Bartlett & Sullivan] Quincy, Illinois, Sat., Mar. 16, 1839.
[Vol. 1 - No. 46.
Below we give the proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of Quincy, together with the public documents
which gave rise to the meeting. We simply, ask the attention of the people to the whole matter which follows,
and leave all the facts to have its own weight upon their minds.
At a meeting of the citizens of Quincy, convened on Wednesday evening, the 27th of Feb. to take into
consideration measures for the relief of the Mormons, Gen. Leech was appointed Chairman, and James D. Morgan,
Sec'y. A report was made by Mr. Whitney, accompanied with resolutions, making provision for their relief.
Mr. Rigdon made a statement of the wrongs received by the Mormons from a portion of the people of Missouri,
and of their present suffering condition.
On motion of Mr. Bushnell, the resolutions were laid upon the table till to-morrow evening.
On motion of Mr. Bushnell the meeting adjourned to meet at this place, to-morrow evening at 7 o'clock.
THURSDAY EVENING, Feb. 28th.
The meeting was called to order by the chairman. On motion of Mr. Morris, a committee of 3 was appointed to
take up a collection; Messrs. J. T. Holmes, Whitney and Morris were appointed. The committee subsequently
reported that $48.25 had been collected. On motion the amount was paid over to the committee on behalf of the
On motion of Mr. Holmes, a committee of 3, consisting of Messers. S. Holmes, Bushnell and Morris, were
appointed to draw up subscription papers and circulate them among the citizens, for the purpose of receiving
contributions in clothing and provisions. On motion 6 were added to that committee.
On motion of Mr. Holmes, J. D. Morgan was appointed a committee to wait upon the Quincy Grays, for the purpose
of receiving subscriptions. Mr. Morgan subsequently reported that twenty dollars had been subscribed by that
The following resolutions were then offered by Mr. J. T. Holmes:
Resolved, That we regard the rights of conscience as natural and inalienable, and the most sacred guaranteed
by the Constitution of our free government.
Resolved, That we regard the acts of all mobs as flagrant violations of law, and those who compose them,
individually responsible both to the laws of God and man, for every depredation committed upon the property,
rights, or life of any citizen.
Resolved, that the inhabitants upon the western frontier of the State of Missouri, in their late persecutions
of the class of people denominated Mormons, have violated the sacred rights of conscience, and every law of
justice and humanity.
Resolved, That the Gov. of Missouri, in refusing protection to this class of people, when pressed upon by a
heartless mob, and turning upon them a band of unprincipled militia, with orders encouraging their
extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the State over which he presides.
The resolutions were supported in a spirited manner by Mr. J. T. Holmes, and by Mr. Morris and Whitney, when
upon motion, they were adopted.
On motion the meeting adjourned.
S. LEECH, Ch'n.
J. D. MORGAN, Sec'y.
The following memorial, embodying the most of the facts in relation to the outrages, presented to the Missouri
Legislature by a committee of the Mormons, praying for an investigation into the circumstances detailed, was
read by Mr. Rigdon. -- It will be recollected that this memorial was treated with almost contempt by the
Legislature -- they refused to even print it -- and subsequently refused any investigation into the occurrences
on the frontier, and at the same time, appropriated $200,000 of the people's money, for paying the militia for
services, of which, they, (the people) had no definite knowledge! Two members of the legislature, (Ashby and
Gillam) were prominent leaders of the mob, (not the militia) and it may be supposed that they would oppose
investigation from the most interested motives.
To the Honorable Legislature of the State of Missouri, in Senate and House of Representatives convened:
We, the undersigned petitioners, inhabitants of Caldwell County, Missouri, in consequence of the late calamity
that has come upon us, taken in connection with former afflictions, feel it a duty we owe to ourselves and our
country, to lay our case before your honorable body for consideration.
It is a well-known fact, that a Society of our people commenced settling in Jackson County, Missouri, in the
summer of 1831, where they, according to their ability, purchased lands and settled upon them with the
intention and expectation of becoming permanent citizens in common with others.
Soon after the settlement began, persecution began, and as the Society increased persecution also increased,
until the Society at last was compelled to leave the county. And although an account of these persecutions
has been published to the world, yet we feel that it will not be improper to notice a few of the most prominent
items in this memorial.
On the 20th of July 1833, a mob convened at Independence, a committee of which called upon a few of the leading
men of our church there, and stated to them that the Store, Printing Office, and indeed all other Mechanic
shops, must be closed forthwith; and the society leave the county immediately. These propositions were so
unexpected, that a certain time was asked for to consider on the subject before an answer should be returned,
that being refused, and our men being individually interrogated, each one answered that he could not consent
to comply with their propositions. One of the mob replied that he was sorry, for the work of destruction would
commence immediately. In a short time, the printing office, which was a two story brick building, was assailed
by the mob and soon thrown down, and with it much valuable property destroyed. Next they went to the store for
the same purpose, but Mr. Gilbert, one of the owners, agreeing to close it, they abandoned their design. --
Their next move was their dragging of Bishop Partridge from his house and family to the public square, where,
surrounded by hundreds, they partially stripped him of his clothes, and tarred and feathered him from head to
foot. A man by the name of Allan was also tarred at the same time. This was Saturday, and the mob agreed to
meet the following Tuesday, to accomplish their purpose of driving or massacring the Society. Tuesday came,
and the mob came also, bearing with them a red flag in token of blood. Some two or three of the principal men
of the society offered their lives, if that would appease the wrath of the mob, so that the rest of the society
might dwell in peace upon their lands: the answer was, that, unless the society would consent to leave
en masse, every man should die for himself. Being in a defenseless situation, to save a general
massacre, it was agreed that one half of the society should leave the county by the first of the next January,
and the remainder by the first of the following April. A treaty was entered into and ratified, and all things
went on smoothly for a while. But some time in October the wrath of the mob began again to be kindled,
insomuch, that they shot at some of our people, whipped others, and threw down their houses, and committed many
other depredations; indeed the society of saints were harassed for some time both day and night; their houses
were brickbatted and broken open, women and children insulted, &c.; the store house of A. S. Gilbert & Co. was
broken open, ransacked, and some of the goods strewed in the streets. These abuses, with many others of a very
aggravated nature, so stirred up the indignant feelings of our people, that a party of them, say about 30, met
a company of the mob of about double their number, when a battle took place, in which some two or three of the
mob and one of our people were killed.
This raised, as it were, the whole county in arms, and nothing would satisfy them but an immediate surrender
of the arms of our people, and they forthwith to leave the county. Fifty-one guns were given up, which have
never been returned or paid for to this day. The next day parties of the mob, from 30 to 70, headed by priests,
went from house to house, threatening women and children with death, if they were not off before they returned.
This so alarmed them, that they fled in different directions; some took shelter in the woods, while others
wandered on the prairies till their feet bled. In the mean time the weather being very cold, their sufferings
in other respects were very great.
The society made their escape to Clay Co. as fast as they possibly could, where the people received them kindly, and administered to their wants. After the society had left Jackson county, their buildings, amounting to about 200, were either burned or otherwise destroyed; much of their crops, as well as stock, furniture, &c., were also destroyed. The loss of property, added to the trouble and expense of moving, if properly estimated, would make a large sum, for which they have not as yet received any remuneration.
The society remained in Clay county nearly 3 years; when, at the suggestion of the people there, they removed
to that section of country known now as Caldwell county. Here the people purchased out most of the former
inhabitants, and also entered much of the wild land; many soon owned a number of eighties, each, whilst there
was scarcely a man but what secured to himself at least a forty. Here we were permitted to enjoy peace for a
season, but as our society increased in numbers, and settlements were made in Daviess and Carroll counties,
the mob spirit spread itself again. For months previous to our giving up our arms to General Lucas' army, we
heard little else, than rumors of mobs [being] collecting in different places, and threatening our people. --
It is well known that the people of our church who had located themselves at DeWitt, had to give up to a mob
and leave the place, notwithstanding the Militia were called out for their protection. From DeWitt the mob went
towards Daviess Co., and whilst on their way there, they took two of our men prisoners and made them ride upon
the cannon, and told them that they would drive the Mormons from Daviess to Caldwell and from Caldwell to hell;
and that they would give them no quarter only at the cannon's mouth.
The threats of the mob induced some of our people to go to Daviess to help to protect their brethren, who had
settled at Diahman, on Grand river; the mob soon fled from Daviess County, and after they were dispersed and
the cannon taken, during which time no blood was shed, the people from Caldwell returned to their homes in
hopes of enjoying peace and quiet; but in this they were disappointed, for a large mob was soon found to be
collecting on the Grindstone, from ten to fifteen miles off, under the command of C. Gilliam; a scouting party
of which came within about 4 miles of Far West, and drove off stock belonging to our people, in open day light.
About this time word came to Far West that a party of the mob had come into Caldwell county to the south east
of Far West -- that they were taking horses and cattle, burning houses, and ordering the inhabitants to leave
their homes immediately -- and that they had then actually in their possession three men prisoners. This report
reached Far West in the evening and was confirmed about midnight. A company of about sixty men went forth under
the command of David W. Patten, to disperse the mob, as they supposed. A battle was the result, in which Capt.
Patten and two of his men were killed, and others wounded. Bogart, it appears, had but one killed and others
wounded. Notwithstanding the unlawful acts committed by Capt. Bogart's men previous to the battle, it is now
asserted and claimed that he was regularly ordered out as a militia captain, to preserve the peace along the
line of Ray and Caldwell counties. That battle was fought four or five days previous to the arrival of Gen.
Lucas and his army. About the time of the battle with Capt. Bogart, a number of our people, who were living
near Haun's Mill, on Shoal Creek, about twenty miles below Far West, together with a number of emigrants who
had been stopped there in consequence of the excitement, made an agreement with the mob which was about there,
that neither party would molest the other, but dwell in peace. Shortly after this agreement was made, a mob
party of from two to three hundred, many of whom are supposed to be from Chariton county, some from Daviess,
and also those who had agreed to dwell in peace, came upon our people there, whose number in men was about
forty, at a time they little expected any such thing, and without any ceremony, notwithstanding they begged
for quarters, shot them down as they would tigers or panthers. Some few made their escape by fleeing; eighteen
were killed, and a number more severely wounded.
This tragedy was conducted in the most brutal and savage manner. An old man, after the massacre was partially
over, threw himself into their hands and begged for quarters, when he was instantly shot down; that not
killing him, they took an old corn cutter and literally mangled him to pieces. A lad of ten years of age,
after being shot down, also begged to be spared, when one of them placed the muzzle of his gun to his head
and blew out his brains. The slaughter of these people not satisfying the mob, they then proceeded to rob
and plunder the people. The scene that presented itself after the massacre, to the widows and orphans of
the killed, is beyond description. It was truly a time of weeping, of mourning, and of lamentation. As yet,
we have not heard of any being arrested for these murders, notwithstanding there are men boasting about the
country, that they did kill on that occasion more than one Mormon, whereas, all our people who were in the
battle with Capt. Patten against Bogart, that can be found, have been arrested, and are now confined in jail
to await their trial for murder.
When General Lucas arrived near Far West, and presented the governor's order, we were greatly surprised, yet
we felt willing to submit to the authorities of the State. We gave up our arms without reluctance; we were
then made prisoners, and confined to the limits of the town for about a week, during which time, the men from
the country were not permitted to go to their families, many of whom were in a suffering condition for the
want of food and fire wood, the weather being very cold and stormy. Much property was destroyed by the troops
in town, during their stay there; such as burning house logs, rails, corncribs, boards &c., the using of corn
and hay, the plundering of houses, the killing of cattle, sheep, and hogs, and also the taking of horses not
their own, and all this without regard to owners, or asking leave of any one. In the mean time, men were
abused, women insulted and ravished by the troops, and all this, while we were kept prisoners. Whilst the town
was guarded, we were called together by the order of Gen. Lucas, and a guard placed close around us, and in
that situation, were compelled to sign a deed of trust for the purpose of making our individual property all
holden, as they said, to pay all the debts of every individual belonging to the church, and also to pay for
all damages the old inhabitants of Daviess may have sustained in consequence of the late difficulties in that
Gen. Clark was now arrived, and the first important move made by him was the collecting of our men together
on the square, and selected out about fifty of them, whom he immediately marched into a house, and confined
close; this was done without the aid of the Sheriff, or any legal process. The next day 46 of those taken,
were driven like a parcel of menial slaves, off to Richmond, not knowing why they were taken, or what they
were taken for. After being confined in Richmond more than two weeks, about one half were liberated; the rest,
after another week's confinement, were, most of them, required to appear at Court, and have since been let to
bail. Since Gen. Clark withdrew his troops from Far West, parties of armed men have gone through the county,
driving off horses, sheep, and cattle, and also plundering houses.
The barbarity of Gen. Lucas' troops ought not to be passed over in silence. -- They shot our cattle and hogs,
merely for the sake of destroying them, leaving them for the ravens to eat. They took prisoner an aged man by
the name of Tanner, and without any reason for it, he was struck over the head with a gun, which laid his skull
bare. Another man by the name of Carey was also taken prisoner by them, and without any provocation had his
brains dashed out with a gun; he was laid in a wagon, and there permitted to remain, for the space of 24 hours,
during which time no one was permitted to administer to his comfort or consolation, and after he was removed
from that situation he lived but a few hours.
The destruction of property, at and about Far West, is very great. Many are stripped bare as it were, and
others partially so; indeed, take us as a body at this time, we are a poor and afflicted people, and if we are
compelled to leave the State in the spring, many, yes, a large portion of our society, will have to be removed
at the expense of the State, as those who otherwise might have helped them, are now debarred that privilege in
consequence of the deed of trust we were compelled to sign, which deed so operates upon our real estate, that
it will sell for but little or nothing at this time.
We have now made a brief statement of some of the most prominent features of the troubles that have befallen
our people since their first settlement in this State, and we believe that these persecutions have come in
consequence of our religious faith, and not for any immorality on our part. That instances have been of late,
where individuals have trespassed upon the rights of others, and thereby broken the laws of the land, we will
not pretend to deny, but yet we do believe, that no crime can be substantiated against any of the people who
have a standing in our church, of an earlier date than the difficulties in Daviess County. And when it is
considered that the rights of this people have been trampled upon from time to time, with impunity, and abuses
heaped upon them almost innumerable, it ought, in some degree, to palliate for any infraction of the law,
which may have been made on the part of our people.
The late order of Gov. Boggs, to drive us from this state, or exterminate us, is a thing so novel, unlawful,
tyrannical and oppressive, that we have been induced to draw up this memorial and present this statement of
our case to your honorable body, praying that a law may be passed, rescinding the order of the Governor to
drive us from the State, and also giving us the sanction of the Legislature to inherit our lands in peace; we
ask an expression of the Legislature, disapproving the conduct of those who compelled us to sign a deed of
trust, and also disapproving of any man or set of men, taking our property in consequence of that deed of
trust, and appropriating it to the payment of debts not contracted by us, or for the payment of damages
sustained in consequence of trespasses committed by others. We have no common stock, our property is individual
property, and we feel unwilling to be bound for other people's debts also.
The arms which were taken from us here, which we understand to be about 630, besides swords and pistols, we
care not so much about, as we do the pay for them; only we are bound to do military duty, which we are willing
to do, and which we think was sufficiently manifested by the raising of a volunteer company last fall, at Far
West, when called upon by Gen. Parks, to raise troops for the frontier. The arms given up by us, we consider
were worth between twelve and fifteen thousand dollars, but we understand they have been greatly damaged since
taken, and at this time, probably would not bring near their former value. And as they were, both here and in
Jackson County, taken by the militia, and consequently by the authority of the State, we therefore ask your
honorable body to cause an appropriation to be made by law, whereby we may be paid for them, or otherwise have
them returned to us and the damages made good.
The losses sustained by our people in leaving Jackson County, are so situated that it is impossible to obtain
any compensation for them by law, because those who have sustained them are unable to prove those trespasses
upon individuals. That the facts do exist, -- that the buildings, crops, stock, furniture, rails, timber, &c.
of the society, have been destroyed in Jackson County, is not doubted by those who are acquainted in this upper
country, and since these trespasses cannot be proved upon individuals, we ask your honorable body to consider
this case, and if, in your liberality and wisdom, you can conceive it to be proper to make an appropriation
by law to these sufferers, many of whom are still pressed down with poverty in consequence of their losses,
would be able to pay their debts, and also in some degree be relieved from poverty and woe, whilst the widows
heart would be made to rejoice and the orphans tear measurably dried up, and the prayers of a grateful people
ascend on high, with thanksgiving and praise, to the author of our existence, for that beneficent act.
In laying our case before your honorable body, we say that we are willing, and ever have been, to conform to
the constitution and laws of the United States, and of this State. We ask in common with others, the protection
of the laws. We ask for the privilege guaranteed to all free citizens of the United States and of this State
to be extended to us, that we may be permitted to settle and live where we please, and worship God according
to the dictates of our conscience without molestation. And while we ask for ourselves this privilege we are
willing all others should enjoy the same.
We now lay our case at the feet of your legislature, and ask your honorable body to consider it, and do for us,
after mature deliberation, that which your wisdom, patriotism, and philanthropy may dictate. And we, as in duty
bound, will ever pray, &c.
HEBER C. KIMBALL,
GEORGE W. HARRIS,
JOHN M. BURK.
A committee appointed by the citizens of Caldwell county to draft this memorial, and sign it in their behalf.
Far West, Caldwell co., Mo., Dec. 10, 1838.
The following copy of a Military Order issued by the Governor of Missouri. To properly understand this order,
it will be borne in mind that a large mob were up in [arms] against the Mormons and were pressing upon [their
settlements] with all the malice and hate of bitter opponents -- menacing their lives and destroying their
property. In this extremity they sent an express to Gov. Boggs for assistance -- asking him to protect them
from the lawless outrages of the mob. What does the reader suppose was the reply of this high-minded Governor
to their application for protection? Does he immediately order out a force to suppress the violators of the
law and the rights of the citizens of the State, as he was in duty bound, by his Constitutional oath? No. --
This was his answer to the application: --
"If you have got into a scrape with the mob, you must fight it out; I shall have nothing to do with it." Surely
this man is a more fit Governor of his party (as he is) than of the State of Missouri. The Mormons finding the
Governor averse to assisting them, and that their only hope of safety rested with themselves, they took the
Governor's advice and made preparations to defend themselves from the mob. No sooner had they commenced doing
this, however, when the war cry was raised against them -- they were robbers and murderers, because they dared
to raise their hands in defence of their homes, their firesides, and their lives. -- All kinds of rumors and
reports about them, were circulating through the country to their prejudice, and it would seem from the
exterminating order below, that Gov. Boggs was also affected with the panic. He ordered out a large army to
"exterminate or drive the Mormons from the State." But it is not our intention to review the conduct of the
Missouri authorities in this business, further than to place each document, as it comes under our notice, in
its true and proper light before the people, leaving all the facts in the case, as we said before, to have
their own weight.
Head Quarters, Militia,
SIR: -- Since the order of the morning to you, directing you to cause four hundred mounted men to be raised
within your division, I have received by Amos Rees, Esq., and Wiley C. Williams, Esq., one of my aids,
information of the most appalling character, which changes the whole face of things, and places the Mormons
in the attitude of open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made open war upon the people of this
State. Your orders are therefore, to hasten your operations and endeavor to reach Richmond, in Ray county,
with all possible, speed. -- The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from
the State, if necessary, for the public good. Their outrages are beyond all description. If you can increase
your force, you are authorized to do so, to any extent you may think necessary. I have just issued orders to
Maj. Gen. Wallock of Marion county, to raise 500 men, and to march them to the northern part of Daviess county
and there unite with Gen. Doniphan of Clay, who has been ordered with 500 men, to proceed to the same point
for the purpose of intercepting the retreat of the Mormons to the North. They have been directed to communicate
with you by express. You can also communicate with them if you find it necessary. Instead therefore, of
proceeding as at first directed to reinstate the citizens of Daviess in their homes, you will proceed
immediately to Richmond and, there operate against the Mormons. Brig. Gen. Parks of Ray, has been ordered to
have four hundred men of his brigade in readiness to join you at Richmond. The whole force will be placed
under your command.
City of Jefferson,
Oct. 27, 1838.
L. W. BOGGS, Gov. andCommander-in-Chief.
To Gen. Clark.
The following is the speech of General Clark, the commander of the militia, delivered to the Mormons at Far
West, after they had surrendered themselves prisoners, according to agreement. The General it will be seen,
was fully determined to carry out the exterminating order of the Governor.
Gentlemen: -- You whose names are not attached to this list of names will now have the privilege of
going to your fields to obtain corn for your families, wood, &c. Those that are now taken, will go from thence
to prison -- be tried, and receive the due demerit of their crimes -- but you are now at liberty, all but such
as charges may be hereafter preferred against. It now devolves upon you to fulfil the treaty that you have
entered into, the leading items of which I now lay before you; the first of these you have already complied
with, which is, that you deliver up your leading men to be tried according to law. Second, that you deliver
up your arms -- this has been attended to. The third is, that you sign over your properties to defray the
expenses of the war -- this you have also done. Another thing yet remains for you to comply with, that is,
that you leave the State forthwith, and whatever your feelings concerning this affair -- whatever your
innocence, it is nothing to me. Gen. Lucas, who is equal in authority with me, has made this treaty with you.
I am determined to see it executed. The orders of the Governor to me, were, that you should be exterminated
and not allowed to continue in the State, and had your leaders not been given up and the treaty complied with
before this, you and your families would have been destroyed, and your houses in ashes.
There is a discretionary power vested in my hands which I shall try to exercise for a season. I did not say
that you shall go now, but you must not think of staying here another season or of putting in crops; for the
moment you do, the citizens will be upon you. I am determined to see the Governor's Message fulfilled, but
shall not come upon you immediately -- do not think that I shall act as I have done any more -- but if I have
to come again, because the treaty which you have made here shall be broken, you need not expect any mercy, but
extermination -- for I am determined the Governor's order shall be executed. As for your leaders, do not once
think -- do not imagine for a moment -- do not let it enter your mind, that they will be delivered, or that
you will see their faces again, for their fate is fixed, their die is cast -- their doom is sealed.
I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently intelligent men found in the situation that you
are; and, oh! that I could invoke the spirit of the unknown God to rest upon you, and deliver you from that
awful chain of superstition, and liberate you from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound. --
I would advise you to scatter abroad and never again organize with Bishops, Presidents, &c., lest you excite
the jealousies of the people, and subject yourselves to the same calamities that have now come upon you. You
have always been the aggressors -- you have brought upon yourselves these difficulties by being disaffected,
and not being subject to rule -- and my advice is that you become as other citizens, lest by a recurrence of
these events you bring upon yourselves irretrievable ruin.
The following [genuine] letter which was picked up in the street, a few days since, is quite a curiosity in
its way. It purports to be confidential. The signature was almost illegible, from the mud and dirt which had
been trampled upon it -- we judge to be Smith -- perhaps a brother of "John Smith of Bear Creek."
Feb. 20, 1839
Since I came to town, I have seed most of our demoncratical friends, and talked with um.... "We must get all
the strength we can, cause the wiggs are getting thick as blackberrys, and the only way we can get ahead of
them, is to do our best to gain the support of the Mormons who are comin over the river from Missoury. There
will be two or three hundred voters among them and if we shuffle our cards right we'll get their votes. -- At
our next demon-cratical Association, we are gwine to take up the subject, and prepare a bait to catch um, as
we have got all our jackalls out feelin among um. -- Therefor, look out and keep dark, and say nothin, lest
them confounded Wiggs get wind of it and blow on us. If we get the Mormons to vote with us, we can lick the
wiggs next August," --- and much more of the same kind of talk he told me. He said awlso, we must procede with
the utmost cawtion in laying the snare for the Mormons, for fear they mout smell the rat... As I shal stay up
here a week, till the demon-cratical monuvre about the Mormons comes to a fokus, I will perhaps write you again.