(Newspapers of MD, NJ, & DE - plus early DC)

Mid-Atlantic States

Miscellaneous Newspapers
1817-1844 Articles

View of Baltimore, Maryland -- 1839

1817-1844  |  1845-1905

SxR Sep 15 '17  |  WWg Sep 15 '17  |  NJJ Oct 28 '17
WWg Nov 03 '17  |  WWg Dec 22 '17  |  SFr May 12 '18
BPt Jun 14 '19  |  NaM Oct 27 '19  |  WRp Apr 23 '23
CStr Apr 17 '24  |  CStr Jul 31 '24  |  CStr Jul 30 '25
CStr Jan 29 '26  |  CStr Mar 11 '26  |  BGaz Nov 10 '26
HgM Feb 04 '31  |  BPt Mar 10 '31  |  Globe Nov 29 '32
BGaz Apr 13 '33  |  BAm Sep ? '33  |  BAm Dec ? '33
BAm Jul ? '34  |  NDA May 02 36  |  BAm Nov ? '38
Globe Apr 26 '39  |  NDA Jan 28 '40  |  NDA Jan 30 '40
Globe Feb 04 '40  |  NDA May 11 '40  |  NDA May 27 '40
BPt Dec 02 '40  |  NDA Aug 06 '41  |  NDA Sep 01 '41
NDA Sep 21 '41  |  NDA Nov 29 '41  |  NDA Jan 11 '42
KWE Jun 09 '42  |  BCp Nov ?? '42  |  NDA Jan 10 '43
Globe Mar 14 '44  |  Globe Jun 29 '44  |  Globe Jul 01 '44
Globe Ju1 12 '44  |  Sun Nov 06 '44

Articles Index   |   National Intelligencer  |   Niles Register



Vol. ?                                 Newton, New Jersey, September 15, 1817.                                 No. ?


Passed through this town, on Wednesday last, ten pilgrims (six men and four women) from Woodstock, in the state of Vermont, on their way to the southward, possessed of very singular appearance and deportment.

"They profess to be the only true followers of Jesus Christ and his Gospel, and are in a special manner called of God to go forth into the world to do, and that continually, his will: for which purpose they have forsaken their houses and lands, relatives and friends, and all this world's enjoyments, and after the manner of the apostles, are travelling from place to place, doing good to the children of men.

They have a prophet or leader among them, who occasionally preaches; and most of them exhort in the streets and ways, as they pass by. They seem all devotion and humility, and are continually engaged in the service of Christ; holding forth the power of his holy spirit, as communicated unto them, saying that the Millenium is near at hand, and that the lost tribes of Judah are now beginning to be gathered in, and the way is fast opening, when the four quarters of the world will be gathered into one fold of such as will receive the true spirit of faith: not the faith which is received by Christians of the present day, but such as is accompanied with holy fire. They have no abiding place in view, but travel as the Lord may direct. They say the people of the world are of the Devil, for they cannot serve the Lord and be Christ's. They ask no charity; move very slow, with a cart yoke of oxen and one horse, and say the Lord will provide of them, for where they go, there is he. Their dress is very singular; -- long beards, close caps, and bear skins tied around them. The writer believes them to be a set of deluded enthusiasts.

Note 1: The above text was taken from a reprint published in the Oct. 1817 issue of the Philadelphia New Jerusalem Recorder. See the Boston American Baptist Magazine of May, 1818 for another comtemporary report of the Isaac Bullard and his "Pilgrim" followers. The Woodstock Vermont Chronicle of June 24, 1831 reviews the old story of the Vermont Pilgrims, and adds: "From the resemblance between the Pilgrims and the Mormonites in manners and pretensions, we should think Old Isaac had re-appeared in the person of Joe Smith, and was intending to make another speculation."

Note 2: In Zadock Thompson's 1842 History of Vermont, the author includes a section on "Fanatical Sects," in which he provides some further details: "Pilgrims... Isaac Bullard... commenced his career at Ascot [10 mi. e. of Sherbrooke, Quebec] in Lower Canada, a long confinement by sickness having previously rendered him a visionary... He assumed the character of a prophet, wore a leathern girdle and rough garments to deceive, and with a few adherents [eight persons] entered the north part of the State, and proceeded southerly.... he reached Woodstock in Windsor county... soon succeeded in making proselytes of two... families by the name of Ball... Joseph Ball, was a Christian minister... Peter Ball, was the owner of a small farm with a large family. Having by deception and intimidation secured these to his interests, he made the residence of Peter Ball his head quarters for several months, in which time... he increased the number of his followers... to about 40, among whom was a Methodist minister by the name of Holmes, a resident in Shurburne [Rutland Co.]. Bullard professed to... govern by immediate inspiration from heaven, and he taught... his authority as paramount to any other human or divine. The property of those who joined the company all went into the common stock... according to the dictation of the Prophet, who also controlled... all their most intimate domestic relations... and none dared to resist his authority... Filthiness they seemed to regard as a virtue; and they were frequently seen, even the adult females, rolling in the dirt of the highway.... The chief speaker among them was a fellow by the name of Cummings.... After nearly exhausting their means of subsistence at Woodstock, they crossed the Green Mountains and stopped for a while in Bennington county... then proceeded to the west in quest of an unknown region which their leader designated as the "Promised Land."... When they reached a point on the Ohio river near Cincinnati their number was augmented to 2 or 3 hundred. There they sold their wagon, took boats, and proceeded down the river.... Many died by sickness produced by hardship and privation, and others abandoned the company... at New Madrid... Peter and Joseph Ball left them... Of those who went from Vermont a few begged their way back..."

Note 3: The "Prophet" Isaac Bullard's Pilgrims appear to have temporarily split into two groups during the fall of 1817, one led by Bullard, the members of which traveled westward from the Albany area of New York, to the region just east of Ithaca, and then on to east-central Ohio. In Ohio this first group was joined by their co-religionists (possibly led by the Prophet's wife or by Mr. Cummings) which had journeyed down the Hudson River valley, passing through Sussex, New Jersey; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and probably also Mount Pleasant, Ohio. The re-combined troupe of Pilgrims announced their plans, in November late that year, to make a settlement a little west of Columbus (and not far from Nechanicsburg), Ohio. However, upon due consideration, the Pilgrims resumed their southeastward march (passing through Lebanon, Warren Co., Ohio along the way), and reached the Ohio River near Cincinnati, in the spring of 1818. From there, they moved on boats, westward on the Ohio, entering the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. Passing New Madrid and Little Prairie, Missouri, in the summer of 1818, the dwindling band of starving Pilgrims sought aid at Helena, Phillips Co., Arkansas, and then ended their journey near the mouth of the Arkansas River, a few miles north of Arkansas City, in Desha Co. By that time Bullard had either died or abandoned his flock, and, for the remnant of his followers, their long pilgrimage ended in utter disaster.



Vol. III.                                Bridgeton, New Jersey, September 22, 1817.                                No. 114.


Newton, Sussex county (N. J.) Sept. 15.    
Passed through this town on Wednesday last. ten Pilgrims (6 men and four women) from Woodstock in Vermont, on their way to the southwestward, possessed of very singular appearance and deportment.

They profess to be the only true followers of Jesus Christ, and his Gospel, and are in a special manner called of God to go forth into the world to do, and that continually, his will; for which purpose they have forsaken their houses & lands, relatives and friends, and all the world's enjoyments, and after the manner of the apostles, are travelling from place to place, doing good to the children of men.

They have a prophet or leader among them, who occasionally preaches, and most of them exhort in the streets and ways, as they pass by. They say the people of the world are of the devil, for they cannot serve the Lord and be Christ's. They ask no charity; move very slow, with a cart yoke of oxen and one horse, and say that the Lord will provide of them, for where they go, there is he. Their dress is very singular, long beards, close caps, and bare skins tied around them.

Note: The Washington Whig edited out the following sentences, in its reprint of the Sussex Register's account: "They seem all devotion and humility, and are continually engaged in the service of Christ -- holding forth the power of his holy spirit, as communicated unto them, saying that the lost tribe of Judah is now beginning to be gathered in, and the way is fast opening, when the four quarters of the world will be gathered into one fold of such as will receive the true spirit of faith: not the faith which is received by Christians of the present day, but such as is accompanied with holy fire. They have no abiding place in view, but travel as the Lord may direct."



Vol. XXXIII.                             Elizabeth-Town, N. J., October 28, 1817.                             No. 1774.


Newton, September 15.    

Passed through this town on Wednesday last, ten pilgrims (six men and 4 women) from Woodstock in the state of Vermont, on their way to the southwestward, possessed of very singular appearance and deportment.

They profess to be the only true followers of Jesus Christ and his gospel, and are in a special manner called of God to go forth into the world to do, and that continually, his will; for which purpose they have forsaken their houses and lands, relatives and friends, and all the world's enjoyments, and after the manner of the apostles, are traveling from place to place, doing good to the children of men.

They have a prophet or leader among them, who occasionally preaches, and most of them exhort in the streets and ways, as they pass by. They seem all devotion and humility, and are continually engaged in the service of Christ; holding forth the power of his holy spirit, as communicated unto them, saying that the millennium is near at hand, and that the lost tribe of Judah is now beginning to be gathered in, and the way is fast opening, when the four quarters of the world will be gathered into one fold, of such as will receive the true spirit of faith: not the faith which is received by christians of the present day, but such as is accompanied by holy fire. They have no abiding place in view, but travel as the Lord may direct. They say the people of the world are of the devil, for they cannot serve the Lord and be Christ's. They ask no charity; move very slow, with a cart, yoke of oxen and one horse, and say that the Lord will provide of them, for where they go, there he is. Their dress is very singular, long beards, close caps, and bear skins tied around them. The writer believes them to be a set of deluded enthusiasts.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. III.                                Bridgeton, New Jersey, November 3, 1817.                                No. 120.


A correspondent informs us, that five waggons loaded with the household goods, men, women, and children of this sect, passed through Cherry Valley, Otsego Co., on the 25th ult. on their way to the state of Ohio. The men and women were dressed in the same style as those who passed through Sussex, (N. J.) and were, as they alleged, followers of the same prophet. They call themselves the true followers of Christ. Their pretended prophet came from Canada a few months since, and is a man of "austere habits," and a great fanatic. His followers are not yet numerous, but it is thought he will increase them. He rejects sirnames, and abolishes marriage, and allows his followers to cohabit promiscuously.

The men eat their food in an erect posture, and the women, when they pray, prostrate themselves on the ground with their faces downward. They frequently do penance for sins, and seem to make uncleanliness a virtue. They allege that their prophet has not changed his clothes for seven years. There was with the party above described a deluded woman, who it is said, had always sustained a fair character, and who left a husband in affluent circumstances, and a family of children, to follow this prophet. It is probably the object of this leader to draw as many after him as possible, and to form in some of the western states a new settlement similar to the one made by Jemima Wilkinson, in this state.   Albany Daily Adv.

Note: The issue of the Albany Daily Advertiser here cited, was that of Oct. 13, 1817.



Vol. III.                                Bridgeton, New Jersey, December 22, 1817.                                No. 127.


Mammoths. -- The St. Louis Emigrant states that living Mammoths have lately been seen near the Shining Mountains!

Notes: For more information on reports of mammoths living in the unexplored West; the 1803-06 Lewis & Clark expedition, etc., see David D. Gillette's "Thomas Jefferson's Pursuit of Illusory Fauna," in Frontiers XL (Spring, 1976), pp. 16-21.


The Sentinel of Freedom.

Vol. XXII.                                Newark, New Jersey, May 12, 1818.                                No. 35.

Domestic News.

Cincinnati, April 15.    


On Saturday afternoon last these miserable looking men, women and children passed through the skirts of this place, and encamped in the woods about a mile from this town. The Mayor and Council, having authentic information of their affliction by the small pox, and of their extreme filthiness, very wisely, by a committee, requested them to pass by at as great a distance from the town, as convenience would permit.

During the whole of Sunday curiosity led columns of citizens and people from the surrounding country, to see them. The road from Cincinnati in the direction of these wayfaring Pilgrims, was almost literally choaked [sic] with passengers, each with anxious eye, pressing forward for a peep at the seat of filth. Few, however, returned with "bowels of compassion" for them. The society consists of forty-five persons, including children, of which there is a great number. Their theological reason for thus wandering about the country without a home, and without scarcely any of the necessaries of life, was readily and willingly given: "it is imitating the practice of the ancient patriarchs and good men of old," they say. But the basis of their dirty religion they seemed unwilling to disclose. Perhaps they have been subdued and are treacherously governed by a strong and natural inclination to hate every thing bordering upon industry. It may not be. We suspect it.

The children excited the most compassion. Many of them are interesting and handsome, and might, perhaps, if separated from the cloud of ignorance and superstition and indolence that confines them, become useful and honorable members of society. Reared up in their present situation we question their usefulness to themselves, to society or to their God. They may, like their parents, excite curiosity and contempt. We could not learn, for it was unknown to themselves, where their travelling will end. They take water passage here, and it is very probable we see them no more, a source of no regret.

Note: The above report evidently was reprinted from the Cincinnati Western Spy of Apr. 15, 1818 (or possibly from the Apr. 18th issue).



Vol. XIII.                                Baltimore, Md., June 14, 1819.                                No. 139.


PORTLAND, (Me.) May 29.    
A wretch by the name of Jacob Cochran, has for about two years past infested the county of York, making great pretensions to religion, and as the founder of a new sect, has succeeded in obtaining a considerable number of followers. BY having practiced among them the most gross enormities, Cochran the leader, was at length seized and brought to trial before the Supreme Court held at York last week. Five several indictments were found against him by the Grand Jury, all for Adultry and crimes of a similar nature. He was tried on one of the indictments and found guilty. But he absconded after the case was given to the jury, leaving his friends who were his bondsmen in the sum of 1800 dollars, to pay the reckoning, and has not since been heard of. Cochran is described as a man under 40 years of age, of common size, well built, of light complexion, and rather sandy hair. He dressed decently in dark clothes, and can put on somewhat the manners of a gentleman.

(We have seen a pamphlet published by a Baptist Minister in New Gloucester, giving an account of Cochran and his deluded followers. It appears that under the guise of religion, they have committed the most indecent and abominable acts of adultery, in every possible shape human depravity could devise. One of their leading tenets was to dissolve the ties of matrimony, as suited their convenience -- and a promiscuous sexual intercourse was tolerated by each male being allowed to take seven wives! It seems Cochran, the High Priest of iniquity, had had nearly half his female followers for wives in the course of his ministration, which had been for two years standing. Where has been the vigilance of the civil authority all the time?)
Newburyport Herald.    

Note: The above notice was evidently copied from an early June issue of the Massachusetts Newburyport Herald and Country Gazette. See "More on the Cochranites," appended to on-line excerpts from Gideon T. Ridlon's 1895 Saco Valley Settlements.


National  [ - ]  Messenger.

Vol. II.                                Georgetown, D.C., October 27, 1819.                                No. 139.


The Rev. Jacob Cochran,  the teacher of a new code of ethics and soctrine in this part of our country, and who excaped from the persecuting arm of justice last spring, after conviction before the S. J. Court in York county for adultery and gross lewdness; or in other words, for the propagation of his new and enlightened system of morals; was seized at Saco on Friday last, after a long and obstinate struggle with the constable, and marched to Alfred jail. Jacob, it seems, can handle physical tools with so much power as he has pretended to spiritual ones. The officers of Saco, having intimation that he was [lurking in] that place, waylaid him as [he] was coming [out of] once of his orgies, with Hill, his High [Priest?] and attempted to seize him, but he ran [away and] leaped from a precipice twenty feet [above] and brandishing a cudgel, threatened [to] murder the first man who approached [him]. One constable, nothing fearing, advanced [----] but received a severe blow upon his [arm]; another grappled with him and they succeeded in confining him without further injury.   Portland (Maine) Paper.

Note 1: Compare the above account with the report provided in the Worcester Massachusetts Spy of Oct. 13, 1819.

Note 2: Possibly the unidentified "Hill" in the above account was a member of the Samuel Hill family of Hollis, Maine. See excerpts and paraphrases from the Oct. 1832 missionary journal entries of Elders Orson Hyde and Samuel H. Smith, who visited with Mr. Hill and other "Cochranites" in that region.



Vol. XVII.                                Baltimore, Md., May 4, 1821.                                No. 105.


PORTSMOUTH, (N. H.) April 28.    
The Supreme Court is in session in York. We learn that several persons are to be tried on a charge of lewd and lascivious conduct. They are of the sect called Cochranites.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The Washington Republican.
Vol. ?                           Washington, D. C., April 23, 1823.                           No. ?


To the Editor of the Washington Republican.

Sir -- As some notice has occasionally been taken of the manuscript volume found at Detroit, and much curiosity expressed on the subject, the following circumstances may not be unacceptable to those who feel an interest in it:

Not long since, a leaf, containing four pages of this book, was enclosed to Major General Macomb, Chief Engineer, by Colonel Edwards, of Detroit, with a request, that it might be sent, with the letter that accompanied it, to Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, at New York. Previously to doing so it was submitted to the examination of the Professors of the College in Georgetown; as these gentlemen are versed in Ecclesiastical, as well as in most other branches of literary Science, little difficulty was had in determining both the character of the book and the language in which it is written. The following letter from Mr. Grace affords this information:--

From the limited specimen furnished, a just opinion of the contents of the whole volume cannot be formed. It may however, be inferred, that it is chiefly, if not altogether, on Ecclesiastical subjects, and is, probably, the production of a Jesuit missionary, concerned in the exploring of that section of the country, and therefore, other matters, connected with its history, may be contained in it. To ascertain this, Colonel Edwards has been requested to forward the book, through him, that a translation may be made, of so much, at least, as will discover any importance that may attach to it.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
                                      J. ROBERDEAU,
                                      Engineer Department, April 22, 1823,

                                     Georgetown College, April 10, 1823.
SIR -- I send you the manuscript, which you left me to examine, and which, with a few exceptions, is written in Irish, truly classical. There are some faults in the orthography, which, together with some strange abbreviations, made it somewhat difficult to unravel. Page 179 begins thus:--

"The fourteenth chapter, in which are given ten reasons, why the Catholic church does not administer the cup to the laity."

The same page contains four of these reasons, and a part of the fifth, -- The remainder of the manuscript, viz: pages 175, 176 and 178, contains quite a different subject-- It is all on penance and confession. I should wish to see a perfect copy of this Hibernian manuscript, and a translation of the whole can be had, at any time, from
                                     Your humble and devoted servant,
                                      WILLIAM GRACE.
                                      TO MAJOR ROBERDEAU.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Columbian  Star.
Vol. III.                           Washington, D. C., Sat., April 17, 1824.                           No. 16.

From the Boston Telegraph.


M. Champollion, jr. has made such discoveries in relation to these memorials of antiquity, that he is able not only to decypher inscriptions of the Greek and Roman epochs, but also to go back as far as the age of the Pharaohs. The age of all inscriptions bearing royal names has been determined by him; he has obtained more than forty names of Pharaohs, included brtween the 30th and 40th dynasty; and has also fixed the extreme limit of all known Egyptian monuments at the 19th century before the Christian era. The same alphabet is applicable to the hieroglyphical inscriptions on the temples of Nubia and Ethiopia.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Columbian  Star.
Vol. III.                           Washington, D. C., Sat., July 31, 1824.                           No. 31.


...On the 13th of June, Elder Lawrence Greatrake was ordained pastor over the Baptist church on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Elder John Winter, of Bull Creek, introduced the service of the day, by singing and prayer, and by delivering an introductory discourse. Elder David Phillips, of Peter's Creek, put the usual questions, and received suitable and appropriate answers from the candidate, and then offered up the ordination prayer, accompanied with the imposition of hands. Elder Wheeler, of Washington, (Pa.) delivered the charge to the candidate, and Elder D. Phillips, of Peter's Creek, addressed an appropriate charge to the church, and then closed the interesting service.

Note 1: Writing in 1828, Elder Greatrake offered this recollection of his brief tenure in the office of pastor to Pittsburgh's First Baptist Church: "I have itinerated nearly all the time: during seven months however I had the charge of a people calling themselves a Baptist church, who were graciously pleased to allure me to their service at the expence of hundreds of dollars and which they promised to refund me, but which they cheated me out of, allowed their members openly to ridicule the doctrine of the Baptist confession of faith, magnanimously to slander me, charitably to tolerate caluminators, liars and drunkards among themselves, and to plead, in their extenuation, that they 'were too small and weak to put away any of their members.' During this period I got quote satisfied with the honour and emoluments connected with the pastoral charge of a mere Baptist church."

Note 2: Alexander Campbell published the following comments at the beginning of 1825, regarding Lawrence Greatrake's newly ended term of ministry in the pastoral office previously filled by Elder Sidney Rigdon: "My words are... 'this gentleman [i. e. Greatrake] is at present hired by a party.' All that is here said is, that, at the time of writing the above in the first week of September last, Mr. G. was actually hired by a party... 'they disavow having hired Mr. G. to be their pastor.' But we are not informed whether this certificate was granted after Mr. G. resigned being their pastor or before -- for it is a fact that Mr. G. is not their pastor now... and it is almost certain that the certificate was drawn up by Mr. G.'s own pen. But it is a fact that Mr. G. was hired [by the Pittsburgh First Baptist Church] at the time I wrote my review."

Note 3: John Winter apparently became presiding elder (or pastor) at the Bull Creek Baptist Church in late 1823 or early 1824. The congregation was located near the boundry between Buffalo twp. in Butler Co. and Fawn twp. in Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania (about 15 miles northeast of Pittsburgh). The Bull Creek congregation belonged to the Beaver Baptist Association. See Campbell's 1830 account and Stanton's 1907 account for further information on Elder Winter's activities during the 1820s.

Note 4: For another example of a cooperative effort between Elder Charles Wheeler of Washington and Elder David Phillips of Peters Creek, see Wheeler's letter of July 18, 1823 -- a communication which probably eventually resulted in the solicitation of Lawrence Greatrake to fill the vacated pastor's office at the First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh.


The  Columbian  Star.
Vol. IV.                           Washington, D. C., Sat., July 30, 1825.                           No. 31.


Commenced by the New-York Missionary Society, in 1811, and transferred to the United Foreign Missionary Society in Jan. 1821. Situated about four or five miles from Buffalo, near the outlet of Lake Erie.

Rev. Thompson S, Harris, Missionary. A very interesting and promising school, of thirty Indian children, was removed from this station, in February, 1824, under a law of the State. An unsuccessful application was i,,ediately made to the Legislature, then in session, for its restoration. Another application at the late session, was so far successful, that there is no reason to hope that both teachers and pupils will soon be permitted to return to the Missionary buildings. The Missionary has continued to preach to the adult Indians on the Sabbath; and since the dispersion of the school, two have been added to his little church, which now embraces six Indian members.


Commenced in 1822. -- Situated a few miles from the shore of Lake Erie, and about thirty miles from Buffalo.

Mr. William A. Thayer, Superintendent; and Messrs. Gilman Clark and H. Bradley, Assistant Missionaries. We have here a school of seventy Indian children, living in the family....


The Beaver (Pennsylvania) Baptist Association has cautioned the public against receiving John Smith as a Minister of the Gospel, in which character he has been travelling through the country, and palming himself upon the Baptist and Methodist Societies. They say he is intemperate, and has been "guilty of deeds which are too shocking to be published to a religious community."...

Note: For more on the 1820s efforts of Christian missionaries among the Seneca of western New York, see the Cherokee Phoenix of 1828, etc.


The  Columbian  Star.
Vol. V.                           Washington, D. C., Sat., January 29, 1826.                           No. 4.


The following letter has been addressed to the Editor of the Paris Journal des Debats, by the Grand Rabbi de Cologne, relative to the proclamation of the new self-constituted Judge and Regenerator of Israel, Mr. Noah, of New-York, calling upon his Jewish brethren throughout the world, to assemble under his standard at the intended city of refuge, Ararat, on Grand Island; and imposing upon such as do not choose; or are not able, to obey his call, a certain annual trobute per head for leave of absence:

      To the Editor.
The wisdom and love of truth which distinguish your Journal, and the well merited reputation it enjoys in France and in foreign countries, induce me to hope that your politeness will grant me a place in your next number, for some observations which I address to the public in interests of reason and truth.

The French and English papers have lately abbounced the singular project of a Mr, Noah, who calls himself the founder of the city of Ararat, in the United States of North America. Certainly, if Mr. Noah was, as he is supposed to be, the proprietor or occupier of a great extent of uncultivated land, and confined himself to the engagement of men without fortunes to run the risk of colonizing with him, promising them, at the same time, mountains of gold, nobody would think of disputing his right to follow the fashion of sending forth projects: but Mr. Noah aspires to play a much more elevated character. He dreams of a heavenly mission; he talks prophetically; he styles himself a Judge over Israel; he gives orders to all the Israelites in the world; he levies a tax upon all Hebrew heads. In his exultation he even goes so far as to make the central Jewish consistory of France his Charge d'Affaires, and he honors the President of this body with the noble rank of "commissioner of emigration." The whole is excellent; but two trifles are wanting: 1st, the well authenticated proof of the mission and authority of Mr. Noah; 2dly, the prophetic text which points out a marsh in North America as the spot for re-assembling the scattered remains of Israel.

To speak seriously, it is right at once to inform Mr. Noah, that the venerable Messrs. Hiershell and Meldonna, chief rabbis at London, and myself, thank him, but positively refuse the appointments he has been pleased to confer upon us. We declare that, according to our degrees, God alone knows the epoch of the Israelitish restoration; and he alone will make it known to the whole universe, by signs entirely unequivocal; and that every attempt on our part, to re-assemble with any political-national design, is forbidden, as an act of high treason against the Divine Majesty. Mr. Noah has doubtless forgotten that the Israelites, faithful to the principles of their belief, are too much attached to the countries where they dwell, and devoted to the governments under which they enjoy liberty and protection, not to treat as a mere jest the chimerical consulate of a pseudo restorer.

As, however, justice requires some consideration to the absent, we should be sorry to refuse him the title of a visionary of good intentions.

Accept, Mr. Editor, the assurance of the distinguished and respected sentiments with which I remain your most humble servant.
The grand rabbi De Cologne.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Columbian  Star.
Vol. V.                           Washington, D. C., Sat., March 11, 1826.                           No. 10.


... We have at length had the [opportunity?] of hearing the "long-suffering Captain Symmes" explain his "hollow theory" of the earth. He lectured on Thursday evening, to the officers and students of the Columbian College, in the hall of the Enosinian Society. He has evidently been very industrious in collecting facts, many of which are of an interesting character. But how these facts can be adduced necessarily to prove his theory of a terrestrial concavity, we were unable to conceive. Another individual, with half his ingenuity, might employ them in demonstrating almost any other theory, equally wild and unsupported. Most of the arguments in favour of the old system, he left untouched. If he be not ignorant of them, we have reason to conclude that he finds them too powerful for his mastery -- "too mighty" to be shaken by his "facts" however "imposing." We give no opinion upon the subject. Indeed, we do not understand the gentleman. Perhaps we shall be considered by him and a few others as ineffably stupid, not to feel the power of his "eloquent facts," but we really do not understand the gentleman.

He stated that he expects soon to accept the invitation of the court of Russia to undertake an over-land expedition into the interior of this terrene globe, and thus gather incontestible proofs of what he now finds it difficult to convince an incredulous world....

Note: See also the Cherokee Phoenix of July 9, 1831.


The  Baltimore  Gazette  and  Daily  Advertiser.
Vol. ?                       Baltimore, Maryland, Friday, November 10, 1826.                      No. ?


THE DIVINING ROD. -- It has been supposed, during many years, that a forked branch from any tree of the forest, the orchard or garden, having smooth bark and elastic fibres, in the hands of some favoured individuals, had the power of indicating the beds of ores or the springs of water, flowing beneath the surface of the earth. Many who have witnessed the action of the rod when held by the water-finders, and seen it crawling down and pointing to some spot otherwise indistinguishable from the surrounding field, where the fountain gushed out on digging, have been convinced of the reality of the art, and fallen into great doubt of the laws by which it is regulated. Were there no evidence from our own senses of the existence of the attraction supposed to affect the twigs when managed by the skilful, we should still be satisfied by the declarations of men in all stations in society, of irreproachable integrity, sound judgment, and quick penetration; those whose words we could believe as firmly as our own knowledge, and whose uprightness we could safely trust unaccounted treasures. When such persons confidently assert that they possess the art of discovering hidden waters, and when they know that the [goal] is actually found beneath the places pointed out, we may believe that they have deceived themselves, but never that they could impose on the credulity of others. The motives to fraud are few, the possessors of the skill have seldom exerted it for more than a [trifling monatary] reward. It has never been made the means of extortion or excessive gain by any of its professors. Reputation, there is little given to those holding the mysterious wand.

A writer in the last Journal of Arts, probably its learned editor, Professor Silliman, has thrown the most satisfactory light on this subject of doubt and difficulty. The length of this article renders it necessary to present a brief abstract of the interesting contents of an ingenious paper.

In the New England States, springs, streams, and ores are so abundant, that the earth cannot be penetrated in any spot u=indicated by a stick, without finding water at a greater or lessdistance from the surface. In the Western and Southern Territories, where they are not so copious, the search is attended with difficulty, and the use of the divining rod is common. The writer had an opportunity of making his experiments on the art where its operations had been considered most triumphant. The course of a stream had been pointed out by an aged adept, near the spot where a well had been sunk. A youth professing skill was taken, and, with a rod, he followed the exact direction indicated by the older professor, which was after marked on the sod by a slight furrow. He was then blindfolded so that he could see nothing, and led to a little distance. On returning with measured steps, the rod turned down exactly on arriving to the furrow. This seemed a most satisfactory result, and an entire confirmation of the certainty in the process. But on leading the lad to the next furrow the rod missed it, and, continuing the experiment, it pointed in other places. Wherever the fountain was discovered, the turf was torn off, and springs were said to be every where. On the termination of the operation, the whole surface was marked with the black spots, and waters made to run with the eyes closed, where it had been decided by the sight that none flowed.

The writer having satisfied himself that delusion was practised on the senses of the operator, next sought for the method by which it was effected. The rod would not move in his hands. He watched closely the mode of holding the instrument by the skilful, and noticed that it was grasped in a peculiar lively manner. Hoping to catch this, he again took the rod, as he stood by the bank of the rivulet, and grasped it with the same spirit he had noticed. He moved neither hand or foot, but the rod was in action, and his utmost efforts could not restrain it. The limbs crawled round and the point turned down, in spite of every effort of the clenched hands to prevent its motion. The more vigorous the pressure, the more active was the motion, until the bark was wrung off in the contest.

Here the whole mystery was explained. The muscular power of the clenched hands acting on the elastic fibres of the twigs, sets the rod in motion, without the connivance of the diviner, and the more firm his faith in its truth and veracity, with the more certainty is the impulse unconsiously given. -- The more powerful are his efforts to restrain it, the more powerful is its efforts to move. The natural position of the hands impels it forward rather than backward, and the necessary pressure of the muscles produces that effect which has been taken to be the invisible attraction of unseen fluids, acting through a thick and heavy mass of earthy matter. -- Nat Aegis.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. III.                              Hagerstown, MD.,  Friday, Feb. 4, 1831.                              No. 32.

From the Philadelphia U. S. Gazette.

We mentioned nearly a year since, the appearance of a person in the upper part of New York State, who was preaching a new religion, founded upon a new bible given to him by an angel. The revelation then was engraven on metal plates. We thought that the matter would rest with the simple souls with whom it began, but we find that the new doctrine is gaining many believers; societies have been formed, and leaders established. We have not heard that any candidate for president has been nominated. We find the following account in the Zanesville [sic - Painesville?], Ohio Gazette:

"About a couple of weeks since, three men, calling themselves Oliver Cowdry, David Witmer, and Martin Harris, appeared in our village, laden with a new revelation which they claim to be a codicil to the New Testament. They preached in the Methodist Chapel, and from certain indications, conceiving they might do more good other wheres, departed for Kirtland, where is a 'common stock family,' under the charge of Elder Rigdon, a Campbellite leader of some notoriety. The men claim to act under a 'commission written by the finger of God' -- they are very enthusiastic, tolerably resolute -- but from what we can learn, need that steadfast determined resolution, and popular talent, which are necessary to ensure any considerable degree of success in a new project.

The account which they give is substantially as follows: -- at a recent period an angel appeared to a poor ignorant man residing in or near Palmyra, in Ontaria [sic - Wayne?] County, in the state of New York, directed him to open the earth at a place designated, where he would find the new revelation engraved on plates of metal. In obedience to the celestial messenger, Smith repaired to the spot, and on opening the ground discovered an oblong stone box, tightly closed with cement. He opened the sacred depository, and found enclosed a bundle of plates resembling gold, carefully united at one edge with three silver wires, so that they opened like a book. The plates were about 7 inches long and 6 broad, and the whole pile was about 6 inches deep, each plate about the thickness of tin.

They were engraved in a character unintelligible to the learned men of the United States, to many of whom, it is said, they have been presented. The angel afterwards appeared to the three individuals, and showed them the plates. To Smith it was given to translate the character, which he was enabled to do by looking through two semi-transparent stones, but as he was ignorant of writing, Cowdry and others wrote as Smith interpreted. They say that part of the plates escaped from them in a supernatural manner, and are to be again revealed, when the events of time shall require them.

The three individuals above named, have subscribed their names to an article in the book, in which they solemnly declare that they saw the angel, and that he assured them that the book was a divine revelation. They say it was written by the prophets of God during the period embracing the time for 600 years before, and several hundred after the Christian era. It predicts, we understand, almost all events which have come to pass, such as the American Revolution, &c.

These men are believed by their followers to be prophets, and they say that the world is soon to come to an end, within 15 years at longest.

By the world coming to an end, they only mean that the incorrigible will be cut off by a variety of means, leaving only the true believers. They have now gone west for a country they know not where, west of the Mississippi, where they say is a holy spot, and there they are to establish a New Jerusalem, into which will be gathered all the natives who they say are descendants of Manesseh. They are to be fed [sic - led?] by the Spirit, and will know the ground when they place their feet on it.

Immediately after their arrival here, Elder Rigdon embraced the new doctrine, and was baptised for the third time -- once as a regular Baptist -- once as a Campbellite, and now as a disciple of the new revelation. He says he has hitherto ignorantly preached heresy. His flock, we understand, have principally followed their shepherd, and for the second, and some for the third time, have gone down into the water. We are told that the number baptized in the new order, is rising of one hundred."

When we read of such delusions, or follies in times past we mourn over the ignorance and [credulity] of days when the march of science was slow and brief; but these are the productions of our own times, the vagaries of the 19th century. Let us, when we regard them and others that characterize the age, learn a little humility for ourselves, and exercise charity for our predecessors.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. XXXVII.                                Baltimore, Md., March 10, 1831.                                No. 59.


A clergyman of Painesville, Ohio, has given, in the Telegraph of that place, a history of the "Mormonites, or proselytes of the Golden Bible." He speaks of them as fanatics and impostors, and gives the following as a specimen of their power to work miracles: --

Another instance of a man in Painesville, who was in the last stage of consumption, was attempted to be healed by Cowdery, one of the leaders. A few days afterwards Mr. Rigdon was heard to say "that he would get well, if there was a God in Heaven!" He has since deceased. But these prophets had the policy to cover their retreat in these things, by saying that they would not recover immediately; the Lord would take his own time; and one of these people a few days ago, when put to the worst upon the subject, said that he did not think Cowdery would have attempted to do any miracles, had he have known how things would turn out.

Notes: (forthcoming)


City of Washington                      Vol. ? - No. ?                       November 29,  1832.


Let us look Nullification in the face. What is it? Mr. Calhoon and his disciples tell us, IT IS MAKING VOID A LAW OF CONGRESS WITHIN A STATE, DECLARING IT AS UNCONSTITUTIONAL, AND PROHIBITING ITS EXECUTION.

The Nullifiers assert that the Tariff laws are unconstitutional, and their Convention is now to pronounce them void within the limits of South Carolina.

The Legislature will take up this edict and attempt to enforce its execution by fines and imprisonment; and every officer of the State Government, and every juryman, is to swear to resist and put down the revenue laws of the Union, as a text-oath and qualification to enable him to enjoy the rights of a citizen, or hold an office. The officers of the General Government, and all those who may aid in the execution of the revenue laws of the Union, will be exposed to those pains and penalties & disqualifications.

Can this be done peacefully, as the leading Nullifiers pretend? The judges, of the United States, are sworn to support the consitiution, as they understand it -- and understanding it to authorize the passage of the Tariff laws, they are by their duty and oaths, bound to carry those laws into execution. In fulfilling their duty to the General Government they expose themselves to the penalties of the State laws, and are arrested by their authority. By a habeas corpus, Federal Judges attempt to release them. Here the two judiciaries come into direct conflict. The Governor of South Carolina is authorized to use the militia of that State, to enforce the State Laws. The President of the United States, is not only authorized, but requested, when the Judiciary of the Union proves too weak to execute the law, to call in to their aid the Militia, Army and Navy of the United States.

How then can nullification be peaceful? If the State authorities resist and overcome the Judiciary of the United States, must not the President support it? Must he not obey the laws and repel force by force? It is a mockery of common sense to call nullification a peaceful remedy. It must and will, itself, begin this work of violence. The first violence must be committed by it, in resisting the Judicial authorities of the Union. This will lead to further violence, and the flames of civil war will blaze up at once in every quarter of that unhappy state.

Can there be a doubt of the purpose of the Nullifiers to carry it to a civil war?
Why the recent language of their leadeing citizens? -- Why do we hear of pledges of life, fortune, and sacred honor, "to carry the resolves of the convention?" Why has Governor Hamilton been so assiduously courting and drilling the Militia? Why has he recently, by the most extraordinary means, procured himself to be elevated to the military rank of a BRigodier General? What is all this but a preparation for war? What does Hamilton mean, but to be the military hero of Nullification, while Hayne shall hold the civil power, and Calhoun the desperate author of the whole scheme, watch to profit by their hazards and their perils?

This then, is Nullification: -- It is CIVIL WAR AND DISUNION!

Let each American now ask himself, shall the Federal Union be preserved? Shall these desperate men be permitted to entail on this happy land, on South Carolina itself, the miseries of civil war and the everlasting evils which flow from the destruction of this confederacy? Who is willing to have the blood of millions, the oppression of this beautiful continent and the slavery of its inhabitants, born and unborn, laid at his door? Let no man promise himself that these states can be riven asunder, and the fragments exist along side of each other in perpetual peace. Any anticipation of that sort is contradicted by all history, by the disposition of men, and by the peculiar circumstances in which the new States or confedercies would be placed. -- As family quarrels are most bitter, so animosities as deep as can torture the human heart, would actuate the disjointed remains of this confederacy, urging them into frequent conflicts, the most persevering and embittered. The North would rise up against the South and the South against the North. The West would send her hordes over the mountains in search of glory and conquest. Instead of being a land of peace, plenty, and happiness, our country would present scenes of war, want and wretchedness. From the points of millions of bayonets, liberty would fly to other lands, and leave us ages of blood, extortion and misery, in the place of the Union, whose blessing[s] are now treated with derision. would

It is asked how the career of the Nullifiers is to be cut short and their fatal designs defeated? It may be done without the shedding of one drop of blood. Let the whole country rise up as one man and denounce them. Let the whole people out of the limits of South Carolina, and the true hearts within, from themselves at once into a great UNION PARTY, and say to them, in a language which they will understand, THIS UNION SHALL NOT BE DISSOLVES. Let them resolve, one and all, that while they will make every concession to remove all just causes of complaint, they will rally around the government in support of the Union which must be preserved at every hazard. Let them tell the Nullifiers, it is not for you that we step forward in this crisis; it is for ourselves, our children for your children, for generations unborn, for the cause of freedom and the happiness of mankind....

Will the States and the people in the South, the West, the North or the East, withhold the expression of their firm resolves not to permit the dissolution of this Union? Will they omit to do an act of peace, when they may prevent an act, or acts, which their country will mourn for ages to come? Will they not concentrate public opinion upon this horrible design, with an intensity which shall make its prosecutors shrink appalled from their own imaginings before they are bodied forth in acts of violence?...

Let time is to be lost. The edict of Nullification has already appeared, as prepared by the conspirators for the adoption of the convention. With rapid pace, the attempt to execute it will follow. Unless public opinion do its work in a few weeks and awe the factions into submission, the mind cannot conceive of the woes that men may bring upon South Carolina and their country Let every Legislature, every public meeting, every Editor, and every American patriot, hasten to make his voice heard, that the warning may come in time to prevent the first act of violence.

This theme is inexhaustible.

Note 1: Although the politicians of South Carolina had been threatening nullification of federal law for some time, it was only on Nov. 19-24, 1832, that John C. Calhoun and the "Nullification Convention" members met at Columbia, to formulate and adopt their "Ordinance of Nullification declaring the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832... null, void and no law." Forseeing this development, U. S. General Winfield Scott assumed command of Fort Moultrie, in South Carolina, to prevent federal property and arms from falling into the hands of the rebels. Not long afterward, President Jackson sent several U. S. naval vessels to Charleston, with orders to put down any incipient rebellion which might break out in South Carolina. On Dec. 10. 1832, President Jackson issued a stern proclamation, outlining his plans to oppose the South Carolina Nullification Convention and its supporters, with armed force, if necessary. Jackson declared that the Convention stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason," and he appealed to the rebels to work with regional loyalists to end the problem.

Note 2: The November 29, 1832 Washington Globe's article, "The Union," emphasized the more dramatic possible outcomes of the "Nullification Crisis," were it not settled immediately, by the political defeat of the nullifiers. This Jacksonian paper was know for its hyperbolic prose, in Jackson's behalf and its editors obviously overstated the prospects for a national "civil war and disunion." Other Democratic papers in the region, like the Richmond Enquirer, were less shrill in their rhetoric, but equally concerned over the rebellious example demonstrated by South Carolina. The Richmond Enquirer published a series of articles on "the crisis" in December and January which provide insight into Southern politics during this critical period. At the end of February of 1833, the U. S. Congress had drafted the "Tariff Act of 1833," which gradually reduced federal tariffs and removed the base cause of the Nullification Crisis.

Note 3: Although the United States did not exactly reach the brink of civil war during December of 1832, the newspaper reports which circulated through the country generally emphasized the dramatic events of the day, and the Globe's fears of "civil war and disunion" were echoed throughout the popular press -- even as far afield as Geauga Co., Ohio, were the "Mormonites" were then concentrated. See the Painesville Telegraph, the Huron Reflector, the Ohio Repository, and the Ohio Star for the variety of news reports available to the Kirtland Mormons. The Telegraph of Dec. 21st is especially noteworthy, in that it reports a "civil war" brewing in South Carolina. It is more than likely that these nagative newspaper reports influenced bith the subject matter and the wording of Joseph Smith's Dec. 25, 1832 "civil war revelation," as recorded in the Kirtland Revelation Book and first published in 1851. See RLDS Hisrotian Richard P. Howard's review of Smith's text, in the article "Christmas Day, 1832: Joseph Smith Responds to the Nullification Crisis," in the Saints' Herald of May 1, 1969 -- see also Smith's letter of Jan. 4, 1833 to Rev. N. O. Saxton of Rochester, NY.

Note 4: Smith's text, from the Kirtland Revelation Book, reads as follows: A Prophecy given Decm 25th 1832   Verily thus saith the Lord, concerning the wars that will shortly come to pass begining at the rebellion of South Carolina which will eventually terminate in the death and misery of many souls, and the days will come that war will be poured out upon all Nations begining at this place, for behold, the southern states shall be divided against the Northern States, and the Southern States will call on other Nation even the Nation of Great Britian as it is called and they shall also call upon other Nations in order to defend themselves against other Nations and thus war shall be poured out upon all Nations   and it shall come to pass after many days Slaves shall rise up against ther Masters who shall be Martialed and discplined for war   and it shall come to pass also that the remnants who are left of the land will martial themselves also and shall become excedingly angry and shall vex the Gentiles with a soar vexation   and thus with the sword and by bloodshed the inhabitants of the earth shall mourn and with famine and plague, and Earthquake and the thunder of heaven and the fierce and vivid lightning also shall the inhabitants of the earth be made to feel the wrath and indignation and chastning hand of an Almighty God until the consumption decreed hath made a full end of all Nations that the cry of the saints and of the blood of the saints shall cease to come up into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, from the earth to be avenged of their enemies wherefor stand ye in holy places and be not moved untill the day of the Lord come, for be hold, it cometh quickly saith the Lord. Amen     Given by Joseph th Seet writt by F G Williams


Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser
Vol. 79.                       Baltimore, Md., Monday, April 13, 1833.                      No. 13,168.


THE MORMONS. -- A writer in the Christian Watchman thinks that their system of religion is rather frail, and tending to dissolution. Respecting the "Golden Bible" he says that it is not even a cunningly devised fable. Every page bears the impress of its human authorship. Though free from vulgar obscenities, it is an absurd collection of dull, stupid, and foolishly improbable stories, which no person, unless under the influence of powerfully excited feelings, can mistake for truth and inspiration. With its authors, the Book of Mormon cannot survive this generation. The next will remember it only to smile at the credulity of the present.

Note: Clipping courtesy of Erin Jennings.


Vol. ?                           Baltimore, Md., September ?, 1833.                           No. ?


Some extraordinary proceedings in reference to the deluded sect of the Mormonites, took place recently in Jackson county, Missouri, where is the principal settlement of that people. -- A public meeting of the citizens was held, in which they passed resolutions that no Mormon should hereafter settle in or move into that county, and that those now there should remove within a reasonable time, after they shall have settled up their business. They required the editor of the Star, a paper published for the purpose of advocating Mormon doctrines, to discontinue his paper forthwith. For the alternative, in case of any failure to comply with any of these requisitions, the Mormonites were "referred to those of their brethren, who have the gift of divination, & unknown tongues, to inform them of the lot which awaits them." These significant resolutions were read and adopted, and a committee appointed to wait on the leaders of the sect, and provide for the strict performance of the order of the meeting. The order was not complied with -- no answer being given by the editor of the Mormonite press and the keeper of "the Lord's store-house," to whom the communication was particularly addressed -- and therefore the meeting resolved to raze the printing office to the ground, but provided by resolution for the preservation of the materials of the establishment -- the Missouri Times asks, if for their own use? Subsequently another meeting was had, the result of which was an agreement between the citizens attending the meeting and the Mormonites. By this agreement a number of the Mormonites undertook to remove with their families, before the first of January, and to induce all their brethren to remove, 1 half by the first of January, and one half by the first of April -- to discourage any further settlement and to discontinue the press. On these conditions the meeting undertook to protect them and their property from violence.

This seems to us an unwise proceeding -- as it is manifestly illegal and oppressive. Contempt is a better means for contending against such absurdities than proscription.

Note: The exact date of this article is unknown. It appeared in the Baltimore American in early September and was reprinted in the Gettysburg Republican Compiler of Sep. 10, 1833.


Vol. ?                           Baltimore, Md., December ?, 1833.                           No. ?


The Governor of Missouri lately exercised his constitutional power of pardoning a person convicted of murder, under the belief of the insanity of the perpetrator of it. The act occasioned no little excitement at St. Louis, where the effigy of the Governor was paraded through the streets, and afterwards burnt.

The riotous proceedings recently waged against the Mormonites in Jackson county, Missouri, have since been brought to a close, and the sect are about leaving that part of the country. The number of persons killed in the late affrays was six, and several were badly wounded.

Note: The exact date of these articles is unknown. They appeared in the Baltimore American in late December and were reprinted in the Gettysburg Republican Compiler of Dec. 24, 1833.


Vol. ?                           Baltimore, Md., July ?, 1834.                           No. ?


The report of a battle between the citizens of Jackson county, Missouri, in which it was said that the Mormon leader was slain, is not confirmed. The accounts from St. Louis, make it probable that no such collision has taken place but that on the contrary, the Mormons have abandoned the attempt to use force in order to regain possession

Jackson county, the disputed lands in which are the object of Mormon zeal, is the Holy land of their religion, where the millennium of their faith is to be accomplished. They still adhere to the persuasion, that they will be put in possession, and establish their doctrines triumphantly on that spot. Their prophets who have taught them these notions, have, however, with a shrewd regard to their present credit, given them warning that their triumph may not be completed for a hundred years. It is to be hoped that their faith, if it be strong enough to digest the prophecy, will be strong enough to induce them to wait patiently for its accomplishment without crusading sword in hand, against the infidels, whose stay in the land is thus reduced to lease for years.

Note: The exact date of this article is unknown. It appeared in the Baltimore American in late July and was reprinted in the Gettysburg Republican Compiler of Jul. 29, 1834.


Vol. ?                           Newark, N. J., May 2, 1836.                           No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- A gentleman living in Loraine County, Ohio, writes that a more extraordinary sect has not sprung up since the says of Mahomet. In the town of Kirtland they have erected a stone temple at an expense of $40,000. It has two rows of Gothic windows. The first floor is the place of worship, with four rows of pulpits at each end, having three pulpits in a row. These 12 pulpits rise behind and above one another, and are designed, the uppermost row, for the bishop and his councellors, the third for the teachers, and the fourth or lowermost for the deacons. Over the division between each of the rows of pulpits is a painted canvass, rolled up [to] the ceiling; and to be let down at pleasure, so as to conceal the dignitaries from the audience. The area can be divided into four apartments at pleasure to carry on the objects of imposture. The second and attic stories are for a theological and literary seminary, which is expected to have the manual labour system attached to it. The Mormons are very eager to acquire an education. Men, Women, and children are studying Hebrew. Some of the men in middle age pursue their Hebrew till 12 o'clock at night and attend to nothing else. They pretend to have remarkable revelations, work miracles, heal the sick, &c.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           Baltimore, Md., November ?, 1838.                           No. ?


MORMON TROUBLES. -- A slip from the Missouri Watchman, of the 29th October, contains the proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of Ray county, convened for the purpose of considering the difficulties existing between the people of Missouri and the Mormons. At this meeting a report was made by three persons, who had visited certain places in Davies County, where the Mormons were reported to have committed excesses. They found numerous ruins of dwellings, stores, mills, &c., which were laid in ashes, and were informed that their contents had previously been pillaged by the Mormons and carried off. It was also stated to them that the Mormons had driven away large numbers of cattle. -- They were represented to be about 600 strong. These persons were deterred from prosecuting their inquiries further, from the fact of their meeting families removing into Ray County for safety, who stated that the country on the north side of Grand River was devastated and entirely deserted, except by the Mormons.

A letter was also read to the meeting from Judge King, of much the same tenor as the above report, and stating in addition that the Mormons are hauling provisions from the surrounding country and preparing for a siege by building block houses, &c., as they expect that an armed force will be shortly sent against them. The opinion is expressed that the civil authority is entirely too weak to control the lawless band.

Another letter was read in the meeting stating that information had been received that the Mormons designed an attack on the town of Richmond on the night of the 25th October, and that the women and children were flying in the utmost consternation, while the men were preparing to defend the town.

Resolutions were then passed requesting the Governor immediately to order out an armed force to quell the insurrection, to protect the persons and property of the citizens of Missouri, and to drive from the State this powerful band of robbers. It was also resolved to raise three companies of soldiers to guard the northern boundary of Ray County and prevent the intrusion of the Mormons.

In consequence of these proceedings, the Governor ordered a force of three thousand men to be raised, and proceed immediately to the relief of the suffering inhabitants of Daviess county.

Note 1: The exact date of this article is unknown. It appeared in the Baltimore American in mid-November and was reprinted in the Gettysburg Adams Sentinel of Nov. 19, 1838.

Note 2: The files of the Missouri Watchman are incomplete and not easily accessible; it was a weekly paper, published at Jefferson City by Hammond & Cronenbold. It was started on March 29, 1838, a few months before the "Mormon War" began in upper Missouri. The article published in the Baltimore American may be one of the few extant reprints of the Missouri Watchman's Oct. 29, 1838 report on Mormon depredations in Daviess Co., Missouri. See the Oct. 6, 1838 issue of Niles Register for a slightly earlier report from the Watchman.


Vol. VIII.                       City of Washington,  April 26, 1839.                       No. 270.


Extract from a letter, dated
                                                     WESTERN MISSOURI, Feb. 24.
The Mormons, who lately excited such interest, have left for the State of Illinois in great numbers, and the remainder will follow in the spring. Some of them are such fools as to think that at some future day, and that not very far off, they will return and repossess the New Jerusalem. They are selling their lands for a mere song, and have been continually doing so since the fracas. A great many places with good improvements have been sold at a mere trifle over Congress price, and some for even less. There was an attempt made a short time since by six of the tribe to rescue their leader, Gen. Smith. They failed, however, and five of the number are now in prison. Sydney Rigdon has been bailed in the sum of $4000, and both he and his bail have left the State. It is said that all the Mormons upon whose testimony the leaders were committed, have gone away. If so, I do not see but Joe is pretty safe from everything but mob-law.

We are enjoying the most beautiful weather that ever was known. For nearly three weeks in January, it did not freeze night or day, and for a week back it has been so warm that we sit in the evening with the doors open and little or no fire. Two years ago I got through the winter with keeping my cattle up only four weeks.
                         N. Y. Journal of Commerce.

Note: The above article may have actually been published on April 29th.


Vol. 8.                           Newark, N. J., January 28, 1840.                           No. 177.


The Mormons seem to be flourishing in Philadelphia, no less than fourteen persons -- ten men and two women -- having been baptized by a preacher of that faith! on Monday of last week. We agree entirely with the editor of the NewHaven Herald that, when such an absurdity as this Mormon faith prevails in the religious world, we may cease to wonder that Locofocoism is tolerated in the political. -- N. Y. Gaz.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 8.                           Newark, N. J., January 30, 1840.                           No. 179.

The  Mormons  before  the  Senate.

                        WASHINGTON, January 28th, 1839.

Mr. Young, of Illinois, presented a memorial from certain Mormons, (Smith, Rigdon and Hicks,) praying the intervention of Congress to preserve them in their rights as citizens of the United States. The petition sets forth, in glowing terms, that the Mormons have been harshly dealt with by Missouri, and that it would be unsafe for them to return to Missouri, to obtain legally a redress of grievances. Mr. Young moved the reference to the Judiciary Committee, and stated that they bring 300 receipts for land bought of the Missouri Land Agents, from which they have been driven, and forbid to return. Mr. Y. condemned such treatment.

If only one half of what is detailed in the memorial be true, acts of cold blooded cruelty have been enacted, shocking to humanity, and revolting to the spirit of the age.

Mr. Linn thought the people of Missouri were implicated with the Governor, and thus could not be separated. All he knew was, that it was said by these people, or so reported that they claimed the land as their own -- that it was the New Jerusalem, given to them by the Lord, and they would possess it, and govern it morally, politically, and otherwise -- thus they were in a state of insurrection and revolt against the laws, and it was in consequence of that the Governor had taken the steps he did.

Mr. Norvell said Congress had nothing to do with it, and moved to lay it on the table.

Mr. Preston and Mr. Clay thought it ought not to be placed upon the table; the subject should be investigated. If it was the intention of the mover to let it lie for the present only, they would not object.

Mr. Norvell assented to the suggestion that it should be laid on the table with a view of being taken up at no distant date -- Mr. Benton said he should object to its laying permanently on the table -- it ought to have its speedy answer. It was laid on the table.

Several memorials were presented from different portions of the Union, asking for the reduction of postage.

Mr. Preston introduced a resolution calling on the President for the cause of the removal of Gen. Call from the Government of Florida.

The Senate then proceeded to the bill for the establishment of a Board of Claims, which passed at three o'clock -- 25 to 16, when the Senate, Adjourned.

Notes: (forthcoming)


City of Washington                      Vol. IX. - No. 200.                     Feb. 4, 1840.

(letters waiting in the Washington, D. C. Post Office
as of February 1, 1840)

Ramsay Miss Mary
Rosell Davil
Rockwell Orin
Roberts Mrs. Angeline D. ...

Note: Orrin Porter Rockwell accompanied Joseph Smith, Jr. and Sidney Rigdon on their trip to the east at the end of 1839. Rockwell apparently told somebody to write him while he was in Washington, D. C. He was then serving as the two leaders' driver, butler and body-guard. Since Elder Rockwell was not known for his letter writing skills, it is entirely possible that the communication here noticed was sent to him for forwarding on to either Smith or Rigdon.


Vol. 8.                           Newark, N. J., May 11, 1840.                           No. ?


It is known that these people, since their dispersion in Missouri, have collected in great numbers in and around Commerce, in this (Ill.) State, on the Mississippi. The name of Commerce, as we have heretofore stated, they have changed to Nauvoo, from the Hebrew or Egyptian, though of the signification of the term we are ignorant. They hold two great conferences every year, -- in the spring and fall, and that appointed for the present spring took place last week, commencing on the 6th and ending on the 9th inst. We learn that between 2000 and 3000 persons were present, and that considerable accessions were made to the church from the surrounding neighborhood. Our informant states that the number was 74, all received by baptism, and that at the same time thirty of the ablest men were ordained to preach the gospel.

The preachers present were Joseph and Hiram Smith, John Page, Orson Hyde and two others. Messrs. Page and Hyde, with ten others, (probably chosen elsewhere,) were commissioned to go to the Holy Land to preach the gospel to the Jews. They are to meet in Quincy next Sabbath, and from there take their departure for Palestine.

About three hundred houses have been put up in Nauvoo since last October. Some of these are neat frame buildings, but the greater portion are log cabins designer for temporary habitations merely. The ground assigned to each is generally one acre, though to some there are five acres.

The increase of population by immigration is very great. Our informant states that several families arrive every day. A gentleman living on the road from Quincy to Nauvoo assured him that on some days at least 15 families passed his house, all bound to the latter place.

... in obedience to an edict, from Joseph Smith, the Mormons will hereafter vote en masse against the administration of Mr. Van Buren.

Note: The Apr. 17, 1840 issue of the Peoria Register contained practically the same article.


Vol. 8.                           Newark, N. J., May 27, 1840.                           No. ?

-- Mr. Van Buren. --

                                   Montrose, Upper Mississippi, Iowa Territory,
                                   April 26th, 1840.

[article about the semi-annual conference of the saints held in a grove with "discourses by The Prophet," ordination of elders. etc.]

Smith says Van Buren will lose one hundred thousand votes by the course he has pursued towards him and his associates...

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                             Baltimore, Maryland, December 2, 1840.                            No. ?


MORMONS ARRIVED FROM ENGLAND. -- The packet ship North America, which arrived at New York last week, brought in her steerage 200 passengers, the whole of whom were "Latter Day Saints" or Mormons, bound for the Mormon settlement at Quincy. The Liverpool Chroncile states that upward of 2000 are entreating to embark early next spring for the same locality. A great portion of those who sailed in the North America, are members of the abstinence society, and are from Leicestershire and Herefordshire.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                           Newark, N. J.,  August 6, 1841.                           No. 31.


The Mormons. -- Joe Smith's disciples celebrated the 4th at Nauvoo with great pomp. It was a kind of military celebration, accompanied with an oration and feasting. Mr. Rigdon delivered the oration, and a table one thousand feet long was provided for the faithful. -- Joe Smith, it seems, wore "flaming regimentals," as commander-in-chief of the 'Nauvoo Legion.'

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                           Newark, N. J., September 1, 1841.                           No. ?


The Mormons are holding a meeting in the woods a few miles from Taylorsville, on the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware -- a great many of the citizens from Bucks county visit their camp.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                           Newark, N. J., September 21, 1841.                           No. 70.


Meeting of the Magnates Keokuck, Chief of the Sacs and Foxes, accompanied by fifty of his followers, lately made a visit of ceremony to Joe Smith, Monarch of the Mormons, at his capital city, Nauvoo. Joe received his brother savage with distinguished politeness. The "Nauvoo Legion" was called out and escorted Keokuck and his squaws to the magnificent temple of the Twelve Apostles and Twelve Oxen. In this sacred spot the two great men entertained each other and their followers, by making speeches at each other; both the royal orations being clothed in uniform -- the Mormon in the brilliant burlesque of the "Legion," and the Indian in the dirty blanket and tattered moccasins of his court, Joe made what the newspapers call a "thrilling speech" to to Keokuck, describing to him the wonders of the great temple, the mysteries of the Mormon Bible, and the glorious good times that the Latter Day Saints should have when they get to New Jerusalem.

The forest Chief knew no more about all this nonsense than an oyster knows about quince saucem but he listened to it with the most impertable gravity, nevertheless, and in his turn rose and replied to it. He expressed all proper astonishment at the Nauvoo economy, and did justice to the mighty great things accomplished by his brother on this side the big river, but as to the New Jerusalem part of the business, he was non-commital until he could ascertain whether there would be any government annuities in that famous city, and as for the "milk and honey" spoken of by Joe with so much unction, Keokuck felt very indifferent -- he should himself prefer whiskey. -- Cour. & Enq.

Note: Compare the above paraphrased report with the original article, as published in the Aug. 25, 1841 issue of the Warsaw Signal. For more on Chief Keokuk and the Mormons, see chapter 14 of A. R. Fulton's 1882 book, Red Men of Iowa.


Vol. 10.                           Newark, N. J., Monday, November 29, 1841.                           No. 129.


(fragmentary letter from Iowa to the New York Sun describing Mormon doctrine):

6. Zion, or the New Jerusalem, is in Missouri, where the Savior is to appear, in a short time in person....

9. The prophet predicted eleven years ago, that Zion is to be built in Missouri in this generation. -- But they have been dispossessed, and the city of their hopes lies desolate; still they are not [without] hopes. Nauvoo, their principal city in this vicinity, contains 3000 inhabitants. Every one of a certain age is called on to bear arms; and the "legion of the Lord" is drilled twice a week, and it is the common belief that they intend soon to attempt to retake their claim in Missouri...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                           Newark, N. J., January 11, 1842.                           No. ?


NAUVOO: -- The Mormon Elders have issued an epistle from the city of Nauvoo, on the Mississippi, requiring the "Saints of the Last Days" to contribute one tenth of all their substance, and one tenth of their earnings, to help forward the Temple of The Lord. Their city now numbers 10,000 inhabitants.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Kendall's Weekly Expositor.

Vol. ?                             Washington, D. C., June 9, 1842.                            No. ?


Translation. -- Two Mormon Priests, Smith and Rigdon, lately rode out together, and only Smith returned. He said Rigdon had been "translated to heaven!" Such is the story.

Note: Lengthier versions of this odd story were earlier published in both the St. Louis New Era and the St. Louis Missouri Republican during late April, 1841. Whether the published account reflects some Gentile editor's "April's Fool" column, Joseph Smith's sometimes strange sense of humor during conversation, or an actual Mormon claim for the temporary whereabouts of Elder Sidney Rigdon, is anybody's guess at this late date.


Vol. ?                             Balrimore,  Maryland,  November ?, 1842.                             No. ?


This sect has excited considerable attention through the Union, in consequence of various publications by Bennett and others who had belonged to the society, in which the members were charged with blasphemy, immorality and other offences. It is not to be wondered at that opinions, formed upon such representations, should have been entirely adverse to the Mormons. We acknowledge that we looked upon them as a mixture of interested and heartless knaves and deluded enthusiasts. The perusal of the Mormon paper lately published in this city confirmed us in this opinion; but on Tuesday evening last we attended the Lecture or Sermon delivered by Mr. Winchester, a professor and preacher of the Mormon faith. He opened the services with a prayer, unexceptionable in language and spirit, and such as might well have been delivered from any pulpit in the city. He then commenced his discourse, in which he took occasion to give a brief outline of the Mormon faith. He said that they had been charged with substituting the Book of Mormon for the bible: this was not so; it was considered only as an historical account of a people, communicated, (we think we understood him to say) supernaturally -- it neither added to nor subtracted from the Bible, which the Mormons fully recognized and believed in. He said that he had nothing to disguise as to his religious principles, but on the contrary desired to make them generally known that they might be correctly judged of. The Mormons were Christians in belief, and looked for the second Advent of Christ -- when he shall come, surrounded by the angels of Heaven to dwell in person upon the earth -- that he will be met by the spirits of those who are justified, and by the saints who may then dwell on earth -- that the earth shall be then purified by fire so as to be made a fit residence for the heavenly host during the term of the Millennium, which will at that time commence -- that the signs which are to precede that event are now transpiring, and that, although he did not pretend to determine the precise period of the Millenium, he believed that it was at hand, &c. He quoted various passages from scripture to sustain his opinions -- and thought the creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the hallowing of the seventh as a day of rest, indicated that at the termination of six thousand years, the Sabbath or Millenium of a thousand years shall commence.

We understood Mr. Winchester to say, that he will endeavor in a few weeks, to deliver a regular course of lectures, explanatory of the belief of the Mormons, in which he will disguise nothing. However men may differ with him, he is evidently sincere in the faith he professes, and is entitled to be treated with respectful attention. Whatever may be the peculiar notions of the sect to which he is attached as to the time and manner of the fulfilment of certain prophecies -- or, however erroneous may be the pretended origin of the Book of Mormon, yet, as the Bible is recognized as their guide of Faith, we do not think that the Mormons should be made objects either of ridicule or persecution. We confess that Mr. Winchester has changed our opinion of the sect; for we held them in contempt if not in abhorrence, from the representations we had read of them, whereas, if what Mr. Winchester states to be true (and we have no reason to doubt him,) we can recognize them as professing Christians, tinged with peculiarities on particular points."

Note 1: Exact date of article not yet determined. Text taken from the Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Dec. 1, 1842.

Note 2: The Times and Seasons editor adds these comments to the reprint:"We are pleased to find that Elder Winchester is preaching in the city of Baltimore, as he is an intelligent, prudent, and faithful young man, and fully competent to teach the principles of eternal truth; and we are persuaded that if the editor of the "Baltimore Clipper," (who has spoken so honorably of him and his lecture) should hear him deliver a course of lectures, the force of those glorious truths which he will be able to advance, will produce a greater revolution in his mind than he has yet experienced, or anticipated, in regard to Mormonism; and will be the means of bringing many of the intelligent and respectable citizens of Baltimore to a knowledge of the truth, and to obey these glorious principles which God has revealed for the salvation of the human family. --- We have lately perused a 'Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures, and Concordance,' published by Br. Winchester, and we must say that it does credit to its author. It is a neat little pocket edition of 256 pages. It contains copious extracts of the scriptures, on the most prominent articles of the faith of the Latter Day Saints, and an appendix containing an 'Epitome of Ecclesiastical History,' from our Savior's time until the present day."


Vol. ?                           Newark, N. J., January 10, 1843.                           No. ?


MORMONS: -- The ship Emerald, from Liverpool, brought a batch of 148 Mormon emigrants to [New Orleans]. We wish them a safe arrival at Nauvoo...

(under construction, full text uncertain)

Note: The Dec. 27, 1842 issue of the New Orleans Daily Picayune contained practically the same article.


City of Washington                      Vol. IX. - No. ?                       March 14, 1844.


We have cast our eyes hastily over General Smith's (Mormon Joe) "Views of the Powers and Policy of the Government of the United States, Nauvoo, 1844." This illustrious individual "goes the whole figure' with Messrs. Clay, Webster, Sargeant, and the Whig party in general, for a national bank. After this, who can doubt the propriety of such an institution? Here is Joe's plan for a "fiscal agent," which is quite as sensible, both in nature and object, as the famous fiscalities;

"For the accommodation of the people in every State and Territory, let Congress show their wisdom, by granting a national bank, with branches in each State and Territory, where the capital stock shall be held by the nation for the mother bank, and by the States and Territories for the branches; and whose officers and directors shall be elected yearly by the people, with wages at the rate of two dollars a day for services; which several banks shall never issue any more bills than the amount of capitol stock in her vaults and the interest. The net gain of the mother bank shall be applied to the national revenue, and that of the branches to the States' and Territories' revenue. And the bills shall be par throughout the nation, which will mercifully cure that fatal disorder known in cities as brokerage, and leave the people's money in their own pockets."

The Prophet seems to be thoroughly imbued with the Whig financial doctrines. He wants a national bank for the "accommodation of the people," and to save the federal and state treasuries from taxation. In two respects, however, we think Joe's plan has decided advantages over those of Messrs. Clay and Webster. He sticks to the simple specie basis, dollar for dollar; and his plan is more economical, as the offices are to be elected by the people, "with wages at two dollars per day." There is another recommendation, however, of this "great financier" which, we fear, will somewhat embarrass the practical operation of his scheme. He tells the people:

"Petition your state legislatures to pardon every convict in the several penitentiaries; blessing them as they go, and saying to them, in the name of the Lord -- 'Go thy way and sin no more.'"

We fear that, if this humane recommendation be adopted, the "specie basis" would soon disappear from Joe's mother bank and branches, including that of Nauvoo, which would quickly show a "beggarly account of empty boxes."

Perhaps, however, we are unnecessarily apprehensive of the small thieves, who fall into the clutches of the law, since the great thieves, who robbed millions from the late whig bank and its satellites, are permitted to roam at large with perfect impunity. Upon the whole, however, we will do General Smith the justice to state, that we think his financial doctrines more sound, his views more honest, and his scheme more feasible, than those of the hypocrites and quacks, who, supported by a great party, have fleeced the country to the very quick, and are now eager to repeat the application of the shears.

The following passage calls vividly to mind Mr. Clay's Hanover speech, in which he promised a perfect millennium to the country, as soon as a whig president should be elected:

"The country will be full of money and confidence, when a national bank of twenty millions, and a State Bank in every State, with a million or more, to give a tone (an order of nationality) to money matters, and make a circulating medium as valuable in the purses of a whole community as in the coffers of a speculating banker or broker."

The prophet is not only thoroughly imbued with the financial doctrines of the Clay-and-Webster school, but has caught the very tone of their "eloquence."

The General is not an admirer of lawyers "like the Good Samaritan," he exclaims, "send every lawyer, as soon as he repents and obeys the ordinances of heaven, to preach the gospel to the destitute, without purse or scrip, pouring in the oil and the wine." How it must have delighted his heart to learn that the pious Daniel has lately become an eloquent preacher! -- though we fear he does not "repent and obey the ordinances of the gospel," nor is contented-not he-to preach 'without purse or scrip,' however willing to "pour in the oil and the wine."

We cannot refrain from treating our readers to the following glowing passage, in which our friend Joseph so eloquently describes the defeat of Mr. Van Buren. We have nearly all the whig slang on this same subject; and we have met with nothing to equal the gloomy grandeur of this portentous paragraph:

"At the age, then, of sixty years, our blooming republic began to decline, under the withering touch of Martin Van Buren. Disappointed ambition, thirst for power, pride, corruption, party spirit, faction, patronage, [prerequisites], fame, tangling alliances, priestcraft and spiritual wickedness in high places, struck hands, and reveled in midnight splendor. Trouble, vexation, perplexity and contention, mingled with hope, fear, and murmuring, rumbled through the Union, and agitated the whole nation, as would an earthquake at the centre [center] of the earth, heaving the sea beyond its bounds, and shaking the everlasting hills. So, in hopes of better times, while jealousy, hypocritical pretensions, and pompous ambition were luxuriating on the ill-gotten spoils of the people, they rose in their majesty, like a tornado, and swept through the land, till General Harrison appeared, as a star among the storm-clouds, for better weather."

After this, won't Mr. Botts give way, and let General Smith be the whig candidate for the vice presidency? But let us finish the picture:

"The good man died before he had the opportunity of applying one balm to ease the pain of our groping country; and I am willing the nation should be the judge, whether General Harrison, in his exalted station, upon the eve of his entrance into the world of spirits, told the truth or not; with acting-President Tyler's three years perplexity and pseudo-whig-democrat reign, to heal the breaches, or show the wounds, secundum arlum, (according to art.) subsequent events, all things considered, Van Buren's downfall, Harrison's exit, and Tyler's self sufficient turn on the whole go to show, as a Chaldean might exclaim: Beram etai elauh Beshmayauh gauhah rauzeen. (Certainly there is a God in heaven to reveal secrets.")

Joseph is unquestionably a great scholar as well as a financier. Cannot Mr. Clay persuade the General to accompany him on his electioneering tour? With Poindexter, Prentiss, the Bear, the Borer, Joe Smith, and a few other quadrupeds to complete his menagerie, he could not fail to convince the moral and enlightened people of the United States of the necessity of a national bank, and their duty to make him president.

Before we close, we have a few suggestions to make. We propose, then, that Joe Smith (Mr. Biddle being out of the way) be made president, and George Poindexter cashier, of the new whig national bank that is not to be; that the mother bank be established at Nauvoo, with branches all over creation; that the honorable Mr. Mitchell be appointed counsel, and that Mr. Webster have unlimited power to draw, with Governor Doty of Wisconsin as his security. With this arrangement, we should have the perfection of a whig system of finance.

Note: Joseph Smith offered some rebuttal to the above article, in a piece published in the Apr. 17, 1844 issue of the Nauvoo Neighbor and also by the Times and Seasons.


City of Washington                      Vol. ? - No. ?                       June 29,  1844.


LATEST FROM THE MORMONS. -- By the last accounts from Nauvoo, we learn that Joe Smith had issued a proclamation declaring martial law. The greatest excitement prevailed in the neighborhood, and the whole upper country was under arms. The streets of Warsaw were patrolled by armed men, and sanguinary results were anticipated. The governor had been called on for assistance, and in the mean time active preparations were making to march against Nauvoo on the 19th inst. The authorities of Warsaw had arrested all persons concerned in the destruction of the printing office, but the Prophet had interfered and given them an honorable discharge. The population of Nauvoo numbers 10,000 souls, and it is estimated that a force of 2,000 men will place themselves under the direction of the sheriff to compel the execution of his writs. All the Mormons opposed to Smith, numbering about 200, had left Nauvoo. A serious conflict seems to be inevitable. -- Balt. Sun.

NAUVOO. -- The St. Louis Republican of the 20th says: "Matters at Nauvoo remain as stated in another column, although considerable excitement existed upon the subject of an invasion. Yesterday was the day fixed upon for the contemplated attack on the 'saintly city,' yet we do not apprehend that an actual issue had occurred, or will for the present, as the Mormon army is four thousand strong, fully equipped, and all the effective force that had been raised by the surrounding country, at our last advices, amounted to only fifteen hundred men, and those hardly armed."

Notes: (forthcoming)


City of Washington                      Vol. ? - No. ?                       July 1, 1844.

From the Alton Telegraph, June 22.


Our latest intelligence from Nauvoo is down to Tuesday evening. It is reported that about 1,000 persons were assembled in arms, at Carthage and Warsaw, and designed making an attack upon Nauvoo on Wednesday last. A mass meeting of the citizens of Hancock county was convened at Carthage on the 13th inst., at which great indignation was¾expressed on account of the recent destruction of the printing office of the Nauvoo Expositor. At this meeting inflammatory resolutions were passed, in which we were sorry to see the mob spirit so strongly predominate. Nauvoo was under martial law, and preparations making for a vigorous defense in case of attack. Great numbers are deserting the Prophet in his hour of need. Notwithstanding all the warlike demonstrations that have been making, we are inclined to believe that no attack was made on Wednesday by the citizens of the adjoining counties, as contemplated.

Notes: (forthcoming)


City of Washington                      Vol. I? - No. ?                     July 12, 1844.


(on murder of the Smith brothers -- under construction)


(Gov. Ford's letter on the Smith brothers -- under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


THE  [     ]   SUN.
Vol. XV.               Baltimore,  Maryland,  Wednesday,  November 6, 1844.               No. 149.

(Correspondence of the Baltimore Sun.)

Philadelphia, Tuesday, A.M.      
Mormonism -- Spiritual Wives. -- George J. Adams, a leading Mormon of the Joe Smith school, has brought an action of slander, in the District Court of this city, against Benj. Winchester, who is also a leading and conspicuous Mormon lecturer, and who regards the spiritual wife system, as he alleges Adams inculcates and practices, contrary to the laws of God and the country, and destructive of peace and harmony in the church and good will towards men. This cause will be one of much interest, and produce much excitement among the Mormons; at the same time that it will expose to the world the base practice of a certain class of this sect. Adams has employed his own counsel. Winchester has employed Col. Robert M. Lee.

Note: The above report was also published in the Nov. 03, 1844 issue of the New York Herald.

Back to top of this page.

Newspaper Articles    |    Articles Index    |    History Vault
Oliver's Bookshelf    |    Spalding Library    |    Mormon Classics

last updated: Oct. 2, 2010