage Illinois. The annexed extract contains the most probable narrative of the circumstances of this melancholy affair. A gentleman who left Nauvoo the day after the murder, informed the editor of the Louisville Journal, that all was then quiet there, the prominent Mormons exhorting their followers to offer no insult or molestation to any one, and in no case offer violence except in strict self-defense. The deepest grief and affliction pervaded the city. There appeared to be no danger of the burning of Warsaw or Carthage.

                                            Steamer Boreas, June 27th, 11 1/2 P. M.
Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, is dead! He was making laudable efforts to avoid or escape from certain unbidden guests, and to this end precipitated himself from a window in the second story of the Carthage jail. During the few seconds of his descent, and immediately thereafter, he received as many as fifteen wounds, many of which were mortal. Yesterday, the 26th, Governor Ford having prevailed upon Joseph Smith and several other Mormons, to resign themselves into the hands of the officers of justice at Carthage to be tried by due process of law, five, and I believe only five, viz: Joseph and Hiram, a Doctor Richards, and two others were incarcerated in the Hancock county jail, and guarded by the Governor's troops, until this morning, when Governor Ford discharged the troops, except sixty already stationed at Nauvoo, and a further reserve of sixty, who to-day accompanied him to Nauvoo, to detect and annihilate the bogus factory, leaving the prisoners in the safe and efficient keeping of seven of the Carthage Grays. Shortly after disbanding the McDonough troops, and the Governor's departure for Nauvoo, a large body of militia, say two hundred, resolved to wait on the prisoners in their room. Here was the beginning of the trouble.

The faithful Grays could not consistently admit visitors to prisoners excused of treason and other felonies. The militia took efficient means to convince the guard of their impotence, and the opposing forces joined issue. At a charge of the militia the Grays fired, evincing a valor not surpassed nor even equaled by the renowned heroes of Thermopylae. Here two hundred men were incompetent to intimidate these valorous seven, who, true to their trust, discharged their pieces with deadly aim. The militia soon ascertained, either by roll-call or particular inspection and inquiry, that none were either killed or wounded, and bethinking themselves that cartridge paper without any ball therein as harmless, the militia formed seven parties of seven men each, and thus arranged, each division seized one of the guard, and thus the valorous seven were overcome, and yet a few militia, say one hundred and fifty, were at leisure to enter and pay their respects to the prisoners. The door was forced, and Joe shot the foremost, named Willis through the wrist. A general melee ensued in which pistols spoke eloquently and forcibly. Five of the militia were wounded, though slightly. Joe Smith, endeavoring to escape, precipitated himself from the window, receiving while between heaven and earth, some half a dozen shots, and five thereafter. Hiram, I am told, and three others were killed within the prison. This tragedy was enacted between 4 and 5 o'clock this afternoon, and I heard the announcement of the courier in Warsaw at 8. The men immediately fell in, shouldered arms, right faced, and made diverse defensive preparations; while women, with children in their arms, throng the levee to cross by moonlight to Missouri, or await the return of the Boreas from Keokuk to Quincy, that they may not be endangered should the desperate Danites attempt to avenge the loss of their defunct head. All is confusion, and Warsaw appears as if besieged.

Friday, 3 1/2 P. M. The Boreas returns to-day from Quincy to Warsaw with nearly 500 armed men, receiving by the way the United States arms at Tully. Warsaw has no news from Carthage or Nauvoo since last evening, except a vague rumor that Governor Ford had left Nauvoo for Carthage. What will be done is yet conjectural. The probability is that Gov. Ford, if not already the subject of Mormon vengeance, will be consulted this evening, and prompt measures adopted consistent with the disposition of the now distressed "Latter Day Saints;" should they continue hostile, their doom is sealed. It is said the Governor, by harangues and private interviews, has done much to undeceive these deluded men. If so, they will no longer constitute a distinct religious sect, but be remembered only as things that were.

Note: Although this letter to the Louisville Journal was reprinted in a number of newspapers at the time, few of the reprints gave its full text, as provided above.


Vol. IV.                                 New York City, Saturday, July 27, 1844.                                 No. 95.

The Mormon Outrages.

We publish a letter from the scene of the recent Mormon outrages, written by a respectable citizen of Hancock County, Ill., and making its statements in a temperate tone and spirit. The article is entitled to go before the public, and the appeal of the writer for its insertion in The Tribune is cheerfully complied with. Let no man, however, argue from this that we believe that the facts stated by our correspondent -- even had they been ten times stronger than he represents them -- furnished the slightest justification for the murder of the Smiths. That, in whatever light it is viewed, it was a cold-blooded, barbarous, brutal outrage; and the certainty that its perpetrators will never be brought to justice, shall have no influence to make us withhold the expression of our horror at all such bloody deeds. Whatever they had done -- how black soever were their crimes -- they were defenceless and in the hands of the laws, under a solemn pledge of their protection as well as justice, and the people of Illinois had not the slightest excuse for taking it for granted that those laws would not be enforced -- laws, be it understood, which emanated from themselves and were to be administered by their own chosen instruments. In this Country, thank Heaven! we have a peaceful and efficient remedy for all abuses of political power, whether executive or representative -- the Ballot-Box; and those who resort to any other especially the remedy of force and violence, deserve not the name of American citizens.

Do not the people of Illinois see that the evils under which they have suffered, and the circumstances under which the monstrosity of Mormonism has thriven into such portentous dimensions, have been of their own choosing? Who gave Joe Smith a foothold in Illinois whence to leap above the law and set its ministers at defiance? Who conferred upon the Mormons a Charter granting unusual and extraordinary privileges whose exercise has led to this bloody termination? Who empowered Joe Smith to organize an independent army within the territory of the State of Illinois, to establish himself as a petty and irresponsible military despot, reigning over his subjects with the double tyranny of military force and religious superstition? Who did all this, but the Loco-Foco Governor and Legislature of Illinois, elected by the people of Illinois? In the answer to this question lies the cause of the recent disasters as well as the only suggestion for their prevention in the future.

The Mormons and their Neighbors.

Warsaw, Hancock Co. Ill., July 9, 1844.              
To the Editor of the Tribune:
     You will have heard, long before, this reaches you, of the Mormon difficulties in this County, and the killing of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, while in the custody of the law, by an armed mob, on the 27th of June. This outrage has brought great reproach upon our community. The press and public sentiment generally, so far as we have heard, stigmatise the act as a deed of of "cold blooded, unprovoked murder." The moral sense of mankind revolts with horror at the sight of human blood, shed, without the sanction of laws; and few, if any, of the sober, and reflecting will ever admit that any circumstances short of absolute inevitable necessity can justify individuals, or communities, in a resort to illegal force to protect their rights, or redress their wrongs: and even where the necessity apparently exists, it may well be doubted whether the consequences resulting from the application of such violent remedies, are not in the end more to be lamented than the immediate evil removed.

Every act of this kind carries upon its face animplied assumption, either that the law is insuflicient to mete out the demands of justice, or thatthose who violate law are recklessly indifferent to the highest obligations of good citizens. Without presuming to decide under which class this case should he placed, I beg leave to present afew facts in relation to the peculiar position of affairs in this county, at the time the deed wasdone, and leave your readers to judge how far the case will admit of palliation -- merely premising that a majority of the old citizens of the county are disposed to hold themselves as a body responsible, and share equally the odium that may attach to the act, rather than that the whole blame should rest upon the one or two hundred directly implicated.

The Mormons include about three-fourths of the population of the county. They are composed of two opposite yet agreeing classes -- a set of horse thieves, counterfeiters, blacklegs and swindlers, drawn together for purposes of plunder and mutual protection; and a set of superstitious fanatics, who have been seduced into a belief of the most preposterous, absurd and execrable flummery that ever disgraced the name of religion. All acknowledged Joe Smith as their supreme head. They ascribed to him supernatural powers -- profess to believe that he received communications direct from Heaven. He had only to make known his will in the character of a revelation from Heaven to secure the most implicit obedience on the part of his followers in all cases, no matter how repugnant the dictates of reason or the requisitions of law. By revelation they were commanded how to dispose of their effects and time, whom to select as rulers, &c. &c. -- in short everything in morals, in religion, in their secular affairs and in politics were, when natural and ordinary means failed of the desired end, directed by a pretended revelation of their prophet. Of the two classes the rogues are much the more numerous, but it were difficult to say which is the more dangerous -- one would cut your throat or steal your purse from the vicious promptings of his own abandoned nature -- the other, if bidden by the prophet would do the same from a perverted sense of duty, and think he was doing God service. It is hard to credit such a strange perversion of human reason, but the fact stands sustained by ample testimony.

Smith assumed, and many of his deluded followers believed that this fair land was their lawful heritage -- that they held the same preeminence over the Gentiles (old citizens and non-believers) that the ancient Jews did over the Canaanites, and that they would be justified in resorting to the same means to possess their lands and goods. -- That they did not adopt those means to the same extent was because they lacked the power and not the will. They had committed innumerable aggressions of every shade of enormity, on the rights of the Gentiles, before they thought of seeking any other redress than that provided by the law, but the time came when the unwelcome truth was forced upon them that the law had become a doubtful, if not quite impotent, protector.

The Clerk of the Circuit Court, Sheriff of the County, and one of the three County Commissioners were obedient tools of Smith. As things stood it was hardly possible to get an impartial jury. After the August Election he would have had another of his minions in the County Commissioners Court, and through this Court direct the selection of grand and petit jurors. If those thus chosen were challenged it would be the Sheriff's duty to make up the panel from the bystanders in Court, and no precaution could prevent a packed jury at last. The consequences then on the administration of the laws would be these. -- If a Mormon, and old citizen were opposed in a civil suit, or an old citizen accused of crime, the only chance for even-handed justice would be by a change of venue to another County -- a proceeding necessarily attended with much trouble and expense. If a Mormon were charged with crime, the case could not be taken out of the County without his consent, which would never be given, as here he could have all the immunities that a packed jury and any desirable number of suborned witnesses could secure. Under such circumstances a conviction were hopeless, and a trial would be a mere mockery of justice. Better far for the old citizens of the County that the judicial authority should be abrogated than that such a state of affairs should exist! The City Courts of Nauvoo have for years been pursuing this partial course of practice. None but a Mormon would approach them for justice. The practice in these Courts give the most satisfactory assurance of what might be expected of the Circuit Court when brought under Smith's influence. There is not a sensible man conversant with the facts who doubts that if Smith were now alive, and arraigned at the next term of our Court, he could and would be honorably discharged by a verdict of his peers. With a Hale and a Mansfield for Judge, and the meet positive and damning testimony that was ever adduced, he would be acquitted. If this point is not already established to the satisfaction of the world it can and will be shown. Did he deserve death? He has brought trouble upon every community in which he lived, and has been forced three times to remove with his people. He was charged in Missouri with treason and escaped by bribing his jailer. He instigated the assassination of Governor Boggs, and the act was nearly accomplished by O. P. Rockwell, one of his desperate hirelings. He tried to hire another man to finish the work that Rockwell had attempted. -- While in the custody of an officer on his way to Missouri to answer for this offence, prisoner and officer were forcibly taken to Nauvoo by a large band of his followers, a writ of habeas corpus obtained from the Municipal Court, a mock trial had and Smith discharged.

Joe as Mayor of the city was presiding officer of this Court, which is created by special statute and has jurisdiction only of cases arising under the City Charter and Ordinances, and by no implication or intendement can be made to extend to cases arising under the general laws of this or other States or of the United States. He secreted a worthy namesake charged with embezzling funds from the General Government, and refused to give him up until the officers consented that he might be tried before said Municipal Court, to which from necessity the officers consented. -- The swindler was then produced and the trial postponed several days, the accused in the mean time suffered to go without bail on the Prophet's assurance that he would not run away. At the day of trial he appeared, and on his own statements was honorably discharged. Similar cases might be multiplied until the public would be weary of reading them, all tending to show that they violated every principle of law under the color of law .

He and his minions have threatened the lives of many in the county who had become obnoxious to him, and in several instances attempts were made to execute their threats. The people had no longer any sure guaranty for their rights. The law could only be enforced at the mouth of the cannon -- it was so enforced. When Smith found further resistance useless he surrendered and was put in prison to await his trial on the charge of treason. The Governor could do no more than to pass him over to the courts and see that he was properly guarded, until condemned or discharged. For reasons already given he never could have been convicted. It is probable that he would have made his escape, but if he stood his trial an acquittal would have been certain -- he could again have gone to Nauvoo and laughed at the powers of the State. The same farce might have been acted over yearly, and perhaps monthly with the same result. Could the people stand it? Should they submit to it? Let the public examine and weigh these facts, and then say whether there is no apology for the old citizens of Hancock.   G.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               New York, City, Friday, August 2, 1844.?                               No. ?


July 13, 1844.       
"Leaving Quincy, we passed Keokuk in the night, as also the rapids; the later town being at the foot of them. Early next morning, we reached Nauvoo, the celebrated Mormon town, near the head of the rapids on the Illinois side, two hundred and twelve miles above St. Louis. It is beautifully situated on elevated and rolling ground; part having been a high prairie, and part timbered land. The site for a town is remarkably well chosen, and is said to contain about 20,000 inhabitants; which, from appearances, I should be led to doubt. They purchased a whole township of land, of six miles square, over which they have extended their corporation jurisdiction. The place is built over an extensive surface up and down the river, in a most straggling and irregular manner, with here and there a good looking house, and the stone temple on a rising hill in a half built state. The mass of 'the Latter Day Saints' seem miserably poor, but industrious. They export little or nothing from their own, but seem to consume, in some way, nearly all they produce. As I remarked before, their greatest evil is their gross ignorance, which has made them dupes of a few designing knaves. The feeling of the common class of Western people towards them is more that of supreme contempt than anything else, on account of their ignorance and superstition. Occasionally a few thievish and bad stragglers fall in among them, for the purpose of stealing and committing depredations under the Mormon cloak. The people who live near, charge all these things upon the whole body of Mormons. Hence their habitual contempt has too often been warmed into feelings of hate and even revenge.

"I went ashore at Nauvoo, and conversed with several of the Mormons. I asked them if Gov. Ford had offered a reward for the apprehension of the murderers of Joseph and Hiram Smith? They said, no; 'that he was too afraid to do so.' I asked them if they knew who the murderers were? They replied 'yes; that they could point out every man to the Governor, if he was disposed to have them arrested. They knew perfectly well who they were.' I asked who they expected would succeed Joseph Smith as chief prophet of the Mormons? They replied in the most simple manner, 'that they expected him to be called by the Lord. It was not the Mormons who made or appointed a prophet or leader, but the Lord, who would send them one, if one came at all.'"

Note: The exact date and content of the above article are uncertain. It may have been published in the Journal of July 12th.


Vol. XVI.                     New York City, Saturday, August 24, 1844.                      No. 1664.

Jo Smith risen from the dead! -- As we had no doubt would be the case, the Mormons believe their defunct prophet to have risen from the dead, and we learn from the St. Louis New Era, that one of the Saints has arrived in that city who says Joe Smith has actually appeared in propria persona to his followers at Carthage and Nauvoo, mounted on a white horse -- about the size of Governor Bouck's old electioneer we believe -- and with a drawn sword in his hand. The fellow says every thing will go on smoothly with the Mormons now. Joe's resurrection will put everything straight. There is no doubt this will all be believed by those miserable fanatics, for nothing else can be too gross for people who have made up their minds to be bamboozled by those they have agreed to look upon as leaders; and on the whole we should think Joe Smith would be quite as good a prophet dead as alive, and rather more respectable, for that matter, for he was very much of a beast before he died. The Locos will, of course, favor the faith in Joe's reappearance, for it is precisely the sort of deception the party lives upon, and the Mormons are numerous enough to make them quite an object with the Democracy. Nearly every mother's son of them voted the Loco Foco ticket at the last election.

More Humbuggery. -- The St. Louis New Era says, a Mormon arrived in that city, who reports that Joe Smith has risen from the dead, and has been in Carthage and in Nauvoo -- mounted on a white horse, and with drawn sword in hand. He says that as Joe is thus restored to life every thing will go on prosperously with the Mormons. Thus a few fanatical leaders induce these ignorant, credulous and superstitious fanatics to believe the greatest possible absurdities. There appears to be nothing so unreasonable that it will not be believed by some, if presented by crafty priests or religious teachers, in the form of religious doctrine or tenet.

Note: Gov. Thomas Ford, in chapter 11 of his 1854 History of Illinois, says: "The murder of the Smiths, instead of putting an end to the delusion of the Mormons and dispersing them, as many believed it would, only bound them together closer than ever... Revelations were published that the prophet, in imitation of the Saviour, was to rise again from the dead. Many were looking in gaping wonderment for the fulfillment of this revelation, and some reported that they had already seen him, attended by a celestial army coursing the air on a great white horse."


Vol. V.                         New York City, Monday, December 16, 1844.                         No. ?


The Quincy (Illinois) Whig of the 4th inst. says, on the authority of a gentleman from Warsaw, that "on the Thursday evening previous, Gen. Deming, the Sheriff of Hancock, came to Warsaw, with writs for the purpose of apprehending Messrs. Sharpe, Grover, Williams, Aldrich, and others against whom the indictments were found at the late terms of the Hancock Court, for killing the Smiths. The accused, however, kept out of the way of the officers, and the arrest[s] were not made. During the night of Thursday, while Deming was in town, some 30 or 40 Mormons were observed in Warsaw, it is believed with the private understanding of Deming, to aid him in making the arrests. Deming left the next morning, with the intention, as he declared, or returning with sufficient force to search every house in Warsaw. It is supposed if he attempts to carry his threat into execution, the consequences will be serious."

It is said that the movements are in violation of a distinct pledge on the part of the Attorney General of the State, that these men should not be deprived of their liberty before the next term of the Court. We find the following in the Cincinnati Gazette of Dec. 10:

SENATOR DAVIS, OF IILLINOIS. -- This gentleman was 'attempted to be arrested' for the murder of the Smiths last week while on his way to Springfield. It created much excitement -- though regarded a mere political move. A bill was found against him; he applied for a trial; the State refused. But fearing the exposure Senator Davis might make in the Senate, Gov. Ford determined to prevent his taking a seat by arresting him. When will the people of Illinois open their eyes to the base perversion of every interest by her base political hacks. She will have no character at home or abroad, until she does, for if the Judiciary may be thus perverted to political ends, there can be neither safety to persons nor property in the State.

RUMORED MASSACRE OF MORMONS. -- The Warsaw Signal of November 27 gives a report, as from Nauvoo, that a party of Mormons under one Lyman Wight having attacked a trading station about ninety miles from Prairie du Chien, were overcome by the French and Indians and all put to death.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 12.                         New York City, Monday, January 20, 1845.                         No. 3534.

ANTI-MORMON MEETINGS have been held at Pontoosuc and Monte Bello, Illinois, at which resolutions were passed denouncing the Mormons as thieves and robbers. -- They resolve to organize a most efficient opposition to the Mormon depredations, and to aid each other in preventing and punishing Mormon thiefs [sic] and depredators.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 12.                     New York City, Wednesday, February 5, 1845.                     No. 3548.

THE CORRUPTIONS OF MORMONISM. -- Shocking disclosures. -- Elder Rigdon's Magazine for January, published at Pittsburg, gives some disclosures of corruption and licentiousness among the Mormons in this city and elsewhere. It appears that the degrading Polygamy founded by Joe Smith, and established at Nauvoo a short time before his death, has been encouraged and sustained by people of intelligence. Elder Rigdon gives the following account of a recent visit to the Mormon Churches, and of his own efforts to arrest the corruption that was rapidly spreading among the deluded followers.

Among the churches we visited, there was a great deal of excitement, many of the principle members had either withdrawn from the church or had been cut off, and of this number were the presiding elders of the church of Philadelphia, New York, Boston, New Egypt, N. J. and Woodstown, N. J. On inquiring into the cause of the difficulties, in every instance, it was the spiritual wife system which had caused the separation, and exclusion. The course pursued by the advocates of this system, which were the reveling elders, was, that as soon as a man became dissatisfied with the teachings of these believers in polygamy, and was bold enough to expose his dissatisfaction, calling the doctrine incestuous, and adulterous, he or she was immediately arraigned before the church, and charged with disobedience to the authorities; and with slandering the heads of the church; an awful appeal was made to the members of the church, at the time of the trial, and every one who dare vote in favor of the person charged, was threatened with immediate exclusion from the church by these tyrants, and thus intimidated, and compelled to obey the mandate of their masters. A notable instance of this was related to me while in Boston. Old elder Nickerson, a man who was highly esteemed in Boston, and the father of the church there, when this system of a plurality of wives, first made its appearance there, rose up against it, as every man of virtue would, and was so deeply effected with it, that he wept over the corruption that was creeping into the church, and declared his intention and determination, to lift his voice against it; this was no sooner known, than he was besieged by two of the, so-called, authorities, and threatened with exclusion, if he dare give testimony against those whom he had declared he knew were guilty of great improprieties, such as called for the interference of every virtuous man; and the old gentleman was so intimidated by their threats, he shrunk from his duty, and instead of discharging it, with a manly boldness, actually lifted his hand in favor of those whose conduct he had previously deprecated in the strongest terms. Every effort of this kind was made, that the most corrupt could invent, to conceal this system from the public view. Others were cut off in private meetings, without their having any knowledge of it, till they were informed by some runner sent for the purpose, that at such a meeting they had been cut off from the church.

Every one who was known to be opposed to this system, if he or she could not be won over, or made to succumb by threats, was excluded, and their characters assailed in a most outrageous manner, in order to destroy their influence, that their testimony might not be believed. By such extraordinary means did the advocates of this system attempt to sustain themselves; but it was all in vain, for concealment was no longer possible, the truth has been made manifest, as Paul said it should, so that the world now knows, that every person, male or female, who adheres to these leaders, does it, because they are in favor of the system of a plurality of wives, and for this cause they are found numbered with them. Ignorance can no longer be plead.

A state of things of the above character, must of necessity, produce a confusion and excitement, in a greater or less degree; and such we found through the whole of our journey.

After we left this city, we made no stop until we reached Philadelphia; there we found a separation had taken place in the church, caused as above; a church was organized, to which we delivered a short course of lectures, and then proceeded to New York, found that the same causes had produced the same effects there; we delivered a course of lectures there, and formed a church, and then proceeded to Boston, and there formed another church. From thence we returned by way of New York, and passed New Jersey, and formed two churches; returned to Philadelphia, and lectured again to the church there, and from thence came home.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                     New York City, Tuesday, February 25, 1845.                     No. 276.

NAUVOO. -- Quite a commotion exists in Hancock county, between the citizens of Nauvoo and Warsaw. It appears that an officer from Warsaw went up to the Holy City on business, where he was apprehended by the authorities and placed in confinement, on the charge of being one of the murderers of the Smiths. Fearing that when the news of his arrest should reach Warsaw the citizens of that place would come up to effect his liberation, a posse of two hundred Mormons were ordered out to resist them. There was a good deal of excitement at Warsaw, and further difficulties were apprehended. At Quincy several Mormons have been apprehended, charged with theft and robbery.
(St. Louis Repub. Feb. 16.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                            New York City, Wednesday, April 30, 1845.                            No. 18.

The  Mormon  Troubles.

Correspondence of the New York Tribune.

Nauvoo, Illinois, April 16, 1845.          
The difficulties between the Mormons and Anti-Mormons, which have been so rife for a year past, still continue. Mormonism, instead of exploding here, as it was supposed it would, upon the death of the Prophet, Joe Smith, has continued as flourishing as ever. Joe's place has been supplied by "The 'Twelve Apostles," who now rule the destinies of this band of ignorant, lawless and unprincipled fanatics with the sway of despotism. The Temple is still progressing, and the outside will probably be completed this season. When completed, it will be a beautiful edifice, far surpassing anything in the State. It is one hundred and twenty feet long and eighty-eight feet wide, and is sixty feet from the basement to the eaves. They are now building a wall eight feet wide and fourteen feet high all around it, enclosing six acres. What the object of this wall is, I am not aware but the Anti-Mormons see in it a great Mormon fortification. One thing is certain -- the Mormons are fast increasing in power and strength, and they talk openly of defending themselves against everything that does not suit their notion. Every house has arms in it, and there is scarcely a man in the city who does not carry arms on his person. They permit no process of law to be executed upon the inhabitants of the Holy City unless it suits the sovereign majesty of the Saints. No man is permitted to express any opinion here derogatory to the character and standing of the People. If he does so, he is immediately driven out of the city by a Mormon mob. There have been several instances of this kind lately.

The trial of the persons indicted for the murder of the Smiths last summer comes on at Carthage in this County in four weeks from Monday next. It will be a time of tremendous excitement. -- Some six or seven of the most respectable citizens of the County are indicted for the murder of the Smiths, and among the number are Hon. Jacob C. Davis, State Senator; Thomas C. Sharpe, Esq., Editor of the Warsaw Signal; W. N. Grover, Esq., counsellor at Law, and Col. Williams. All these gentlemen have strong friends who are determined they shall have fair play -- several military companies from the Anti-Mormon portions of this County and from the adjoining Counties will reconnoiter at the County seat in Court week. The "Nauvoo Legion" will probably be on hand also. If the appearance of the Mormon Legion would not put old Jack Falstaff's ragged regiment to the blush, I am mistaken.

One of Mr. Polk's nominees, a Jack-Mormon by the name of Backenstos, who resides at Carthage, is in trouble. The Mormons sent him to the Legislature last winter where he made himself busy in abusing the old citizens of the County, and when he returned from Springfield a week or two ago, the citizens of Carthage went en masse to his house and gave him notice to leave the town in a certain time. Before the time expired, he received notice of his appointment by the President to some lucrative office in the Lead Mines, and, by begging hard, the citizens, on account of his family, concluded to let him stay a week or two longer to settle up his business. They did not extend this act of grace to him, however, without pelting his house with rocks.

What will be the end of all these troubles no man can foretell, but I am apprehensive that there will be a terrible collision one of these days The Mormons and Antis can never live in peace any more -- the hatred existing between them is deep, deadly and inveterate. One party must leave; and if the old citizens of the county are driven from their homes and their firesides by Mormon persecution, a feeling of indignation will be aroused among the people of Illinois that will not be quelled, until the last vestige of Mormonism is driven from Illinois, as it was from Missouri.      Yours, &c.

Note: See also the reprint in the Massachusetts Spy of May 7, 1845


Vol. XII.                           New York City, Tuesday, July 8, 1845.                           No. 3677.

OUTRAGES AND MURDER IN ILLINOIS. -- The Warsaw (Ills.) Signal of the 25th ult. contains a letter from the Editor dated at Carthage on the 24th, from which it appears that Dr. Marshal of the latter place had been killed by M. D. Deming the Sheriff of the county in a scuffle. The difficulty grew out of a purchase of a tract of land at a tax sale. -- Deming is in custody. Two murders were committed in Hancock county on the 23d ult. Iowa and Wisconsin are comparatively free from those horrible tragedies; a fact which intelligent emigrants should bear in mind. Missouri and Illinois contain too many dangerous neighbors for comfort or happiness.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                         New York City, Wednesday, July 9, 1845.                        No. 3678.

THE TRIAL OF THE HODGES. -- The last Burlington Hawkeye contains all the testimony in the trials of the two Hodges. When asked if they had anything to say, Wm. Hodge replied: "I have nothing more to say except that I am innocent of the charges; I have had the benefit of a fair trail by a Jury of my country -- I have been found guilty and I am prepared to submit myself to my fate." Stephen Hodges, in reply to the Court, spoke to the same effect, both asserted their entire innocence of the charge. A brother of the prisoner (and who resides at Nauvoo, the City of the Saints,) was present during the trial, and is said to have made many threats, which may probably have led to the excitement among the citizens of Burlington. He left Burlington on Monday, but before leaving, told his brothers to die like men. He then started for Nauvoo, and the understanding was that he went there to raise men to assist in the rescue of his brothers, but was himself murdered, probably by some of the number whom he expected to help him. This trial was conducted with great skill and fairness, and it would greatly aid the cause of justice and stop the progress of crime in the West if Jurors would only render their verdicts according to the evidence.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Friday, September 12, 1845.                             No. ?

TEMPLE AT NAUVOO. -- The building of the Mormon Temple under all the troubles by which those people have been surrounded, seems to be carried on with a religious enthusiasm which reminds us of olden times, by the energy which controls all the movements towards its completion. It occupies the highest and most imposing position in Nauvoo and is built of fine limestone, has 30 pilasters -- six at each end and nine of a side -- each surmounted by a capital on which is carved a human face with rays around it and two hands holding trumpets. The Temple is 128 feet by 88 feet; from floor to roof is 65 feet; and from the ground to the top of the spire is 165 feet. The baptismal fontain is in the basement, to be supported by stone oxen. Each floor is estimated to hold 4,000 people, so that 12,000 persons can be accomodated, being about one-fourth the size of Solomon's Temple. 350 men are zealously at work upon the building, which it is supposed will be finished in a year and a half, probably at a cost of half a million of dollars. The spiritual concerns of the Mormons are governed by a council of 12, composed of the following persons: -- Brigham Young --The Lion of the Lord. H. C. Kimball -- The Herald of Grace. Parley P. Pratt -- The Archer of Paradise. Orson Hyde -- The Olive Branch of Israel. Willard Richards -- The Keeper of the Rolls. John Taylor -- The Champion of Right. William Smith -- The Patriarchal Jacob's Staff. Milford [sic] Woodruff -- the Banner of the Gospel. Geo. A. Smith -- the Entablature of Truth; Orson Pratt -- the Gauge of Philosophy. Jno. E. Page -- The Sun Dial. Lyman Wight -- The Wild Ram of the Mountain. The Keeper of the Rolls has charge of the men at work on the Temple. It is supposed that the Mormon inhabitants of that city are full 20,000 souls, and of the surrounding country 10,000 more -- the only property owned in common is the Temple and the Hotel -- they are industrious -- good farmers -- raise wheat plentifully, and are about to engage in manufactures. The whole community may be considered in their peculiar tenets as singular and remarkable, and in after ages their Temple, like the ruins of Palenque, may strike the beholder with wonder, and history may be unable to explain what race worshipped there.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 23.                       New York City, Monday, September 29, 1845.                       No. ?


We have no language strong enough to express our abhorrence of the mob proceedings in Illinois, against this unfortunate people. They are of a piece with the Philadelphia riots, and the worst proceedings of the anti-renters, and second only in atrocity to the cold blooded murder of Joe Smith. These mob excesses are the dark side in the picture of our country. Scarce an instance of extensive infraction of the laws by combinations of people has yet occurred in our country in which the perpetrators have not come off victorious. The mobs themselves are comparatively matters of small moment, that is, the direct suffering from their violence against life and property is the smallest item in the amount of the evil they cause. It is the impunity with which mobs are raised, and with which they execute their fiendish purposes, that gives just cause for the greatest alarm. What one man would be imprisoned during life, or hung for, a hundred or a thousand may do with absolute assurance of escape. The murders and conflagrations in Philadelphia, perpetrated by individuals singly, would have brought hundreds to the gallows; perpetrated in crowds, these atrocities are followed by a few mock trials, which show only the utter powerlessness of the law. Joe Smith is murdered while in the custody of the officers of the law, and under the Governor's solemn pledge of honor for his safety. Because this is done by an armed band of fifty or a hundred men, justice sleeps, and many of the murderers -- the very murders of Smith -- are engaged in burning the dwellings of the Mormons with a view to drive thousands of people from their homes.

The spirit, which in Lexington is directed against one individual, is in Illinois directed against an entire class. In both cases the law is powerless, the officers of the law are mere straws, and the disapproving mass of the community of no weight whatever. A most sad and disheartening picture!

Note: See also the Oct. 4, 1845 issue of the New York Messenger.


Vol. XIII.                         New York City, Saturday, October 4, 1845.                        No. 3753.

THE MORMONS have the field to themselves. The Antis have evacuated Carthage, and are wandering through the neighboring counties, afraid to return to Hancock lest they should be indicted and punished for burning the Mormon houses.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                         New York City, Monsay, October 6, 1845.                         No. 3754.

THE MORMONS AND ANTI-MORMONS are violently enraged against each other, the anti-Mormons declaring they shall leave the State, and the Mormons, as far as practicable, being determined to maintain their position. A letter from Warsaw, in the Missouri Republican, dated September 23d, says that the Mormons have commenced their thieving operations on a large scale. About one hundred and fifty head of cattle have been stolen from the old settlers by the roving bands of Mormons. All kinds of loose property have been taken. The 5th brigade of Illinois militia has been ordered to proceed to Hancock county to restore order. Sheriff Backenstos has issued another proclamation. He says he has driven the "mobbers" from Hancock county, and that he has a number of scouting parties out. The ill-will towards the Mormons which appears to be deeply settled does not extend to their religious faith, but to what is contended to their want of morality and common honesty in their dealings. Another account from that place states that they are killing and salting cattle for a siege, and all the farms are stripped of grain, and brought into Nauvoo. When the Mormons find themselves surrounded, they will retreat to the Temple, which commands the country for miles around. The saints have 24 pieces of artillery, plenty of ammunition, and are now laying in provisions.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Tuesday, October 7, 1845.                       No. 3755.

THE MORMON TROUBLES. -- A slip from the Nauvoo Neighbor office, dated the 24th, contains the reply of the Mormons to a proposition of the Anti's, relative to their removal from Hancock county. After having expressed their "desire to live in peace with all men," and enumerated their grievances, they say: "We propose to leave this county next spring, for some point so remote, that there will not need to be a difficulty with the people and ourselves, provided certain propositions necessary for the accomplishment of our removal shall be observed." The propositions relate to the disposal of their property. They wish to be let alone, and released from "all vexatious lawsuits," and say in conclusion: That it is a mistaken idea that we "have proposed to remove in six months," for that would be so early in the spring, that grass might not grow nor water run, both of which would be necessary for our removal, but we propose to use our influence, to have no more seed time nor harvest among our people in this county, after gathering our present crop."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Wednesday, October 8, 1845.                      No. 3756.

THE MORMONS propose to emigrate to California, where they can hold the balance of power between the Americans, natives, Mexicans and English. We shall not be much surprized if the emigration to California will be much more active and extensive than that to Oregon. It is much easier accomplished, and at a shorter distance. We understand that a company, one thousand strong, are about starting in the Spring from Arkansas. A company still more numerous is organizing in Missouri, with the same object, and in Illinois they are forming a grand caravan with the same destination. A company uniting or forming a junction at a given point and equipped, will present a formidable appearance. In the present distracted state of Mexico, no interference could be interposed to prevent this emigration. In climate, soil, production and position, no territory can compare with it on our continent. -- These movements are but precursors to other and greater, which will cover that country in another age with a powerful body of free and enterprising people.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         New York City, Thursday, October 9, 1845.                         No. 156.

THE MORMON WAR: -- The St. Louis Republican of the 30th ult. brings us the following:

From Hancock County, we received but little information yesterday. The Boreas reports the arrival of Gen. Hardin at Carthage, and the concentration of troops at that point. His instructions are said to be of a very plenary character -- to put an end to the dissensions at all hazards. One company of volunteers from Quincy went up by land to Carthage on Saturday, and another in the Boreas on the same day. A fight was anticipated on Saturday night, between a party of Anti-Mormons selected for the purpose, and some of Backenstos' posse, who were said to be out on one of their Mormonmarauding excursions. But we give very little creedence to this report.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                         New York City, Friday, October 10, 1845.                         No. 3758.

FROM THE MORMONS. -- St. Louis papers of the 1st instant have intelligence from Warsaw to Sunday evening, 28th ult., that the Quincy Rifle Company arrived at Warsaw on Sunday morning, there to "wait further orders." The Commissary from General Hardin's command arrived at Warsaw on the same day, and reported that some four hundred troops were at Augusta, and would march to Warsaw in a day or two. His object was to procure supplies for their subsistence. Whatever the object of this expedition (says the correspondent of the St. Louis Republican) the old citizens will find a degree of security which they have not felt for some days past." He further says: "The only fight that I have heard of since you left here, came off this morning, and that was a one-sided one, between two strangers, who have been here but a few days, but have taken sides -- one a Jack Mormon letter writer, I believe, and the other an anti-Mormon, visiting some friends here. At any rate, the anti procured a cowhide, and gave the Jack about forty before he could make his escape, which he lost no time in doing. The reason he gave for attacking him was, that they were both strangers, and knew nothing about the merits of the case. The citizens were aware of the fact, and did not interfere in the settlement,"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. V.                         New York City, Saturday, October 11, 1845.                         No. 158.

To the Editor of the Tribune.
      Bennett, the Editor of the Herald, by his exalted geinus, and most unwearid exertions, has at length made the important discovery, that it "Would be the hight of injustice, and the extreme of cruelty, to drive the Mormons (or some 30,000 American citizens) out of the country, BEFORE GRASS is high enough to sustain their stock whilst traveling." We would advise him to seure a patent right immediately. But then, he may be robbed of his glory, by the rapidly advancing discoveries of the age. Some more exalted genius may yet possibly discover the injustice of driving the Mormons from the country AFTER GRASS GROWS. At any rate, Bennett's discoveries, until superseded, should awake the attention of the whole scientific world. Wonders in this lucid field may yet be accomplished!   O.P.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           New York City, Saturday, October 11, 1845.                           No. 213.


From the St. Louis New Era, Sept. 27.

MORMON WARS. -- The Boreas came down yesterday and brings a few items of news from the seat of war. The inhabitants of Warsaw had principally returned to their homes, and the Mormons to Nauvoo. The Mormons were still in the ascendency in Hancock county. In McDonough and the upper part of Adams county there was a considerable excitement. A committee from Quincy went to Nauvoo on the 24th, to negotiate and mediate, and to try and prevent the further effusion of blood. It was said that they intended to try and prevail on the Mormons to agree to wind up their business and leave that part of the country within some definite time; and that if they failed to give assurances of removal, the committee would intimate to them that they might expect the people of Adams county to co-operate with the anti-Mormons against them. It was supposed that if the Quincy committee failed to effect a peace, that the war would recommence with redoubled fury. Many persons from Missouri, Iowa, and different counties in Illinois were said to be ready to join the mob against the Mormons. Orin P. Rockwell, the fellow who attempted to assassinate Gov. Boggs, appears to be ringleader among the Mormons at present. He is the person who shot Mr. Morrel, and seems to act as aid to Backenstos. A rumor prevailed that Gov. Ford had ordered out a considerable body of militia under the command of Gen. John J. Hardin, and that they were on their march to the seat of war, but there was a great diversity of opinion as to what they would do when they arrived. Some supposed that they would attack the Mormon troops; some that they would aid Backenstos in arresting the house-burners, and others that they would reduce both parties to submission, and try and reestablish law and order.

The Mormons were said to have been very busy in capturing, driving and slaughtering a large number of fine cattle, and in laying in a heavy stock of provisions; roving bands were said to be busily engaged in rummaging and plundering the deserted houses of the refugees.

In Iowa, the Governor had ordered several companies of the militia to hold themselves in readiness to act so as to prevent the peace of that Territory from being disturbed.

A number of Mormon families had removed from Iowa to Nauvoo. Some person supposed that if the Quincy Committee failed in their object, hostilities would be renewed next day. She Mormons speak with great confi-dence of their ability to maintain their rights, and of the inability of their opponents to put them down. If the parties come in conflict again, a much bloodier scene will be presented.

The mob, which has been overpowered by superior numbers, will be speedily reinforced by their friends from every direction, and Nauvoo will probably be sacked and burned, and many of the families butchered, and the rest of them driven off. Backenstos, Bedell and Rockwell figure as prominent men on the Mormon side, and Williams and Hopkins are leaders of their opponents. Serious outbreaks are anticipated.

The St. Louis Evening Gazette of the 27th ult., brings us the reply of the Mormons to a communication from the citizens of Quincy. After a long string of whereases, in which, among other things, they profess a desire to restore peace to the country on such terms as will not involve the sacrifice of their right to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences, they make the following propositions:

We would say to the committee above mentioned, and to the Governor, and all the authorities and people of Illinois, and the surrounding States and Territories; that we propose to leave this country next spring, for some point so remote, that there will not need to be a difficulty with the people and ourselves, provided certain propositions necessary for the accomplishment of our removal, shall be observed, as follows, to wit:

That the citizens of this and the surrounding counties, and all men, will use their influence and exertions, to help us to sell or rent our properties, so as to get means enough that we can help the widow, the fatherless and destitute to remove with us;

That all men will let us alone with their vexatious law-suits, so that we may have the time, for we have broken no law: and help us to cash, dry goods, groceries, good oxen, milch cows, beef-cattle, sheep, wagons, mules, harness, horses, &c., in exchange for our property, at a fair price, and deeds given on payment, that we may have the means to accomplish a removal, without the suffering of the destitute, to an extent beyond the endurance of human nature;

That all exchanges of property be conducted by a committee or committees of both parties, so that all business may be transacted honorably and speedily.

That we will use all lawful means, in connexion with others, to preserve the public peace while we tarry, and shall expect decidedly that we be no more molested with house burning, or any other depredations, to waste our property and time, and hinder our business.

That it is a mistaken idea that we "have proposed to remove in six months;" for that would be so early in the spring, that grass might not grow nor water run, both of which would be necessary for our removal, but we propose to use our influence, to have no more seed time nor harvest among our people in this county, after gathering our present crops. And that all communications to be made in writing. By order of the Council,
BRIGHAM YOUNG, Pres't.          

The Quincy Courier of the 26th says that a messenger arrived on the day previous from the Governor with orders for volunteer companies to rendezvous at Warsaw on the 29th.

The Nauvooites were preparing with all expedition for a siege. The Courier says:

Armed men from the surrounding country are congregating in Hancock, and there can be little doubt but that a battle will soon be fought, unless State authority is interposed. The Mormons are said to have driven off 30 or 40 head of cattle from the neighborhood of Warsaw, night before last, and it is said that Nauvoo looks more like a cow-pen than a human habitation. About 500 head were driven in in one day.

We have the Warsaw Signal, Extra, of Sept. 24, in which we find a very intemperate statement, on the Anti-Mormon side, of the causes of the war. We make an extract to show the grounds on which it is attempted to justify the attack upon the Mormons:

"It was not one outrage alone, that aroused our citizens to action, with the determination to rid the county of the outlawed villains who infest it; but for years, wrong upon wrong, and insult upon insult, had been heaped upon us. We had been robbed of our property times without number; many of our citizens had been grossly abused and insulted; the lives of some of the most estimable men in our community have been threatened, for no crime other than opposition to tyranny; our political rights have been taken from us; we could get no justice in the courts of our own county; and, in short, every outrage, every wrong, and every indignity, that the malice and cupidity of our enemies could suggest, had been inflicted on the old settlers of Hancock. They had borne it until to many it seemed that forbearance had ceased to be a virtue; and at least a small body of determined men, rendered desperate by the remembrance of long continued wrongs, commenced the work of rid-ding our neighbordood of the presence of the banditti that infested it. They did not this on their own reponsibility, but from a well founded belief that the citizens of of other counties would assist in driving from the State a community, that every man at all acquainted with its character, admits to be utterly unfit to dwell in the midst of civilized society. Time and again have influential citizens of other counties, who were acquainted with our wrongs, averred that it was only necessary to set the ball in motion, and a force sufficient to keep it moving, would immediately flock to our standard. Our enemies believed this, and when the work was commencd gave up all for lost, but it seems that both were disappointed.

The effect of these proceedings was soon discernible on the surrounding country, and public opinion in oth-er counties was brought to bear against them, and many in our own county condemned the conduct of the burners as rash and imprudent. The Mormons, finding that the force of their enemies did not increase, and that they had the sympathy of other counties, were at length encouraged to march out of Nauvoo, with a posse of about three hundred men to stop farther depredations. The camp of Anti-Mormons, who had been engaged in burning, was broken up. The Mormon posse retired to Bear Creek, and here they commenced a system of plundering, which has, without interruption, been continued up to the present time. In short, since Backenstos and his posse have had control of Hancock, plundering parties under its protection have traversed the whole county, and carried off in teams every thing left by the inhabi-tants, who had been compelled to fly from their vengeance.

Heretofore these monsters in human shape have feared the power of their enemies, and this alone kept them in check, but when they at length ascertained that they could with impunity march an armed force out of Nauvoo and traverse the county as its undisputed lord, mark the result. Immediately plundering parties who were no longer in fear of consequences were out in broad day-light carrying off to the Holy City every article on which they could lay their hands. Men who have been guilty of no violation of law are now fugitives from Mormon vengeance. They have been compelled to leave their homes in consequence of the threats of the Sheriff and his lawless band, who under pretence of restoring order to the county, are, in fact, but giving protection to roving bands of plunderers, who are pillaging the county with perfect impunity.

The following paragraphs we copy from the same paper:

OUTRAGE ON TRAVELERS. -- We learn by a gentleman from Fort Madison, that a party of emigrants from Sangamon County were crossing the North of Hancock on their way to Iowa, when they were stopped by some armed Mormons, their wagons taken into a ravine and overhauled. Every thing was deliberately searched, and then the villains were drawn up in front of the travelers and threats made to shoot them. The strangers begged for life, and offered their teams if they would spare them; but their inhuman tormentors only laughed at them. After keeping them in suspense for some time, they let them go.

The roads in the North are guarded by Mormons, and all who pass are stopped and insulted.

The inhabitants of the North are driven from their homes and have taken refuge in Iowa. Plundering parties are out in the North, and are carrying off the proper-ty of the inhabitants to Nauvoo.

THE PLUNDERERS. -- We learn that a party of fourteen Mormons, in disguise, having their faces blacked, are about five miles from Warsaw engaged in plundering. -- They have swept the county of cattle, and are carrying off in teams the grain and farming utensils of the inhabitants.

Word has come in that the farms North of Carthage are stripped of every thing.

A party of eighteen men, belonging to Camp Creek, started from Carthage for the south end of the county, last week. They have not been heard of since, and fears are entertained that they are all butchered.

From the St. Louis New Era, Sept. 22.

More Bloodshed.

If we are to believe the current accounts from the seat of the Mormon War, things at last dates appear to be drawing to a close. The steamer Die Vernon arrived yesterday, bringing down a number of passengers, many of whom are said to be Anti-Mormons fleeing from the wrath to come. The most authentic statement now is, that the Mormons, headed by the redoubtable Backenstos, High Sheriff of Hancock county and keeper of the peace in general, have got the upper hand and are about to have all the sport of slaying the Antis to themselves.

It is said that he has issued another Proclamation, No. 3, which has struck such consternation into the Anti-Mormon Army of Gen. Williams, and so completely hor-rified the inhabitants of Warsaw, that the largest proportion of the Army has deserted, and the citizens of Warsaw fled in all directions. The following piece of war news we found attached to the manifest of the Die Vernon; it sounds a good deal like a great deal we have heard before; what reliance is to be placed in it, those who read it can best determine:

"Two companies of Mormons, one under Mr. Williams and the other under Mr. Miller, were encamped on Friday about eight miles from Warsaw, and avowed their determination to visit Warsaw next day. The whole Mormon force was about live hundred, and Backenstos, the Sheriff, had made a requisition on Nauvoo for six hundred more, who were to be down on Saturday. On Friday the Sheriff sent a communication to Colonel Williams requiring him and the other leaders of the mob to surrender themselves to be dealt with according to the law, and give up the State arms, in which event he (the Sheriff) would not proceed farther, but upon their refusal he would put every one to the sword; they were allowed till twelve o'clock on Saturday to answer. Most of the citizens of Warsaw and Col. Williams's men had crossed to the other side of the river to wait for assistance. The house-burning and other depredations upon the Mormons had ceased."

There will be bloody work, in marching 500 men into Warsaw, and upon their refusing to surrender he would put every one to the sword; but if the army of the anti-Mormons have nearly all deserted, and all the inhabitants of Warsaw fled, who will this second Nero find to wreak his vengeance upon? Certainly, he will not turn about and slay innocent persons; nor is it probable that he will cross over into Missouri after the Antis. We never had much confidence in these Bombastes Furioso accounts of Mormon wars, but there are a great many persons who are fond of war, and by their partiality for the horrible are led astray. We suppose that when Sheriff Backenstos marches into Warsaw and finds none of the rioters there, that he will march out again without producing a civil war.

Correspondence of the St. Louis Republican.

WARSAW, Saturday Eve, 9 o'clock, Sept. 20,1845.        
According to promise, I hasten to lay before you all that has transpired since you left Hancock, last evening. You will recollect that at the time the Sheriff, with his "Mormon posse" had encamped some twelve miles from this place, and sent an express for those who had been engaged in the late disturbance to surrender themselves, together with the State arms. That proposition, of course, was rejected, and the Sheriff was left to take his own course. After despatching his messengers to Warsaw, he started for Carthage with some three hundred men, where they arrived about sunset, and ordered supper at one of the hotels, on the credit of the county, which they at length succeeded in getting. This, probably, is the strongest evidence which you have had that the credit of Hancock was sufficiently good to buy even one man's supper. However, they succeeded in arresting two men, and put them under guard. But some others, of whom they were more particularly in pursuit, succeeded in getting out of the way. The two persons arrested, I understand, have had nothing to do with the destruction of property, for which they are seeking redress. That, however, I am inclined to think, matters very little with the Sheriff and his posse, from some remarks which were made in this town to-day. From Carthage, they marched to this place, in two detached parties, coming in by different routes. One of the parties, numbering about three hundred and fifty, on horseback and in wagons, arrived about five o'clock this evening, headed by the Sheriff. They came to a halt for a short time, but did not dismount, with the exception of the Sheriff. He made some inquiries for certain individuals who have rendered themselves somewhat obnoxious to the Mormons and for some State arms, belonging to the Warsaw rifle company. But being told that they were all at Fort Refuge, across the river, orders were given to march, which were obeyed, to the very great satisfaction of what few woman and, children there are left in town. For never did a party who have been, on a three years, "cruise to the mountains" look more like savages than did this "law and order" party of Saints. Orders were given to march back towards the prairie until they came to water, and there encamp. -- After this party had been gone about an hour, another party of horsemen, of about one hundred and thirty, rode into town headed by one of the Brethren and E. A. Bedell. (who, you will recollect, was recently very politely invited to leave town.") This party drove to the river, watered their horses, and left town immediately, to join their comrades in camp. Thus has ended another day in Mormon war No. 7.

Correspondence of the St. Louis Republican.

WARSAW, Sept. 21st, 1845.        
Last evening I wrote you that we had been highly honored during the day, by a visit from several distinguished individuals, among whom were J. B. Backenstos, Brother Miller, and divers and sundry other Mormons, forming in all a posse of some five hundred men. Finding that the gentlemen whom they desired to see had suddenly been called to attend to important business across the river, in Missouri, they soon left. Since they left, I have not been able to learn their whereabouts.

Our citizens are beginning to return, and I hope that peace and quietness may again prevail. Many, however, of the citizens have long since determened, if they could not get rid of their troublesome neigbors, to leave the country permanently. The recent difficulties must operate unfavorably upon the old citizens, as they will suffer from public sentiment, if in no other way, for the imprudence of a few reckless men and boys among them. What the immediate result will be, it is impossible to say.

The commercial and agricultural interests of the country are, meanwhile, paralyzed, and have been, indeed, for two years past. Of this, you are, doubtless, aware.

PROCLAMATION FROM GOV. FORD OF ILLINOIS. -- Gov. Ford seems to have abandoned his first intention to let the Mormons and anti Mormons fight it out. indifferent which whipped, and has issued two Proclamations, which are published in the Gazette of last evening. Exaggerated statements, received at Springfield, probably produced this change of purpose, and induced him to make a call for five hundred men from the citizens of Sangamon, Menard, Cass, Scott, Pike, Morgan, and Greene counties. He also calls upon Gen. Hardin, Cols. Baker, Weatherford, Merriman and Boyce, to aid in raising this force. He says, in one of these papers, that "this time, there is no mistake but that an insurrection does exist;" he appoints Beardstown as the place of rendezvous, and this day, (25th) as the time, for the gallant militia to make their appearance.

In the second proclamation, issued last Sunday, having received information of a battle, in which eighteen anti-Mormons, and three Mormons were killed, and a number of anti-Mormons were taken prisoners, he calls "upon all the young men of Sangamon county to come to Springfield at three o'clock of the afternoon of Tuesday next, [last,] ready for service." "The state of things now existing in Hancock (he says) must not continue; the law must be magnified and restored to its supremacy, or otherwise our government is at an end." We don’t know how many volunteers answered this call, but we guess not many. There is no truth, at all events, in the battle which is made the foundation of this proclamation. Our intelligence from Warsaw is later than the date of the document itself, and no such affair was known to have occurred at that time. The prairie skrimmage and race between Backenstoss and a portion of the Anti-Mormons, doubtless gave rise to the story.
(St. Louis Republican, Sept 25.          

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Tuesday, October 14, 1845.                       No. 3761.

THE MORMONS. -- Upon every principle of State Government and of State rights, in inhabitants of Missouri and Iowa, have no right to enter the State of Illinois to pressure the Mormons, or interfere with the present unhappy disputes. It is the duty of the State to protect them in their lawful pursuits and punish them for infractions of the law. If they are rogues, as it is alleged, have no dealings with them; but it is a persecuting spirit for persons living out of the State to burn the Mormon dwellings and hunt them like wild animals.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Thursday, October 16, 1845.                       No. 3763.

FROM THE MORMONS. -- An extra from the St. Louis Republican, Oct. 6, states that the difficulties about the Mormons have been adjourned over till next Spring, when the Mormons have agreed to emigrate. If they do not then voluntarily go, the people in the counties around Nauvoo are to make them. Where they are to go, is not said.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                         New York City, Friday, October 17, 1845.                         No. 3764.

THE MORMONS have been charged with the murder of Col. Davenport, of Rock Island, Illinois. We believe the charge is unfounded, and we are informed that Mormon officers were active in arresting the murderers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Saturday, October 18, 1845.                    No. 3765.

FLIGHT OF THE MORMONS FROM ILLINOIS. -- The Society of Twelve, or the Elders, have addressed a letter from Nauvoo, dated 1st October, to Genl. Hardin and the members of the Anti-Mormon Committee, in which they say that they have commenced arrangements to remove from their present position; that they have four companies organized of 100 families each, and six more are organizing of the same number, preparatory to a removal -- That one thousand families, including the High Council, the trustees, and the general authorities of the Church, are fully determined to remove in the Spring, independent of the contingency of selling their property, and that this company will comprise five or six thousand souls.

The council state that they have some hundred farms and some two thousand houses for sale in the city of Nauvoo, and they request all good citizens to assist in disposing of them. They do not expect to find purchasers for their Temple and other public buildings, but are willing to rent them to respectable communities who may hereafter inherit their city. But they will not sacrifice or give away their property, or suffer it to be illegally wrested from them. They will not sow any wheat this fall, and they finally add -- "If all these testimonies are not sufficient to satisfy any people that we are in earnest, we will soon give them a sign that cannot be mistaken. We will leave them.

We look at these proceedings with the deepest pain. It is the first time in our history as a people, that the axe has been laid to the root of the tree of Liberty. It is the only instance of a direct violation of the institutions of our country on the citizens, since the declaration of Independence. A whole community of people banished! driven violently from their homes, their farms, and their Church: their blood shed by lawless adventurers in the state of Illinois, and the state either unwilling or unable to protect them! How are we as a nation to explain to the civilized world this dire calamity, this desecration of all that is free in our Government? Was it the religion of the Mormons to which objections were made? We have no right to interfere with the religion of any person, if the pursuit of that religion interferes with no man's rights or property. Were the Mormons a rascally, lying, thieving race of people, as alleged? -- Then enforce the laws against all offenders. But to drive them, their wives and children beyond the Rocky Mountains, beyond the barriers of civilization, to take lawless possession of their farms and property, exceeds in iniquity everything that has been done in any country since the reign of the Goths and Vandals. It is terrible to think of it. Can the state of Illinois explain the conduct of her Governor and persons in authority? If the Anti-Mormons, bent on driving these people out of the state, outnumbered the power which the state could bring to arrest the unlawful set, then there is an end to the state government, and rebellion usurped the place of Law. But it seems that the military force sent by the Governor, ostensibly to protect the Mormons, actually negotiated with them for their removal. We do not believe that the Anti-Mormons could have brought 1,000 men into the field to outrage these people. What was this force against the power of a whole state if honestly brought forth for their protection? Painful as the condition of the Mormons may be, though compelled to abandon their homes and property, they may have no cause hereafter to regret leaving the state of Illinois, and all others desirous of emigrating to that state should first calculate upon the hazards to which they may be subjected, and the worthless protection which that state holds forth to its citizens, and to the property of its inhabitants.

THE MURDER OF COL. DAVENPORT. -- It appears that the person who arrested Birch and his companions for the murder of Col. Davenport at Rock Island, was a man by the name of Bonney, who lives in Iowa and who arrested the Hodges who were executed for the murder of Miller and Licey, and who was indefatigable in ferreting out these murderers who it seems besides being counterfeiters were notorious horse thieves. They are all in jail at Rock River and will soon be tried. Bonney is entitled to the reward of $2,5000 for the murderers of Col. Davenport.

Note: For more on William Bonney's activities, his pursuit of local criminals, Elder Bill Hickman's attempt to frame him, etc., see "Mr. Davenport's Murderers" in the Nov. 29, 1845 issue of the Madison, Iowa Lee County Democrat.


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Monday, October 20, 1845.                       No. 3766.

MYSTERIOUS FROM THE MORMONS. -- The Quincy (Ill,) Whig asserts that a Mr. Wilcox went into Nauvoo, some two or three weeks since, for the purpose of having some grain ground. Having a relative in the city, who was a Mormon, he put up with him for the night -- in the course of the evening a Mormon came to the relative's residence, and asked him what he was doing with a spy in his house, (meaning Wilcox). The relative answered, that he was no spy, but a connection of his wife, who was to stay with him for one night -- at the same time, the relative looking out of the door, perceived Wilcox in the custody of two Mormon guards, who were marching him off for some purpose not known to him. The relative, alarmed, said he must go and see what was going on -- but his Mormon visitor told him not to do so, for his own safety. Since that night Wilcox has not been heard of. The relative has given the substance of the above in testimony before an examining court. There is another individual who has disappeared under like circumstances -- and General Hardin has endeavored in vain to trace out these mysteries. The Mormon Sheriff Backenstos has arrived at Quincy, under the protection of General Hardin, intending to deliver himself into the hands of the law. General Hardin also brought to Quincy a man by the name of Baker, who had in his possession cattle which did not belong to him. He was delivered into the keeping of Sheriff Pitman.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                         New York City, Friday, October 24, 1845.                        No. 3770.

MURDERERS OF COL DAVENPORT. -- Young and the two Longs have been sentenced to be hanged on the 29th of this month for the murder of Col. Davenport. Birch, an accomplice, testified against them, but Birch is to be tried also, as the testimony was complete without his evidence. There remain to be tried Birch, Baxter and the two Reddings. Justice is slow but sure.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Monday, October 27, 1845.                       No. 3772.

EXODUS OF THE MORMONS. -- When Gen. Hardin of the Illinois Militia marched into Nauvoo with his small force, and had a conference with the Mormon elders, the latter agreed to leave Hancock county, for Vancouver's Island, or some other place on the West coast, by the 10th of May next. Lt. Noble of the U. S. Dragoons, who was in Nauvoo at the time, thinks the Mormons will adhere to the pledge, and remove in the Spring. He attended the meeting in the Temple where four thousand people were within the walls. During the services one of the Twelve set forth their grievances -- told the people it was necessary for them to move, and put the question to them to see if they were all willing to go. They responded in the affirmative with a deafening voice. They were told that the Temple and the Nauvoo house were to be rented, but their other property could be sold. If it was not disposed of by the time they were ready to go, the Saints had friends in the South and East to whom they would give it rather than let those by whom they had been persecuted come into possession of any of it without full compensation. It is certain however, that with all the declarations in favor of removing, the Mormons are industriously employed in completing their temple. We have heretofore considered the course pursued towards the Mormons, in the light of a religious persecution, but nearly all of the journals in that neighborhood disclaim any such feeling, and say that "it was not against their religion, absurd as it is, that opposition has been arrayed, unless a part and parcel of that religion is to defraud, to screen murderers and thieves, and prey upon those which they are pleased to call gentiles -- but it was in consequence of their outward, overt acts of wickedness, and the inconveniences and wrong suffered by those who opposed them." There may be some truth in this, and if so, it only proves that no matter how absurd a religious doctrine may be deemed, it will be tolerated and left unmolested if the followers pursue an honest course, and do no injury to their neighbors, but if there is any part of the Mormon faith which teaches that wrong may be done to others of a different creed, the sooner it is rejected the better, for such people can live tranquilly no where. "Do unto others as you would have others do to you," is the safe foundation of all religious doctrines. That is religion in itself, for, if carried out faithfully no wrong can ever be done.

But we find a dangerous feature in Mormonism, requiring the active interference of state and national sovereignty, which has been entirely overlooked. It aims at nationality, conquest by the sword, and the temporal as well as spiritual subjugation of other governments, systems and churches. Constant warfare is the natural result, and unless the Mormons conceal these principles until they become strong enough to conquer their neighbors, as the Mahometans did, they will be received at the point of the bayonet whenever they attempt to settle among those who have the power and the will to protect existing institutions.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Thursday, October 30, 1845.                      No. 3775.

THE MURDER AT ROCK ISLAND. -- There is certainly a disposition evinced in the West to get rid of murderers, burglars, and horse thieves, and if the public will unite in countenancing these efforts the character of the great West will be certainly improved. The discovery of the murderers of Col. Davenport is in proof. The whole story has been told. Burch has disclosed all the particulars of the murder and robbery, and gives the names of several rogues engaged in other acts of villainy. The Redmans (or Redins) kept a house which was used as a general rendezvous for the fraternity of rascals in their visits to that part of the country. It was at this house, (on Devil Creek, Lee county, Iowa) that the plan was devised and concocted of murdering Col. D., and the father of the family, (there are three of them -- the father and two sons) was present, and assisted in the arrangements for the bloody deed. He has been indicted by the grand jury of Rock Island, as an accessory before the fact. A son of this old man (William) assisted to the robbery of Knox's and Drury's office, in Rock Island, about the time of Davenport's murder, for which an indictment was also found against him. It will be remembered that soon after the two Hodges were hung, one of the brothers of the Hodges was killed very suddenly in Nauvoo. Among other developments at Rock Island, it has come out that, out of fear of his confessing, he was shot [sic], by Jack Reding or Redman, whose father and brother are now confined in Rock Island. This is a shocking state of things, when murder can be committed openly at noon day. Unless by decided examples this murderous spirit can be allayed or destroyed, men will be hired to assassinate, as they are among the brigands of Italy and Spain.

VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. -- This place, where the Mormons propose going, is 300 miles in length, and 100 in width, and lies between 47 and 51 degrees of North latitude, within the American territory. The English have one or two trading posts on it. It is a long and dreary journey. California would be preferable.

Note: The brother and father of "Jack Reding or Redman," are identified as "Wm. H. Redding and Grant R. Redding," in the Sun of Nov. 5th. It is not known for certain whether George Grant Redden, Sr. (1790-1852) and his wife, Adelia Higley (1792-1863), were members of the LDS Church, but three of their children, Return Jackson, William H., and Nancy Ann were Mormons. Nancy Ann married Pony Express Rider, Elder Howard Egan in about 1843. William is not known to have married. Return Jackson had at least four wives. He journeyed to Utah with Brigham Young's party and is credited by some writers as having been the first of that company to gaze upon the Great Salt Lake, from the Wasatch Mountains. Return Jackson's outlaw reputation followed him to Utah, but he (like O. P. Rockwell, Bill Hickman, etc.) managed to remain a Mormon. He was a Seventy in the Church, a Tooele county Justice of the Peace, and a Summit county Deputy Marshal. See the Dec. 1, 1853 issue of the Deseret News for a communication sent to that paper by Return Jackson Redden (signed "Jackson Redding").


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Friday, October 31, 1845.                       No. 3776.

Emigration to Oregon.

THE MORMONS. -- A circular, addressed "to the whole Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints," informs us that on Sunday, the 5th of October, "about five thousand Saints had the inexpressible joy and great gratification to meet, for the first time, in the house of the Lord in the city of Joseph." The Temple was commenced on the 6th of April, 1841, and on this occasion it was entirely enclosed, windows in, with temporary floors, pulpits, and seats to accommodate so many persons preparatory to a general conference On the 6th, 7th and 8th, meetings of the General Conference were held; at which, finally, it was resolved unanimously, "that this people move, en masse, to the West," and "that we take all of the Saints with us, to the extent of our ability, that is our influence and property." Committees were appointed for the sale of lands in the various settlements of Hancock county; and captains of companies, "to remove in the spring," to the number of twenty-five, were appointed From a letter, addressed to the brethren throughout the United States, we make the following extract: --

It is our design to remove all the Saints as early next spring as the first appearance of thrifty vegetation. In the mean time the utmost diligence of all the brethren at this place and abroad will be requisite for our removal, and to complete the unfinished part of the Lord's house, preparatory to dedication by the next General Conference. The front and other parts of the Temple will be in readiness in a few days to commence the administration of holy ordinances of endowment for which the faithful have long diligently labored and fervently prayed, desiring, above all things, to see the beauty of the Lord and enquire in his holy temple. We, therefore, invite the Saints abroad generally so to arrange their affairs as to come with their families in sufficient time to receive their endowments, and aid in giving the last finish to the house of the Lord, previous to the great emigration of the Church in the spring. A little additional help in the heat of the day from those abroad, to those here, who have been often driven and robbed, will sweeten the interchange of fellowship, and so far fulfil the law of Christ as to bear one another's burthens. The sacrifice of property that will probably accrue from a virtually coerced sale in a given short time, together with the exhaustion of available means, that has arisen from an extensive improvement of farms, and the erection of costly public and private edifices, together with persecutions and abundant labors of elders in preaching the gospel to the nations, and also in self-defence from traitors and foes, hypocrites and knaves, are things that will suggest themselves in all the thoughtful, humane and philanthropic. And we are confident in our Lord Jesus Christ, that the balm and cordial adequate to the present crises of affairs will come from the Saints abroad, to the utmost of their ability. And you cannot furnish it better than to come up unitedly to the counsel of our epistle promptly, diligently and to the letter. -- Therefore dispose of your properties and inheritances and interests for available means such as money, wagons, oxen, cows, mules, and a few good horses adapted to journeying. And scanty feed; also for durable fabrics, suitable for apparel and tents; and some other necessary articles of merchandize. Wake up, wake up dear brethren we exhort you from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and from Canada to Florida, to the present glorious emergency in which the God of Heaven has placed you, to prove your faith by your works, preparatory to a rich endowment in the Temple of the Lord, and the obtaining of promises and deliverances, and glories for yourselves and your children and your dead. And we are well persuaded you will do these things, though we thus stir up your pure minds to remembrance. In doing so, the blessings of many, ready to perish like silent dew upon the grass, and the approbation of generations to come and the hallowed joys of eternal life will rest upon you. And we cannot but assure you, in conclusion, of our most joyful confidence, touching your union and implicit obedience to the council of the Great God, through the Presidency of the Saints. With these assurances and hopes concerning you, we bless you, and supplicate the wisdom and furtherance of the Great Head of the Church upon your designs and efforts,

P. S. Let all wagons that are hereafter built be constructed to the track of five feet width from centre to centre. Families may properly travel to this place during winter in their wagons. There are said to be many good locations for settlements on the Pacific, especially at Vancouver's Island, near the mouth of the Columbia

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Saturday, November 1, 1845.                     No. 3777.

MORMONS. -- Wm. Smith, brother to Joe, having set himself up as a patriarch of the Mormons, has a new plan of operation, but Brigham Young and the council of twelve overrule him. There will be fresh troubles among these self-created prophets when they are required to depart out of Egypt. The Israelites took nothing but what they borrowed. The Mormons leave every thing behind them.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                   New York City, Wednesday, November 5, 1845.                   No. 3780.

Correspondence of the Missouri Republican.

                                            Rock Island, Illinois, Oct. 20, 1845.
Gentlemen: -- The trials of Wm. H. Redding and Grant R. Redding, for the murder of Col. Davenport, commence this day, before a special term of the Circuit Court, at this place. Birch will not probably be tried at this term. Aaron Long, and Granville Young, who were convicted and sentenced week before last, will unquestionably be hung on the 29th instant. There is no escape for them.

There have been some curious developments concerning these bands of robbers and murderers, and there will probably be some still more curious. A pamphlet containing a full history of the murder of Col. Davenport, together with an account of the arrests of the murderers and their trials, sentence and execution, will be published in a few days at Galena.   Yours, truly.

Notes: The issue of the Republican in which this letter concerning the Reddings was originally published has not yet been determined. Probably it was printed during the last week in October, 1845.


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Thursday, November 6, 1845.                    No. 3781.

MORE TROUBLE AMONG THE MORMONS. -- It is apprehended, by a letter from Warsaw to the editor of the St. Louis Reveille, that more trouble is brewing among the Mormons in that neighborhood. A Mormon, living near Camp Creek, in the North of the County, who was suspected of participation in the murder of Danbenheyes, became apprehensive that a mob was going to burn down his house. He therefore sent a request to Major Warren to protect him. Major Warren accordingly sent Lieutenant Everett, of the Quincy Rifle Company, with a few men, to guard the Mormon's house. As the party approached the house, the Mormon inmates, mistaking them for the mob, fired upon them, and severely wounded Lieutenant Everett. He received three shots, but none of them is supposed to be fatal. Considerable excitement was produced by the arrival of intelligence that about fifty Mormons were stationed in the prairie back of Montebello, in squads of four or five each, at distances of from half to one mile from each other. A gentleman, who conversed with one of the party states, that they said their object was to preserve peace during the trial of Backenstos, their sheriff. There is much mystery about this movement, and much curiosity to know what it means. There never will be entire tranquillity until the Mormons leave, which will be in May next, if they can sell their property, for that seems to be one of the conditions.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                            New York City, Saturday, November 8, 1845.                            No. ?

The  Mormons.

A circular addressed "to the whole Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints," informs us, that on Sunday, the 5th of October, "about five thousand Saints had the inexpressible joy and great satisfaction to meet for the first time, in the house of the Lord in the city of Joseph." The Temple was commenced on the 6th of April, 1841, and on this occasion, it was entirely enclosed, windows in, with temporary floors, pulpits, and seats to accommodate so many persons preparatory to a general conference.

On the 6th, 7th and 8th, meetings of the General Conference were held; at which, finally, it was resolved unanimously. "that this people move, en masse, to the West." and "that we take all the Saints with us, to the extent of our ability, that is, our influence and property." Committees were appointed for the sale of lands in the various settlements of Hancock County; and captains of companies "to remove in the Spring," to the number of twenty-five, were appointed. From a letter addressed to the brethren throughout the United States, we make the following extract: ...

[remainder of text missing, see The Sun of Oct. 31 for similar material]

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Monday, November 10, 1845.                     No. 3784.

MORE MORMON TROUBLES. -- As evidence of their tone and temper has been given lately of the Mormons, which cannot fail to make an unfavorable impression, while the sheriff of Rock Island was attempting to take from Nauvoo one of the Reddings, charged with the murder of Col. Davenport, he was attacked by a gang of Mormons and received a shot from a pistol. The prisoner was finally rescued, though in the melee he was also wounded by a pistol shot. Major Warren, commander of the militia forces in that county, was about to serve a number of writs in Nauvoo, and it was thought he would meet with considerable opposition. If the Mormons attempt to rescue the murderers of Col. Davenport, it will result in the most serious consequences.

Postscript. -- St. Louis papers of the first instant report that Major Warren with his hundred volunteers, has made "a descent" upon Nauvoo, for the purpose of arresting the individuals who had made the assault upon the sheriff of Rock Island, wounding him and the prisoner Redding, whom he had in custody; and that the Major found himself compelled to fall back upon Carthage, as a place of security. They also state that the Marshall of the State has process in his hands for the arrest of the outlaws, and is determined to execute the same at all hazards; and that to this end troops additional to those under Major Warren are being called out. Every thing about Carthage and Nauvoo is hub-bub and confusion; and the crisis appears at hand, when either Mormonism must be put down, or anti-Mormonism succumb. Brigham Young and Taylor abused the Governor, Judge of the Court, and all the authorities of the State, and openly declared that they did not intend to permit any more arrests to be made in Nauvoo. They have put the authority of the State at defiance. James Arlington Bennett is said to be the Lion at Nauvoo at the present time. He will be roughly handled if he falls into the hands of the Anti-Mormons. Backenstos has removed the trial of his case to Peoria county by change of venue. The Warsaw Signal says that three Mormon [houses] were burned last week in the south end of the county, by such acts in strong terms.

THE MORMON PATRIARCH, William Smith, is lecturing to crowded houses in St. Louis. He handles Brigham Young and the eleven without gloves. They must be a wicked set according to his account. And why should we not believe him? As the only surviving brother of the founder of Mormonism, he is privy to all its plans and purposes; he is familiar with the ceremonies, principles and movements at Nauvoo, and when he solemnly declares that murders are planned and executed there, that young women are ensnared and ruined by the elders and others, and that the Church is robbed temporally and spiritually by these self-elected successors of the Prophet, there is good reason to believe him. His own life has been threatened.

The subjects of his lecture on the evening of the 1st inst. were: -- The re-organization of the Church -- the Humbuggery of the Mormon "Twelve" in the Spiritual Wife Doctrine -- their secret design in regard to the American Government -- also their intention of establishing an Independent Despotic Government in Upper California -- their tampering with the Indians -- their expectations of the utter extermination of the wicked Gentiles, by fire, pestilence and the sword -- their faith in regard to the Law of Moses and the Marriage Contract.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                 New York City, Wednesday, November 12, 1845.                 No. 3786.

Correspondence of the Sun.

From the Mormons

                                                  Nauvoo, Oct. 23, 1845.

I arrived in this Holy Place on the 21st. inst., at noon, and I instantly sent my respects to Emma, or rather to Mrs. Emma Smith, the widow of the Mormon prophet, Joseph the Martyr, who resides just opposite the Mansion house where I put up. From having met with some of the head men of the place, I was prevented paying my respects to the lady until evening, when I had rather a cold conversation with her about fifteen minutes, but promised to call on her next day which I did. The substance of my conversation with the widow of the Prophet, and the sentiments she expressed, cannot be given here. I must, however say, that she appears to be an extremely sensible lady, well informed on the subjects of our conversation, and possessing no ordinary degree of dignity and self command. She appears to be "Mistress of herself, though Rome should fall." She very politely offered to take me in her coach to Carthage should I not leave town until to-morrow, but for certain reasons, I declined the honor. The Court is now sitting at Carthage, where Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered. Judge Rolston of Quincy, is the legal adviser of Emma, and a first rate counsel he is. I have had a long and interesting conversation with him.

Emma has a large estate in and about Nauvoo and is determined to stay and take care of it for herself and children. Some say that she claims the Temple, but of this I know nothing.

Last evening I met by invitation, and was introduced to all the Apostles by their President Mr. Young. The subject of discussion was their exodus to California. The place of destination fixed upon at present is the Bay of St. Francisco, on the Pacific Ocean. Every thing is settled, and the whole Mormon people, or the great majority of them, will take their departure from Nauvoo about the 10th of May next, leaving all their property sold or unsold, behind them. Here is a people cruelly driven from their homes and firesides by the mob spirit that governs this land!

With regard to the morality and peaceful character of the people of Nauvoo I have never seen any place equal to it in my life. Not a grog shop -- not a profane word -- not a disrespectful remark in the city offends the eye or ear. If there is any thing wrong in Nauvoo it certainly does not float on the surface, as it does in New York and other places. Nauvoo has been charges with secreting thieves. New York may be charged on like grounds with secreting thieves from other cities; but the officers are never obstructed from serving process on them in, nor in carrying them off when caught. Neither is there any obstruction in catching those that run into Nauvoo, nor in taking them off when caught. You have only to cry "mad dog," and every one pounces upon the poor animal, which, perhaps, has no other ailment but hunger.

The fanatic priests cry mad dog -- the bigots cry mad dog -- and then the Editors (who ought to have more humanity and good sense than both) chime in and cry mad dog! Now what chance is there for the poor animal is he is ever so sane -- ever so peaceful -- ever so humble?

But it is said that the Mormons claim to be the Saints of the Most High, and that the world belongs to them. Well, suppose they have got these ideas into their heads. They are not the first people who have got such into their heads. The Jews claimed and still claim to be the people of God. They thought it no crime to rob the Egyptians, nor to murder them; nor did they deem it any crime to murder the Amalakites or other neighbors. The Inquisition was established on the same principle. The Presbyterians whipped the Quakers on the same principle, and on the same principle of one man or set of men, setting themselves up as being more holy than their neighbors, has persecution let loose the dogs of war in all ages of the world.

I sat examining the heads of President Young and his eleven brethren for the space of two hours, and must in candor say that twelve more benevolent heads could not be picked out of ten thousand men. They are truly superior men, Nature's true nobility -- but they are not the men that exactly suit my notion, because they have more discretion than fight in them -- more submission than justice demands. Had Napoleon been near the mobbers he would have shot them all. I might have done the same. These twelve Apostles are not, therefore, suited to my temper, nor are their ideas of discretion in accordance with mine. I will never submit to be trampled upon while I have the means of self defence in my power. Their people will fight but their rulers will not suffer it.

The Mormons are armed to the teeth -- every man has a musket or rifle, and many of them a revolving pistol in addition. They have ten pieces of brass cannon handsomely equipped and abundance of ammunition.

They calculate on eight thousand fighting men in the line of march next Spring; but I presume their humane leaders will not permit them to defend themselves of attacked. They will therefore be disarmed as heretofore, and shot down like dogs, if they will not defend themselves, I say, Amen.

I have matter for another letter, a curious one.

I would just add that Sharp, of the Warsaw Signal, who has been employed in burning the log cabins of the poor Mormon women, is known here, and throughout the West as a common blackguard, worthy only of such base and inhuman employment.
                                              JAS. ARLINGTON BENNETT.

Note 1: This Sun article was reprinted in the Nov. 15, 1845 issue of the LDS New York Messenger.

Note 2: In William A. Linn's Story of the Mormons, the author says: "James Arlington Bennet, who visited Nauvoo after the prophet's death, acting as correspondent for the New York Sun, gave in one of his letters the text of a statement which he said Emma had written, to this effect, "I never for a moment believed in what my husband called his apparitions or revelations." Actually, Bennet did not incorporate the statement attributed to Emma into his reports to the New York newspaper -- although he may have played some role in its being submitted to the paper for publication. See the Dec. 9th issue of The Sun for more on this matter.

Note 3: William H. Whitsitt, in his unpublished biography of Sidney Rigdon, says: "James Arlington, however, was nothing other than a vulgar adventurer; on the 30th day of August 1843, he actually permitted Brigham Young to immerse him in the waters of the sea not far from Flatbush, New York." Bennet was Smith's initial choice as a running mate in his ill-fated bid for theÊU. S. Presidency in 1844. In 1845 the Quincy Whig said of Bennet: "He has recently been among them and in his bombastic manner, told the Mormons what he could do with 20 pieces of cannon and 12 or 15,000 men... If 'Gen. James Arlington Bennett,' is the brave and skillful officer he boasts, why does he not stay with his valiant friends, the Mormons, and control their actions? His Generalship is all displayed on paper." After the twelve "benevolent heads" running the LDS Church made it clear to Bennet that he could not assume a leading role within the ranks of their Nauvoo Legion, he returned to New York, where he appears to have forgotten his Mormon baptism altogether.


Vol. XIII.                   New York City, Saturday,November 15, 1845.                   No. 3789.

EXECUTION OF COL. DAVENPORT'S MURDERERS. -- Horrible Scene. -- Confession. -- Panic in the crowd. -- The Chicago News gives an account of the execution of the murderers of Col. Davenport, of Rock Island, last month, through a correspondent who goes into full detail of the solemn proceedings on the occasion. A strong guard, with music, escorted them to the scaffold, which formed a hollow square around the place of Execution, which was densely crowded. They were all very well dressed, and up to that time very much composed. They were, however, very much moved on seeing the number of people and the apparatus of death. -- The Sheriff asked them id they had anything to say to the people, when John Long arose, the Sheriff having untied the cords which bound his arms. He advanced and made a low bow to the audience. He said he was guilty of killing Col. Davenport, but he wished them to receive it as his dying declaration, that his brother Aaron and Granville Young, were innocent. Robert Birch, Wm. Fox, Theodore Brown and himself killed Davenport, but did it unintentionally. He then called upon one Bonney to step forward, but being told that Bonney was not in the crows, he said it knocked out 650 pages from his speech. He said Boney was the chief among thieves and robbers. Aaron Long and Granville Young then protested their innocence. John Long again spoke, detailing some events of his life, saying that up to 1840, he never wronged any one, but being engaged in counterfeiting, he was led to the commission of robbery and murder. A full confession of his acts and associates would implicate 200 men in Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and Iowa territory.

After he had closed, he returned to his seat, and after consulting the other prisoners, returned and stated that it was their dying request that their bodies be given to their friends and not to the physicians. Mr. Gatchell now stepped forward and offered up a short and appropriate prayer; after which Mr. Haney read a Psalm. The prisoners now severally shook hands with those on the scaffold, and with each other. Aaron Long and Young nearly overcome with emotion -- John, quite calm and collected. The Sheriff bound their arms, put the rope round their necks, drew the caps over their faces, and led them forward upon the drop. Taking the axe, he severed the rope at one blow, and down went the drop, letting them fall a distance of four feet. But now remained a scene most revolting to behold, and most horrible to describe. The middle rope broke, letting Aaron Long fall, striking his back upon the beam below, and lying insensible from the strangling caused by the rope before it broke. For a moment not a human being moved, all were horrified, and seemed riveted to their places. -- Soon, however, the officers descended and raised him up, when he recovered his senses, and was again led upon the gallows, suffering intensely, raising his hands and crying out, "The Lord have mercy on me! The Lord have mercy on me! You are hanging an innocent man. And (pointing to his brother,) there hangs my brother;" but, alas, he heeded him not. He was already gone beyond his sympathy -- he was left alone, to endure the dreadful sight of his brother's last agony, and once more to pass through the dreadful scene -- the rope -- the platform -- the axe!

I shall never forget the appearance of that man, as he sat upon the bench, a large bloody streak about his neck, his body trembling all over, while preparations were making for his final fall. But there was another act in this drams. As he was ascending the gallows, signs of an outbreak among the crowd were evident. Some cried, "That's enough -- let him go," while others gave expressions to their horror. Just at this moment some cry was raised in a remote part of the crowd; no one knew what it was; some were frightened -- one wing of the guard retreated towards the gallows -- the tumult increased -- a sudden panic seized the immense crowd, and they all fled precipitately from the place. If the earth under the gallows, had opened, and Pluto himself had arisen from the infernal regions with his horses and chariot, it could not have caused greater consternation, or a more hasty flight. The guard were with difficulty kept in their places; the crowd returned, and soon all was quiet, every one ashamed of himself for having been frightened at nothing. One wagon was found upset, but it was supposed to be the effect, and not the cause of this panic. The wretched victim of the law was at length despatched, and the crowds dispersed. Thus ended the first execution I ever witnessed, and God grant that it may be the last.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                    New York City, Monday, November 17, 1845.                    No. 3790.

ROCK ISLAND MURDERERS. -- The Rock Island Advertiser, in speaking of the execution of Col. Davenport's murderers, says it was "a painful and humiliating spectacle and some of the circumstances attending were truly awful. A more miserable sight than that of John Long standing on the edge of eternity, and the scaffold, and there in the spirit of a fiend deliberately uttering falsehoods, and desire for vengeance, we have never seen, we expect never to see. The unlooked for occurrence, in regard to the fate of his brother -- an occurrence, which, the sheriff supposed he had taken every precaution to prevent -- was awful beyond language. Could John Long have seen what fate he had brought his brother, we cannot but think he would have felt some pangs. But death had fast bound him and put out his senses, and there he swung helpless in death's arms.

We shall present in our next some account of the trial of the three who have been executed, as well as of Baxter, who lies in jail a convict. We shall also present to our readers the result of some intercourse which we have had with one of those, to whom John Long appealed in proof of the innocence of his brother and Young."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Tuesday, November 18, 1845.                     No. 3791.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

From the Mormons.

                                                      Nauvoo, October 26, 1845.
Some of the Anti's charge the Mormons with a design of converting their Temple into a fortification against the state authorities; and indeed the thing looks somewhat suspicious, not that they have undertaken to fortify against the lawful authorities, but that there has been some disposition to defend their Temple against the mob spirit of the times.

The wall that surrounds the Temple incloses a space of about five acres in the shape of a parallelogram, is five feet thick and seven feet high, is well founded and substantially built as far as finished, of hewn stone.

This wall, with a platform within, would form an excellent parapet, from which the place could be defended most effectually against small arms and field pieces, but would not stand three hours against 24 or 32 pounders, at point blank distance. No mob would be able to take it, because an unlawful assembly of men would not have time, even if they knew how, to make regular approaches and plant their batteries. There is room, I should judge, for two hundred 32 pounders on the four sides of the square; which if well manned and well supplied with ammunition, and the garrison well provisioned in conjunction with mines that could be charged and sprung at certain distances from the Temple, the place would bid defiance to Vauban's forty day's rule for reducing forts, against all the forces in the state. I have been assured that it was the intention of the Mormon leaders (though I do not assert it as fact) to establish a foundry and cast their own cannon, as they have artists among them fully qualified to make their own carriages and implements and mount them on the most modern plan. These could be all ready and out of sight, and might be mounted in a single day to defend themselves against the mobs of Missouri, Illinois or other places. You can have no idea of what these people are competent to perform, as their energies are applied as those of one man. Their destiny is to become a great nation in the West when they arrive at the place where they can concentrate and expand themselves without interfering with jealous neighbors. The time must come that when the Mormon Lion roars, the beasts of the forests must be still!

They have had it in contemplation to erect a mighty tent within the square just named, seventy-five feet high and sufficiently large to accommodate ten thousand persons, as a place for public orations. The canvass is purchased and will now be applied to field tents on their march to California.

With the exception of the steps in front, the Temple is completely finished on the outside, balustrade, steeple and all, and a most splendid classical piece of work it is. It is a Mormon Monument that would ornament any city or country in the world, and still this extraordinary people assure me that it is small in comparison with what they intend to do near the Pacific Ocean!

The basement of the Temple is about 12 feet high and contains the baptismal fount to baptise for the dead, composed of white marble and shaped like an egg. It is about 3 1/2 feet deep with marble steps ascending on both ends, and will be supplied with water from the roof of the Temple. The fount stands in the centre of the great area which was to have a marble floor. There are a number of rooms on each side to be applied to various purposes.

The second and third stories would hold five thousand persons each, and the attic, which is partly finished, is divided off into apartments each to be applied to some order of the Priesthood. I forgot to mention that there are a number of marble oxen without horns now [butting] up round the fount, and I am assured that the work in the Temple will be continued to the very moment of their departure.   Yours, &c.,
                                               JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                   New York City, Wednesday, November 19, 1845.                   No. 3792.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

From the Mormons.
NO. V.

                                                        Nauvoo, Oct. 27, 1845.
The Anti's, to their disgrace, have burned about two hundred Mormon houses and set the helpless women and children adrift to Nauvoo. These settlements were twenty to thirty miles from the Temple and could have no protection whatever from the Mormon people, there being a large prairie, without a house, between the scene of burning and the city. You can perceive what brave men those were with the infamous Williams at their head, and the infamous Sharp urging him on, who could compel the helpless and trembling women to set fire to their own houses! At one place three or four of these women with their children got together and chaunted praises to the Lord while their cabins were in flames!

Notwithstanding the apostacy of several aspiring men among the Mormons, the sentiments or motives that bind the mass together, is to me a mystery. It is certainly not lucre, for nearly all those who join them are the losers in every way by their union. It cannot be less than a religious sentiment with full faith that the Martyred Smith was a true Prophet of the Lord! The present organization of the church, with the twelve apostles at its head, with a president who holds the keys of the kingdom, is the one that must stand; and when these shall have gone to California, Mormonism will be no more in the United Sates. But there will be a mighty gathering from all nations of the earth to the Mormon empire now about to be established on the Pacific ocean! One thing you may rely on -- and that is, this people will never annex themselves to any government on earth; nor is it desirable they should, as they are determined to be governed by their own laws. The Mormons consider Governor Ford as an old woman in breeches. They say that, instead of permitting them to defend themselves against the mobs, he legalizes the mobs by throwing into their aid some of the State forces. This is what is called their abuse of the governor that we see in the papers.

There are already organized twenty-five companies of one hundred families each, to be filled up during the winter, for the march to California. Each family of ten persons will have a wagon drawn by four oxen, and supplied with everything necessary for the journey.

A troop of horse will be organized as an advance guard.

The whole Mormon people are called in from Europe and America, so that they expect about two hundred thousand persons to congregate within one year at the bay of San Francisco! Several ships will be fitted out in England to take their people round Cape Horn, and others will sail from New York in the spring. Is not this a tempting place for an old United States officer like myself, who has been through the last war? They wish me much to join them, and I presume, if I did, I would have the first military command in the camp of the Saints. They certainly require a leader with a military and mathematical head, and one who has seen active service; but I am too old to settle in the west.

                                               Yours, &c.,
                                             JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT.

THE MORMONS. -- William Smith, brother of Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, states that it is their design to set up an independent government somewhere in the neighborhood of the Rocky mountains, or near California. -- That the plan has been maturing for a long time, and that, in fact, with hate in their hearts, skillfully kept up by the Mormon leaders, whose pockets are to be enriched by their toil, the mass of the Mormons will be alike purged of American feeling, and shut out by a barrier of mountains and church restrictions from any other than Mormon freedom. That the design of Brigham Young and the 'twelve' is to build up a sacerdotal tyranny, the spirit of which will be more repugnant to the spread of republican principles than could possibly be the rule of Europe. These are William Smith's views. -- He is opposed to the plan of organization and its leaders. We find the following in the Mormon paper, which speaks a bitter and in some respects, we apprehend, a true spirit in reference to their wrongs. We could not believe that in a government of laws, any sect, no matter what their faith might be, would ever have been driven out of the land vi et armis. The Mormon paper says:

"We owe the United States nothing" we go out by force, as exiles from freedom. The government and people owe us millions for the destruction of life and property in Missouri and in Illinois. The blood of our best men will preserve it till God comes out of his hiding place, and gives this nation a hotter place than he did Sodom and Gomorrah. 'When they cease to spoil, they shall be spoiled,' for the Lord hath spoken it."

They will become formidable enemies to the United States, either in California or Oregon; and government should look to this matter in season.

Note 1: Had the Mormon leaders granted Bennet a prominent position in the Nauvoo Legion, it is supposed that he would then not have considered himself "too old to settle in the West." He died two decades later, at his home in New York, on Dec. 25, 1863, at the age of 75.

Note 2: The text of the second article appeared as a reprint in the Dec. 1, 1845 issue of the Nauvoo Times & Seasons.


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Friday, November 21, 1845.                     No. 3794.

The West.

                                                        Ottowa, La Salle Co. Illinois.
                                                        October 30th, 1845.
M. Y. Beach, Esq. -- After traversing the Country by Railroads, Steamboats and Stages for upwards of twenty-five hundred miles, I have at last arrived at this pretty town of almost 1500 inhabitants... There are three great distinguishing characteristics to be observed in this region, viz: immense fertility of soil -- immense quantity of game of all kinds, wild geese, swans, pelicans, duck, prairie hens, quails, deer, &c., in such quantities as not to be numbered -- and the most consummate laziness I have ever observed among the human family on earth, excepting only the Lazeroni of Italy -- and I have been assured that all persons fall into the same habits after residing in the country for some time.

People never think of plowing for their fall wheat in this State, as the farmer sows it among his Indian corn in the latter end of September, and drags a small triangular harrow between the rows, and from this trifling labor, they get twenty-five bushels to the acre...

Wheat is the staple, and with a steam plow and reaping machine, a five handed farmer can pocket ten thousand dollars per annum for his crops of twelve thousand bushels which he can raise on one thousand acres of prairie...

Almost all the towns in the West have got a factitious [sic] character, commenced by the first chap that put up a printing press in a log hut. Not having many subscribers, nor inhabitants to subscribe, he commences blowing his trumpet as loud and as long as he can, urged on by the speculators who own the soil on which the City is located, and sends his chaunt of praises into the old settlements to catch the gulls, and by this means puts $100 into the speculators pocket for one he puts into his own. Poor printer's devil! -- this is the way he mostly comes out by hunting up the game for the sharpers to shoot at.
                                               JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Tuesday, November 25, 1845.                     No. 3797.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

NO. V.

                                                        Chicago, Nov. 10th, 1845.
Chicago is one of the best locations for a commercial city in all the western country. At the head of the navigation of Lake Michigan, at the terminus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and connected with the most fertile prairie country in the United States, on which wheat can be raised with the smallest labour, it is destined to become a great inland trading city, second only to Buffalo. --

... The facilities of transporting produce of all kinds from the West are so great, that the Long Island farmers who once had every thing their own way are now sinking every year, and must ultimately sell out their places to citizens on which to erect their county seats. Such of the old settlers as have incomes from other sources will hold on, but those without incomes must ultimately quit the Island. It will cost two thousand dollars to manure for wheat and grass one hundred acres of land on Long Island! See what a farm this sum would buy and stock, in this State.

Any industrious farmer settling on any of these rich prairies, with soil from two to six feet deep, can be a rich man in five years even if he settles down as a squatter and takes preemption right. All of the State of Illinois West and North of this City is considered healthy, but the South portion of the State below Peoria, especially along the Illinois, Ohio and Michigan rivers is known to be extremely unhealthy.


Note. -- I am now preparing a map of the courses and distances on the entire route from Nauvoo to the Bay of St. Francisco and to the mouth of the Columbia river, as desired, from the survey of the Mormon officer who went out to explore the country. From Nauvoo to the Western line of the State of Missouri 200 miles, thence to the Kansas river 180, thence to Platt river 150, thence to the ford over the Platte river 120, thence to the north fork of the Platt river 120, thence to Fort Laramie on the Laramie fork of the Platt River 130, in all 900 miles. Thence over the Black hills, to Independence Rock 200 miles, thence to little Sandy river 90, thence to Green river, or the Colorado of the West 75, thence to Hams fork 75, thence to Muddy river and the Soda Springs 80, thence to Bear river 80, thence to Fort Hall 100, in all 1600 miles from Nauvoo. Here they move off to the left for California and to the right for Oregon. Thence to the Northern pass in the Californian mountains 550 miles, thence to the Bay of St. Francisco 300 miles, making in all 2450 miles from Nauvoo, to be accomplished in about 120 days exclusive of stoppings. The distance from Fort Hall to the mouth of the Columbia river, Oregon, is about the same. This map and book will come at fifty cents per copy.   Yours,
                                                 JAMES ARLINGTON BENNET.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Friday, November 28, 1845.                     No. 3800.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

No. 8.

An Ocean on Shore!

                                                        Royal Prairie, Near Ottowa,
                                                        Illinois, Nov. 12, 1845.
Moses Yale Beach, Esq. -- Sir -- I am now on the centre of an immense rolling prairie, that looks "like Ocean into tempest tost," not "to waft a feather or to drown a fly, but to raise tens of thousands of bushels of wheat to supply the beautiful ladies of New York with their cakes and kisses. The log house in which I indite this letter is 33 feet by 30, with 6 apartments -- is one and a half stories high, but has neither chimney nor fire-place. It is however made quite comfortable by the use of stoves. It stands on high ground and commands a fine view of the country, which is exciting in the extreme and must be truly charming in the summer season...

But let me assure you sir that this Royal Prairie after all is not so much out of the world as you might suppose, for I find in a select neat library at my elbow several of the poets... Here too you find Harpers Family Library and John Keese's American Poets, with a copy of Bennet's Book-keeping bound in red Morocco, presented to my brother more than twenty years ago, when I first published the work.

This Royal Prairie is situated in La Salle county, near a well known spot on the maps, called Holderman's Grove, seven miles from the grand falls of the Illinois river, at Marseilles, and about ten miles from Ottawa --six miles of it on the east, and the stage road from Ottawa within six miles on the west. With a view of conducting a large wheat and sheep farm, I have purchased at this place a large tract of prairie of the finest quality, and should I not want it all, I can very readily sell it from its proximity to the canal. The canal lands are fixed at $8 per acre.

My aged brother, the Reverend Leonard Bennet of the Methodist Episcopal Church, resides here with his son. He is a superannuated clergyman... But with all this piety, my brother is still illiberal, for he would exterminate Mormonism from the earth! He thinks Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, the worst man that ever did live in any country or age of the world, but in this he is not alone, as the clergy generally are of his opinion, yet I cannot see but what Joe had as good a right to get up a new religion as anybody else, inspiration or no inspiration. This, you know, is a Davy Crockett country....

There is the greatest abundance of fine bituminous coal under all this district of country, cropping out in the Illinois and Fox rivers, and plenty of timber on the borders of the Sheany.    JAMES ARLINGTON BENNET.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Saturday, November 29, 1845.                     No. 3801.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.


(Copy of a letter from the President of the twelve Apostles,
and the Recorder of the city of Nauvoo,
to General Bennet, of Long Island.)

No. IX.

Recorder's Office.        
City of Joseph, October 17, 1845.        
Dear General -- The subject of a military chieftain, and the re-organization of the Nauvoo Legion, is one with which the authorities of this church have ever been familiar. The circumstances with which we have been surrounded have necessarily kept the subject constantly before us. Any attempt, however, at a re-organization of the Legion, situated as we now are, as we have for some time been, and as we expect to be, while in tour within the United States, would be but the alarm gun for an open and bloody war. This then like many other things we are obliged to let remain dormant until we can transplant ourselves to some land of freedom, where we can have the privilege of directing our own affairs. When that day, which we trust is fast approaching, shall have come, your views may be fully realized. The field will then be open for the full exercise of your military talent, and we are happy to find that the same God who guides the counsels of this people has guided your mind aright on the most important matter. You must receive your consecration as our military chief from on High, yet the church must keep the supreme authority in her own hands. The Acting General of the Armies of Israel, and the Civil Engineer of the Camp of the Saints, will receive his appointment as do other officers of the church, with the approbation of the whole assembly, and will be consulted in all matters of business by the Presidencies of the church, and have the confidence, faith and prayers of the whole body.

Your views of the "nation" independent of all others on earth, are possibly correct, and one thing is certain, that we will remove "en masse" beyond the Rocky Mountains as early next season as the forage will permit. At present, it is sufficient for us to say, that this course is necessary for our own peace, comfort and salvation.

If, on the receipt of this letter, you will come directly to this place, you shall have unfolded to you the whole secrecy, and if you find the field is not large enough for your ambition, it is because you have not a large world to act upon you. The sum of the whole matter is this -- the transmission of letters is uncertain -- we know not into whose hands they may fall, therefore we cannot write particulars concerning plans and principles. As you have abundance of time, it will take but a few days to come and see us, and return before navigation closes. You will then have presented to you a greater field for operation than you have ever thought of; and if the subject we propose is not worth this trifling journey, it is not worth having.

You say a "great work" may be done West, if the Saints have courage enough to fulfil their destiny. *  *  *

We have been looking through the perverse nation, from the President down, for a man of courage, but have not been able to find one. -- (Dear General, can't you help us?) Your offer of the Nauvoo Legion as Volunteers to the President of the United States, was all in good taste as suited the spirit of the times, but really, General, it looks hard to think we would voluntarily shed our blood in aid of a nation that excludes us from the protection of its laws, in the face of what they call their sacred document -- the Constitution of the United States, which promises to protect all men in life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Have we not found their promises but vain boastings, both as regards the conduct of the States and the United States Government? But there is One who looketh down from on high, and we are willing to trust our cause in His hands. *  *  *

There will be several thousand houses and farms for sale in and around Nauvoo, and great bargains may be obtained by such as are disposed to purchase. The farms are all in fine condition, for there are none more industrious than the Saints. The Catholics of New York would find it to their advantage to settle in Hancock county, which contains some of the best land in the State of Illinois. The temple would make a splendid cathedral, well suited to the refined architectural taste of the Catholic church. *  *  *

                            With sentiments of the highest consideration,
                                  we remain, Dear General,
                                              your devoted servants,
                                                   Brigham Young,
                                                   Willard Richards.
Major Gen. James Arlington Bennet,
      Arlington House, L. I.,
            New York.

                                         Detroit, Michigan, Nov. 20, 1845.
Mr. Editor: -- My mind is not exactly clear whether I am doing right or wrong in sending you the above extracts, but as the letter was not marked confidential, I am not aware that they can do any harm. Whoever may be the Commander in Chief of the Mormon forces, [of?] the Lord anointed in the camp of the Saints, one thing is certain, a mighty empire is about to be established on the Pacific Ocean, that in time will make great changes on this continent.   Yours,
                               Jas. Arlington Bennet.

DIGGING FOR MONEY. -- We hear nothing new or interesting from the experiment now making in the Hudson to discover the treasure of Capt. Kidd, but as no dividend has been declared on the stock, we take it for granted that no money has yet been made. The desire for searching for lost treasure it seems continues unabated. Men are more anxious to find gold than to labour for it. -- Another instance of this deplorable mania has made its appearance upon that hidden treasure ground -- "Old Long Island's sea-girt shore." It is said that some descendent of a retired buccaneer at Poughkeepsie, in overhauling the documents left by a piratical ancestor, discovered an ancient will, whereby certain -- or rather uncertain -- moneys buried in the sand, "at the end of a shadow cast by a certain tree at the full of the moon, on the 15th of November," were devised to his immediate descendant. Measures have accordingly been taken to secure this rich legacy. A mesmeriser corroborated the statement made in the will, and directed a money-seeker to find a person in the vicinity of Poughkeepsie who understands the use of the "divining rods." The search is going on up somewhere upon the east end of Long Island, near Montauk Point.

THE MORMONS AGAIN. -- Great apprehensions exist lest the Mormons should emigrate to Oregon! The Platte (Mo.) Argus, among other things, says:

"If we reflect for a moment upon the effect of introducing at this crisis the thousands who compose the latter day saints into the Oregon territory, we are not friends to Oregon, much less the progress of true liberty, did we not forbid the march. Who is so blind as not to see that the first effect of adding the Mormons to the present population of Oregon, will be to place the balance of power in their hands; and this will surely be thrown to that party which will make the best bargain with the Mormon leaders. It is easy to guess whether the interest of the United States, or those of Great Britain, would suffer by such a state of things.

Apart from political considerations, we are bound to do all in our power to avert this fell curse from our friends in Oregon; and we are recreant to every sense of duty, if, with a full knowledge of the intentions of the Mormons to go to that country, we look quietly on, with the power of prevention within us."

This however will appear as double injustice. We will not permit them to remain here, nor to go elsewhere! We have no right to stop their progress to Oregon, after affording them no protection here.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                       New York City, Monday, December 1, 1845.                       No. 3802.

ANOTHER MORMON MURDERED. -- The Warsaw Signal, of Wednesday, Nov. 19th, is devoted to matters relating to the Mormons. A daring robbery is charged to have been committed, some days previous, at the house of B. C. Bride, nineteen miles east of Warsaw. Three persons entered, took possession of a large trunk, containing clothing, and twenty dollars in money, and the papers of Mr. Bride. They entered the house about two o'clock at night -- were discovered as they were leaving -- followed towards the Mormon settlement on Bear Creek, where the trunk and papers were found, minus the cash and clothing. The thieves escaped. The circumstances of a foul murder committed about ten miles south-east of Warsaw, on the person of a Mormon named Durfee, are also stated. About 11 o'clock on Saturday, a stack of straw, near the house of a man named Samuel Hancock, was set on fire. The inmates of the house, among whom was the deceased, ran out to extinguish the flames when they were fired upon by some person or persons in the vicinity of the stack, and Durfee was instantly killed. Major Warren is said to have arrested three persons on suspicion, but the nature of the evidence against them is not stated. Durfee, it is said by the Signal, was not a prominent Mormon, nor particularly odious to the anti-Mormons. The Mormons say that there were twelve guns fired -- another story is, that six were discharged, and that two were snapped at Sol. Hancock. The Signal, while intimating that there was some mystery about the reasons for the murder, denounces it, and seeks to relieve the anti-Mormons from the odium of it. A meeting of citizens of Warsaw took place on Monday evening, for the purpose of expressing their disapprobation of this and other recent acts of violence, and this was done by resolutions then passed. They pledge themselves to aid in bringing the guilty persons to punishment, and tendered their services to Maj. Warren for this purpose. On the night of the 12th, some persons went to the house of a Mormon named Rice, who was suspected of having murdered a man named Daubenbeyer -- of which we gave an account at the time -- took him out and set fire to the premises. Everything was consumed. This act is also denounced. The Mormons have disposed of nearly all the lands, to which they have any title, in the south part of Hancock county. This is the case in the vicinity of Fountain Green. -- Around La Harpe, but few sales have been made, and this is the case in the neighborhood of Nauvoo. They are said to ask unreasonably high prices for it -- but of this both sides may be permitted to judge.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Thursday, December 4, 1845.                       No. 3805.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

No. X.


                                                        Detroit, Nov., 1845.
Editors New York Sun. -- Gentlemen: -- I perceive that my communications on the Mormons have attracted considerable attention throughout the country, and as I have many valued friends and acquaintances residing in the various states who may not know exactly what to think of me, I think it proper to "define my position."

The extracts of a letter from President Young and Doctor Richards of Nauvoo, that I mailed to you yesterday, may lead my friends and the public to conclude that I have received my consecration as commander in chief of the Mormon forces; but I must assure you that no such thing has happened. I am no more a Mormon now than I was when I left New York for Nauvoo. The only commission I hold or ever did hold among the Mormons, is that of Major General of the Nauvoo Legion, granted by Governor Carlin of Illinois, under the great seal of the State, and the commission was sent me, if I recollect right, with the consent or concurrence of the Nauvoo Legion, yet it was afterwards ratified by that corps. At the time I received that commission I did not know where Nauvoo was, nor was I able to find it on the maps. I had not at that time even seen a Mormon and knew nothing more of them than the name, and still more, I have never in my life, up to this day, read one line in a Mormon book. I have never seen the Mormon Bible, nor Book of Discipline, nor even a hymn book excepting in another person's hand. I heard two sermons preached about four years ago, one by Mr. Foster and the other by a Mr. Martin, but have never heard any since! Now the public may judge what kind of a Mormon I am.

President Young and Doctor Richards, both in my opinion, most excellent men, Mormon or no Mormon, made me a visit some years since, at Arlington House on Long Island, and from this resulted their present friendly feelings. I believe they think me a man of honor that would not betray them whether I belonged to their church or not, and in this they are right, as my motto is "death before dishonor."

Whether they are justified in placing so high a value on my military and mathematical skill is yet as to them to be tested. I however, know enough to make them a good fortification. But setting their friendly feelings aside, one fact I will admit, which is -- if the private demeanor of the Mormon people be induced by their faith or their religion, I know of no religious sect with whom I would sooner associate, were I at all to detach myself from the Protestant Episcopal Church. All the Mormons I knew, are persons of the most amiable and exemplary character: social, friendly, confiding, romantic, energetic, enthusiastic. They strongly remind me of the Methodist people, as they were when my father, who belonged to the Church of England, used to entertain John Wesley at his house, about fifty years ago. These Mormons, male and female, are housed together like a band of brothers, and the love and enthusiasm with which everything is done among them, must lead to the most wonderful results. They are now so abused, insulted and injured, that other denominations look at them, as hardly human, and the name of Mormon has become as odious as was that of a Christian in the early ages of the Church.

There have been leaders among them, but those persons never were sound either as Christians or men of honor. To this last remark I could name perhaps one or two exceptions, caused by the force of circumstances.

The cavalcade that will march from Nauvoo in the spring, it is expected will cover a distance of twenty-five miles! Nauvoo is a most beautiful location, and great bargains can be had by persons who may want places of business or farms of the first quality. The farms are all in fine condition. It is melancholy, however, to see these people, men, women, and children, forced, in a country like this, boasting such freedom of religious [opinion], by the bigotry of the age, into exile from their lands, their friends and their country!

As regards myself, if I were but 30 years of age, nothing could excite my ambition more than to settle with these people on the Pacific Ocean and assist them in founding "the Western Empire of Saints," [but presently?] retirement and rest are much better suited to a man of three score years. I therefore bid the saints a last and long farewell.
                                          JAMES ARLINGTON BENNET.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                      New York City, Tuesday, December 9, 1845.                       No. ?

Important Letter from Mrs. Smith, Widow
of the Mormon Prophet.

The following interesting letter from Mrs. Smith, widow of the late General Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, came to us yesterday by private conveyance from Nauvoo. It will be read with great interest, as giving probably the most correct though brief view of the affairs as at present existing among that unhappy people:

                                                    NAUVOO, ILL., Nov. 20th, 1845.


SIR: -- I hope to be excused for addressing, for the first time in my life, a letter to the Editor of a newspaper, and this I have been induced to do, from seeing the letters of Gen. Arlington Bennett, published in the newspapers, urging the Mormon people to remove to the Pacific Ocean, and advocating the cause of the TYRANTS, who have seized on the government of the Mormon Church. This Church, such as it is, was formed by my lamented husband, who was martyred for its sake, and whether true or false, has laid down his life for its belief!

I am left here, sir, with a family of children to attend to, without any means of giving them an education, for there is not a school in the city, nor is it intended there shall be any here, or at any other place, where the men, who now govern this infatuated, simple-minded people, have sway. I have not the least objection that these petty tyrants remove to California, or any other remote place, out of the world, if they wish; for they will never be of any service to the Mormons, or the human family, no matter where they go. Their object is to keep the people over whom they rule in the greatest ignorance, and most abject religious bondage, if these poor, confiding creatures remove with them, they will die in the wilderness! The laws of the United States are quite good enough for me and my children, and my settled intention is to remain where I am, take care of my property, and if I cannot educate my children here, send them to New York or New England for that purpose. Many of the Mormons will, no doubt, remove in the Spring, and many more will remain here, and nothing would give me greater pleasure than to have a mixed society in Nauvoo, as in other cities, and all exclusive religious distinctions abolished.

I must now say, that I never, for a moment, believed in what my husband called his apparitions and revelations, as I thought him laboring under a diseased mind; yet, they may all be true, as a Prophet is seldom without credence or honor, excepting in his own family or country; but as my conviction is to the contrary, I shall educate my children in a different faith, and teach them to obey and reverence the laws and institutions of their country. Shall I not, sir, be protected in these resolutions against the annoyance of the men I now oppose, for they will no doubt seek my life!

What object Gen. Arlington Bennett has in advocating the cause of these petty tyrants, I am unable to understand, for he assured me when at my house, that he had not the remotest intention of connecting himself in any manner with them, much less removing with them to the Pacific Ocean. But this is a strange world; and I would not be surprised if they had offered to anoint and crown him King or Emperor in the West! As I have something more to say, I will take the liberty to write you another letter.
                  With great respect,
                        I am sir, your humble serv't,
                                                        EMMA SMITH.

This is a strong and very important document and written by a clear headed and strong minded woman. We have now, for the first time, and through the most authentic channel, the intelligence that the wife of the prophet, possessing his entire confidence, had no belief in the truth of Mormonism, and thinks that her husband labored under complete hallucination. This is the impression everywhere sustained, excepting among the followers of the prophet themselves. Mrs. Smith, in this letter, clearly shows, and frankly admits, the cause of all the difficulties among the Mormons. They have no schools. They have no moral culture. The leaders are either selfish or ignorant, without character and principle, and consequently such a class of people had better emigrate anywhere, and allow a mixed and moral people to occupy Nauvoo, and probably carry better principles, and more honorable views than the Mormon Council seem to encourage. Mrs. Smith deserves credit for separating from such a class of unfortunate and ignorant bigots, and throwing herself upon the laws of her country to educate her children as citizens of the Republic. -- Gen. Bennett, to whom she alludes in her letter, is now here, and governed by no other views than kind feeling towards those people. We have shown Mrs. Smith's letter to the General, and he pronounced it genuine

Note 1: The exact content and format of the above text is uncertain -- the wording was derived from a conflation of several different reprints, one of which bears the alternate heading: "Mrs. Smith, Widow of the Mormon Prophet."

Note 2: The Nauvoo Times & Seasons published in its issue for Jan. 15, 1846 the following note of response and refutation to the letter printed by the Sun: "Nauvoo, Dec. 30th 1845. -- To the Editor of the New York Sun;   Sir: I wish to inform you, and the Public through your paper, that the letter published Tuesday morning, December 9th, is a forgery, the whole of it, and I hope that this notice will put a stop to all such communications. -- EMMA SMITH."

Note 3: While the letter published by the Sun of Dec. 9, 1845, subscribed by "Emma Smith," was probably not sent to that paper directly by the widow, it remains arguable that one of her close associates penned the communication in her name and that she secretly authorized (or at least allowed) the letter writing -- perhaps in order to carry out some defensive blackmail against her Brighamite opponents in Nauvoo. It is, for example, not inconceivable that a confidant of Mrs. Smith (such as her brother-in-law William) might have taken her words from some other, private communication, added to them, and submitted the results for publication, hoping all the while to thus induce her to admit in public things she had thus far been saying only in private. As events turned out, Emma did not follow Brigham Young west; did not raise her children to be Mormons; and did not have any respect for the motives and intentions of "The Twelve" in their subsequent leadership of the Saints, etc., etc. The Sun published James Arlington Bennett's response to the Emma Smith letter in its issue for Dec. 19, 1845

Note 4: Oddly enough there was very little journalistic reaction to the purported Emma Smith letter. Not many major newspapers reprinted the communication. A few papers (like the Quincy Whig and the Warsaw Signal) merely noticed the letter in passing; Sidney Rigdon's Pittsburgh Messenger & Advocate paid it some editorial attention; but, for the most part, the strange communication went unmentioned, outside of the columns of the New York Sun, after its initial appearance there. One paper which might have been expected to have offered some editorial comments on this particular topic was the Portland, Maine Christian Mirror. See that paper's issue of Oct. 17, 1845 for relevant Emma Smith content.


Vol. XIII.                     New York City, Thursday, December 11, 1845.                     No. 3811.

Correspondence of the New York Sun.

No. XI.

Route to Oregon.

                                                        Detroit, (Mich.) November, 1845.
The distance to be traveled by water from the city of New York to the mouth of the Columbia River, in Oregon, would more than circumnavigate half the earth! The difference of latitude between New York, in latitude 40 deg. 40 min, N. and Cape Horn in 56 deg. S. is the sum, 96 deg. 40 min., and the difference of latitude between the mouth of the Columbia, in 46 deg. N. and Cape Horn in 56 deg. S. is also their sum, 102 deg, and the sum of these two, viz 96 deg, 40 min. and 102 deg. = 198 deg. 40 min., is the whole distance, exclusive of traversing, that has to be passed; or rating a degree at 70 miles, 13,900 miles, and this will take probably four or five months for its accomplishment. The real distance is still more than this, as no allowance has been made for the oblique courses which must be sailed -- and even rating a degree at 70 miles will not make it up. The actual distance to be sailed is not probably less than 15,000 miles from the city of New York by the way of Cape Horn!

Now if that great measure which so highly interests both Europe and America were accomplished, that is, a Ship Canal at Panama to be cut through the Isthmus of Darien, to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, let us see what would be saved in the distance from New York to Oregon.

The difference of latitude between New York and Panama in 9 deg. N. is 31 deg. 40 min. and the difiereace between the mouth of the Columbia River and Panama is 37 deg., to which may be added about one third more, 12 deg., for the winding of the course from Panama to Qregon, making all together about 80 deg. 40 min.; or taking the degrees as before, at 70 miles, the distance to be travelled on this route would be but 5640 miles, which, when taken from 13,900 miles, leaves 8260 saved in the passage out, and as much more home, making 16,520 saved on the whole voyage! The actual saving by this route is still more, than this, for I have not entered into a very accurate calculation. The whole saving by this route would be no doubt 18,000 mites on the whole voyage!

Will not some member immortalize himself by bringing this matter before Congress at the present session, so that some definite action may be had on it?

The distance through the Isthmus at Panama is not quite 38 miles, and even if it were all solid earth; it would be no great job for a government like ours to cut it through without assistance from any other nation on earth.

Let the Government of the United States prope to that of New Grenada, in whose territory I think Panama is, to cede to the United States a certain quantity of land on each side of the proposed canal on conditions of our carrying the work through, and it certainty can be accomplished. We can then establish fortifications at the most desirable points and exact toll from the vessels of all nations that may wish to pass through. But if this be considered as risking too much, from the fear of the canal being wrested from us in time of war by an enemy, then let an arrangement be made by treaty or compact with the maritime nations of Europe to carry the canal through as common stock, for the benefit of the human family as well as their own. Such a treaty can be made and such a work done on the faith of nations, without any fear of stopping the transit of vessels in time of war. A proposition of this kind I think has been offered by our government, but what the answer to it, if any has been, I believe is not known to the public.

The construction of a Railroad over the Rocky mountains at this time does not appear to me to be a very feasible measure, as there is no prospect of its paying any percentage on the capital invested. When Railroads are constructed the stockholders always take into consideration the number of inhabitants at each terminus as well as the route and the business that may be carried on between the parties to warrant travel, as between New York and Boston, or New York and Buffalo, but they will take good care not to run a Railroad into Hamilton county, State of New York, until they find something more valuable than bears and screech owls to bring out of it. So with Oregan. You must people the country on the other side of the mountains before a Railroad to it will pay, as that class of persons who might move there can not be expected to have much means to pay Railroad fare, which is now on the Western route entirely too high.

The distance from New York to the mouth of the Columbia River by land is about 3700 miles. Make a Railroad from Rock Island, on the Mississippi River, to the mouth of the Platte River, and you will certainly increase the value of all the lands in Iowa through which it may pass, and in some twenty or thirty years it may pay; but I should like to see the data on which a calculation can be made that will show a profit to result from one to Oregon. If the General Government make a Railroad, as it did the National Road, very well; or if it should give Iand for the purpose of having one made, all the better. It will, no doubt, when done, prove to be a national benefit; but no private enterprise, at this time, can accomplish such a work.

I am most decidedly in favor of all kinds of transit, rivers, canals, railroads and high ways, to facilitate agricultural, manufacturing and commercial objects, but I hope the people of this country will not follow a South Sea bubble....
Yours, &c.                                      

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                    New York City, Monday, December 15, 1845.                     No. 3815.

FROM NAUVOO. -- Cyrus Chase and Rufus Adams, said to be Mormons, were committed at Burlington, Iowa, 20th ult., on a charge of passing counterfeit bills.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                      New York City, Friday, December 19, 1845.                       No. 3819.


To the Editor of the New York Sun:

Sir: You have intimated that I pronounced the letter of Mrs. Emma Smith, widow of Joseph the Prophet, published by you some [days] since, genuine. When Mr. Beach presented that letter to me for my opinion of its character, I told him that I had no other means of judging of its authenticity than that it expressed facts respecting myself which were known to no other person than Mrs. Smith, and, consequently, that it must have emanated from her, or some person in her confidence.

That the letter expresses the true sentiments of that very talented lady, I think quite probable; but as regards her saying there are no schools in Nauvoo, I presume she means at the present time, when everything is in disorder. I can myself bear testimony that not long since there were several schools in Nauvoo, on successful operation, including a very superior one, conducted by Mr. Orson Pratt, brother to the celebrated Parley P. Pratt.

This Mr. Orson Pratt is a most amiable gentleman and excellent mathematician, who, as a professor, would do honor to any college or academy in the United States.

You will please to recollect, however, that there is a split, or rather some little trouble in the church, as William, brother-in-law to Mrs. Emma Smith, who, together with Emma, wished to scatter the Mormons from Nauvoo to their various homes throughout the different States, has been cut off from the church, and Emma, together with her whole family, will, no doubt, share the same fate. The line of the Prophets is to be by inspiration, and not by blood, as "he who holds the keys of the kingdom" will hold the prophetic office throughout all time.

Mrs. Emma Smith does me injustice in charging me with any intention to do her the smallest injury by my urging the Mormon people to move to California, for, most assuredly, it is the best possible measure they can adopt.

When, according to Emma, I shall have been "crowned Emperor" of the Mormon people west of the Rocky Mountains, perhaps that talented and accomplished lady may be disposed to join the Mormon court. As soon, therefore, as the authorities of the church announce to me my election to the Imperial purple, I shall cause to be made a magnificent imperial crown of gold, set with brilliants, for myself, and another, still richer, rayed like the sun, for the Prophet of the Lord!

Recollect that the Mormon government is a pure THEOCRACY, Jure Divino will, therefore, be my model.

But, without undertaking to advocate the cause of Mormonism -- for it needs no special pleading of mine, excepting with an eye to the Diadem -- I would just say, that Emma's disbelief in the revelations of her husband, if such is the fact, does not militate in the least against the truth. The members of our own families are always the least disposed to give credence to anything we may propose or assert, of a supernatural or extraordinary character.

The biographer of Milton, the author of the immortal Paradise Lost. assures us that his daughters often wished their blind father dead while dictating to them that great poem; nor had the wife of Socrates much respect for his mission or morality, still Socrates was a great master, who had, besides Xenophon and Plato, many able and learned disciples,

    With great respect,
                       Your humble servant,
                                                    JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT.

Note. -- In addition to the above, you will, no doubt, permit me to say, that I have four fine farms, of one hundred and sixty acres each, first-rate prairie, for sale, low, lying along side of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. My brother, the Reverend Leonard Benett, resides in the same neighborhood.
                                                                J. A. B.
Arlington House, L. I., Dec. 14, 1845.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                        New York City, Monday, January 26, 1846.                         No. ?

                            Arlington House, State of Long. Island.
                                          [January 16, 1846 ??]

Mr. Editor: The following letter is offered for publication in strict justice to Mrs. Emma Smith of Nauvoo, who appears to have no knowledge of the author of the letter published by you some time since in her name, censuring the publication of letters sent by me from the West, in relation to the Mormon leaders. From this letter I am fully persuaded that the lady is incapable of betraying any confidence reposed in her. -- She must look for the author among some of the seceders from the Mormon Church."
Respectfully your humble servant,                  

Nauvoo, December 20, 1845.            
General Bennett, Sir: -- The apology I have to offer for addressing you this time is the unexpected appearance of a letter published in the New York Sun of Tuesday morning, December 9. I never was more confounded with misrepresentation than I am with that letter; and I am greatly perplexed that you should entertain the impression, that the document should be a genuine production of mine. How you could believe me capable of so much treachery, as to violate the confidence reposed in me, and bring your name before the public in the manner that letter represents? If you thought I had committed such a breach of trust, you certainly valued my integrity much less than I did yours. Should you now be satisfied that I am not unworthy of your confidence you will please give me your opinion, if any you have formed, as to what quarter I am to look for the author of that forgery. By so doing you will greatly increase my obligations.
                                                 Yours with great respect.
                                                                    EMMA SMITH.

Note: While the letter published by the Sun of Dec. 9, 1845, subscribed by "Emma Smith," was probably not sent to that paper by her directly, its still remains arguable that one of her close associates penned the communication and that she secretly allowed the act -- perhaps in carrying out some defensive "blackmail" against her Brighamite opponents in Nauvoo. Other than its all too frequent references to Mr. Bennett, the letter, as originally published, appears to echo the sentiments and premeditations of Mrs. Smith during that troubled period in Nauvoo. It is, for example, not inconceivable that a confidant of Mrs. Smith (such as her brother-in-law William) might have taken her words from some other, private communication, added to them, and submitted the results for publication, hoping all the while to thus induce her to admit in public things she had thus far been saying only in private.


Vol. ?                        New York City, Saturday, August 8, 1846.                         No. ?

From  Wisconsin -- The  Mormons.

Correspondence of the Rochester Daily Democrat.

                                   Fox Lake, Dodge Co., W. T., July 8th, 1846.
We hear a great deal said now-a-days about the Mormons, and the new Mormon Prophets, and perhaps your readers would be interested with a description of Strang, the person who claims to be the successor to Joe Smith, and who is now building in this Territory a new Mormon City, and collecting a good many followers about him.

Being at Southport last February I fell in with him there, and heard him preach and had an interview with him, from which I learned that he was formerly a lawyer in Chautauqua or Cattaraugus county, N. Y., and removed to Illinois several years ago to take charge, as contractor, engineer or something of the kind, of a portion of the Illinois Canal; but as its construction was soon suspended, he sought other employment, and for that purpose went to Nauvoo where he became acquainted with Joe Smith. At that time, he was a most inveterate unbeliever and opposer of the Mormon faith, and being quite familiar with the bible, he contended with Smith for a considerable time, but was at last converted to the faith; and a short time before Smith's death was ordained and baptized by him to be a prophet of the Lord, and sent to Wisconsin to select a suitable place for a new Mormon city, as a branch of Nauvoo. While Strang was executing his mission Smith was killed, thus leaving Strang as his successor, as he had ordained no other prophets. While here, he pretends to have had a vision and a revelation direct from God, confirming his authority as a prophet, and directing him where to establish the new city, and pointing out to him a certain tree, under which were buried three brass plates on which was written the history of a people who had inhabited this country many years ago, and were true believers, bit had passed away, to be revived again in the person of the Latter Day Saints, or Mormons. He says he was commanded to take with him "faithful witnesses," and go to the spot indicated and dig up the said brass plates, and as none were faithful but Mormons he took three or four of them with him, who dug up the plates, while he stood by a little distance from them, and all testify that the plates must have been there a long time, as they examined very carefully and found no indications of the earth having been recently removed, and that Strang did not throw them in while they were digging, and moreover, that he could not have put them there, as they were enclosed in an earthen box, about three feet from the surface of the ground, under a large tree whose roots were interwoven about it and had never been disturbed, and that on taking said earthen box, which was covered over with a flat stone, out into the open air, the whole crumbled and fell to pieces, except the plates, which were very black. They consist of three small pieces of brass about two and a half inches wide, and about the thickness of a piece of tin, fastened together at one corner by a ring passing through them. One of them is covered on both sides [with] writing, and the other two on one side only, and having on the other side, one of them a representation of Christ and other devices, and the other a landscape representation of Gardner's prairie, the spot where the plates were found, and the site of the new city. It is near the line between Racine and Walworth counties, twenty five miles west of Southport and Racine, and near the village of Burlington.

The writing on the plates resembles a mixture of Hebrew and short hand or stenography, and is unintelligible of course to man or beast, though Strang claims to be able to translate it. The location of the new city is a very suitable one, having a tolerable water power, I believe, on White River, a small but very pretty stream -- and is in the heart of the country. It is called Voree. I am informed that there are now something like a thousand Mormons congregated there, and the number is increasing -- many of them coming from Nauvoo. The greater portion of the Mormons deny Strang's authority, and prefer going to California with The Twelve. -- Strang says that if they persist in going to California, they will never reach there, but that their bones will bleach on the plains.

In person, Strang is rather below the ordinary size, very plainly dressed, red face, bold prominent forehead, large eyes and mouth and cheek bones; in fact I may as easily describe him by saying he is a diminutive, ill favored, insignificant looking man; but possesses considerable talent, great shrewdness, an earnest, energetic manner, is very loquacious, speaks very fast and loud when preaching -- When preaching, he appears like a man trying with all his might to convince others that he had something very important to tell them, and that it was absolutely necessary that they should believe it. -- He is perfectly familiar with the Bible, and very persevering in his efforts to convince others of the truth of peculiar passages.

On the whole, I should think him well calculated to make converts and get together a large body of people and control them, as he possesses talent, energy and shrewdness, is very pertinacious in argument, and has ready wit. They appear to be honest, inoffensive people, but it is feared by many that we shall have trouble with the, when they get strong, as they have had in Illinois.
Yours. &c.             MONROE.            

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                    New York City, Saturday, September 19, 1846.                     No. ?

From the St. Louis Republican, Sept. 4.

Mormon  Affairs.

Our correspondent writes us as follows, by the Ocean Wave:
Warsaw, Sept. 1, 1846.            
The Anti-Mormon posse moved from Carthage toward Nauvoo on Sunday morning last, and encamped on the Fort Madison road, seven miles from Carthage, where they yet remain, and will not again take up their march until Thursday, awaiting in the meantime the reception of more reinforcements and the receipt of some heavy artillery from St. Louis.

Persons who left the camp to-day, at 11 o'clock, say that the number is now about 800, a force which many consider entirely adequate to enter Nauvoo with; but the officers in command deem it best to march with such a number as will bear down all opponents, and at the same time accomplish their object with as small a loss of life as possible. The encampment, it is expected, will receive a large accession from the adjoining counties between now and the resumption of their march, persons from several of them having visited the posse and found that it was the determination to enter Nauvoo certain this time.

The Anti-Mormon camp is well supplied with provisions of all kinds, the citizens of the County freely contributing any thing in their possession to further the cause, without demanding or expecting any remuneration.

A quantity of powder, canister shot and muskets, intended for Nauvoo, came up on Saturday night last, and while they were being put into the wagons to be conveyed there, affidavit was made before a magistrate that they were intended to be used for unlawful purposes, and they were accordingly stopped. Last evening a detachment from the Anti-Mormon camp went up the river opposite Keokuk, and succeeded in getting possession of the whole and bearing them to the camp. One hundred and fifty men were sent out from Nauvoo during the night to intercept the party and recapture the ammunition, but the expedition failed, the Anti-Mormons taking a different road.

This expedition is said by persons from Nauvoo, to have been under the immediate command of Captain Backenstos, of the United States Army; if true, it certainly presents a new feature in the history of the country -- officers of the regular army, heretofore being compelled to abstain from all interference in the domestic quarrels of the people, unless ordered to do so by the regular constituted authorities.

Regular sentries are placed by the parties on the prairie, between Nauvoo and the Anti-Mormon camp, and the pickets of each are alternately driven in during the night.

In addition to what is here stated, we learn from the Quincy Whig of Wendesday, that Col. John B. Chittenden, of Adams Co. one of the signers of the Address which we published two or three days ago, had been taken prisoner by the Mormons, and was confined at Nauvoo. They sent out word, it is said, that if he would come into the city they would negotiate a peace. He did so go in, and when there they seized him as a prisoner.

On the evening of the 31st, a numerous meeting of the citizens of Quincy was held to take measures to reduce the Mormons to obedience, and effect the immediate liberation of Col. Chittenden.

The meeting voted "1st. That in cases of emergency delays are dangerous; 2d. That in order to carry out the resolves of the meeting, to assist in executing the laws of the State, it is essentially necessary that aid should be given those who are engaged in the legal discharge of their duty in Hancock County, opposed by a mob in Nauvoo -- we therefore recommend that as many mounted Volunteers as can be mustered at the Court House, in Quincy, on Wednesday morning, the 2d inst., armed for the occasion, ready for marching to the scene of action, with four days of provision. In the mean time, in the Committee will visit Carthage and meet the Volunteers at Ursa at 11 o'clock on Wednesday and report as circumstances may require."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                        New York City, Saturday, September 26, 1846.                         No. 263.

The  Mormon  War.

The steamer Alvarado came down yesterday evening, and her officers report that the rumors as to the first battle between the Mormons and Anti-Mormons were grossly exaggerated. They state that there was a battle, one Mormon was wounded, and no person was killed or wounded on the part of the Anti-Mormons.

However, on Saturday another battle took place. In the morning two cannons were fired at the anti-Mormon camp from the city, but the shot was not returned. Afterward the anti-Mormons sent in a white flag to make certain propositions for the adjustment of their difficulties, which were rejected by the opposite party. The anti-Mormons then began to maneuver and march so as to flank the Mormon forces. When they were within cannon-shot, the Nauvoo party fired on the anti-Mormons, and the battle began.

It continued from one o'clock till forty minutes past four. There were many discharges of artillery and small arms. On one side, a man named Anderson and his son 16 years old, and a man named Norris, all of them Mormons, were killed and several others wounded. The people of Nauvoo reported the anti-Mormon loss at a much larger number, but their report was contradicted at Warsaw.

How they managed to wound so few is to us a mystery. Only three of the Mormons were shot dead, and some five or six wounded; and on the other side the loss is said to have been even less. The fight must have been carried on at a considerable distance, and out of the reach of small arms. The artillery appears to have done but little execution, and the gunners must have been poor marksmen, or so terribly frightened at the smell of gunpowder that they could not take aim with any degree of precision. It is to be hoped that the little brush at murdering each other which they have had will satisfy both sides, and that the civil authorities of the State will see the necessity of doing something towards putting a stop to these outrageous proceedings.

Mormondom is represented as bearing all the features of a citadel; every man within its limits is under arms, and many of the boys are bearing huge pistols and knives upon their persons -- numbers of the women, it is said, are keen for the fight, and express themselves ready to bear arms should it become necessary for the protection of the Temple and the city.

There appears to be but one feeling among the Jack-Mormons, and that is, to die before they will suffer the force, which threatens their city, to invade it: having re-pulsed their foes twice, they begin to increase in the confidence of their ability to protect themselves, and twice have they refused offers of peace. Should the Anties receive no reinforcements, they will have to exercise more skill and bravery before they can succeed in bringing the Mormons to terms. The fight will be renewed, no doubt, but it is more than probable that the Mormons will maintain possession of the city.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Thursday, February 17, 1848.                             No. ?

The Mormons in the Wilderness.

We are a great people for Charity, Liberty, Justice, and all that, whenever we happen to be the suffering, oppressed or injured party, or when we can gratify a cherished prejudice in spite or against the actual wrong-doers; but there are few nations on earth whose history can parallel the acts of flagrant, gigantic robbery and wrong which have been committed by our own Government and citizens, and which have been suffered to pass without public chastisement or even rebuke. The Jewish Captivity, the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, the expatriation of the French Acadians from Nova Scotia by British cruelty and tyranny, furnish no adequate parallel to the robbery and exile which we have inflicted on several Indian tribes, but especially the Cherokees; the Partition of Poland was not near so hypocritical and not whit more atrocious than our subjugation of Mexico; while the Bartholomew Massacres, Witch-burnings and other popular madness of darker ages afford the only adequate parallels to the atrocities suffered to be inflicted -- in violation of every principle of Nationality and of common rights of Humanity -- allowed to be perpetuated upon the poor, deluded fanatics opprobriously known as Mormons.

We have not time now to go into the history of this National baseness. The Country looked on and saw the Mormons driven from their hard-won homes, while their property was stolen or destroyed, in violation of Divine and Human laws. Property which cost them millions was wasted or rendered worthless, and now the poor victims are wandering over the bleak prairies of the savage North-West, in bewildering terror and sullen despair, of lying down to die by hundreds of famine and nakedness. Our Government, which ought to have protected them, and might have done it, let them be plundered of their all; and now they are starving by hundreds for want of the implements of Industry and the necessaries of life.

Shall nothing be done for them? We have raised money for Greece, for Ireland, and for other needy supplicants; can we do nothing for our own perishing countrymen, the victims of our bigotry, our faithfulness and our rapacity? We say that while Charity bade us be liberal on former occasions, here is a call upon our Justice, which we cannot disregard without crime. Who will step forward to render it effectual?

The facts embodied in the following letter from Col. Kane's of Philadelphia to Mayor Quincy of Boston will be found of deep and general interest. No correct idea of the situation, fortunes, sufferings and aims of the Mormons since their expulsion from Illinois can elsewhere be obtained. Col. K. has been brought frequently in contact with the fugitive bands since their exodus while engaged in Indian negotiations in the Far West, and has been moved to a profound sympathy by their miseries. Through his representations and efforts a public meeting in their behalf was recently held in Philadelphia, the Mayor presiding, and the most eminent citizens taking part in the proceedings. He has since visited Boston, in the hope of exciting some interest among its philanthropic citizens, and while there, addressed the following letter to the Mayor, which we copy from the Morning Post:


REVERE HOUSE, Monday, Feb. 14.          
DEAR SIR: In our conversation, I had the pleasure of giving to you in full the views I derived from personal observation and experience with regard to the Mormons, during my recent journey to the far West. I mentioned to you what I saw of their highly upright and moral character while in the Indian territory, and stated my often repeated opinion of the gratuitous injustice of their persecution. If I judge rightly, however, what is desired in my present letter is a simple, uncolored narrative, for the consideration of the charitable rather than the curious, of the position, numbers and condition of the chief sufferers of the sect. To this I will confine myself as closely as I can, in the limited amount of time at my disposal.

Emigrating Mormons, to the number of nearly 20,000, are to be found west of the Missouri, from the country of the Platte, belonging to the Omaha and Otto Indians, to that beyond the notable Bear River Valley across the Rocky Mountains; but the condition of the majority of these persons, though undoubtedly forlorn, does not invite philanthropic investigation, since they are generally beyond the reach of timely help. The Mormons, who can be counted as appealing to the immediate generosity of your townspeople, are certain stragglers in the rear of the main body in march, and whose camps are on this, the eastern side of the Missouri River, or immediately along its course. Of such the unhappy destitution is very great. It is, in part, the issue of circumstances in which their history differs from that of the emigrants farther advanced; and which I think I can not do better than detail.

They composed, originally, the refuse, lame, aged, sick and pauper members of the Church, who were found unable to attempt the great California pilgrimage of 1846. -- On this account their friends, who started at that date, concluded, it seems, an especial treaty or armistice for their benefit, with the anti-Mormon mob, and left them behind in Illinois under its protection. This treaty covenanted, with the most solemn formalities, that they were in no wise to be molested until another asylum could be prepared for their reception beyond the Rocky Mountains. Just so, soon, however, as the Mormon host had made a progress of some months upon its travels, and could safely be considered out of the way, the instrument -- oaths, seals and ribbons -- was broken by the anti-Mormons without ceremony or excuse, and the cripples who relied upon it were ordered to take up their beds and walk. Upon the helpless, driven to desperation, made a remarkably resolute defence of their Holy City, which, being hardly more than a large hospital of incurables, could meritoriously have claimed of any other barbarians its privilege of sanctuary. It was bombarded, however, by an overwhelming force, and notwithstanding the beleaguered for two days supposed, as I am informed, they were replying to the fire upon them with three guns of their own of large muzzle they had forged out of a broken steamboat shaft; at last, after losing some of their soundest men in fight, they were glad to flee forth with their lives, that is to say, with little or nothing else.

I saw most of these poor folks while they were yet on the right bank of the Mississippi, opposite Nauvoo. It was just after the cannonade, and I think they had been there a matter of two or three days. Some of them had fled over before the assault to escape the balls that battered in their houses; the remainder had waited till ousted by direct force of arms.

Few had food enough to satisfy their hunger. Exposure and fatigue had combined to visit many of the nominally robust of them with the ague, and the bilious remittent fever, known as favorite indulgences of the system in the western country; but, sick and well, conscientious yellow souls, they all lay down alike among the reeds and spatter-docks of the low river shore; the favored ones huddled together under tattered sheets, counterpanes or bed-spreads stretched gypsy-tent-wise over a tripod of sticks; others lodging outside of these shelters, and going to sleep with their pinched faces to the sky. I have not the satisfaction of a doubt that among those I looked upon thus shivering in the sharp night of autumn, many whom the screening of a roof might have saved, died looking across the stream upon their comfortable homes, in which the orthodox bullies of the mob were celebrating their triumph in obscene and drunken riot.

At the epoch of which I speak, they were bent on moving westward to overtake, as they hoped, the rearguard of their column in the advances, but were pitiably unprovided with adequate means for doing so. One had a cow, may be, which he could yoke to the crazy cart of his fellow. Another, by disclosing to the cupidity of the Iowa squatters his possession of his watch or other paltry treasure he had secreted, was able to hire a lift in a farm wagon. Several, they were few, appeared to own among them a mixed horse and ox team; the rest had no other means of transportation than their own bodily frames, though it may be observed that, by a natural Providence to whose effect I have already adverted, these were nearly everything they had to carry.

Thus jury rigged, unprovisioned, and almost unclothed, they started on their voyage -- an overland voyage that they intended to measure over one fourth the diameter of the world. It is little wonder then, that, being unsuccessful in overtaking their brethren, they have since literally fallen by the wayside in the wilderness, and there having eaten up the beasts of burden that helped them along so far upon their weary stage, now find themselves equally unable to push forward or to return. At sundry crossing places of the larger streams that have impeded their progress, in wooded clefts and sheltered copses of the prairie, in abandoned Indian villages -- wherever, in short, they have found life most easily sustained, or as some of them have said, and as their fate has proved in many instances, death most easily borne, they have halted and gone to work to strive to keep body and soul together till relief, either in the way of alms or of a propitious decease, should coma up and overtake them. With the aid of a quantity of Indian corn and garden roots they have raised for food, and of great fires of cottonwood brush -- these as a substitute for sufficient shelter and clothing -- many lived through the last winter, and so many will doubtless survive this one, though it presses upon the whole people with cold and famine in its train. But the return of spring is to bring them no better fortunes. The emaciated and pining survivors, if unaided by us, must still continue to be without the power of replenishing their stock of necessaries, or of changing their place to go to seek it; while it should be noted that their general health is already so impaired that they are becoming with every day less capable of vigorous effort for their own assistance.

I have limited my remarks to apply to individuals, concerning whose plight I am possessed of accurate information. I ought to add that there are still others whose numbers would with difficulty be correctly ascertained. Somewhere beyond the head waters of the Des Moines, and on the tributaries of the upper Missouri from the Nishnabotna to L'Eau qui Coule river, say from 800 to 1100 miles above St. Louis, there are, I suppose, some 3000 other dejected human beings, who are probably without any means to wave in our eyes their signals of distress. Yet many of these, I know, are dying of chill and hunger, without metaphor or exaggeration. They are dying while we are talking about them....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             New York City, Friday, March 17, 1848.                             No. ?


We learn from a reliable source, that several thousand English families, members of the Mormon Church, will arrive at New Orleans during this Spring, on their way to join the settlement formed in the Great Salt Lake Valley. An agent of the Mormon Church has been sent to New Orleans to provide passages for the immigrants on boats to this city, to engage transportation for them up the Missouri to the present encampment of the Mormons on the Missouri river, called "Winter Quarters." This encampment is on lands owned by the Omaha Indians, and in the immediate vicinity of Council Bluffs. From that point, or the vicinity, they expect every spring to send all who are prepared to migrate to the Valley of the Salt Lake.

It is calculated that from eight to ten thousand souls, from England alone, will join the emigrating party this season. In addition, several other large parties are expected from other quarters of Europe. -- At one time it was the intention of the elders of the Church to send these immigrants by vessels to Chagres, and thence across the continent to the Pacific, and by vessels to California; but since they have located their city, in the Great Salt Lake Valley, and determined to build their church there, they have instructed their disciples to take the overland route from the head of navigation on the Missouri. Those coming from beyond the seas will, as far as practicable, take vessels for New Orleans, and thence by boats reach the general rendezvous on the Missouri.

A deputation of the elders now in this city are having printed a large edition of a guide to the route from their present encampment on the Missouri, to their new city near the salt lake. It is a very complete and minute work. They have measured the entire route with great accuracy, and noticed all the points and peculiarities along it. They have given the latitude, longitude, and altitude of all the important points, and noticed all the places where wood, water and grass can be obtained. In fact, we have not at any time seen a more accurate work, or one so well calculated to assist the traveller on his way. In other respects, it is interesting as a scientific topographical survey of a large portion of the Salt Lake basin.

A party of several thousands will leave the encampment at "Winter Quarters" this Spring, as early as the grass on the plains will permit. It is estimated that there are now upward of twelve thousand souls in the vicinity of this encampment. At least half of these Mormons will set out for their new residence this Spring, and their places will be supplied by the new comers.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           New York City, Saturday, September 23, 1848.                           No. ?


Two meetings have been lately held in Nauvoo, for the purpose of making arrangements to drive the remaining Mormons out of Hancock County. We trust that no farther attempts of this kind will be made. Our State has suffered enough in reputation already; and the Anti-Mormons by such an act will not be sustained by the sympathies of the community.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                         New York City, Tuesday, October 9, 1849.                         No. ?


From the overland emigrants to California we have later news, which is however much of the same purport as that before received. A great deal of sickness is reported among them; and for five hundred miles, as we are told, the road over which they pass is strewed with the bodies of dead beasts of burden. Our last letters are dated from the Great Salt Lake, where the Mormons are established. One of the correspondents of The Tribune gives a minute and curious account of this singular sect, and the results of their industry in their new home. We give it a place here, confident that our European readers will find it interesting.

Our correspondent writes under date of July 8: --

The company of gold-diggers, which I have the honour to command, arrived here on the third instant, and judge our feelings when, after some one thousand two hundred miles of travel, through an uncultivated desert, and the last hundred miles of the distance among lofty mountains and narrow and difficult ravines, we found ourselves suddenly and almost unexpectedly, in a comparative paradise. We descended the last mountain by a passage excessively steep and abrupt, and continued our gradual descent through a narrow kanyon for about five or six miles, when suddenly emerging from the pass, an extensive and cultivated valley opened before us; at the same instant we caught a glimpse of the distant bosom of the Great Salt Lake, which lay expanded before us to the westward, at the distance of some twenty miles. Descending the table-land, which borders the valley, extensive herds of cattle, horses, and sheep, were grazing in every direction, reminding us of that home and civilizations from which we had so widely departed--for as yet the fields and houses were in the distance. Passing over some miles of pasture-land, we at length found ourselves in a broad and fenced street, extending westward in a straight line for several miles. Houses of wood, and sun-dried bricks, were thickly clustered in the vale before us, some thousands in number, and occupying a spot about as large as the city of New York. They were mostly small, one story high, and perhaps not more than one occupying an acre of land. The whole space for miles, excepting the streets and houses, was in a high state of cultivation. Fields of yellow wheat stood waiting for the harvest, and Indian corn, potatoes, oats, flax, and all kinds of garden vegetables, were growing in profusion and seemed in the same state of forwardness as in the same latitude in the States. At first sight of all these signs of cultivation in the wilderness, we were transported with wonder and pleasure. Some wept, some gave three cheers, some laughed; and some ran and fairly danced for joy, while all felt inexpressibly happy to find themselves once more amid scenes which mark the progress of advancing civilization. We passed on amid scenes like these, expecting every moment to come to some commercial centre, some business point in this great metropolis of the mountains, but we were disappointed. No hotel, sign-post, cake and beer shop, barber's pole, market-house, grocery, provision, dry good, or hardware store distinguished one part of the town from another; not even a bakery or mechanic's sign was anywhere discernible. Here, then, was something new; an entire people reduced to a level, and all living by their labour; all cultivating the earth, or following some branch of physical industry. At first I thought it was an experiment, an order of things established purposely to carry out the principles of Socialism or Mormonism. In short, it is very much like Owenism personified. However, on inquiry, I found that a combination of seemingly unavoidable circumstances, had produced this singular state of affairs. There were no hotels, because there had been no travel; no barber's shop, because every one chose to shave himself, and no one had time to shave his neighbour; no stores, because they had no goods to sell, nor time to traffic; no centre of business, because all were too busy to make a centre. There was an abundance of mechanic's shops, of dressmakers, milliners, tailors, &c.; but they needed no sign, nor had they time to paint or erect one, for they were crowded with business. Beside their several trades, all must cultivate the land or die, for the country was new, and no cultivation but their own within a thousand miles. Every one had his lot and built upon it, every one cultivated it, and perhaps a small farm in the distance. And the strangest of all was, that this great city, extending over several square miles, had been erected, and every house and fence made, within nine or ten months of the time of our arrival; while at the same time, good bridges were erected, over the principal streams, and the country settlements extended nearly a hundred miles up and down the valley. This territory, state, or, as some term it, 'Mormon Empire,' may justly be considered as one of the greatest prodigies of the age; and, in comparison with its age, the most gigantic of all republics in existence, being only its second year since the first seed of cultivation was planted, or the first civilized habitation commenced. If these people were such thieves and robbers, as their enemies represented them in the States, I must think they have greatly reformed in point of industry since coming to the mountains.

I this day attended worship with them in the open air. Some thousands of well-dressed, intelligent-looking people assembled; some on foot, some in carriages, and some on horseback. Many were neatly, and even fashionably clad. The beauty and neatness of the ladies reminded me of some of our best congregations in New York, They had a choir of both sexes, who performed extremely well, accompanied by a band, who played well on almost every instrument of modern invention. Peals of the most sweet, sacred, and solemn music filed the air; after which, a solemn prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Grant ( a Latter-Saint), of Philadelphia. Then followed various business advertisements read by the clerk. Among these I remember a call of the 17th ward, by its presiding bishop, to some business meeting; a call for a meeting of the 32nd Quorum of Seventy, and a meeting of the officers of the second cohort of the military legion, &c. &c. After this came a lengthy discourse from Mr. Brigham Young, president of the society, partaking somewhat of politics, much of religion and philosophy, and a little on the subject of gold, showing the wealth, strength, and glory of England, growing out of her coal mines, iron, and industry; and the weakness, corruption, and degradation of Spanish America, Spain, &c., growing out of her gold, silver; &c. and her idle habits. Every one seemed interested and pleased with his remarks, and all appeared to be contented to stay at home and pursue a persevering industry, although mountains of gold were near them. The able speaker painted in lively colours the ruin which would be brought upon the United States by gold, and boldly predicted that they would be overthrown because they had killed the prophets, stoned and rejected those who were sent to call them to repentance, and finally plundered and driven the church of the Saints from their midst, and burned and desolated their city and temples. He said, God had a reckoning with that people, and gold would be the instrument of their overthrow. The constitution and laws were good, in fact the best in the world, but the administrators were corrupt, and the laws and constitution were not carried out, therefore they must fall. He further observed, that the people here would petition to be organized into a territory under that same government, notwithstanding its abuses, and that, if granted they would stand by the constitution and laws of the United States, while at the same time he denounced their corruption and abuses. But, said the speaker, we ask no odds of them, whether they grant our petition or not! We never will ask any odds of a nation who has driven us from our homes. If they grant us our rights, well; if not, well; they can do no more than they have done. They and ourselves, and all men, are in the hands of the Great God, who will govern all things for good, and all will be right, and work together for good to them that serve God. Such, in part, was the discourse that we listened to in the strongholds of the mountains. The Mormons are not dead nor is their spirit broken. And if I mistake not there is a noble, daring, stern, and democratic spirit dwelling in their bosoms, which will people these mountains with a race of independent men, and influence the destiny of our country and the world for a hundred generations. In their religion they seem charitable, devoted, and sincere; in their politics,--bold, daring, and determined; in their domestic circle quiet, affectionate, and happy; while in industry, skill, and intelligence, they have few equals, and no superiors on the earth. I had many strange feelings while contemplating this new civilization, growing up so suddenly in the wilderness. I almost wished I could awake from my golden dream and find it but a dream; while I pursued my domestic duties as quiet, as happy, and as contented, as this strange people."

Notes: (forthcoming)

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