From Palmyra to Independence
(Independence: Ensign Pub., 1894)
pp. 1-150 | pp. 151-300 | pp. 301-445
[ 151 ]
BRADEN'S MISTAKES. -- OTHER CONTRADICTORY STATEMENTS. --
SIX UNITED STATES SCHOOL HISTORIES
REVIEWED IN COMPARISON WITH EACH OTHER AND
FACTS. -- FOUR LEADING ENCYCLOPEDIAS WITH
THEIR RE-ISSUES, EXAMINED IN COMPARISON AND
WITH FACTS. -- ENCYCLOPEDIA, OFFICIAL AND PRESS
REFERENCES RELATIVE TO THE REORGANIZED
CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS.
Job, a man of God, knew the adversary's book, when examined, would defeat its aim, with those of true mind and heart. Let us examine some of the works on Mormonism from this standpoint. E. D. Howe of Painsville, Ohio, (about ten miles from Kirtland), wrote and published the first, entitled "Mormonism Unveiled."
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On page 27 he represents Nephi as making plates in the wilderness...
Note: most pages of this e-text are still under construction.
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Book of Mormon, P. E., page 48...
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Howe, page 77: "Smith used a stone in a hat for the purpose of translating the plates...
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Howe, page 124: "Even their wine they used for communion they were ordered to make...
The foregoing is ample to show Howe to be utterly unreliable. Also that the work he assailed could not be defeated with truth, hence his only resource to vilify. The copious affidavits to be found in Howe's work and copied into many others, sometimes in varied form, are of the same stamp. One who will falsify a record so widely published as the Book of Mormon, as shown, will not fail to manufacture anything he may need to accomplish his purpose; such was Howe's work -- "Mormonism Unveiled."
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Following the inscription of the title of Mrs. Maria Ward's expose of Mormonism, are a few of her glaring blunders, that show clearly her work is simply trash.
"FEMALE LIFE AMONG THE MORMONS.
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there no other way by which your curiosity could be satisfied...
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strange emotion of grandeur...
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Indians seemed to avoid the country...
EXTRACTS from a work of Mrs. C. V. Waite, who was a wife of Chief Justice C. B. Waite, who served in Utah when Mrs. Waite wrote, in 1866. She has been very much more fair than most others, only a fragment of one of her books was at hand in the arranging of this which did not contain the contradictions so common to other works on the subject.
"THE MORMON PROPHET AND HIS HAREM.
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of the Twelve Apostles...
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142-147: "The next movement and one which promises seriously to interfere...
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Christ on earth...
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send a strong escort with them...
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talent, who is now firmly established...
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gives this as one...
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every day hear David and Solomon...
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we declare that we believe...
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"'Brethren and sisters, we want you to repent and forsake your sins. And you who have committed sins that cannot be forgiven through baptism, let your blood be shed, and let the smoke ascend, that the incense thereof may come up before God as an atonement for your sins, and that the sinners in Zion may be afraid.' -- Deseret News, October 1, 1856.
"'We have been trying long enough with this people, and I go in for letting the sword of the Almighty be unsheathed, not only in word, but in deed.' -- Ibid.
"In accordance with such bloody teaching, it is said that an altar of sacrifice was actually built by Grant, in the temple block, upon which these human sacrifices were to be made. On the 21st of September, 1856, Grant said"
"'I say there are men and women here that I would advise to go to the President immediately, and ask him to appoint a committee to attend to their case; and then let a place be selected, and let that committee shed their blood.' -- Ibid., Vol. VI, p. 235."
Brigham is also quoted at length from Deseret News, October 1, 1856.
P. TUCKER'S "RISE AND PROGRESS OF
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to the rise of the Church, its origin, doctrine and practice, its aims, policy and objects.
It is not our object to enter into an examination of all these various works referred to, but to make a slight investigation of the one designated in our caption. It was written as late as 1867; at least was published in that year, and the writer had the advantage of similar works published prior to that date. Our apology for examining this work is: The writer was a resident of Palmyra, N. Y., the place where the work began, about the time of the rise of the Church, and was acquainted (or claimed to have been) with the Smith family, Harris, Cowdery, and all the "Pioneer Mormons," and with all the important events connected with the "Advent of Mormonism." Let us examine these claims and if we shall discover that "would-be witnesses" fail to give us a truthful relation of things they claim to see, then beware of the writings of those "far away."
We begin this review by reference to a statement found in the preface of Mr. Tucker's work, and which is as follows:
"The facts and reminiscences contained in this volume, based upon the author's personal knowledge and information, are produced to fill the blank and supply the omitted chapters in Mormon history," and "this truthful narrative is necessary to the completion of the history from the foundation of the institution."
We wish these statements to be borne in mind, for if they are true, we shall find that the author "personally knows" some very opposite things, that the sources of his "information" are very conflicting and contradictory, even amounting to "it is believed," "I have heard," and "it is thought," etc.
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As testimony of the authenticity of the work, Mr. Tucker, on page five, cites names to the number of ten, and as an evidence of the strength of the evidence of his witnesses, inserts a letter from Mr. Thurlow Weed, some time of Rochester, N. Y., in which is found this statement: ""The character you have given 'Joe Smith,' his family and associates, corresponds with what I have often heard from the old citizens of Palmyra." "Often heard." This needs no comment. In the first two chapters of the work we are treated to a pretty full history of the stories then current, (but these did not happen to be known till about 1827), concerning the boyhood days of Joseph Smith, and his father's family. Of all this, however, he could have had no knowledge till the tenth year of Smith's age, as he did not reside in Palmyra till of that age. Besides, there is nothing in the after years of Joseph's life to warrant the statements made by Mr. Tucker. He tells us, however, on page seventeen of the work, that as Joseph "further advanced in reading and knowledge, he assumed a spiritual or religious turn of mind, and frequently perused the Bible, becoming quite familiar with portions thereof, bith of the Old and New Testaments."
But Mr. Tucker fearing he had said too much in Joseph's favor, immediately proceeds to kill the strength of the foregoing statement, by telling us on the eighteenth page, that: "In unbelief, theory and practice, the Smith family * * * were unqualified Atheists." This latter saying not only contradicts the former one, but also the public record of their lives, as attested by their works, their friends and their foes. This illustrates the utter regardlessness, as to truth, of Mr.
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Tucker in his pretended history of those he writes of.
In chapter two of Mr. Tucker's work, is a detailed account of some of the false stories that were manufactured by the enemies of the work, about the "fortune-telling," "money-digging" schemes of Joseph, all concocted to falsify and ridicule the fact of his having labored for one Mr. Stoal, in a neighboring county to Wayne, who believed there was money or silver on his farm, and who employed Joseph, in company with others, in digging for it. Why not brand the others as "money-diggers?" Nay, all the gold and silver miners of the "Great West?" Mr. Stoal failed to find the supposed treasure, and hence the failure of Joseph's "schemes!"
But this "long-continued" "career" of Smith's "failures" of "seven or eight years," all sprung out of a "curious shaped" "stone," found in digging a well for Mr. Clark Chase, in the year 1819, of which Joseph became possessed at the time -- this was the "fortune-stone" -- the "acorn" from which the Mormon tree grew.
On pages twenty-four and twenty-five is a lengthy description of one of Joseph's "money-digging," night scenes, said to have taken place by "lantern light." He now "assumes a mysterious air," employs the "miraculous stone," goes to neighbor Stafford, who is "a respectable farmer in comfortable worldly circumstances," who supplies the "black sheep," the blood of which is to enable the spot where the treasure lies buried in the earth. All being now in readiness, Joseph and his dupes repair to the spot, and the digging begins. All is silent, no one daring to speak! But bye and bye some one in a moment of forgetfulness speaks, the spell is broken, the treasure vanishes, and the work
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ceases! A retrospect of the locality shows that the sheep's carcase is gobe, investigation reveals that J. Smith, Sen., has taken it to his house, "reduced to mutton" for family use. The above is only illustrative of the many, and in all such work respectable farmers, such as Harris and Stafford; with school teachers, such as O. Cowdery, are engaged!...
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thought, for it was not heard of outside of the Smith family for a considerable period subsequent to the first story." Yes, "it is believed," and we are called on to receive this belief as evidence...
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Urim and Thummim and the Book of Mormon is in possession of, is mere belief only: These examples serve to illustrate "the author's personal knowledge" of the historical "facts" he pretends to relate...
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were not discovered till 1832, and those of Illinois in 1836. This "Glyph" theory will not answer, and this Mr. Tucker admits on page 112. He says, in speaking of the origin of the Book of Mormon, "It." the Glyph theory, "can in no wise apply in this case." And last, but not least, he only "presumes" all of this "for the credit of human character." When we remember that Mr. Tucker was a resident of Palmyra in 1830, and had ample opportunity to investigate thise events in detail, and that this was the best explanation he was able to give, as a result of his own investigation, what of the explanation of those "from afar?"
Mr. Tucker, however, repudiates his own "Glyph" theory, as we have seen, to make room for the introduction of the "Spaulding Story" theory, as gathered from books that had been published prior to his own; this manifesting his determination to write a book at all hazards, all this exemplary of "the author's personal knowledge."
In presenting his claims to our consideration of his rendering of the "Spaulding Story," informs us that his data are "derived from the declarations of Mrs. Spaulding herself, as in 1831 and subsequently." Page 124. Our author anticipates the current date of the story, however, by telling us that, "Sidney Rigdon," who on pages 28 and 46, is styled "a mysterious stranger," frequently visited at Joseph's house between the years 1820-27, planning the arrangements to be subsequently developed. That these visits were "the subject of inquiry and conjecture by observers from whom was withheld all explanation of his identity or purpose." If these visits were subjects "of enquiry and conjecture" and "all explanation
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of identity and purpose" was "withhrld," how does Mr. Tucker know that they were plotting this great delusion during these years? More especially, if, as he says on page 121, "they were mutually sworn" to "secrecy and falsehood." How does he know that this "mysterious stranger" was Rigdon, if "all explanation of his identity was with Rigdon, if "all explanation of his identity was withheld?"
All this is mere "conjecture" with him, as with other "observers." As to Rigdon's whereabouts from the time of his birth till 1827, yes, 1830, the following from the Family Record of Rigdon's father, is quite satisfactory: "He returned to Pittsburgh in the winter of 1821 and '22, and took care of the First Regular Baptist Church, and there continued to preach until the Baptist Association met in Pittsburgh in 1824. Rev. Williams (at which time they brought some charges against him for not being sound in the faith) brought him to trial, but denied him the liberty of speaking in self-defence, and he declared a non-fellowship with them, and began to preach Campbellism. And he and those that joined with him got the liberty of the Court House; there they held their meetings, and he and his brother-in-law, Mr. Brooks, followed the tanning business till the winter of 1827 and '28, when he (S. Rigdon) moved somewhere into the Western Reserve of Ohio, and there continued to preach till the Latter Day Saints came to that part of the country, when he joined them and continued to be an Elder in that Church (of Latter Day Saints, called Mormons)." This is confirmed by Carvil Rigdon and Peter Boyer, whose characters are attested by five others, two of whom are members of the Old Regular Baptist Church.
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But, as Mr. Tucker admits that "the bearing of these circumtances (of the visits of the mysterious stranger to Joseph Smith during the years 1820-27) upon any important question, can only be left to reasonable conjecture in reference to the subsequent developments," we need not devote further space to a refutation of this assumption. Page 48.
We are told on pages 122 and 123, that Spaulding took his manuscript to a Mr. Patterson of Pittsburg, a printer, for publication. Patterson did not print it. In 1816 "it was reclaimed by the author, who in that year removed to Amity, Washington county, N. Y., where he died in 1827." But this same Mrs. Spaulding, who supplies the above data, says in her Boston letter, published in the Episcopal Recorder: "At length the manuscript was returned to the author, and soon after we removed to Amity, Washington county, Pa., where Mr. Spaulding deceased in 1816." Mr. Tucker says, page 123, that "one Sidney Rigdon" was in the office of Patterson in 1816, "and the probable solution of the mystery of the Book of Mormon is found in the fact that he had made a copy of Spaulding's manuscript, and communicated information of the existence of the fictitious record to Joseph Smith, Jun." Also, page 126, "Rigdon was in possession of a copy of this manuscript before he had heard of Smith's money-digging delustion." But, we ask, What object had Rigdon in making "a copy" of this romance ere he became acquainted with Smith and his designs touching the establishment of a church? An answer is unnecessary. Rev. Samuel Williams of Pittsburgh, a bitter opponent of the Latter Day Saints, on the twenty-second
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page of his Mormonism Exposed, says: "Rigdon came to this city and connected himself with the First Regular Baptist Church on the 28th of January, 1822."
Dr. Hulbert, an apostate from the Church of Latter Day Saints, said in 1834, on the 289th page of his History of Mormonism: "Now, as Spaulding's book can nowhere be found, or anything heard of it after being carried to this establishment, there is the strongest presumption that it remained there in seclusion till about the year 1823 or 1824, at which time Sidney Rigdon located himself in that city,"
Rigdon's Family Record says he went to Pittsburg in the "winter of 1822 and '23." Hence, Rigdon was not in Pittsburgh for eight years after the manuscript was taken to Amity by its author, and therefore had no opportunity of copying it, and Mr. Tucker's "fact" is a false one. Now, while Mrs. Spaulding tells Mr. Tucker that the manuscript was reclaimed by the author in 1816, she informs Dr. Hulbert that she "was unable to tell whether it was ever returned or not from this office." -- Tucker, page 123; Howe, page 287.
Our reason for introducing the testimony of Howe is that Mrs. Spaulding's statements are the basis of his data likewise, and no two persons whose writing we have yet consulted, render her story alike. And thus fact demonstrates that the sources of their information are not to be relied on. And further, shows this Spaulding Story to be a mere conjecture by the enemies of the work of God.
Again, Mr. Tucker says, page 123: "The manuscript remained in the widow's possession until it was missed or stolen from a trunk in Otsego county, where
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she had removed about the time the Book of Mormon began to be publicly spoken of." Howe says: "She was unable to tell whether it was ever returned or not from this office." In her Boston letter Mrs. Spaulding says:
"The manuscript then (1816) fell into my hands and was carefully preserved. It has frequently been examined by my daughter (who was five years old when the manuscript was written in 1809-10, see Haven's letter in the Quincy (Ill.) Whig, and was twelve years old when she read it in 1816 or 1817), Mrs. McKenstry, of Monson, Massachusetts, with whom I now reside, and by other friends. After the Book of Mormon came out, a copy of it was taken to New Salem. * * * The excitement became so great in New Salem that the inhabitants had a meeting and deputed Dr. Philastus Hulbert, to repair to this place and to obtain from me the original manuscript of Mr. Spaulding, for the purpose of comparing it with the Mormon Bible, to satisfy their own minds and to prevent their friends from embracing an error so delusive. This was in the year 1834. Dr. Hurlbut brought with him an introduction and request for the manuscript, signed by Messrs. Henry Lake, Aaron Wright and others, with all of whom I was acquainted, as they were my neighbors when I resided in New Salem."
Can any one tell from the three foregoing statements whether the manuscript was stolen, remained at Patterson's office, or whether it was preserved carefully by Spaulding's widow till 1834. Yet these authors all claim that the widow Spaulding is their authority for the three contradictory stories. How many Spaulding stories are there as origins of the Book of Mormon?
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Would not any judge, justice or jury in all the land dismiss such a witness as the above testimony shows Mrs. Spaulding to be, from the court and reject the evidence as unworthy of credence? It seems so to us.
Now this whole story of Rigdon's copying the manuscript seems to contradict what Mr. Tucker had before said on page 36: "The manuscripts were in the handwriting of one Oliver Cowdery." The reason assigned was "Cowdery had been a school-master, and was the only man in the band who could make a copy for the printer."
Thus it seems, the more we investigate this Spaulding Story, as to its giving rise to, or relation to the Book of Mormon, the greater the humbggery of the story appears. And Mr. Tucker's efforts relative to this, like those of his predecessors, amount to nothing against the work.
On pages 55 and 56, in referring to the printing of the Book of Mormon, Mr. Tucker tells us that: "The first and second books of Nephi and some other portions of the forthcoming revelations were printed in sheets, and armed with a copy of these, Smith commenced other preparations for a mission to Pennsylvania, where he had some relatives residing, and where the before mentioned Rev. Sidney Rigdon was then (1829) residing, or temporarily sojourning." Mr. Tucker is not certain about where Rigdon then resided, but bye and bye he grows more positive, and on page 76, he tells: "He was a backsliding clergyman of the Baptist persuasion, and at the period referred to (1830) was the principle preacher of a son of religious society calling themselves 'Reformers,' or 'Disciples,' at Mentor, Ohio, near Kirtland." While
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this latter statement seems to harmonize with and support the "Family Record" of Rigdon, it surely contradicts and invalidates the former one, and still further illustrates the utter unreliability of Mr. Tucker's history of the "Rise and Progress of Mormonism."
Again, on page 76: "This man Rigdon now (1830, see page 126) appeared as the first regular Mormon preacher in Palmyra." Now as the Church was organized on the 6th of April and a conference was held in June, 1840, near Palmyra, and as Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, and others took missions from this conference, and they had all preached at Palmyra, how could Rigdon appear "as the first regular Mormon preacher at Palmyra?" More expecially, since Mr. Tucker himself informs us on page eighty-two, that: "In the summer of 1830 the founders of the Mormon Church then remaining at the scene of its birthplace * * * went to Mentor, Ohio, the residence of Rigdon, and of Parley P. Pratt, his friend and co-worker." "Near this place is Kirtland, where there were a few families belonging to Rigdon's congregation * * * Seventeen of these people, men and women, readily espoused the new revelation, and were immersed by Cowdery in one night."
We learn by these statements, first, that Rigdon resided in Ohio, instead of Pennsylvania, in 1829 and 1830; second, that instead of preaching the Mormon faith at Palmyra then, he was a pastor of a congregation of "Disciples" at Mentor, Ohio, that seventeen of his congregation were baptized by Cowdery, when on his mission west, in the latter part of 1830.
On page 56, Mr. Tucker speaks further of Smith's visit to northern Pennsylvania, as before referred
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to, and says: "The result was, that in November, (1829, see page 55), Smith went to northern Pennsylvania, as previously appointed, when he married the daughter of Isaac Hale, and was baptized after the Mormon ritual -- Rigdon being the 'match-maker' and officiating 'clergyman' in these celebrations."
As to Joseph's marriage, Mr. Tucker falsifies in three points, viz: Joseph was married by Squire Tarbell, in South Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York, January 18th, 1827. See birth and marriage record of Joseph Smith, Sen, as published in "Joseph Smith the Prophet," page 40, printed 1853; written by Joseph Smith's mother.
Miss Emma Smith, one of the parties to the marriage under consideration, about three months prior to her death, in reply to the following question: "Who performed the marriage ceremony for Joseph Smith and Emma Hale? When? Where?" as propiunded by her own son, Joseph Smith, now of Plano, Illinois, answered: "I was married at South Bainbridge, New York, at the home of Squire Tarbell, by him, when I was in my twenty-second or twenty-third year." (See the Saints' Herald, number for October 1st, 1879). As to Joseph's baptism, by Oliver Cowdery, in May, 1829, See "Pearl of Great Price," page 45; "Joseph Smith the Prophet," page 131. Now while these works cited place the date of Joseph's baptism in May, 1829, Mr. Tucker says it was subsequent to November of that year; and while they say Cowdery officiated, he says Rigdon baptized him. One is the evidence of Smith and Cowdery; the other is according to the "information" of Mr. Tucker. How creditable the sources of Mr. Tucker's information!
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Mr. Tucker is not satisfied with having made false and contradictory statements concerning the foregoing subjects...
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exodus from Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ, as may be seen by referring to the eighty-sixth and eighty-seventh pages of the work...
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primeval foundation," Now if our author was at Palmyra when the "incipient" organization of the Church was effected, April 6th, 1830, and was not aware of it, nor had he learned it...
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us better, and contradicting the former statements, tells us: "Joseph Smith, Jun., was the first President;" and after quoting from some of the early revelations of Joseph, as now found in the Book...
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record, will give false renderings as to its origin.
We now call attention to a lengthy statement found on page 125, where, in referring to the coming forth, printing, and other circumstances connected with the publication of the Book of Mormon, says:
"Indeed, it is apparent from the marked changes in style of composition occurring in numbers of instances, that emendations and additions were made by some other than the original writer's hand. Then too, the verbose title-page -- the incendiarism of Mrs. Harris -- the testimonies of witnesses, and the long line of revelations that followed -- which are not presumed to have been composed by the illiterate Smith, but by Rigdon during Smith's life-time -- all these are strong corroborative considerations connected with the proofs that Rigdon supplied the literary aliment needed in conforming the Spaulding production to the grand co-partnership Mormon speculation. And it is not known that he has ever disclaimed the part that for more than thirty years has been publicly assigned to him in the great plagiarism and imposture."
We have emphasized some words in the foregoing, and wish them to be considered. The "unity" of "style of composition" that characterizes the Book of Mormon, all through it, has been urged by many as an objection, when it is considered that it is a compilation of many books, written by as many different writers, or nearly so. But this objection has been answered by the fact that the compilation was effected mainly by one man. And were it not for this latter fact, the objection would be a valid one. The "emendations" referred to, are simply an abridgement and
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condensation of the parts not compiled by the compiler. As to the additions which our author (?) supposes to be found in the books, just the opposite is true, for instead of adding to the writings of those he compiled, the compiler condensed and abridged much of their writings, and what the compiler has said of himself is no addition to their writings. As to "the title," "preface." "testimony of the witnesses," "lost translations" and the "long line of revelations," their writing, or composition, Mr. Tucker presumes they were written not by "Smith, but by Rigdon, during Smith's lifetime." As all this is presumption with no evidence to sustain it, it needs no refutation, Mr. Tucker does not claim to have been informed of all this, much less to have "personal knowledge of it." This presumption is said to be a "strong corroborative consideration connected with the proof that Rigdon supplied the literary aliment need in conforming the Spaulding production to the grand co-partnership Mormon speculation." The "proofs" that the above allegation is true, have been examined and compared, and have been found to be contradictory and false; and this presumptive auxiliary to the "proof" is as true as the proof has been found to be. In relation to the last sentence of this quotation, we say most emphatically that "it is known" that Rigdon "had disclaimed," and most positively denied "the part that for more than thirty years has been publicly assigned to him in the great plagiarism and imposture," that he is said, (though not proved), to have committed, in connection with the origin of the Book of Mormon. As evidence of this, see his letter written to Messrs. Bartlett and Sullivan, Editors of some periodical, on the 27th of May, 1839. This
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letter was reprinted, and published as late as 1843 or 1844; and was also inserted in another work published as a "History of the Mormons," and is recorded on pages 45-48. The title page of this latter history was torn off ere it came into our possession, hence we know not the author's name, but it was written subsequent to 1849, as it contains a lengthy article from a correspondent of the New York Tribune, from Salt Lake City, July 8th, 1849, which stands on pages 310-314. This proves that Mr. Tucker writes falsely in regard to Sidney Rigdon. And we scarce believe that, when collating data for his work, he was ignorant of all this.
Mr. Rigdon says: "If I were to say that I ever heard of the Rev. Solomon Spaulding, and his wife, until Dr. P. Hulbert wrote his lie about me, I should be a liar like unto themselves. Why was not the testimony of Mr. Patterson obtained to give force to this shameful tale of lies? The only reason is, that he was not a fit tool for them to work with; he would not lie for them; for if he were called on, he would testify to what I have here said."
Mr. Tucker gives a very lengthy account of the troubles of the Saints, while in the State of Missouri; of the arbitrations of the Saints and citizens; of the riotous scenes that followed; and on page 161, says, "Riotous scenes of violence followed; and on page 161, says: "Riotous scenes of violence followed. The printing office was destroyed, several of the 'saints' were tarred and feathered, and others were killed and wounded while defending their rights." He concludes his story of these events on page 166, as follows: "Perhaps the occassion should not pass without the remark, that by enlightened people the Mormons were regarded as the
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victims of misguided vengeance in Missouri. The ruffianly violence they encountered at the hands of lawless mobs, in several instances eventuating in deliberate murder, finds no extenuation in any alleged provocation. the due process of law might have afforded adequate redress for the criminalities of which they should be found guilty on legal trial. Such were the view of the subject rightly taken by the people of Illinois and of the world, though it may have been wrongfully applied in favor of the cause of the persecuted."
When it is remembered...
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the interim, the Governor of the State was appealed to by the Mormons for redress, and he advised them to apply to the courts. Accordingly, encouraged by this favor of the State, suits were commenced against several of the ringleaders of the mob; and having taken the advice of Smith at Kirtland, the aggrieved party resolved to disregard the forced treaty and maintain their ground. Further lawless violence was thus provoked," And on page 165, represents Gov. Boggs as saying to the Legislature of Missouri, in 1840: "These people had violated the laws of the land by open force and avowed resistance to them; they had undertaken, without the aid of the civil authority, to redress their real or fancied grievances." One or the other of these statements is untrue...
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that he knows nothing of their innocence or guilt. But of their innocency he cares not; he simply is determined to carry out the treaty...
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alias Hoewe, is used by Mr. Tucker as evidence against the Saints in his efforts to degrade their character, and is only another evidence of the utter unscripulousness of Mr. Tucker...
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the so called Revelation of 1843," by J. W. Briggs. And he that fabricates a falsehood in regard to the pretended history of a pretended revelation, would do the same in regard to its pretended origin...
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"A. -- 'He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have.' ...
The above lengthy expose is inserted for the reason that Tucker was a resident of Palmyra, New York, and had access to the entire work of both Hulbert and Howe, as well as others, up to 1867, when his work was issued.
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LIFE IN UTAH;
After giving items of Joseph Smith's birth, etc., Beadle says, on page 22: "Almost innumerable are the stories of his youth, giving bright promise of future rascality. But many of them depend on little more than popular report, and we can only receive as authentic those events which rest upon the sworn testimony of reliable men who were his neighbors."
Connecting Smith and Rigdon and alleging Solomon Spaulding's manuscript was stolen of Mrs. Spaulding says, page 22: "She thinks it was stolen from her trunk. Thus far all is clear * * *"
How is that for sworn evidence? Of the evidence setting forth that the Book of Mormon was made up from Spaulding's manuscript. Beadle on page 32, says: "Suffice it to say, that while it is of moral force sufficient
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to convince most minds, it is yet not such proof as would establish the fact beyond all doubt, or convict Smith and Rigdon of theft and forgery in a court of justice."
Mr. Beadle's sworn testimony seems to be lacking! But let Mr. Beadle speak again; page 27 says: "The 'Book of Mormon' was first given to the world early in 1830, when three thousand volumes were published, under contract, by Mr. Pomeroy Tucker, then proprietor of a paper in the county."
On page 33, Beadle says: "In August 1830 Parley P. Pratt, a young Campbellite preacher, came on a visit especially to hear of the new faith, and was at once converted, and soon after, Sidney Rigdon appeared as a leading Mormon."
And on page 34: "Rigdon had previously collected a band of nearly one hundred persons, who called themselves Disciples, mostly seceders from other denominations, holding to a literal and rapid fulfillment of the prophecies, very fanatical and looking daily for 'some great event to occur.' Many of these adopted the new faith at once, and a church of thirty was organized."
In the light of the preceding, how does this sound from page 32: "The best evidence furthermore shows, that Sidney Rigdon was the prime mover in the fraud, and that Joe Smith was conveniently put forward as the Prophet."
Mrs. Emma Smith is written of on page 33: "She became thoroughly disgusted at her husband's religion while at Nauvoo, and expressed no particular refret at his death; she refused to emigrate to Utah, but apostatized and married a Gentile, and is rather
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popular as land-lady of the old Mansion House at Nauvoo." She never wavered, raised her family in the faith, and died firm in it in 1879.
Neadle disposes of Cowdery, Harris and Whitmer, the three witness, thus, on page 26. Cowdery "He led a rambling life for many years, and died a short time since a miserable drunkard." ...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 199.
seems by the evidence that many of them were guilty on most of the charges. They were committed to jail to await their final trial...
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settlers. * * * None of the promised advantages had accrued from the settlement of the Mormons among them...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 201.
and this roused all the dears of the old settlers afresh. Without apparent concert, an armed mob of three hundred assembled at Independence...
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monogamic period: from its origin till 1843, during which time all their publications and sermons were opposed to polygamy in their tone...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 203.
missions there include over five hundred members.
See how Mr. Beadle plies his pen on the fly question! Verily he is a great writer...
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titled it "Mormon Missionaries Preaching to the Mormons." This piece of piracy is quite fitting to his work as a whole. If this man is not the ten cent novel writer, he should join him, if falsifying is a success "Members of congress and government officials" must have been very proud of this book! See title page!
EXAMINATION of Mr. T. B. H. Stenhouse's Book. He was twenty-five years a Mormon. He cites five pages of authorities consulted, some of which contain thirty-eight to the page. The inscription of his title page is:
"THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN SAINTS.
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 205.
On page 184 Mr. Stenhouse refers to John C. Bennett and his book "Mormonism Exposed," thus: "There ino doubt, much truth in Bennett's book...
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it in several editions of the book that have been published under his Presidency...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 207.
"On the first of January, 1853, it was published in the Star. It fell like a thunderbolt upon the Saints and fearfully shattered the mission."
Page 202: "The statistical reports of the mission in the British Islands, June 30, 1853, shows that the enormous number of one thousand, seven hundred and seventy-six persons were excommunicated there during the first months of the preaching of polygamy."
Page 208 says of Sidney Rigdon: "All through his trial those who knew him before he was a Mormon spoke of him in such a manner as leaves no room to doubt Rigdon's own sincerity in the Mormon faith, and his total ignorance of the existence of Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon till after that work had been published." ...
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day the yong man Joseph would be the head of the Church. Brigham had fostered this faith in the Saints for some years, but when in 1860 young Joseph was chosen, President...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 209.
him with aggravating mimicry, turning everything into ridicule. Mr. Harrison threw caution to the winds, and answered...
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book appeared. All he says relating to his having been a Mormon and leaving it is, that he has "outgrown the past," and the reference he makes...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 211.
to that book that after his "over a quarter of a century fellowship" in the church, he dare not make an attack from the standpoint of MORALS OR DOCTRINE found therein. Can the book be entirely human and its doctrines and morals beyond attack? The concession by failing so to attack, is string evidence in its favor. All who have tried to expose it have quibbled over its literary inelegance as viewed by them.
"TELL IT ALL.
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unexaggerated record of facts which have come immediately under my notice...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 213.
"Not long after my marriage I saw a miracle performed -- a real true miracle...
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that the child might die easily and without pain. * * * In a moment we knew that the child was dying...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 215.
and Madame Baliff had taught the doctrine of polygamy...
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book says: "Facts which have come immediately under my notice, or which I have myself experienced." Now listen...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 217.
a truthful picture f the doctrine of the Saints...
"WIFE NUMBER NINETEEN;
218. WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED.
at Nauvoo, Illinois, on the 13th of September, 1844." -- p. 32.
Speaking of her father she says...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 219.
whether this was Christ-like in teaching or practice? See first few pages of both Mr, and Mrs. Stenhouse's books...
[ 220 ]
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 221.
the Chief of Police to guard the house of a widow and knock down a man who was in the habit of spending his nights there...
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Lee had never heard of it until explained to him by Hyrum, how did he know that he had before denounced it...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 223.
Emeline Vaughn," but on page 199 he says the next (after these three) was "Emeline Woolsey," And on page 199 he says...
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On page 135 he says that at Memphis, Tennessee, they "took passage in a new steamer...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 225.
On page 120, he says, "the plates containing the Book of Mormon, and God's will, * * * were taken to Professor Anthon of New York City...
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to the Book of Mormon; he must also have known that the claim had never been made that the plates were taken to Professot Anthon...
"HISTORY OF THE MORMONS, OR LATTER
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 227.
I now recollect." -- Howe's Book, page 272, is the first appearance of it in print...
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about my pronouncing the Mormonite inscription...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 229.
copied after the Mexican Calendar...
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to this list of names, will now have the privilege of going to your fields to obtain corn...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 231.
I have to come again, because the treaty which you have made here shall be broken...
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all I heard of him when he began to preach. I sat uneasily, and watched him closely...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 233.
Another item of Prior's account, on page 155: "I passed on into the more active parts of the city...
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and in observing their peculiar and interesting mode of life, while every day seemed to bring with it its own especial incidents...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 235.
Page 174: "It is utterly incredible that Joseph Smith, who, great impostor as he was, never missed an opportunity to denounce seducers...
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A statement about Oliver Cowdery on page 375 says: "Thus, we learn from an obituary in the Millennial Star (July 1st, 1850), that one of the ;three witnesses' has lately died. Elder Wallace informs us, that Oliver Cowdery died last February, of consumption. Brother Cowdery is one of the 'THREE WITNESSES' to the Book of Mormon. For rebellious conduct he was expelled from the church some years since. Although he stoof aloof from the Church for several years, he never, in a single instance, cast the least doubt on the truth of his former testimony. Sometime in 1847 or 1848, he sought to be re-admitted to the fellowship of the Saints. His return to the fold was hailed with great joy by the Saints, who still remembered him with kindly recollection, as one who had suffered much in the first rise of the Church."
Mr. Smucker, in his book, has dealt more fairly than many others, but, like most all who have expoused Mormonism, he has not failed to expose himself.
AN EXAMINATION OF REV. M. T. LAMB'S
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 237.
lines of study. Also to Rev. H. G. Weston, D. D., President of Crozier Theological Seminary...
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phrase "helped ny an angel sent down from heaven," is a deliberate falsehood of Mr. Lamb's.
On page 2, he quotes from the testimony...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 239.
plan of salvation than is found in the Bible...
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On pages 11 and 12 he says: "On the contrary, the book is altogether, and in every part of it, except as is borrowed from the Bible, a modern fabrication...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 241.
the amount, and every more accurate examination of already known manuscripts...
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and 'baptism for the dead.' Have we a Mormon reader who can believe that any book could contain the 'Fullness of the Gospel' without a word upon either of the above subjects...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 243.
the "circulation of the blood about the year 1619 A. D., and the fact that the skin has pores could not have been known...
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the strange hieroglyphics, the written language of the people."
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 245.
"204 Washington St., BROOKLYN, N. Y., 1/8/'89."S. F. Walker, Esq.,
Dear Sir: -- Your favor of December 28th, came to hand three days ago...
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informed him that seventeen species of fossil horses had been discovered in America...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 247.
falsifying just for "LOVE!" How could he expect Mormons or other persons to believe such a mess of stuff. Is it not strangely significant that all who make such herculean efforts to down the Book of Mormon enshroud themselves in a mass of falsehood?
No change in Book of Mormon. Mr. Lamb says on page 116: "I have seen two copies of the first edition of the book, published in Palmyra, New York, in 1830, and a brief comparison with the latest edition, will satisfy any reasonable person that the church has never ventured to change a sentence except the title page as already mentioned."
A GLANCE AT E. A ALLEN'S "PREHISTORIC
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Tour in Mexico;" Prof. Charles Rau, Curator of Archaeological department...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 249.
part yet in discussion. As I do not remember that it has been quoted from...
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Page 330 presents a cut of a Cahokia Mound which is opposite to St. Louis, Missouri...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 251.
The foregoing extracts are from chapter 10, "The Mound Builders," and on page 413, the last of the chapter, occurs...
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transporting them to the place where found. They came from the same quarry as the other stones...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 253.
sculptured portion covers over twenty-four thousand square feet."
Page 644, says ...
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Since writing the above, I have dound the following in the May number...
[ 255 ]
2d. On page 43 he says he proved certain things by sixteen witness who from reading it, (Spaulding Romance), and hearing him read it, became more or less familiar with its contents; when he had produced testimony from only six who testify to having read or hearing it read.
3d. On page 43 he says he proved by these sixteen witnesses that Solomon Spaulding. "between the years 1809 and 1816," "spent much of his time in preparing manuscripts." &c. He had produced testimony from NONE giving these dates.
4th. He had produced testimony from only ONE who spoke of manuscripts in the plural.
5th. On page 43 he claims the sixteen give "an outline of the historic portion of the Nephite part of the Book of Mormon." He had produced testimony from only NINE who relate any incident related by the Book of Mormon.
6th On page 43 he claims his sixteen witnesses give names "of the principal characters." Only SEVEN pretend to give names.
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7th. Claims on page 43, that sixteen give the "starting point of the history," when only six of them mention it!
8th. On page 43, "They (the sixteen) ALL declare there was no religious matter in his manuscript." In their testimony as presented by Braden but few had said so.
9th. He says on page 43, "Oliver Smith testifies that Spaulding told him, just before going to Pittsburg, that he would prepare the manuscript for press," &c. This is not in Oliver Smith's testimony as produced by Braden. See p. 35 of Debate.
10th. On page 43 he says that J. N. Miller testifies: "Spaulding told him that he landed the people at the Isthmus of Darien which he called Zarahemla." This is not in J. N. Miller's testimony, found on page 35.
11th. On page 52 he says: "The Book of Mormon declares in several places the Nephites were Manassehites," which is not true.
12th. On page 64 he represents Mr. Gilbert as saying the manuscript "abounded in mis-spelled words," when Gilbert says: "The spelling was good." See p. 382.
13th. On page 64 he claims Spaulding was guilty of "carricaturing the Bible;" but on page 67 he says: "Nearly all of our witnesses are careful to state that the religious portion of the Book of Mormon was not in the Manuscript Found."
14th. On page 65 he claims Spaulding was "the very man that would attract company, and of the highest character and intelligence;" yet on page 64 he makes him out a skeptic, a liar, and his motives "very questionable."
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 257.
15th. On page 66 he claims Mrs. Solomon Spaulding, Miss [sic] Martha Spaulding, John Spaulding, Mrs. John Spaulding, Lake, J. N. Miller, Smith, Wright, Howard, Cunningham, Jas. Miller, McKee, Dodd and Sidney Rigdon, testify to Spaulding's Romance being a history of the first settlers of America; when he had produced no testimony to this effect from Miss Spaulding, Jas. [sic] Miller, McKee, Dodd, or Rigdon.
16th. On page 66 quotes Miss Martha [sic] Spaulding, Mrs. J. Spaulding, Smith, Cunningham and Jackson, to prove the leaders' names as represented by Spaulding, were Nephi and Lehi, which is false, so far as Miss Spaulding, Cunningham and Jackson are concerned.
17th. On page 66 he says: "The end of their wars, in two instances, was the total annihilation in battle, of all but one, for which he quotes Jackson. Jackson does not say so. See p. 42.
18th. On page 66 he quotes J. Spaulding, Mrs. J. Spaulding, Miller and Smith as authority for the "Romance," giving an "account of the civilization, arts, sciences, laws, and customs of the aborigines of America." Mrs. J. Spaulding nor Miller speak of this point.
19th. On page 66, as authority that the Romance was "written in Scriptural Style," he quotes "Rigdon, Winter, Spaulding, Mrs. S. Spaulding, Lake, Jas. [sic] Miller, Smith, Cunningham and Jackson. By examination it will be seen he had produced no evidence upon this point deom either Rigdon, Mrs. J. Spaulding, Lake, Miller, or Smith.
20th. On page 66, as authority that the Romance contained the phrase, "And it came to pass," "And now it came to pass," he named Mrs. S. Spaulding, J.
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Spaulding, Mrs. J. Spaulding, Lake, Cunningham and Jas. Miller. Consult their testimony as produced by Braden, and you will find this false so far as Mrs, S. Spaulding, Mrs. J. Spaulding, Cunningham and Miller are concerned.
21st. On page 66 he says: "One party of emigrants landed near the Isthmus of Darien, which they called Zarahenla, and migrated across the continent in a northeast direction," and quotes J. N. Miller. See Miller's testimony on page 35.
22d. On page 73 he says: "He spent five years on it," (The Romance), but on page 43, he says "seven years."
23d. On page 73 he says that Mrs. Spaulding, Miss Spaulding and Miller "declare that he had many manuscripts." He produced this testimony from none of them.
24th. On page 73 he says: "That he (Rigdon) had it (Spaulding Romance) in 1826, and declared it would be a great thing some day, to his neice Mrs. Dunlap." Mrs. Spaulding does not say he had the Spaulding Romance. See p. 45.
25th. On page 73 he says: "We have proved that he (Rigdon) knew of the publication of the Book of Mormon long before it appeared, by D. Atwater, A. Bently, Alexander Campbell, Green and Dille." This is false, especially as regards Green and Dille. See p. 46.
26th. Read what he says he proved by Campbell, Atwater and Bently, as found on pages 74 and 75, and then read their testimonies as found on page 45, and the reader will see a great mistake indeed.
27th. On page 95 he says that Mrs. Davidson said she "only gave him (Hurlbut) an order to examine a trunk hundreds of miles away, in Hartwich, New York,
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 259.
to see if it (the manuscript (was in the trunk." If the reader will refer to Mrs. Davidson's testimony he will discover this to be a false statement.
28th. On page 96, in regard to the charge that Hurlbut sold the manuscript to the Mormons, he says: "These charges, Hurlbut never met but laid under them until his death. On page 91, in a letter Hurlbut wrote to Mr. Patterson of Pittsburg, dated August 19th, 1879, he says: "I did not destroy the manuscript nor dispose of it to Joe Smith or to any other person."
29th. Will Mr. Braden tell us where he finds his authority for saying that Joseph Smith claimed to have "examined all religious parties?" See p. 98.
30th. Will he also tell us why he says Joseph Smith claimed to "found a purer system than the world had ever seen?" See p. 98.
31st, On pafe 107 he garbles the testimony of the Three Witnesses. See p. 5.
32d. On page 108 he states, in speaking of what the Book of Mormon teaches, that Nephi "makes Laban drunk." This is false. See Book of Mormon, p. 8.
33d. On page 109 he says Lehi prophesied "that these plates of Laban shall go forth to all nations;" but the book adds, "who were of his seed." See Book of Mormon, p. 11.
34th. On page 111 he represents that the Book of Mormon claims that Nephi and his company left only Laman and Lemuel and their families when departing into the wilderness, which is absolutely false. See Book of Mormon, p. 62.
35th. On page 119 he represents Mrs. Salisbury as saying the plates were translated "at their father's." which she does not say. See p. 100.
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36th. On page 120 he says: King Jacob tells us that "a hundreth part of the wars, contentions and exploits of the Nephites could not be engraven...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 261.
of the book is: "And behold ye may be privileged that ye may show the plates unto those who shall assist to bring forth this work; and unto three shall they be shown by the power of God."
43d. He says on page 34: "It is our purpose to prove that the Book of Mormon originated with Solomon Spaulding," but on page 139 he calls "Rigdon the author of the book." ...
46th. On page 148, after many falsehoods in regard to the Jaredites, he says: "Sidnet did not stop and figure that story out when he wrote it;" but on page 43 he says: Spaulding "added the Jaredite emigration." ...
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50th. On page 159 he says it was "badly spelled;" but Gilbert says, (see p. 382), "The spelling was good."
51st. On page 101 he tries to make Spaulding out an ignorant man, but on page 75 he says, "he received the degree of A. M. from Dartmouth College."
52d. On page 101 he says: "It was like Josh Billings' spelling." Gilbert says: "The spelling was good."
53d. On page 161 he says: "We have proved by historic evidence that Rigdon remodled Spaulding's manuscript." But on page 171 he says: "We can trace it no farther back than Joe Smith in 1830." ...
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 263.
59th, On page 202 he relates what a "Mr. Moreton, one of the first apostles, told his daughter." There was no man of that name among the first apostles.
60th. On page 206 he falsely states: "The Josephites publish, and use as their standards the works of the Pratts and other Utah Mormons."
61st. On page 206 he misquotes the Book of Mormon on the subject of polygamy.
62d. On page 214 he falsely states that William Marks was once the editor of "their (the Josephite) official organ."
63d. On the same page he makes the same false assertion in regard to Zenas H. Gurley.
64th. On page 216 he claims to have produced testimony from Rigdon to the effect "that Solomon Spaulding wrote a romance," which cannot be found in the book.
65th. He claims on page 218 to have proved that Cowdery "died a drunken sot, with delirum tremens." This lie he has not attempted to prove.
66th. He almost invariably misquotes the Bible. I will ask the reader to read two passages found on page 222 as samples of his garbling.
I have not written this to refute the position taken by Mr. Braden; this was neatly and thoroughly done by his opponent. But as Mr. Braden was introduced as a witness in my late debate, and may be so introduced again, I write it to show his utter unreliability. I thought first to speak of all his mistakes, but they multiplied so rapidly, I concluded to pass by misrepresentation of other books, and confine myself to the book under consideration, and the standard of evidence. I soon found however that this would have to be
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abridged. Then when I had passed through one proposition, noting perhaps half of his mistakes, I concluded if I examined the other two, it would bee too voluminous to publish, and so conclude. Surely here is enough to accomplish my object. HEMAN C. SMITH.
[ 265 ]
"There was living in Bethany, a Rev. M. Spaulding. * * * He had written some chronicles on the ruins of Central America and some Bible truths mixed up together. Some early history of the character of the inhabitants, connected with bigamy, etc. Joe Smith and Cochran got some knowledge and borrowed it, and from the help of Spaulding's manuscript they made the Mormon Bible. Rev. Mr. Spaulding called and sent for it a great many times, and his wife came for it, but
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Smith would not let them have it. Smith told Spaulding, and I heard him, that they had made a Mormon Bible of it, and the Lord had taken it into the wilderness. And he, Joe Smith, prophesied where it was deposited in Palmyra woods about twelve miles east of Rochester, New York. James Harris was appointed to go and get it. He went and pretended he found it beside a log just where Smith said it was. This is the true history of Joe Smith and the beginning of Mormonim, and the people who settled at Salt Lake. After Mr. Spaulding died, his wife came east to Munson, Massachusetts, while I lived there, to visit her friends or relatives, Dr. McKingsbury's family, my near neighbor."
SUMMARY OF THE ABOVE.1st. As Mr. Green wrote in 1877 and knew Smith was only guilty of one act of mischief, which was but a report; so Smith is clear of all else at least.
2d. As Mr. Spaulding died in 1816 as repeatedly published in his wife's letter. Mr. Smith told in Green's presence the name of the Book of Mormon when but eleven years old, as he was born in 1805, and as the plates were not had till 1827, Mr. Smith is made a prophet at eleven years of age.
3d. Mr. Green being totally ignorant of what he writes, gives the name Cochrane for Cowdery, James Harris for Martin Harris, and McKingsbury for McKinstry.
Elder M. T. Short of Millersburg, Illinois, reviewed the letter of Mr. Green in the issue of the Cynosure of July 25th, of which the editor in an appended statement said: "The above is the history of the Spaulding book from a Mormon standpoint, most
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 267.
of our readers will recollect the letter from Samuel D. Green in the issue of December 20th, 1877, giving a history of Joe Smith, while stopping at his hotel in Batavia, New York, and the origin of the Book of Mormon. -- Mr. Green saw this Mr. Spaulding as late as 1827; knew that he lent his manuscript to Smith and called for its return several times in vain, and heard Smith tell him it was disposed of. The writer of the above would do well to study Mr. Green's letter as it is altogether reliable and its author is yet living in Chelsea, Massachusetts."
"CHELSEA, Mass., May 12th, 1879."Mr. I. N. WHITE.
"DEAR SIR: -- I send you the Christian Cynosure of the 20th of December 1877. If you had taken the Cynosure, one of the best, open, candid, Christian papers published, you would long ago know all the questions you asked me. * * * I saw Mr. Spaulding as late as 1827 and I have a letter from Wm. Jenkins (now dead) that he saw Spaulding in Attica in 1829, and he wanted to preach there. Another needful you will get from the Cynosure. * * *
QUOTATIONS FROM THE BROKEN SEAL."Samuel D. Green, of Chelsea, Massachusetts, a Master Mason, who was a member of Batavia Lodge, to which Morgan belonged, and an intimate friend of Morgan's, and was, at the time of this abduction, mayor or president of Batavia, and a member of the Presbyterian church.
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"A MASONIC REVELATION. -- Mr. Samuel D. Green is a venerable gentleman of the highest respectability, whose statements seem to be worthy od full credence. The Broken Seal, or, Personal Reminiscences of the Morgan Abduction and Murder, is the title of a book of some three hundred pages just issued by him, purporting to give a full and accurate account, from personal knowledge, of the Morgan 'abduction,' and other Masonic matters which made such an excitement in this country, now almost half a century ago." -- Congregationalist and Recorder, Boston.
"A BOOK FOR THE TIMES. -- We have received from the publisher a book of thrilling interest, entitled, 'The Broken Seal, or, Personal Reminiscences of Samuel D. Green, on the abduction of William Morgan by Freemasons, in 1826.'
Mr. Green is an acquaintance of ours. He is a venerable gentleman, of high respectability and intelligence, upwards of eighty-two years of age, a member of the Congregational church, and we esteem him as a Christian man." -- World's Crisis.
In the Congregationalist of October 24th, 1877, the Rev. Tyron Edwards, D. D., of Philadelphia, tells what he knows about Mormonism: he says "The Book of Mormon was in substance written by Rev. Solomon Spaulding, who was a graduate of Dartmouth college and a Presbyterian minister, once settled in Cherry Valley, New York, and afterward living in New Salem, (also called Conneaut), Ohio. Beginning in 1809, and writing at intervals as he did, he often read parts of the work to his neighbors, and among the listeners was Joseph Smith, who not only attended the readings, but borrowed the manuscripts, as he said, to
WORKS AGAINST MORMONISM REVIEWED. 269.
read to his family at home. In 1812 the completed manuscript was placed in the hands of a printer in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, by the name of Patterson, with a view to its publication. While the printing was delayed, Mr. Spaulding left Pittsburg, for Washington county, Pennsylvania, where he died in 1816. While the manuscript was in the hands of Patterson, Sidney Rigdon was working for him as a journeyman printer, and it is supposed that he, having copied the manuscript, with Smith concocted the idea of the new religion!!!"
MEDITATIVE OBSERVATIONS.Mr. Smith who was born December 23d, 1805, must have been a very interested listener to the reading of the manuscript, which was completed "in 1812," and "placed in the hands of a printer." And with what elegance he must have read it to "his family!" Not many boys of seven have a family. The vilifiers of Joseph Smith often make him more remarkable than his friends do.
But Mr. Edwards places Mr. Green in a bad fix, as Spaulding died in 1816 he says, while Green saw Spaulding in 1827, Mr. Green having heard Smith tell Spaulding he "made a Mormon Bible out of it," (manuscript) and as Spaulding died in 1816, Smith was a literary wonder at eleven years of age.
In the Detroit Tribune of February 1st, 1872, appeared an article entitled, "The Mormon Church." The writer, J. F. D., mentions a celebrated discussion held in New York City, in 1836 or 1837, at which he was present, and of which he says: "It was shown that Mr. Spaulding, from reading the discoveries made by Mr. Stephens and others in Central America, was led
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to select the subject of his novel." Mr. Stephens says: "Being entreated with a special confidential mission to Central America, on Wednesday, October 3d, 1839, I embarked on board the British Brig, Mary Ann, for the bay of Honduras." See Stephen's work, Vol. 1, chapter 1, p. 9.
EXTRACT FROM 'LIFE OF KIT CARSON,"
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JOHN T. HILDRETH DEAD. -- ONE OF THE BEST KNOWN
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the leader of the Danites?" asked Simpson. 'You are correct,' said Smith...
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The errors of the above are, first, Joseph Smith did not pretend...
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public opinions soon drove them from Missouri...
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called 'The Great American Desert.' ...
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While Quackenbos, the last examined, set forth polygamy as existing before 1833, this one places its introduction after 1839. Smith did not introduce polygamy, neither did he head the mob that demolished the press.
"Mormonism gives its followers license to commit every crime that may be sanctioned by the leading prophet, especially does it, by allowing polygamy, degrade and demoralize women. * * * But murders, robberies and other secret crimes became frequent in their neighborhood. The surrounding people were enraged; the Mormon prophet and his brother were seized by the state officers and confined in jail at Carthage. A hundred armed men in disguise broke in and murdered them. * * * The Rev. Mr. Spaulding wrote the Book of Mormon as a work of imagination." -- History of the U. S., by Emma Willard, published by A. A. Barnes & Co., 1870.
In the above no distinction is made at all between the career of Smith and Young. It is now a great matter of United States Court decision in Temple Lot case that Joseph Smith and Brigham Young were widely different. None of the above allegations were true as occurring under Smith's presidency and sanction. See part3, chapters 6 and 7, and on last clause chapter 4 of same. These six examined show a queer medley of history for the proud nation of United States.
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Chambers' edition of 1881 has the only fair account of the origin, rise and development of the Latter Day Saints. Subsequent editions not now at hand for comparison evidently are identical. It is a credit to Chambers, that an attempt to give fact was made, whereas the others have been made up from trashy stories on Mormonism, and from each other.
American Encyclopedia, by D. Appleton & Co., 1863, Vol. 11, p. 733: "From the testimony of their neighbors in Palmyra, the reputation of the Smiths was bad. They avoided honest labor, and occupied themselves chiefly in digging for hidden treasures, and in similar visionary pursuits. They were intemperate and
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untruthful, and were commonly suspected of sheep stealing and other offences. Upward of sixty of the most respectable citizens of Wayne county, testified, in 1833, under oath, that the Smith family, were of immoral, false, and fradulent character, and that Joseph was the worst of them. These statements are not in general, contradicted by the Mormons." (See note 1 at close of quotation).
Referring to the testimony of the three witnesses, Harris, Cowdery and Whitmer, to the Book of Mormon, says: "Several years afterward, however, all three of the witnesses quarreled with Smith, renounced Mormonism, and avowed the falsity of their testimony." (See note 2).
Pages 735-740: "According to the opponents of Mormonism, from investigations soon after apearance of the 'Book of Mormon, the fact is fully established that the real author of the work was Solomon Spaulding, who was born in Ashford, Connecticut, in 1761, was graduated at Dartmouth College, and afterward ordained." * * * (See note 3). "As early as 1813 this work was announced in the newspapers as forthcoming, and as containing a translation of the Book of Mormon. (See note 4.). Spaulding entitled his book 'Manuscript Found,' and intended to publish with it by way of preface or advertisement, a fictitious account of its discovery in a cave in Ohio. * * * John Spaulding, a brother of Solomon, says in a deposition: 'I made him (Solomon Spalding) a visit in about years years after, and found that he had failed, and considerably involved in debt. He then told me had he been writing a book, which he intended to have printed, the avails of which he thought would enable him to pay all
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his debts. The book was entitled the 'Manuscript Found,' of which he read to me many passages. * * * By what means it has fallen into the hands of Joseph Smith, Jr. I am unable to determine.' Martha Spaulding, the wife of John Spaulding, Henry Lake, the partner in business of Solomon Spaulding, and many others corroborated these statements in the fullest manner. John N. Miller of Springfield, Pennsylvania, testified in September, 1833, that in 1811 he was in the employ of Spaulding, and lodged and boarded in his house, and frequently perused portions of the "Manuscript Found," which the author also sometimes read to him. Miller says: 'I have recently examined the Book of Mormon, and find in it the writings of Solomon Spaulding, from beginning to end, but mixed up with Scripture and other religious matter, which I did not meet in the 'Manuscript Found.' Many of the passages in the Book of Mormon are verbatim from Spaulding, and others in part. (See note 5). The names of Nephi, Lehi, Moroni, and in fact all the principal names are brought fresh to my recollection by the gold bible.'" (See note 6).
Encyclopedia Britannica, ninth edition, J. M. Stoddart & Co., Philadelphia, Pennslvania, 1884, Vol. 16, p. 852: "Smith was born December 23d, 1805, at Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont, from which place ten years later, his parents, a poor, ignorant, thriftless, and not too honest couple, removed to New York, where they settled on a farm near Palmyra, Wayne county, (then Ontario)." (See note 1). Speaking of Harris, Cowdery and Whitmer, as witnesses and their testimony found in Book of Mormon, says: "This testimony, all three on renouncing Mormonism some
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years later, denounced as false; (See note 2). but meanwhile it helped Smith to impoese on the credulous, particularly in the absence of the gold plates themselves which suddenly and mysteriously disappeared." "This is Smith's account of the book, but in reality it was written in 1812 as an historical romance by one Solomon Spaulding, a cracked brained preacher, and the manuscript falling into the hands of an unscrupulous compositor, Sidney Rigdon, was copied by him and subsequently given to Smith." (See note 7 at close of this). †
The ninth edition, by Scribner, of 1883 and that of R. S. Peale & Co. of 1890 are identical.
Johnson's Encyclopedia, issued 1888, Vol. 7, p. 304: "Joseph Smith was born at Sharon, Vermont, December 23d, 1805, removed while a child, with his parents, to Palmyra, New York, where he grew up almost without education, leading an idle and rather disreputable life, (see note 1), and about 1828 began to put forth vague claims as the founder of a new religion, or rather as the restorer of the original true faith." Of the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon, says: "Subsequently all three of the witnesses fell out with Smith and declared the whole matter to be a hoax. (See note 2.) "There can be no doubr that the Book of Mormon was a kind of historical romance, written nearly twenty years before by Samuel [sic] Spaulding, a one time clergyman." (See note 5).
Vol. 5, page 540: "It was soon proved beyond doubt that the Book of Mormon was simply a sort of historical romance written in 1812, by one Solomon Spaulding * * * and that the manuscript became lost in a printing office in Pittsburg, under the hands of an __________
† The Mormons -- The Mormons were founded in 1830. And soon after the establishment of Mormonism its founder, Joseph Smith, conceived the idea of establishing a Masonic super rite. In M. R. Werner's book Brigham Young (page 62) the following remark makes this evident: "Masonry was always popular with the Mormons until Joseph Smith claimed that an angel of the Lord had brought him the lost key-words of several degrees, enabling him to progress further than the highest Masons. The charter of the Mormon lodge was then taken away by the Grand Lodge." --- Joseph Smith, applying his powers of mediumship towards the realization of the ambitious project nurtured by General Pepe, Mazzini and others for the establishment of a super rite, was not necessarily acceptable to the Masonic leaders of his time. Thus as a Mason he failed but as the founder of a Masonic sect he succeeded. So much has already been written about the sect of the Mormons that we confine ourselves here in a short sketch of opinion and descriptions given by various authors. The following is extracted from The Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Edition: "This is a religious non-Christian sect, founded by Joseph Smith at Manchester, New York, in 1830, now settled in Salt Lake City, Territory of Utah, United States...Smith was born December 23rd, 1805, at Sharon, Windsor Country, Vermont, from which place ten years later his parents, a poor, ignorant, thriftless, and not too honest couple, removed to New York, where they settled on a small farm near Palmyra, Wayne County (then Ontario). --- Four years later, in 1809, they removed to Manchester, some six miles off; and it was at the latter place when fifteen years old that Joseph began to have his alleged visions, in one of which on the night of 21st September 1823, the angel Moroni appeared to him three times, and told him that the Bible of the Western Continent, the supplement to the New Testament, was buried in a certain spot near Manchester. --- Thither, four years later and after due disciplinary probation, Smith went, and had delivered into his charge by an angel of the Lord a stone box, in which was a volume, 6 inches thick, made of thin gold plates 8 inches by 7, fastened together by three gold rings. The plates were covered with small writing in the 'reformed Egyptian' tongue, and were accompanied by a pan of supernatural spectacles, consisting of two crystals set in a silver bow, and called 'Urim and Thummim;' by aid of these, the mystic characters could be read. --- Being himself unable to read or write fluently, Smith employed as amanuensis one Oliver Cowdery, to whom from behind a curtain, he dictated a translation, which with the aid of a farmer, Martin Harris (Harris married as one of his many wives the widow of the murdered Mason, William Morgan), who had more money than wit, was printed and published in 1830 under the title of The Book of Mormon and accompanied by the sworn statement of Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, that an angel of God had shown them the plates of which the book was a translation. This testimony all three, on renouncing Mormonism some years later, denounced as false; but meanwhile it helped Smith to impose on the credulous, particularly in the absence of the gold plates themselves which suddenly and mysteriously disappeared." --- Blanchard draws a parallel between this story of the gold plates and that of the legend of the 14th degree of Scottish Rites Masonry, that of Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Mason, according to which: "the real name of God was lost, till it was found by Masons, engraved on a three-cornered gold plate, in 'the ruins of Enoch.'" In reality, this book, The so-called Book of Mormans, "...was written in 1812 as an historical romance by one Solomon Spalding, a crack-brained preacher; and the MS. falling into the hands of an unscrupulous compositor, Sidney Rigdon, was copied by him, and subsequently given to Joseph Smith. Armed with this book and with self-assumed divine authority, the latter soon began to attract followers." --- Joseph Smith was a Mason. The Gold Plate trick, having worked so successfully once, was tried again in 1843 when six plates were found by Robert Wiley, a merchant of Kinderhook, Illinois. "The true story of the plates was disclosed" so Stuart Martin writes in The Mystery of Mormonism (page 69), in an affidavit made by W. Fulgate, of Mount Station, Brown Country, Ill. on June 30th, 1879, when he swore before J. Brown, Justice of the Peace, that the, "...plates were humbug, gotten up by Robert Wiley, Bridge Whitton, and myself. Whitton, who was a blacksmith, cut the plates out of pieces of copper. Wiley and I made the hieroglyphics by making impressions of beeswax and filling them with acid." He describes the burial and the finding of the plates, and states that among the spectators at the "discovery" were two Mormon Elders, Marsh and Sharp. --- Smith and his followers founded the city of Nauvoo and, "...such were the powers granted them by this charter as to render the city practically independent of the State Government, and to give Smith all but unlimited civil power. He organized a military body called the Nauvoo legion, of which he constituted himself commander with the title of lieutenant-general, while he was also president of the church and mayor of the city. On April 6th, 1841, the foundations of the new temple were laid, and the city continued to grow rapidly in prosperity and size." --- Smith's career of treason, profligacy, dishonesty, polygamy, spiritism and humbug, came to an abrupt end when the gaol in which he was imprisoned by order of the Governor of the State was broken into by a mob who shot him and his fellow prisoner, his brother Hyram. As head of the Mormons he was succeeded by Bringham Young (1801-1877). --- In 1846, the repeal by the legislature of the charter of Nauvoo resulted in the Mormons being driven from the city. In March 1849, they held a convention at Salt Lake City, and a State was organized under the name of "Deseret." "A legislature was elected and a constitution framed, which was sent on to Washington. This Congress refused to recognize, and by way of compromise for declining to admit the proposed new State into the Union, President Fillmore in 1850 organized the country occupied by the Mormons into the Territory of Utah, with Brigham Young as governor." --- Adopting Smith's policy of aggressive military action, Bringham Young, like his predecessor, defied the Federal Government. He died on August 29, 1877, leaving 17 wives and 56 children. Brigham Young was succeeded by John Taylor, an Englishman and a Freemason. His apostolic successors were Wilford Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, Joseph Fielding Smith (eldest son of the founder of the order) who died November 19, 1918, and Herber J. Grant. About Mormonism and Masonry, Blanchard makes the following remark: "The two institutions are morally and legally the same." --- The Mormon dogma is universality, materialism and pantheism. It blends Judaism and Christianity, aiming at a progressive universal religion while seeking to unit in itself all faiths and the cults of every people on earth. The Mormon state is a theocratic community at the head of which is a grand priest-president assisted by two others and a traveling council of twelve. Its mysteries are those of spiritism and the seance room.
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apprentice, Sidney Rigdon, who in 1829 became am associate of Joseph Smith." (See note 7). Describing Brigham, it says: "The whole success of the sect and all the elements of respectability are due to him, while all its miseries and all its excesses had their roots in Joseph Smith's character."
Mr. Johnson, appreciating Brigham's career as respectable, would of course set forth Joseph Smith's the reverse, as they were opposites. No one will deny Mr. Johnson the right of choice. What of the Reorganization that Mr. Johnson entirely ignores? Johnson's reissue of 1891 is identical with the above.
The Columbian Encyclopedia by Garretson, Cox & Co.., New York, 1891, Vol. 20, article Mormon: "Joseph Smith was born in 1805, at Shardon, Windsor county, Vermont, son of a farmer. His parents were ignorant and of low repute * * * The reputation of the family is said to have been of the worst kind: we are told that they avoided honest labor, were uintemperate, untruthful, and suspected of sheep stealing and other offenses." (See note 1). "There is the most satisfactory evidence -- that of his enemies -- to show that from an early period he was regarded as a visionary and a fanatic." (Note 8). "The Book of Mormon finally appeared before the world in 1830 with the names of Cowdery, Harris and Whitmer appended to a statement that an angel from God came down from heaven and showed them the original plates, a statement which a few years later, was declared false by all three witnesses." (Note 2). "The so called Book of Mormon was really borrowed or stolen nearly verbatim from a manuscript historical romance written in 1812, by a quondam clergyman, Solomon Spaulding, a man of
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some gifts but of unbalanced mind, who died in 1816. The Mormons of course declare the whole story of Spaulding's manuscript romance a scandalous fabrication. While the death of those who could have testified to the facts prevents the evidence of Spaulding's authorship from being absolutely conclusive, nothing has ever been shown disproving it." (See note 5 again). Of settlement in Missouri in 1831, says: "Land was largely bought, preaching was vigorously carried on, a printing press was established. * * * everywhere was visible a spirit of industry, sobriety, order, and cleanliness. It is only fair to the Mormons to state these things. Account for it as we may, they were in many important respects, morally, socially and industrially, far in advance of their neighbors." (Note 9). "1832, March 22d, a mob of Methodists, Baptists, Disciples and miscellaneous zealots broke into the prophet's house, tore him from his wife's arms, * * * and tarred and feathered him."
This last item shows clearly why Smith and his co-workers were held to be such bad fellows; having exhausted all else to down them and their cause, TAR and FEATHERS was resorted to by this religious mob. Several extracts from Bancroft in part 3, chapter 6, set forth the same facts. Those who would descend to tar and feathers, would also malign and vilify. Lies go swiftly but truth wins in the end.
NOTE 1. -- The statements referred to have been denied all along the libe for sixty years by Mormons, and proved untrue from various sources and at divers times and places. See Facts from Painesville, Murdock's protest, and interview of citizens of Palmyra, New York. Part 3, chapter 3 of this work.
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NOTE 2. -- Never, in a single instance, did either of the three deny their testimony, even after they stood aloof from the church, and at death all reaffirmed their testimony. See chapter 14, Book Unsealed.
NOTE 3. -- Mrs. Spaulding in 1834 delivered to Hurlbut the manuscript so it could be published. See part 3, chapter 4 of this work. "The Spaulding Manuscript in Brief."
NOTE 4. -- Spaulding according to this was to translate the Book of Mormon fourteen years before Joseph Smith procured the plates, and seven years before he first daw them, and when Smith was but eight years of age. Lying may yet be found a good thing, but it certainly was overdone in this case.
NOTE 5. -- What a miserable, reckless liar this Miller must have been. Howe did not publish the manuscript because "it did not read like we expected, and we did not use it." See part 3, chapter 4 again, especially the comparison made by Fairchild and Rice, also, that John N. Miller's name is in the postscript as witness to the verity of manuscript as Spaulding's.
NOTE 6. -- Reference same as in notes 3 and 5, the reader will notice that Rice and Fairchild say: "There seems to be no name or incident common to the two." "There is no identity of names, of persons or places, and there is no similarity of style between them."
NOTE 7. -- This date, 1829, is unfortunately late, as the manuscript of Book of Mormon was delivered to the printer in August, 1829. Mr. Braden in his vast research attending the labor of four decades with Elder E. L. Kelley, takes the position that 1827 was the best time to bring Smith and Rigdon together. Smith's home was Palmyra, New York; Rigdon in Ohio,
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several hundreds of miles apart and no railroads or even stage lines direct. Rigdon's whereabouts for 1827 as given by Kelley in the Lamoni, Iowa, debate: "My first date is January, 1827, Rigdon is at Mantua, O., Hayden's History, p. 237; February 27th, at Chester, O.; March and april, protracted meeting at Mentor, O.; June 5-7, Painesville, O., probate records; July 3-12, Mentor, O., probate records; July 19, Mentor, O.; August 23, New Lisbon, O,; Hayden, pp. 55-57; September, returns home to Mentor, O.; October 9, Mentor, O,; October last part, Warren, O.; Hayden, p. 59; November, New Lisbon, Hayden, pp. 74-76; December 6, Kirtland, O., probate records; December 13, Concord, O., probate records." See also part 3, chapter 5 of this work.
NOTE 8. -- "There is the most satisfactory evidence, that of his enemies." Is not that a brilliant view of evidence? No juror is admitted who has formed an opinion on a case! Whose reputation or character on earth, or angels of heaven either, would be safe from this point of view? Shame on such work.
NOTE 9. -- The date given is 1831, remember. This strong statement from an opposing witness, showing the virtues of this people in advance of those surrounding them, nicely offsets much of the villainous lying that has been done. Joseph Smith being an honorable, honest, conscientious, God-fearing man, gathered such around him. See also extract from Bancroft's New History of Utah, p. 164, as found in part 3, chapter 6 of this work.
Let those who fight Joseph Smith so hard and prove nothing against him, consider Moses who slew the Egyptian, and David who placed Uriah in front of battle
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and this also: "The smoke ascending from the funeral pile of Servetus was a witness of the slain upon the character of John Calbin that all the special pleading of men can not remove. The followers of Calvin or Knox forget to tell the world that the former burned Servetus. The Presbyterians of today would quickly resent the insult offered his faith, were we to tell him that Presbyterians sanctioned murder. He would suddenly discover that individual unholy acts did not condemn the doctrines held by the transgressor, unless they were the legitimate consequence of them." Even of our good Mr. Wesley it is related that: "He was accused of diverting the people from labor. (while laboring as a missionary at Savannah, Georgia,). of fomenting divisions, of claiming high and unwarrented ecclesiastical authority. His conduct towards a neuce of one of the principal settlers, (a Miss Williams), was highly resented by her friends.
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Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 16, p. 828: "Already there are not wanting signs of approaching dissolution...
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Iowa, to which place they removed...
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Rigdon, Kimball, Pratt, Hyde and Young...
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It is contrary to the practice...
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family, which did not end...
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The Cleveland Herald says of the Reorganized Church in conference, April 1883, under date of April 6th: "The flood-gates were lifted...
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morning. 'We differ from them in almost everything. They are a theocracy. What they are told to do must be done. There can be no excuse. With us there is freedom of thought.' The Hon. R. P. Harmon, in speaking of the ministers present says: 'In intellectual acumen I think they stand above the average clerical assemblies'"
INVITED BACK TO KIRTLAND, OHIO."Editor Willoughby Independent: -- Saturday evening last will be long remembered as one of the largest and most enthusiastic gatherings in the history of Kirtland. The event that called forth this company was the work of the late discussion between the Rev. Clark Braden, of Illinois, of the Disciple Church, and E. L. Kelley, now of Kirtland, formerly of Glenwood, Iowa, of the Reorganized Church of Christ of L. D. S. The gathering was in recognition of the work of Mr. Kelley during the discussion, and made a surprise to him and his family -- and also a further honor to Elder Wm. H. Kelley, of Coldwater, Michigan, who has for the past year rendered at times ministerial labor in Kirtland. The company consisted of seventy-five citizens of Kirtland, nearly all of whom had attended upon the eighteen sessions of the discussion just closed, and none of whom are connected with the church of which Mr. Kelley is a member; and a number of other citizens who had attended upon the discussion sent their regrets at not being able to be present from various causes of hindrance * * * Speech by I. V. Sanborn, Esq., of Kirtland, as follows:
"'Mr. E. L. Kelley: -- A few of your friends and neighbors have met at your house this evening for the
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purpose of expressing, by word and by deed, our appreciation...
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and home of your fathers; and may your every effort be blessed...
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credit for lives of usefulness and morality...
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to the Brighamite Mormons in the infamous practice of polygamy...
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"'COME TO COUNCIL BLUFFS."At Logan tomorrow the Latter Day Saints will decide upon the next place of meeting for next year...
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best. Their presses are messengers bearing good tidings...
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occupied. The attendance was about as large as at any time during the meeting. Eighty four joined the church by baptism. On Friday last the vote was taken by the church members on the question of locating the reunion for 1893. By nearly a unanimous vote it was decided to hold it at Logan. Council Bluffs, Iowa, Warrensburg and Clinton, Missouri, and Plano Illinois were Logan's competitors, but when :ogan's proposition to do just the same in 1893 as was done this year, was presented, the other places were not in it. Logan has carried out every agreement with struct fidelity and it is a well recognized fact that even more than the contract called for had been done," -- Logan Observer.
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