(Newspapers of Illinois)

Warsaw, Hancock County

Warsaw  Signal
June-Dec. 1844 Articles

The pump and well outside of Carthage Jail -- early 1850s

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NS No. 19.                       Warsaw, Illinois, June 19, 1844.                       Whole 136.

A d d r e s s.

At a meeting of the citizens of Warsaw, convened the 14th June, inst., the following address, reported by Thos. C. Sharp, Esq., was unanimously adopted, and ordered to be published in connexion with the Resolutions adopted by the Mass meeting at Carthage yesterday.

The following resolutions were adopted by a meeting of the citizens of Warsaw, on Wednesday last; and the same, as will be perceived by the proceedings that follow, were also adopted by the Mass meeting assembled at Carthage on the 13th. These Resolutions are of the strongest character and indicate a depth of feeling which can find vent only in revenge for the repeated insults and injuries which the citizens of this vicinity have endured; as well as for the recent outrage, in destroying by mob violence the press of the Nauvoo Expositor, a paper opposed to the interest of Joe Smith, and his miscreant band.

In presenting these Resolutions to the world, it seems necessary least our motives and conduct should be censured to submit to a candid public, a plain and unvarnished statement, of the situation, in which we are placed, by a combination of circumstances, against which, no prudence could guard us, and from which no thing but desperate means can rescue us.

The City Council of Nauvoo, have within the last two years, passed a series of ordinances, contrary to the spirit and intent of their Charter, which were intended as they avowed, to screen the adherents of the Prophet, as also the Prophet himself, from arrest, by the state authorities, and to liberate them from custody whenever they should be so arrested. Repeated attempts have been made to arrest Smith, but he has been entirely screened from the officers of Justice, by the aid of the Municipal Court, which is the tool and echo of himself. Our state authorities have not seen proper heretofore, to call out force sufficient, to put the law in execution. Having repeatedly set all law at defiance, both in his own case, as well as that of his favorites, with impunity, he has grown more daring and recently, we behold him giving shelter and protection to a criminal. who had offended against the laws of the U. S., rescuing him from the custody of officers and refusing to surrender him, until the Executive had given the minister of the Law, plenary power, to call in the aid of the military.

The high-handed measures of this self-constituted despot, raised even within his own dominion, a powerful opposition. The honest and respectable of his followers became alarmed at the usurpation and tyranny, daily practiced in the city. They protested against his high-handed measures; but they were only heard to be insulted, and spurned with contempt. Finding reformation impossible they manfully came out, and avowed their determination to resist, and subvert his power. To that end they procured a press and printing materials, that they might have an organ through which to speak.

The prophet finding that his villainies and usurpations were about to be exposed in their naked deformity, and seeing the impossibility of sustaining himself with his powerful an engine as a Press located in the midst of his followers, leveled at his villainies and usurpations, determine on its destruction. He called together the City council, and without shadow of authority and in the teeth of the Constitution of this State, and of the U. States, ordered the destruction of the press and printing materials. This order was promptly obeyed by the Marshall of the city aided by a mob.

But content with this violence within the borders of the city, the brother of this miscreant, publicly threatened the press and material of the Warsaw Signal and the life of its Editor. Having had the audacity to commit one of the most daring outrages ever perpetrated in a free country, here is reason to expect that if opportunity presents itself, the threats against us, will be fulfilled. Nevertheless we fear nothing. We "defy his power and scorn his wealth." The outrages committed by this same villain and his band in Missouri show him to be a devil capable of any deed, however black or damnable, if thereby he can rid himself of his enemies.

Positive proof exists, that he, some time since, sent one of his miscreants to assassinate Gov. Boggs, of Missouri, -- that within the last year he has offered reward to his minions to take the lives of some of our most valuable citizens -- that he is the head of a band of counterfeiters. who are inundating the country with base coin, and that he has about him, an armed and organized band, whose only constitution is, perfect obedience to the commands of this Fiend. With such a desperado and villain in our midst, having the command of two thousand armed and disciplined men, and whom the law cannot reach by any ordinary process, are we safe? When the law ceases to protect life and property; when it is cheated out of its efficacy by an organized banditti, how shall we find protection? When our Political rights are gone, and all legal remedies fail, what shall we do? What can we do, but throw ourselves for protection on that arm which God and Nature intended every man should use as a last resort.

This community will throw itself for protection on its reserved rights, if the safety of our lives and property cannot be ensured to us by legal means; and we hoped to be sustained by those generous communities that surround us, who, we are sure will not stand by and suffer with impunity the virtuous to be trampled to dust by a bend of villains. We proclaim to the world in the resolutions that follow, that forbearance has ceased to be a virtue; and for our own safety and protection, the authors of our grievances must be driven from our midst, or submit to the laws. -- The Last outrage, in the destruction of the press of the Expositor at Nauvoo, caps the climax of their iniquity. For this violation of the rights of our neighbors, we have sought redress by legal means: but the offenders who were arrested have been rescued from our officers -- the Law is again put at defiance, and the only recourse left us to take up arms. If we fail in this, (which God forbid) we must bow the knee and submit to the yoke of tyrant, who is the masterpiece of Hell's workmanship. We must leave our property and our homes, or live in constant fear of assassination, or in dread of the destruction of our worldly wealth.

To the communities that surround us we appeal! Will you come to the rescue? Will you aid us to rid the Earth of a pest such as has never before polluted its surface since it was redeemed from Chaos? Come on then Ye men of generous souls! Lay aside sectional prejudices and former grudges, and unite with us in the cause of Virtue and Liberty: We are no mob setting ourselves above the law; but we seek to establish by every means in our power the Supremacy of the law over villain that long defied it.

And we would say to such as heretofore have been connected with the Mormon Church, but are yet desirous of supporting the supremacy of the laws and their government, that there is no disposition on our part to molest them in person or property; it is only such as make themselves accessory to his crimes, by the defence and support of Smith, and such of his followers as may unite with him in resistance to the laws.

At a mass meeting of the citizens of Hancock County, convened at Carthage on the 13th day of June, 1844, Mr. Knox was appointed President, John Doty and Lewis F. Evans, Vice Presidents, and Wm. Y. Head, Secretary.

Henry Stephens, Esq., presented the following resolutions, passed at a meeting of the Citizens of Warsaw, and urged the adoption of them as the sense of this meeting:


WHEREAS information has reached us, about which there can be no question, that the authorities of Nauvoo, did recently pass an Ordinance declaring Printing Press and Newspaper published by the opponents of the Prophet, a nuisance, and in pursuance thereof, did direct the Marshal of the city, and his adherents to enter by force, the building from whence the paper was issued, and violently, (if necessary,) to take possession of the press and printing materials, and thereafter to burn and destroy the same. And WHEREAS, in pursuance of said ordinance, the Marshall and his adherents together with the mob of Mormons, did after sunset on the evening of the 10th, inst., violently enter said building in a tumultuous manner. Burnt and destroyed the press and other materials found on the premises.

And WHEREAS, Hiram Smith did in presence of the City Council, and the citizens of Nauvoo, offer a reward for the destruction of the printing press and materials of the Warsaw Signal, -- a newspaper also opposed to his interest.

And WHEREAS, the liberty of the press is one of the cardinal principles of our government, firmly guaranteed by the several Constitutions of the States, as well as the United States.

And WHEREAS, Hiram Smith has within the last week publicly threatened the life of one of our valued citizens -- Thos. C. Sharp, the editor of the Signal.

Therefore, be it solemnly Resolved. By the citizens of Warsaw in Public Meeting assembled,

That we view the recent ordinance of the City of Nauvoo, and the proceedings hereunder, as an outrage, of an alarming character, revolutionary and tyrannical in its tendency, and being under colour of law, as calculated to subvert and destroy the minds of the community, all reliance on the Law.

Resolved. That as a Community, we feel anxious, when possible to redress our grievances by legal remedies; but the time has now arrived, when the Law has ceased to be a protection to our lives and property a mob at Nauvoo under a city ordinance, has violated the highest privilege in our Government, and to seek redress in the ordinary mode, would be utterly ineffectual.

Resolved. That the public threat made on the Council of the City, not only to destroy our Printing Press, but to take the life of its Editor, is sufficient, in connection with the recent outrages, to command the efforts and services of every good citizen, to put an immediate stop to the career of the mad Prophet and his demonized coadjutors. We must not only defend ourselves from danger, but we must resolutely carry the War into the enemy's Camp; We do therefore declare, that we will sustain our Press and the Editor, at all hazards. That we will take full vengeance, -- terrible vengeance, should the lives of any of our citizens be lost in the effort. That we hold ourselves at all times in readiness to co-operate with our fellow citizens in this State, Missouri and Iowa, to exterminate, utterly exterminate, the wicked and abominable Mormon Leaders, the authors of our troubles.

Resolved. That a Committee of five be appointed forthwith to notify all persons in our Township suspected of being the tools of the Prophet, to leave immediately on pain of instant vengeance. And we do recommend the inhabitants of the adjacent Townships to do the same, hereby pledging ourselves to render all the assistance they may require.

Resolved. That the time, in our opinion has arrived, when the adherents of Smith, as a body, should be driven from the surrounding settlements, into Nauvoo. That the Prophet and his miscreant adherents, should then be demanded at their hands, and if not surrendered, a war of extermination should be waged, to them [sic, their?] entire destruction, if necessary for our protection, of his adherents. And we do hereby recommend this resolution to the consideration of the several Townships, to the Mass Convention, to be held at Carthage; hereby pledging ourselves to aid, to the utmost, the complete consummation of the object in view, that we may thereby be utterly relieved of the alarm, anxiety and trouble, to which we are now subjected.

Resolved. That every citizen arm himself, to be prepared to sustain the resolutions herein contained.

Mr. Roosevelt rose, and made a brief, but eloquent speech; and called upon the citizens throughout the country to render efficient aid in carrying out the spirit of the resolutions. M. Roosevelt then moved a Committee of seven be appointed by the Chair to draft resolutions expressive of our action in future.

M. Catlin, moved to amend the motion of Mr. Roosevelt, so that the Committee should consist of one from each precinct, which motion was amended, was adopted.

The Chair then appointed the following: Col. Levi Williams, Rocky Run Precinct; Joel Catlin, Augusta; Saml. Williams, Carthage; Elisha Worrell, Chili; Capt. Madison, St. Marys; John M. Ferris, Fountain Green; James Rice, Pilot Grove; John Carns, Bear Creek; C. L. Higbee, Nauvoo; Geo. Robinson, La Harpe; and Geo. Rockwell, Warsaw, were appointed said Committee.

On motion of Mr. Sympson, Walter Bagby, Esq., was requested to address the meeting during the absence of the Committee. He spoke long and eloquently upon the cause of our grievances, and expressed his belief that the time was now at hand, when we were individually and collectively called upon to expel the innovations upon our liberties; and suggested that points be designated as places of encampment, at which to rendezvous our forces -- that we may be ready when called upon for efficient action.

Dr. Burns, one of the persons who went with the officers to Nauvoo, for the purpose of arresting the rioters, having just arrived, came into the meeting, and reported the result of their proceedings -- which was, that the persons charged in the writs, were duly arrested, but taken from the officers hands on a writ of habeas corpus from the Municipal Court, and discharged, and the-following potent words entered upon the records -- HONORABLY DISCHARGED.

On motion of O. C. Skinner, Esq., a vote of thanks was tendered to Dr. Burns for volunteering his services in executing said writs.

Francis M. Higbee, was now loudly called for. He stated his personal knowledge of the Mormons, from their earliest history, throughout their hellish career in Missouri and this State -- which has been characterized by the darkest and most diabolical deeds which has ever disgraced humanity.

The Committee appointed to draft resolutions, brought in the following report, which after some considerable discussion was unanimously adopted:

Whereas, the officer charged with the execution of a writ, against Joseph Smith and others, for riot in the county of Hancock, which said writ said officer has served upon said Smith and others -- and whereas, said Smith and others refuse to obey the mandate of said writ -- and whereas, in the opinion of this meeting it is impossible for said officer, to raise a posse of sufficient strength to execute said writ -- and whereas; it is the opinion of this meeting that the riot is still progressing, and that violence is meditated, and determined on. It is the opinion of this meeting that the circumstances of the case require the interposition of Executive power. Therefore,

Resolved. That a deputation of two discreet men, be sent to Springfield to solicit such interposition.

2nd Resolved. That said deputation be furnished with a certified copy of this resolution -- and be authorized to obtain evidence by affidavit, and otherwise in regard to the violence, which has already been committed, and is still further meditated.

Dr. Evans here rose and expressed his wish that the above resolutions would not retard our operations -- but that we would each one arm and equip ourselves forthwith.

The resolutions passed at Warsaw were again read by Dr. Burnes, and passed by acclamation.

On motion of A. S. Sympson, Esq., the suggestion of Mr. Bagby appointing places of encampment, was adopted, to wit: Warsaw, Carthage, Green Plains, Spilman's Landing, Chili and La Harp.

On motion, O. C. Skinner and Walter Bagby, Esqrs., were appointed: a Committee, to bear the resolutions adopted by this meeting, to his Excellency, the Governor, requiring his executive interposition.

On motion of J. H. Sherman, a Central Corresponding Committee was appointed.

Ordered, That J. H. Sherman, H. R. Wilson, Chauncy Robinson, Wm. S. Freeman, Thos. Morrison, F. M. Higbee, Lyman Prentiss and Stephen H. Tyler, be said Committee.

On motion of Geo. Rockwell,

Resolved, That Constables in the different precincts hold themselves in readiness to obey the officer in possession of the writs, whenever called upon, in summoning the posse.

On motion the meeting adjourned
                                                                JOHN KNOX, Pres't.
    John Doty,
    Lewis F. Evans,  V. Pres'ts.
W. Y. Head, Secretary.

LATEST ORDERS. -- The citizens of this County are ordered to assemble at their various places of rendezvous, on Wednesday Next, by the Officer, from whom Smith was rescued, and there to receive general orders to co-operate as a posse to aid in arresting Smith

Citizens of the adjoining State, Territory and Counties, who feel interested in bringing to justice the most depraved wretch on earth, will observe that they can join our standard, and act with the posse comitatus without violating the Law. We are all prepared in this County to do our duty. If the Governor orders out the Militia, there will be no difficulty -- if not we are determined to try the posse comitatus; being assurred that the citizens of surrounding counties, and of Missouri and Iowa will join us. As soon as the day for a general co-operation is set, we will notify by a handbill, all the citizens in the adjacent country.

The following extracts, taken from the testimony of the some of the most important witnesses, on the ocassion; such as tend to show most clearly the object -- the designs -- and the spirit of Mormonism, -- is exhibited in the leaders, in the "Missouri War. "We regret that our space will not allow us to reprint the whole of that important testimony.)

Testimony of Dr. Sampson Avard, an officer and influential leader of the Danite Band.

Sampson Avard, a witness produced sworn, and examined on behalf of the State, deposeth and saith: That about four months since a band, called the Daughters of Zion (since called the Danite band) formed of the members of the Mormon church, the original object of which was to drive from the county of Caldwell all those who dissented from the Mormon Church; in which they succeded admirably, and to the satisfaction of those concerned. I consider Joseph Smith, Jr., as the prime mover and organizer of this Danite band.

The officers of the band, according to their grades were brought before him, at a school-house, together with Hirum Smith and Sidney Rigdon: the three composing the first presidency of the whole church. Joseph Smith, Jr., blessed them, and prophesied over them: declaring that they should be the means, in the hands of God, of bringing forth the millenial kingdom. It was stated by Joseph Smith, Jr., that it was necessary this band should be bound together by a covenant, that those who revealed the secrets of the Society should be put to death. The convenant taken by all the Danite, band was as follows to wit: They declared, holding up their right hands, "In the name of Jesus Christ the Son of God, I do solemnly obligate myself ever to conceal, and never to reveal, the secret purposes of this society called the Daughter of Zion. Should I ever do the same, I hold my life as the forfeiture." The Prophet, Joseph Smith Jr., together with his two counsellors. (Hyrum Smith and Sidney Rigdon,) were considered as the supreme head of the church; and the Danite band feel as much bound to obey them, as to obey the Supreme God. Instruction was given by Joseph Smith, Jr., that if any of them should get into a difficulty the rest should help him out; and that they should stand by each other, right or wrong. This instruction was given at a Danite Meeting, in a public address. As for Joseph Smith Jr., and his two counsellors, the witness does not know they ever took the Danite oath.

At the election last August, a report came to Far West that some of the brethren in Daviess county were killed. I called for twenty volunteers to accompany me to see into this matter. I went; and about; one hundred and twenty Mormons accompanied me to Adamon Diahmon -- Joseph Smith Jr., in company. When I arrived there, I found the report exaggerated. None were killed. We visited Mr. Adam Black -- about 150 or 200 men of us armed. Joseph Smith was commander; and if Black had not signed the paper he did, it was the common understanding and belief that he would have shared the fate of the dissenters.

Joseph Smith Jr., the Sunday before the late disturbance in Daviess, at a church meeting, gave notice that he wished the whole county collected on the next day (Monday) at Far West. He declared on Sunday or Monday -- I don't recollect which, that all who did not take up his arms in defence of the Mormons of Daviess should be considered as tories, and should take their exit from the country.

At the meeting on Monday, when persons met from all parts of the county of Caldwell, Joseph Smith, jr., took the pulpit and delivered an address, in which he said that he had been an injured people, driven violently from Jackson county; that he had appeared to the Government, magistrates, judges, and even to the President of the United States, and there had been no redress for us; and that now a mob was about to destroy the rights of our brethren of Daviess county, and that it was high time that we should take measures to defend our rights. In the address, he related an anecdote about a captain who applied to a Dutchman to purchase potatoes, who refused to sell. The captain then charged his company several different times not to touch the Dutchman's potatoes. In the morning the Dutchman had not a potatoe left in his patch. This was in reference to touching no property in our expedition to Daviess county that did not belong to us, but; he told us that the children of God did not go to war at their own expense. A vote was taken whether the brethren should embody and go down to Daviess to attack the mob. The question was put by the prophet Joseph Smith Jr., and passed unanimously with a few exceptions. Captain Patten and Brunson were appointed commaders of the Mormons, by Joseph Smith, Jr., to go to Daviess. He frequently called these men generals. I had a command as an officer, but Joseph Smith Jr., removed me from it, asked him the reason, and he assigned that he had another for me. Afterwards Mr. Rigdon told me I was to fill the office of surgeon to attend the sick and wounded. After we arrived at Diahmon, in Daviess a council was held at night, composed of Joseph Smith, Jr., George W. Robinson, Hiram Smith, Captains Patten and Brunson, Lyman Wight, President R. Cahoon, P. P. Pratt, and myself, and perhaps Mr. Hinkle. President Rigdon was not present. He remained at Far West; a correspondence was kept up between him and Joseph Smith, Jr. I heard Mr. Rigdon read one of the letters from Smith, which, as I remember, was about as follows; That he knew, from prophecy and from the revelation of Jesus Christ, that the enemies of the kingdom [were] in their hands; and that they (the Mormon church) should succeed. Rigdon, on reading the letter, said it gave him great consolation to have such authority that the kingdom of God was rolling on. In the above referred to council, Mr. Smith spoke of the grievances we had suffered in Jackson, Clay, Kirtland, and other places; declared that we must, in future, stand up for our rights as citizens of the United States, and as saints of the most high God; and that it was the will of God we should do so; that we should be free and independent, and that as the State of Missouri, and the United States, would not protect us, it was high time that we should be up, as the saints of the most high God, and protect ourselves, and take the kingdom. Lyman Wight observed, that, before the winter was over, he thought we would be in St. Louis, and take it.

Smith charged them that they should be united in supporting each other. Smith said, on some occasions, that one should chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight; that he considered the United States rotten. He compared the Mormon church to the little stone spoken of by the Prophet Daniel; and the dissenters first, and the State next, was part of the image that should be destroyed by this little stone. The council was called on to vote the measures of Smith; which they did unanimously. On the next day Captain Patten (who was called by the prophet Captain Fearnaught) took command of about one hundred armed men, and told them that he had a job for them to do, and that the work of the Lord was rolling on, and they must be united. He then led the troops to Gallatin, saying he was going to attack the mob there. He made a rush into Gallatin, dispersed the few men there, and took the goods out of [Strolling's] store, and carried them to Diahmon, and I afterwards saw the storehouse on fire. When we returned to Diahmon, the goods were deposited in the Lord's storehouse, under the care of Bishop Vincent Knight. Orders were strictly given that all the goods should he deposited in the Lord's storehouse. No individuals were to appropriate any thing to themselves until a general distribution should be made. Joseph Smith, jr., was at Adam on Diahmon, giving directions about things in general connected with the war. When Patten returned from Gallatin to Adam on Diahmon, the goods were divided or apportioned out among those engaged; and these affairs were conducted under the superintendence of the first presidency. A part of the goods were brought to Far West. On their arrival, under the care of Captain Fearnaught, President Rigdon shouted three hosannas to the victors. On the day Patten went to Gallatin, Colonel Wight went to Millport, as I understood. I saw a great many cattle, beds, furniture, &c. brought into our camp by the Mormons. After we returned to Far West, the troops were constantly kept in motion, and there was a council held at the house of President Rigdon, to determine who should be chiefs.   The object of the council was in furtherance of the scheme proposed in council in Daviess, referred to above. After this council, Fearnaught disputed as to the chief command of the Far West troops, and had a smart altercation about it with Hinkle, but Smith proposed that they agree to disagree, and go on for   the kingdom. The troops were kept together until the militia came out lately. There were five hundred to eight hundred men, as I should suppose, under arms. It was about this time that the militia came out lately to Far West, under General Lucas, that our prophet assembled the troops together at Far West, into a hollow square, and addressed them, and stated to them that the kingdom of God should be set up, and should never fall; and for every one we lacked in number of those who came against us, the Lord would send angels, who would fight for us; and that we should be victorious.

After the militia had been near Far West awhile, in an address, Smith said that those troops were militia, and that we were militia too, and both sides clever fellows; and he advised them to know nothing of what had happened; to say nothing; and to keep dark; that he, Smith, had forgotten more than he had ever known.   Some months ago I received orders to destroy the paper concerning the Danite Society; which order was issued by the first presidency and which papers being the constitution for the government of the Danite Society, was in my custody, but which I did not destroy. It is now in General Clark's possession. I gave the paper up to General Clark after I was taken prisoner. I found it in my house, where I had previously deposited it, and believe it never had been in any person's possession after I first received it. This paper was taken into President Rigdon's house, and read to the prophet   and was unanimously adopted by them as their rule and guide in [fortune]. After it was thus adopted, I was instructed by the council to destroy it, as; if it should be discovered it would be considered treasonable. This constitution, after it was approved by the first presidency, was read, article by article, to the Danite Band, and unanimously adopted by them. This paper was drawn up about the time that the Danite band was formed. Since the drawing up of that paper against the dissenters it was thus that this constitution of the Danite band was drafted;   I have no minutes of the time, as were directed not to keep written minutes; which constitution, above referred to, is as follows:

"Whereas, in all bodies laws are necessary for the permanency, safety and well-being of society, we the members of the society of the Daughters of Zion, do agree to regulate ourselves under such laws as in righteousness shall be deemed necessary for the preservation of our holy religion, and of our most sacred rights, and the rights of our wives and children. But, to be explicit on the subject, it is especially our object to support and defend the rights conferred on us by our venerable sires, who purchased them with the pledges of their lives and fortunes, and their sacred honors. And now to prove ourselves worthy of the liberty conferred on us by them, in the providence of God, we do agree to be governed by such laws as shall perpetuate these high privileges, of which we know ourselves to be the rightful possessors, and of which privileges wicked and designing men have tried to deprive us, by all manner of evil, and that purely in consequence of the tenacity we have manifested in the discharge of our duty towards our God, who had given us those rights and privileges, and a right in common with others, to dwell on this land. But we, not having the privileges of other citizens allowed unto us, have determined like unto our fathers, to resist tyranny, whether it be in kings or in the people. It is all alike to us. Our rights we must have, and our rights we shall have, in the name of Israel's God.

Art. 1st. All power belongs originally and legititnately to the people, and they have a right to dispose of it as they may deem f it; but as it is inconvenient and impossible to convene the people in all cases the legislative powers have been given by them, from time to time, into the hands of a representation composed of delegates the people themselves. This is and has been the law, both in civil and religious bodiss, and is the true principle.

Art. 2d. The executive power shall be vested in the president of the whole church and his councillors.

Art. 3d. The legislative power shall reside in the president and his councillors, together, and with the generals and colonels of the Society

Art. 4th. All offices shall be during life and good behaviour, or to be regulated by the law of God.

Art 5th. The society reserves the power of electing all its officers, with the exception of the aids and clerks which the officers may need in their various stations. The nomination to go from the presidency to his second, and from the second to the third in rank, and on down through all the various departments. Each branch or department retains the power of electing its own particular officers.

Art. 6th. Punishments shall be administered to the guilty, in accordance to the offence; and no member shall be punished without law, or by any other than those appointed by law for that purpose. The legislature shall have power to make laws regulation, punishments, as, in their judgments, shall be wisdom and righteousness.

Art. 7th. There shall be a secretary whose business it shall be to keep all the legislative records of the society, and also to keep a register of names of every member of society; also the rank of the officers. He shall also communicate the laws to the generals as directed by laws made for the regulation of such business by the Legislature.

Art 8th. All officers shall be subject to the commands of the Captain General, given through the Secretary of War; and so all officers should be subject to their superiors in rank, according laws made for that purpose.

Testimony of John Cleminson, Clerk of the Circuit Court of Caldwell County.

John Cleminson, a witness, produced, sworn, and examined, in behalf of the State, deposeth and saith: Sometime in June I attended two or three of the Danite meetings; and it was taught there, as a part of the duty of the band, that they should support the presidency in all their designs, right or wrong; that whatever they said was to be obeyed, and whoever opposed the presidency in what they said, or desired done, should be expelled from the county, or have their lives taken. -- The three composing the presidency was at one of those meetings, and, to satisfy the people, Dr.Avard called on Joseph Smith, Jr., who gave them a pledge, that if they led them into a difficulty he would give them his head for a foot-ball, and that it was the will of God these things should be so. The teacher and active agent of the society was Dr. Avard, and his teachings were approved of by the presidency. Dr. Avard further taught, as a part of their obligation, that if any one betrayed the secret designs of the society, they should be killed, and laid aside, and nothing said about it.

I heard Sidney Rigdon's sermon, commonly called the "salt sermon" and its purport and design was about as other witnesses have stated before me. When process was filed against Joseph Smith, and others, in my office as clerk of Caldwell circuit court, for tresspass, Joseph Smith, jr., told me not to issue that writ; that he did no intend to submit to it; and that it was a vexatious thing, and I had a right to judge whether a suit was vexatious or not, and that he would see me out in it. Hiram Smith, (who was not a defendant in that suit,) also joined him in this promise, if I would not issue the writ. This was previous to the last term of the Caldwell circuit court. I considered myself not as a proper judge as to whether it was a vexatious suit or not. Joseph Smith, jr., said it was a vexatious thing and that he would not suffer it to be issued; and I felt myself intimidated and in danger, if I issued it, knowing the regulations of the Danite band.

On the Monday prior to the last Daviess expedition, I heard Mr. Rigdon say that those who had heretofore been backward in taking up arms in defending themselves, ought to, or should, be put upon their horses, with bayonets and pitchforks; and Smith said, forced into the front of the battle; and that the property of those who would not go into the war should be consecrated to the use of those who did. Mr. Smith said their beef, corn, and potatoes, they would take.

When we first went to Daviess, I understood the object to be, to drive out the mob, if one should be collected there; but when we got there we found none. I then learned the object was, from those who were actively engaged in the matter, to drive out all the citizens of Daviess and get possession of their property. It was understood that they burnt Mormon houses, as well as the houses of the other citizens. The burning of the Mormon houses was to bring the Mormons into Diahmon, as I understood it. It was said by some that the Mormons were burning their own houses, and, by others, that the mob was burning them; and so much was said about it, that I did not know when I got the truth. I heard Demick B. Huntington one of the Mormon troops, say that the Missourians at Gallatin, had taken the goods out of Stolling's store, and piled them up and set fire to the storehouse, and had gone off for wagons to haul off the goods; but that our wagons had got there first, and had hauled them off. I understood that the goods were deposited with the bishop of the church at Diahmon, as consecrated property to the church. A great deal of other property was brought into the Mormon camps; but (I do not) know where it came from, but understood it to be consecrated property. It was frequently observed among the troops, that the time had come when the riches of the Gentiles should be consecrated to the Saints.

Latest  News.

The Iowa passed down (6 o'clock Wednesday evening) and reports that she was not allowed to land her passengers at Nauvoo, the city having been declared by the prophet, under Martial Law.

==> A rumor is afloat that the Mormons have melted the type of the Expositor office and converted them into bullets.

JOE'S PROCLAMATION. -- Joe has issued a proclamation in his usual arrogant style. He contends that no law has been violated in the destruction of the Press of the Expositor; and concludes by warning the world that so sure as there is a God in Israel, he will ride triumphant over all oppression. Go it Joe, and we will go it too.

==> We publish to-day, a portion of the testimony given before the judicial tribunals of Missouri, in relation to the conduct of the Mormons in that state. -- We do this at this time, in order to show the world what manner of devils we have to deal with. The witnesses were themselves Mormons, and some of them are Mormons now.

HA!  HA!  HA!

By the Neighbor, extra, we learn that a meeting was held in Nauvoo, on Sunday last, at which, a committee for each Precinct were appointed to visit them, and disabuse the public mind in relation to the late affair in Nauvoo; and to make propositions of compromise. Well Joe you would like peace doubtlessly, but you can't come it. We will hear none of your flummery. We are all fully convinced of your baseness; and we are right glad the time has come to get rid of you and your band. Keep your committees at home Joe. We are all well acquainted with the facts, of the case, and don't for one moment presume that you can humbug us.

We learn that Joe's committee visited Green Plains yesterday, and proposed to compromise by surrendering Joe to be tried in Nauvoo, before one of his cat's paws. Bah! Joe. Try again.


If time would allow, we would reprint about one thousand copies of: the late Nauvoo Neighbor Extra. It is the best evidence that can possibly be procured, of the rascality of the Mormons. The City Council seemed to labor hard to convince the world that the Laws, Higbees and Fosters, &c. are all a pack of scoundrels, counterfeiters, seducers and cut-throats, and that they knew it long ago: and yet, these same individuals, during the time the Prophet knew of their baseness held high stations in the church and ranked amongst his conscious friends and supporters. -- Joe proves too much. If the discovery concerning these men, were a recent one, there might be a shadow of excuse for their present abuse of them, but according to his own showing, he has long held fellowship with counterfeiters and cut-throats.

Now nothing is more evident than that this ado about these individuals, is all flummery, designed to screen Joe and his minions, from charges that fit them but too closely. They have therefore raised the cry of "stop thief;" hoping thereby, to ward off public sympathy from these individuals whose fate has caused so much commiseration.


We have received from the office of Nauvoo Neighbor an Extra, intended to quiet the public indignation against the late proceedings in Nauvoo.

The whole is prefaced with that soothing hypocritical cant, for which the Devil and his coadjutors are so eminently distinguished. The Editors says that no law has been violated; but if it has, a higher Court will regulate it. Now these villains, while they preach this doctrine to the world, know full well; that they resisted the attempt of the officers of justice to arrest them; thereby refused to bring the matter before the State Court for investigation and adjudication. But we will not argue with such scoundrels on paper, -- that has been done long enough. The argument we now propose is on the field.

The extra also contains a certificate signed by such men as Geo. P Stylesan and W. W. Phelps, that no threats were made against the Warsaw Signal or its Editor. Now, our information is derived from two sources, which are of unquestionable authenticity. Mr. Grey and Stringum of Pike County were both present and heard the assertion as reported by us. These gentlemen will be believed in any community in preference to a band of perjured hirelings. W. W. PheIps, once swore to matters which if true, would sink Joe and his coadjutors to the lowest chamber of the bottomless pit, and yet he is now used as a witness by this same villain.

The balance of the matter contained in this extra we deem it unnecessary to notice. It is sickening to read the tissue of loathsome trash, which Joe procures witnesses to make oath to, in order to screen his own iniquitous career. No one doubts but that Joe can prove himself an angel of light, and his enemies a pack of devils, if perjured witnesses are to be believed. He may therefore have the full benefit of all his witnesses' testimony -- no man of common sense can be made thereby to change his opinions. Joe's logic is, that he may publish in the Neighbor all manner of slanderous and libelous matter against the character of his enemies with impunity; but that the press that retaliates is a nuisance, and must be destroyed. For weeks past the Neighbor has teemed with libelous matter, intended to blast the reputation of the Laws, Fosters and Higbees. They have been branded as counterfeiters, blacklegs and seducers. To this, they must quietly submit; and the penalty inflicted for daring to defend themselves, and to retaliate on their villainous traducers is that their property must be destroyed.

Joe's course is testimony against himself. Why did he fear the Nauvoo Expositor, if he were an innocent and abused man? He had a press under his own control, by which he could defend himself from all unjust aspersions. But No! he knew that this press located in the midst of his followers, would open the eyes of the honest portion of them to his villainous practices; hence it is, that he said in council, that rather than the office should remain in Nauvoo he would die before the morrow. Why stake so much upon the destruction of this press, it he did not deem that either his power, or it must be crushed. The truth is, he knew his own corruption, and he knew that the men in charge of this press were in possession of facts which if brought to light, would effectually demolish his power. Joe then, had no alternative. It was destruction of the press or destruction to himself. He has destroyed the press; thus perpetrating the most daring outrage that has ever disgraced our free and happy country. And now Fellow citizens1 it is for you to say shall he crush you also? He has long insulted and defied you and your laws -- he has screened fugitives from Justice -- he has harbored counterfeiters, outlaws and thieves -- he has a band of cut throats around him -- and he has threatened the lives and property of your fellow Citizens -- he has trampled female virtue under his feet, his followers have long annoyed you by their thefts for which you can obtain no redress, and now his last fiendish act has filled the measure of his iniquity. You are aroused, -- the fire of indignation is burning in your bosoms; and our prayer is, that it may not be quenched, until every surrounding community shall feel its sympathetic influence, and generously come to your aid, in the approaching struggle. Let there be no cowards in the camp, and no faint hearts by the way; but upon every man's countenance let there be written, the desperate determination, and the firm resolve to strike the tyrant to the dust. Give no quarters; for recollect, that you have but one alternative; either to submit to his yoke, bear his taunts and insults, live in constant fear of your lives and property, or to drive from your midst the authors of your troubles. He has now put himself in opposition to the law. Rather than submit, he is determined to fight. You, Fellow Citizens are justified before the world, and in the sight of Heaven, Strike, then! for the time has fully come.

The  Preparation.

Our town in the last weeks has been in a constant state of excitement. Business has been almost entirely suspended, and every able-bodied man is under arms and almost constantly in drill

Never did we see exhibited a more determined spirit. An injured and insulted community suffering under their long born grievances, are determined by an appeal to arms, as a last resort, to redress wrongs that have become insupportable.

On Monday last about 150 men mustered in this place under the command of General Knox. The attention paid by every man, and the anxiety manifested to acquire knowledge of military movements, is a full guarantee for the good conduct of our men in the coming emergency.

In Carthage and Green Plains, the citizens are all in arms, and as far as we can hear, throughout the country, every man is ready for the conflict.

We have assurances that our neighbors in Missouri and Iowa will aid us. In Clark County, Mo. we understand that many are holding themselves in readiness to march as soon as wanted. From Rushville we have just learned by express that 300 men have enlisted for the struggle. McDonough County, is all alive and ready for the word of command. From Keosaqua, Iowa we have just received intelligence by a resident of that place, that the citizens are in arms in our behalf, and only wait our call. From Keokuk and the river towns we learn that all are arming. Gen. Stapp of this Brigade, is requested to call our the Militia, and hold himself in readiness.

Joe is evidently much alarmed, but he has gone too far to back out. He must toe the mark, or run. Compromise is out of the question. The delegates sent to the Governor have not yet returned. If they fail to procure his interference, a day will be set forthwith, for a general rally as a posse, to assist the officers of justice. As soon as this is done, we will issue a handbill giving notice of the fact. Our friends in surrounding communities, who desire to aid us, will please hold themselves in readiness for this general order. When the word is given, every thing depends on promptness.

Capt. Grover last week obtained from Quincy 59 muskets. Men and arms are promised from St. Louis, and everything betokens prosperity to our enterprise.

To our friends at a distance, we say come! We are too weak in this county, without aid to effect our object. Come! you will be doing your God and your country service, in aiding us to rid earth of a most Heaven daring wretch.

6 clock P. M. -- D. W. Mathews, who was sent last Saturday to St. Louis, has just returned, by the Die Vernon. He has succeeded in procuring cannon; and has brought up a good supply ammunition.

Mr. Simpson and Mr. Thompson have just returned from their trip to Missouri, and report all is right, and ready.

A Gentleman who conversed with Gov. Ford last week, reports that his excellency said, that he would do all he could in case Joe again defied the laws to bring him to justice. This was before the news of our present difficulties reached him.

We expect a six pounder to-morrow night from Quincy.

8 o'clock P. M. -- We have just learned that Joe has ordered all his followers into Nauvoo. The settlements around are with all despatch obeying the order.

At Lima a company was formed to day and reported themselves in readiness for orders.

E. A. Thompson, Esq. who saw Gov. Ford last week, states that an order has been granted by His Excellency, to try Joe Smith by Court Martial, for unofficerly conduct.

LEAVING THE CITY. -- The Ospery passed down yesterday, having on board Sidney Rigdon and about 100 other Mormons who are making tracks for the lower country.

We publish to-day but half a sheet. -- Our hands are all out on drill and it is with difficulty that we can even get on our regular paper.

At a large and respectable meeting of the citizens of Jackson Township, Lee County Iowa, assembled at Keokuk, June 18th, 1844. Moses Green, Esq., was called to the chair, and W. S. M'Gavic, chosen Secretary. On motion Doct. Justine Mallard, Adam Hine, Allen Brown, Wm. S. M'Gavic, and John M'Kain, Esq., were appointed a committee, to draft resolutions concerning the conduct of a lawless Banditti, headed by Joe Smith, and to form plans for our safety.

After a short absence, the committee reported the following, which were unanimously adopted:

WHEREAS, it is abundantly evident to us, that Joe Smith, is the boldest blasphemer, the greatest debauchee, the most successful swindler, and consumate outlaw that ever disgraced human form.

Therefore, be it Resolved, That we intend by all lawful means to protect ourselves and families, from Joe Smith, and his lawless Banditti.

Resolved, That we will not shelter him nor any of his adherents, nor allow them to stop among us, if law can prevent it.

Resolved, That we do seeply sympathise with the citizens of Hancock county, Ills., in their difficulties with Joe, and that we will give them any assistance they may require, or the law allows. to aid in the execution of the Laws of the land.

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be forwarded to the Warsaw Signal, for publication.

On motion, the meeting adjourned, until Tuesday Next at 2 o'clock P. M.
                                            MOSES GREY, Pres't.
                                                    Wm. S. M'Gavic, Sec't.

P O S T S C R I P T.

THURSDAY, June 20, 7 o'clock P. M. We stop the press for the purpose of presenting our readers with additional proof of the declaration of Martial Law, in Nauvoo. Two gentlemen left this place on the 18th inst. for that city. They arrived during a severe shower of rain, and were not molested until they had reached the Mansion House. They were then told that they could not leave the city without a pass! The same was reiterated by Joe Smith, with the additional remark, that all who were there should be made to remain and fight for him. -- Sentries were stationed throughout the city, and as far as they could judge the most rigid adherence to Military Law was observed. One of the gentlemen, was so fortunate to have an acquaintance in the city, through whose urgent solicitation, backed by assurances of good intentions, they were enabled to procure a pass.

While in the city they were closely questioned, as to their residence, business and destination, by persons who appeared to act by authority.

They also report that several persons were in the city under arrest. One family of emigrants, bound for Iowa were detained, being unable to procure a pass.

The following affidavit will corroborate the foregoing.

      Hancock County.)

James Cameron, being duly sworn deposeth and saith; that on the 19th day of June inst., he went to Nauvoo on business, and on his return from said City, near the Corporation line of said City, he was stopped by a Guard at said place, and told that he could not pass out without orders from their head quarters, at the Masonic House; that thereupon he returned into the City and demanded of the authorities permission to leave said city, and upon his telling them he was a citizen of McDonough County, that he came there on business and was intending to return, they told him he should have gone; and that afterwards a suspicion arising, that he was a Carthagenian and a spy; they refused to give him permission to leave without his first taking an oath in substance, as follows viz.: That he was not a Spy, but had come on business, as stated, that he was not a Carthagenian, nor had any connection with them that he had never been hostile to the Mormons, nor was now hostile to them.

That he would return home direct by way of La Harpe, and by no means go to Carthage -- that he would not inform the citizens of Carthage, nor any other persons during life of what had occurred to him in Nauvoo, nor any information respecting their strength and movements in Nauvoo. -- that he might either take the oath the substance of which, is just now given. And return home or if he refused to take said oath he must remain there as a prisoner with them, to abide such decisions as they should come to, respecting him -- that whilst there amongst them he heard it said in the crowd surrounding him that the Carthagenians and Mobocrats ought to be put to death and that hell was too good for them -- that they took means of discovery whether or not he was a citizen of Carthage, as he supposed, to carry into effect their threat upon him as a citizen of said place -- that to get away from said City and avoid the danger he felt himself to be in, whilst there, he took the above oath, and thereupon they gave him a strip of paper, which they told him was a pass which was as follows viz.:

"This certifies that James Cameron can pass to his home in McDonough County in safety.
          J. DUNHAM.
              Major General, N. L."  

That upon showing said paper called a pass to the guard of the borders of said City, he was allowed to pass out. And further this deponent sayeth not.

                                           JAMES CAMERON.
Sworn to, and subscribed
before me, this 20th day
of June 1844.
      ROBT. D. FOSTER, J. P.

Two hundred and fifty men mastered arms yesterday at this place.

Troops are gathering from other counties in Carthage. About 300 are now encamped in that place; ready for action.

The Mormons say that they have 4000 well drilled troops.

We have just learned by a gentleman from Keokuk; that they have organized a company of volunteers in that place, and appointed a committee of vigilance, and a committee for safety.

Provisions have been made by our citizens, to furnish all persons coming from a distance with provisions.

No News yet of a definite character from the Governor. It was rumored in Quincy, that the Militia are ordered out; but no reliance is placed in the truth of it.

When the Governor learns that Nauvoo is under Martial Law, if he does not act, there is no need of a Governor.

A passenger on the Waverly, states that up the river everything is working right for our cause.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Extra.]                       Warsaw, Illinois, Friday, June 21, 1844.                       [Extra.


...News has just been received from Carthage that the Governor arrived there in the morning and addressed the people in the course of the day. He takes decided ground against the Mormons, assuring the people that he would take measures to check their lawless course, and to thoroughly investigate all the charges alleged against them, and to bring them to punishment. He addressed a letter to the Mayor and Council of Nauvoo, asking them to send to him two of their most discreet citizens to make such explanations of their recent conduct as they may have to offer, and to come unarmed or he would not receive them. As a means of defence and to the end that Joe Smith may not dictate his own terms; the Governor has ordered out the 4th brigade of the militia, part of the force to be stationed at Carthage, and the balance at Warsaw, and to take such measures for the security of these places as the commanding officers may deem necessary. A message was also despatched by the Governor to Alton, with an order for all the arms in the State Arsenal, to be transported to Warsaw, and used in arming the people.

Note: The full contents of this item have not yet determined.


Extra.]                       Warsaw, Illinois, Monday, June 24, 1844.                       [Extra.


Half past 5 o'clock, P. M.
                                    CARTHAGE, June 24, 1844.

DEAR SIR: -- Some misunderstanding between the constable and the persons accused in Nauvoo, as to the time of departure, caused the constable to return yesterday without prisoners. In the evening four of the prisoners came in, and surrendered themselves. A request was made for another escort for Smith and the others accused, for to-morrow, which upon due deliberation was refused.

Early this morning, I despatched Capt. Dunn with his troop, to demand the artillery and public arms in Nauvoo. On the prairie, four miles on the way to Nauvoo, Capt. Dunn met Smith and the others, coming out to Carthage. The order for the arms was endorsed by Smith, who returned to Nauvoo to deliver the arms as requested. I am assured that the arms and artillery will be delivered, and then all persons required will return with Capt. Dunn to this place.
                    I am most respectfully, &c.
                                    THOMAS FORD.

To the Editor of the Warsaw Signal.

N. B. A large portion of the Militia will be discharged this evening. I have the most satisfactory information that the Nauvoo legion has been discharged, and that the Mormons from the country, assembled under arms in the city, have returned to their homes.
                                    THOMAS FORD.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Extra.]                       Warsaw, Illinois, Thursday, June 27, 1844.                       [Extra.


Joe and Hiram Smith are dead -- shot this afternoon. An attack from the Mormons is expected every hour. Will not the surrounding counties rush instantly to our rescue?

            Warsaw, June 27, 1844.

It seems that the circumstances attending the killing of the Mormon Prophet and his brother Hiram are as follows: On yesterday, Gov. Ford left Carthage with about one hundred and twenty soldiers, for the purpose of taking possession of the "Nauvoo Legion," and their arms. They arrived at Nauvoo about noon, and called for the assembling of the Legion and their arms. -- They arrived at Nauvoo about noon and called for the assembling of the Legion. About 2000 men with arms immediately responded to the call. These troops were put under command of Col. Singleton of the Brown county, who accompanied Gov. Ford to Nauvoo.

The Governor finding all quiet left Nauvoo about 5 o'clock P. M., with a company of 60 men for the purpose of encamping about seven miles from the city.

At about the same time that Gov. Ford left Nauvoo, the Prophet and his brother were killed at Carthage, under the following circumstances, as near as we can ascertain them: --

Joe and Hiram are both confined in the debtors room of the Carthage jail, awaiting their trial on a charge of treason. The jail was strongly guarded by soldiers and anti-Mormons who had been placed there by the Governor.

A Mormon attempted to rush by the guards for the purpose of forcing his way in the jail. He was opposed by the guard, and fired a pistol at one of the guards, giving him a slight wound.

A general confusion ensued in the crowd around the jail. Joe and his fellow Mormon prisoners, it seems, had provided themselves with pistols, and commenced firing upon the guards within. He then attempted to escape by the window, when a hundred balls entered his body, and he fell lifeless corpse.

His brother Hiram shared the same fate. Richards, a leading Mormon, was badly wounded. There our intelligence ends -- what took place after this, God only knows. Mormons immediately left for Nauvoo, to carry news of the death of the Prophet. It is feared that the Mormons at Nauvoo will be so exasperated as to exterminate the Governor and his small force.

The Boreas brought down most of the women and children from Warsaw. It is feared their town is in ashes before this.

Our citizens were aroused this morning by the ringing of bells and a call to arms. Our three independent companies are already in marching order. Maj. Flood has ordered out the militia of the regiment, and the steamer Boreas is waiting to convey them to the scene of action.

There is no knowing where this dreadful affair will end. Many have expressed fears that our city is in danger, because most of the Warsaw families have taken refuge here -- but we believe there is no danger, we are too far from the scene of action.

Messengers have just left for Hannibal and the towns below for the purpose of arousing the Missourians. The excitement in our city is intense and the anxiety to hear the fate of Gov. Ford and his men are very great.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Extra.]                       Warsaw, Illinois, Saturday, June 29, 1844.                       [Extra.

E X T R A.

On Tuesday [Thursday?] evening Gov. Ford had given orders that all the troops should march to Nauvoo on Friday. On Thursday, the army was to rendezvous at Golden's Point about 5 miles from the city. The onject for this visit was not made known, but rests entirely on surmise. On Thursday morning a council of officers was called in Carthage, and on account of the desire of the troops from Schuyler and McDonough, to return home, and the fear that if the army were marched into Nauvoo, it could not be controlled, it was determined immediately to disband the troops. This was accordingly done, with the exception of the Carthage and Augusta troops, and a company under Capt. Singleton, who had possession of Nauvoo. The troops from other counties who had been disbanded, immediately returned to their homes, and Gov. Ford, accompanied by the Augusta Dragons, took up the line of march for Nauvoo.

About four o'clock, P. M., a company of about one hundred armed men, marched to the jail in Carthage, and demanded the prisoners. A rush was made on the guards, who fired, but hurt nobody. They were immediately secured, and the men rushed up stairs to the room of the prisoners. For about two minutes, [the] discharge of fire arms within the jail was very rapid. Finally Joe raised the window, exclaimed, "oh my God," and threw himself out. He fell heavily on the ground, and was soon despatched. Hirum was shot in the jail. There were two other prisoners, Dr. Richards who we learn was not hurt, and J. Taylor, editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, who received five balls in his arms and legs. Immediately on the work being done, the men fled.

It was expected that as soon as the news reached Nauvoo, the Mormons would take vengeance on Carthage and Warsaw. The Messenger, however, who started for Nauvoo met Gov. Ford returning to Carthage, and was not permitted to go further. The Governor sent for Capt. Singleton's men, who were in Nauvoo, and proceeded to Carthage. The Public Records were removed to Augusta, and the women and children sent out of the town. Gov. Ford left for Augusta, and we learn this morning that he had proceeded to Quincy.

In Warsaw, as soon as the news of the death of the two Smiths was received, every thing was placed in an attitude for defence, and the inhabitants of the surrounding country requested to come to our aid.

A portion of the women and children passed over the river. On Friday afternoon five companies from Quincy being about two hundred and fifty in number arrived on the Boreas. Many from Missouri and Iowa have also come to our aid. We have three cannon, plenty of ammunition, and we are fully prepared for any attack which the Mormons can make.

By the stage driver from Nauvoo, we learn that about thirty men were sent for the dead bodies of Joe and Hyrum, and that they were to be buried on the same evening, with military honors.

What will be the final issue is yet to be ascertained -- various [surmises] are afloat; but our opinion is, that either the old citizens or the Mormons must leave. The county cannot be quieted until the expulsion of one or the other is effected.

We neglected to mention in the proper place, that on Monday last, about half of the arms belonging to the State in possession of the Mormons, were taken from them, and all the cannon.

The prisoners were not in cells, but in the private room of the jailor, the windows of which were not barred.

... The sun rose on as strange a scene as the broad Hancock prairies had ever witnessed. At the three corners of a triangle, eighteen miles asunder,...stood a smitten and mourning city and two almost deserted villages... Toward the two villages, the more courageous ones... were now returning, tired and warn, to find their several homes unsacked and untouched....

..."No!" they cried.

"Then load with ball cartridges!"
[The Greys defied the general and were so] Wrought up... that the least notion to execute the order would in all probability have closed the career of the two prisoners...(fragmented text -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 20.                       Warsaw, Illinois, July 3, 1844.                       Whole 137.

(The situation at Nauvoo -- under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 21.                       Warsaw, Illinois, July 10, 1844.                       Whole 138.


                                      For the Warsaw Signal.

This communication is most respectfully, and with sentiments of sympathy and humanity, addressed to all reasonable and well disposed persons, whether male or female, who are attached to the interests of Joseph Smith, the reputed Prophet of the Latter Days.

As reasonable men and women, I ask you to review the history of your extraordinary leader -- compare the doctrines which he taught a few years ago -- compare his whole course of conduct through life, with the doctrines of morality and holiness which he affects to believe. Summon before your minds, the thousands of beggared families, reduced by his extravagance and infidelity, from comfort, to want and wretchedness -- mark his ingratitude to those who have come forward to his relief, in the scenes of his afflictions and distress -- observe his entire disregard of his most solemn promises, in almost all his business transactions -- scan his schemes of dishonest speculation -- blush for his ignorance and vanity, when you hear him clothing himself with the tinkling symbols of empty titles, as "Lieutenant General," -- "Mayor," "President of the High Council," "Melchesidec" or Priest of the Most High God, "Prophet," "Seer," "Revelator," "Translator," &c. &c. -- But his blasphemy. must excite your detestation and abhorrence, when he assumes the exercise of Divine prerogatives, in sealing up from the condemnation of sin, the minions of his power and companions of his revels, in scenes of more than human depravity -- in countenancing, and commanding the commission of crimes, at which the civilized, yea even the barbarous nations of the earth, have always revolted -- his graceless debauches, authorized by his pretended revelations

Look at the silly flummery, of the whole system of his ecclesiastical government -- his "High Councils," -- his two Priesthoods, his Twelves, His Seventies, his Elders, Priests, and Bishop, and his Presidents of quorums. And still forsooth, he is a great declaimer against Priestcraft. His entire disregard of all law human and divine, is clearly evinced in the whole tenor of his conduct -- but he is a great stickler for law, and complains bitterly against mobs, he cries alone in his fulsome rantings against vice, immorality and crime -- but his daily course is marked with scenes of drunkenness, profanity, gambling, falsehood, fraud and villainy and his midnight revels are devoted to debauchery and the concocting of schemes of murder, rapine and revenge. He is loud in his complaints of persecution, -- but no bigoted zealot ever dealt out damnation to a fallen world, with greater prodigality than his saintship. At all times when arraigned before the tribunals of justice, to answer for the violations of law, his cry is persecution [persecution] for righteousness sake! But this will never take again, so well as it did in his exodus from Missouri. His insupportable insolence -- this base ingratitude and unparalleled knavery, which he has practiced towards those very persons whose sympathies were enlisted in his behalf, in the days of his humiliation; and who, not only share with him their worldly comforts, but in many instances trusted him with almost all the hard earnings of their past lives, at a time when he was houseless and destitute -- and his only return for all their kindness and confidence, has been bitter cursing, foul detraction, base slander, villainous swearing and swindling, and dark and diabolical schemes of assassination;

This has convinced the world, so far as it is known, that persecution is a misnomer -- all the punishment of crimes, "persecution?" But this is unquestionably, the only species of persecution to which the Mormon leaders have ever been exposed. Persecution for righteousness sake, good heavens! -- did any person ever suspect Joseph Smith and his minions with the first born sign of righteousness? No never, never, after the most superficial acquaintance with them. With equal propriety, may every pirate murderer, thief and robber, when arraigned for his felony, cry out "persecution!" It is a libel on all past history, to call this Persecution for righteousness sake. It is prosecution for crime -- and for crimes of heinous turpitude. Thousands of the citizens of Illinois, whose houses five years ago were thrown open to receive the poor suffering persecuted saints who were then supposed to have been banished from their houses and homes in Missouri, barely "on account of their most holy religion," have long since learned the mortifying fact, that the leaders of this misguided sect; were in every sense of the word, "fugitives from justice," and provokers of their own ruin. And as soon as they were warmed into life again by the hospitality, benevolence and kind feelings of the people of Illinois, they commenced their career of incorrigible insolence, tyranny, oppression, disregard of both public and private rights, usurpations, cheating, swindling and robbing their late benefactors -- and to prevent a public exposure of their nefarious deeds, schemes of murder and assassination were deliberately adopted; and delivered in charge for execution, to a reckless band of mercenary [band] of desperadoes, who are bound together by the fear of a violent death, and attached to the prophet, by their love of plunder. And for a more detailed account of this organized banditti of murderers, thieves and robbers, see Book of Doctrine and Covenants, pages 204, 219,.231, 234, and 240. This department of mormonism, here denominated "the Order of Enoch" but better known as "Danites" is the fulcrum, upon which rests the prophet's lever for upsetting the presently existing empires of the world, and ultimately rolling himself into universal power. Here we have five pretended revelations, and although they are bunglingly interlarded with "Thus saith the Lord God," and a great quantity of other hypocritical cant -- the names of its members are also concealed, and an awkward; misticism thrown around the whole arrangement; still the infernal purposes of this God-provoking crew, are but ill-disguised, and may be easily perceived by attentive perusal of these pages. We know it is and always has been denied by Joseph Smith and his adherents, that they have any designs upon the rights and liberties of others, if so, we have been at a loss to define the meaning of numerous passages in his revelation, for example in his revelation dated "Zion (Independence, Mo.) August, 1831," preparatory to their removal from Ohio to Missouri, in speaking about purchasing land in Jackson County; this singular passage occurs, to wit. "Behold, here is wisdom: let them do this least they receive none inheritance, save it be by the SHEDDING OF BLOOD." -- Doct. and Covenants, page 139.

And again, in another revelation dated Kirtland, August 1831, on the same subject of settling in Missouri, the Lord is made to say: "wherefore the land of Zion, shall not be obtained, but by purchase, or by blood, otherwise there is no inheritance for you," Doctr's and Covn'ts, page 143. Once more, "and I have made the earth rich and behold it is my footstool; wherefore, again I will stand upon it; and I hold forth and design to give you greater riches, even a labd of promise -- a land flowing with [milch] and honey, upon which there shall be no curse when the Lord cometh. And I will give it unto you for the land of your inheritance, if you seek it with all your hearts, and this shall be my covenant with you, ye shall have it for the land of your inheritance, and for the inheritance of your children forever, while the earth shall stand, and ye shall possess it again in eternity, no more to pass away." Doct. Covt. page 119. But ye shall have no King nor Ruler, for I will be your King -- you shall be a free people, and ye shall have no laws but my laws -- for I am your Law-giver, and what can stay ny hand? ibid. It is not my present purpose to advert to the thousand enigmatical declarations of this character, which are scattered profusely, through most of these silly and blasphemous productions of Joseph Smith; but by calling your attention to a few instances, you may easily perceive that he has laid his scheme of political ambition, from the very commencement of his career, in scenes of blood and violence -- and now he unmasks himself, when he declares, "that if you will not wade to your knees in blood for MY SAKE, you may go to hell and be damned, and I will go and build another city!!" However, if his history for the past 14 years, does not afford you sufficient data, and incontrovertable evidences by which to arrive at a rational conclusion, as to the grand polar star at which he aims, and the proposed means by which he expects to attain his end, it is hardly probable that any brief review of the subject would produce that conviction. But I will here enquire how is it possible, that sensible, moral, well disposed and pious people, can still adhere to him, after they have witnessed the absence of every redeeming virtue, and the presence of every vice and crime, which degrades humanity in the darkest recesses of its depravity? Doubtless, before you saw him, you were taught to regard him as a holy messenger of God, who was especially commissioned to teach the way to life and immortality, both by doctrine and example; -- and although he artfully conceals his true character from the great body of his people, still enough is seen and known of him, by all who have seen or heard him, or given even a passing notice to his career; to convince all as to his real character, who have not closed their eyes and shut their ears against the painful realities of his baseness. Do not say, I beseech you, that your leaders are "persecuted on account of their religion," that is impossible -- they have no religion -- mormonism is a scheme of political ambition, mounted on a hypocritical affection of religion; while atheism of the rankest modern growth, unquestionably is the real creed of its advocates, teachers and principal leaders.

Let us now for a moment examine the tenure of Joseph Smith's commission from heaven to a fallen world, and learn its true intent. At page 126 in the Doctrines and Covenants, in a revelation given Feb. 1831, it is said: "And this ye shall know assuredly, that there is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations until he be taken, if he abide in me. I say unto you none else shall be appointed unto this gift except it be through him, for if it be taken from him he shall not have power, except he appoint another in his stead!" Here is a provision for an apostate to appoint his successor; query, why did not Judas Iscariot, choose Mattias, as his successor before he hanged himself, and not have troubled the Apostles with praying and casting lots, to determine this important case. This, at least is very strange, if not a novel arrangement, that the Almighty should permit an apostate to elect the head of his church on earth. "And again, I say unto you that if ye desire the mysteries of the kingdom, provide for him (Joseph) food and raiment and whatsoever thing he beedeth to accomplish [-----]" ibid. Joseph's claims at this time seem to have been quite moderate! In the early and incipient state of this blasphemous farce, Joseph Smith it seems called to his assistance as a clerk, a young man named OIiver Cowdry, who afterwards became almost as notorious as Smith himself -- And it appears that Oliver was anxious to be initiated into the mysteries of this wonderful affair, and probably importuned his master, Joseph, for at least a portion of his spirit, and gift of of translating, &c. Then here comes the response from heaven; -- behold I grant unto you a gift: if you desire of me to translate even as my servant Joseph," page 110. How this must have rejoiced the heart of the young schoolmaster, to have discovered such a short route to the attainment of the most profound knowledge of all languages, ancient and modern, as well symbolical as hierogliphical, together with the mysteries of time and eternity. But how great must have been his disappointment and mortification, but a few days after receiving this promise upon the authority of high heaven; to have received from the same source the following, to wit: "Be patient my son, for it is wisdom in me, and it is not expedient that you should translate at this present time!" "You are called to write for my servant Joseph." page 162. Poor Cowdry must have thought, what is wisdom in you, has made o fool of me;" but the poor fellow it seems took the advice, and bore his disappointment patiently for many years thereafter. It will be recollected with what positive certainty this sect always assert their positions, as for example, "I know it." &c. on all occasions. I will here give an example, of their mode of demonstration, beyond a possible doubt. It will be found on page 152 in their book of Doctrines and Covenants, and reads thus: "And now I the Lord give unto you a testimony of the truth of these commandments which are lying before you, your eyes have been upon my servant Joseph Smith, jr., and his labguage you have known and his imperfections you have known; and you have sought in your hearts knowledge that you might express beyond his language; this you also know now seek ye out of the book of Commandments, even the least that is among them, and appoint him that is the most wise among you, or if there be any among you that shall make one like unto it, ye are under condemnation if ye do not bear record that they are true." Here the Lord's Prophet challenges his disciples to try their hands at writing commandments by way of revelations, in competition with his astounding production of that character; and even in this solemn performance he plays the braggert as on all other occasions. It must be admitted, however, that it would be a serious task, for a sensible man, even to immitate his production. But as Joseph himself would have been the judge of this contest, (for need of writing revelations;) and if his competitors had dared to contest the point at issue, he would have broke up in a row, and declared himself as usual, the conqueror! Also on the 76th page of this Mormon Alcaron, we have the following declaration: "Wherefore I the Lord knowing the calamity which should come upon the inhabitants of the earth, called upon my servant Joseph Smith jr., and spake unto him from heaven, and gave him commandments; and also gave commandments to others that they should proclaim these things to the world:" compare this, with page 126, before recited, "And this ye shall know assuredly that there is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations," &c. It must be confessed that his holiness has poor memory. See again on page 88 how high Joseph builds his nest, to wit: And again, the duty of the president of the [officer] of the high priesthood is to preside over the whole church, and [to like] unto Moses. Behold here is wisdom -- yea to be a Seer, a revelator, a translator and aprophet -- having all the gifts of God which he bestows upon the head of the church." -- And also page 96. "The president of the council, is appointed by revelation, and acknowledged in his administration, by the voice of the church, and it is according to the dignity of his office, that he should preside over the high council of the church; and it is his privilege to be assisted by two other presidents, appointed after the same manner, that he himself was appointed," &c. That was by revelation -- given by himself. And on page 97, we read as follows: "On case of difficulty respecting doctrines or principles, (if there is not a sufficiency written to make the case clear to the minds of the Council,) the president may inquire and obtain the mind of the Lord by revelation!!" Oh, wonderful! what a great man, this President General, Seer, Revelator, Translator, Priest, Prophet, King, Mayor, Councillor, Alderman, Trustee, Moses, and Joseph Smith, Esquire, certainly is, cannot be denied.

But in December 1830, it seems that the Lord was not disposed to trust an apostle with election of his own successor, for he then said, page 117, "I have sent for the fullness of my gospel by the hans of my servant Joseph; and in weakness have I blessed him, &c. I have given unto him the keys of the mystery of those things which have been sealed and the things which shall come from this time until the time of my coming, if he abide in me, and if not, another will I plant in his stead." Will Joseph be so good, as to inform his admirers how it happened that the Lord changed his mind in such an important item of church government as appears to have occured in the short space of two months, as in Feb. next following, viz. 1831, he has made the Lord say -- "none else shall be appointed unto this gift except not through him, for if it be taken from him he shall not have power except to appoint another in his stead," page 126. But I cannot forbear noticing the above singular sentence -- "and in weakness have I blessed him," (Joseph) if weakness is a blessing, then is he truly blessed indeed! We find another similar passage on page 140, viz: and they shall also be crowned with blessings from above; yea and with commandments not a few, and with revelation in their time." The Lord has certainly redeemed his promise, in so far as the second clause in this quotation is concerned, for if the Mormons have not been "crowned with commandments not a few," I know of no other people who have.

Were we disposed to amuse our readers with the gross ignorance, vanity and folly which abounds in the writings of this man, his blasphemy would excite our abhorence, and his incorrigable impudence, our contempt. And leave us but little room for amusement. I will now recite one more passage from these sacred oracles which every true believer in Mormonism is bound to receive as of divine authority, to show to what extent Joseph Smith claims prerogatives both human and divine, the "he that is ordained and sent forth," spoken of in the text is Joseph Smith, -- the passage will be found on page 135, and reads thus: "And again verily I say unto you, and I say it that you may know the truth, that you may chase darkness from among you, for he that is ordained of God and sent forth, ( i. e. Joseph Smith) the same is appointed to be the greatest, notwithstanding he is, least, and the servant of all: wherefore he is possessor of all things, for all things are subject unto him, both in heaven and on the earth, the life, and the light, the spirit, and the power, sent forth by the will of the Father, throughJesus Christ his son."

Now reader. I ask you seriously; is not the above declaration, a palpable, open and downright avowal of treason, against both Heaven and Earth -- God and man? Now as he is possessor of all things, see his manner of taking possession of all things; and this will be found on page 147. "Behold it is said in my laws, you are forbidden to get in debt to thine enemies; but behold it is not said at any time that the Lord should should not take when he please. and pay as seemeth him good." Here is a divine commission, to steal, rob and plunder! Joseph Smith has at all times, in all ways and by all means got in debt to all men, both friends and foes, who would trust him; and when once in possession of property or money, as he claims a divine right to possess all things, both in Heaven and on the Earth," he has always paid "as seemed him good," and that has been, by bankruptcy, ingratitude, impudence, lying perjury, and the assassination of his creditors. To trace the history of the business transactions of this great financier who now presenrs his claims, not only to the American people as their Chief Magistrate, but also to all the Nations of the Earth, as Universal Emperor; would excite our mirth at his ignorance and folly, -- our contempt of his impudence and villainy, and our abhorence of his brutality, cruelty, inhumanity and blasphemy.

He is a financier! the ignorant spendthrift, has in the short space of 14 years squandered millions of dollars -- the hard earnings of the industrious poor, in Europe and America -- and like Pharaoh's lean kind, is still always poor himself. He has his circumferanian hoards of priests, elders, and apostles, who are continually ransacking the world, on their begging tything, borrowing, buying, and plundering excursions. He has also his organized banditti of the "order of Enoch" or Danites, whose sworn duty is to execute the orders of the first Presidency, for the purpose of subduing the hearts of the children of men, see Doct's and Covn't, page 234: -- "bound together by a bond and covenant that cannot be broken by transgression except judgment shall immediately follow," page 220 -- who are also commanded to "make unto yourselves friends with the mammon of unrighteousness, and they will not destroy you," ibid. Ye cannot bear all things now, nevertheless be of good cheer for "I will lead you along!" page 205. To provide for my saints, for all things are mine; but it must needs be done in mine own way: and behold this is the way, that I the Lord have decreed to provide for any saint; that the poor shall be exalted, in that the rich are made low; for the earth is full, and there is enough and to spare, yea I prepared all things, and have given unto the children of men to be agents unto themselves!" page 241. Here we are favored with the theory of the great and universal financier; and if the whole tenor of the language used in the preceding quotations does not imply the right on the part of this holy order, to steal, rob, plunder, cheat, swindle and murder, in order to obtain property and money, to be applied to such purposes as Smith may direct, then we must look to their practical mode of financiering; and a series of fourteen years, unremittingly pursued in acts of villainy and outrage, must be sufficient to satisfy any reasonable mind, that this man's theory and practice are in perfect keeping, one with the other.

But it is amusing to see how little confidence he has in his most devoted admirers; conscious of his own unequalled baseness and depravity he suspects every other man, of possessing similar principles. Hear how he speaks of Oliver Cowdry, choice favorite of heaven, and at that time only second in the church to Smith himself: "Hearken unto me, saith the Lord your God, for my servants Oliver Cowdry's sake, it is not wisdom in me that he should be entrusted with the commandments and the MONEYS, which he shall carry unto the land of Zion, except one go with him who will be true and faithful," page 156. There is no doubt but that the commandments would have been carried to Zion, quite safely by Oliver; but his Saintship had some fearful forebodings for the safety of the MONEYS!! He knew from practical personal experience that moneys were very slippery things; and scarcely to be trusted in the hands of Saints.

To be continued.

To his Excellency THOMAS FORD,
Governor of the State of Illinois.

SIR: -- As the Chief Magistrate of our State we acknowledge your authority to execute the laws... Having said this much sir, we trust we may be permitted to lay before you with respectful deference, a brief history of our condition in relation to the Mormons; the causes that have led to the determined hostility between them and ourselves, and then call your serious attention to the consequences which must inevitably result from the present position of our affairs. It is needless to trace out the history of this people from their first organization as a church; let us take them as we found them in 1838, when they were expatriated from Missouri, so far imposed on our credulity, as to awaken our sympathies actively in their behalf. They were admitted into our county and received with the most hospitable feelings; were pitied by the mass of the citizens and flattered by designing politicians of both parties. Exclusive privileges unheard of before in the history of our State Legislation, were heaped upon them and up to the present moment, demagogues of either political parties have seemed to vie with each other in their kind offices.

Many of the principal men were charged in Missouri with the commission of high crimes. It is well known that Joseph and Hirum Smith were confined on charges of high treason, and that they escaped from the State and from justice either through the corrupt cupidity of their guard, or the assistance of their decoted followers in crime.

The mass of this people then, as we are assured by the most indubitable authority, were either abandoned rogues, drawn together for mutual protection in their acts of lawless villainy, or misguided fanatics equally subservient to the will of their leaders and actually dangerous to the peace and well being of society. Missouri was blamed for expelling them from her borders but an enlightened public sentiment has long since justified her course, not only as a measure of wise expediency but one of absolute necessity. From their first appearance among us notwithstanding the kindness with which they were received they have committed and encouraged others to commit theft, murder, adultery and other heinous crimes, cardinal points in their religion. These are high charges, we know sir, but they can be substantiated. They have a band of chosen men sworn to execute the commands of their high Council, at all hazards, and in return, these desperadoes, ready for all kinds of work, have their personal safety guaranteed by twelve or fifteen thousand men, who are bound together by the strongest ties that ever united a people in common brotherhood.

They have placed themselves above the constituted authorities of the State, subverted the demands of justice, and in instances too numerous to mention have by a mere sham, a mockery of legal proceedings shielded the greatest scoundrels from the operations of law. Repeated attempts have been made to compel individuals among them to answer charges of high crimes brought against them by the State of Missouri, and they have never failed to foil the officers of justice; and within the last year as your Excellency well knows, their prophet was taken from the agent of Missouri by a singular union of force and fraud, hurried to Nauvoo, and discharged from arrest by the municipal court of that city, Joe Smith himself was the cjief of this tribunal, and the other members willing tools subject to his word. In this as in numberless other instances, this court assumed powers never granted nor intended to be granted by the legislature, and the whole proceedings could be called nothing more nor less than a sacrilegious mockery of justice. When his excellency the Gov. of Missouri again demanded your interference and our citizens seconded his application by respectful addresses, we were advised by your Excellency and believe correctly, that you had executed the laws to the extent of your authority, and the humiliating confession had to go forth to the world that there was a band of unprincipled desperadoes in Hancock county, who had succeeded in placing themselves beyond the reach of law and justice. These, sir, are facts all tending to show conclusively that the Mormons are a lawless people. They are constantly increasing in number and power and aiming at universal dominion, and we have too much assurance that if they had sufficient force they would not hesitate to propagate their religion (if religion it can be called) by the sword.

Many facts of an aggravated nature have gone forth to the world as they transpired, and an honest, candid, impartial public has passed judgment on their crimes; but the half, or, the tenth part has not been told. Their suffrages have been from the first, a bone of contention among the politicians, and the papers of the country have, with a few honorable exceptions, seemed more disposed to screen them and conciliate their favor than to give correct information in regard to their outrages. We have left no method untried to remedy these evils. The Legislature refused to repeal their charter. When we approach the ballot box we find we are virtually disfranchized; for the Mormons greatly outnumber usl if we appeal to the laws the process of our justices are disregarded in Nauvoo, and in the Circuit Court, however impartial the judge may be, we have nothing to hope, when a mormon and anti-mormon are opposed in a civil suit or a mormon is charged as [a] criminal. The Clerk of the circuit court is known to be pledged to the Mormon interests, and the Sheriff is a brother to the Clerk, connected with the Smiths, and equally in the mormon interests. One of the County Commissioners is a mormon and after the August election they will have all the offices of the county.

If we could feel any confidence in their honesty, we would be silent, but when our court is placed completely under the control of an unprincipled faction at Nauvoo, with mormon officers, mormon judges, and mormon witnesses, we ask, sir, with a serious concern what can the anti-mormon citizens of Hancock county expect? They have rendered themselves highly obnoxious to their troublesome neighbors, by their determined and manly efforts to preserve their rights, Many of them are already marked as fit subjects for vengeance and they expect Mormon justice.

The scenes through which we have passed vindicate too plainly what we may expect from the future. For, situated as we are legal redress is out of the question. The laws have failed to answer the ends for which they were designed and we have been forced to arms in defence of our rights. Sir, we love our Constitution and laws. We love the land which we have chosen for our homes, we respect and revere the constituted authorities of the State, and we say to you proudly that there is not in Illinois, famed as she is for sobriety, intelligence, and patriotism, a community of people who would hazard more than ourselves to sustain the laws, so long as the law protects us. We are a minority of population in Hancock county. We have been oppressed and trodden under foot; our dearest rights recklessly violated. We have borne our grievances until we could bear them no longer, and as a last resort have taken up arms.

When the law fails to establish our rights, unless enforced, as it recently has been, at the mouth of the cannon; we have bo recourse left but to cast ourselves boldly and fearlessly upon our reserved rights, and there stand until we are satisfied that the highest authority of the State will officially sustain us in them.

Should there be a certainty that this can never be done, we are willing to leave a land for which we have sacrificed much, and would cheerfully sacrifice more, and seek a home where we may once more breath as freemen. Sir, we assure you calmly, cooly and deliberately, that there can be no compromise between the two parties. It is out of the question; they are greatly our superiors in numbers, and we cannot confide in their faith. They must leave or we must leave: -- and there are now but two questions to solve; which party shall leave, and in what manner? we believe this matter can be settled through the influence and advice of your Excellency. We know, sir, that the case is surrounded with difficulties, and we appreciate the delicacy anf responsibility of your position.

We look to you for such action only as comports with the obligation of your high station; but for ourselves, we must say, that while we profess to be true and loyal citizens, we have been forced to assume an attitude from which we cannot recede until this question is definitely settled without sacrificing every thing sacred and dear to the affections of freemen. True, we could leave the State quietly and peaceably, but we made a common cause to hold it a high duty to stand together until the last hope fails, and then to share a common fate. We are under arms Sir, in defence of our own rights, and have no desire to subvert law and order. We would assure you, in the most positive manner, that we are not opposing a religious sect, as such; wuth the mormon religion nerely as a system of theology, we have at present, nothing to do. Nor have our difficulties grown out of any political considerations as we are advised that some evil disposed persons have asserted. If, as we fear is the case, any individuals have represented this to your Excellency as a political movement on the part of either party, we can only repudiate their statements and caution you to distrust their counsel.

In conclusion, sir, allow us to repeat our full confidence in your desire to perform your whole duty effeciently, under the trying circumstances in which we are placed, and we beg you also to be assured of our desire to bring our difficulties to a speedy and peaceable termination.

In this conclusion, sir, we await your further action.

                              WARSAW COMMITTEE OF SAFETY.

The Act and the Apology.

We have forborne heretofore, to express through the columns of our paper, the opinions which we hold in relation to the important events of last month, having been content to place before our readers the facts of the case, and reserved until the present, what we conceive an ample excuse for the commission of an act, that has been branded by communities having no knowledge of the provocation which existed or the necessity for the step, as a "high handed outrage," a dastardly assassination," murder in cold blood, &c. These epithets are undeserved. True it is, when we look at the naked transaction, without knowing and feeling the situation of this community, and the thousand and one outrages on the rights of our citizens committed by the men whose blood has been shed -- the burning desire to avenge individual wrongs, which doubtlessly goaded on many who were concerned in the act -- the feverish state of the public mind, which continued so long as almost to produce a mania -- the common street declarations of some of our most respectable citizens, that the act ought to be done, and that the prepetrators would not only be protected but honored -- the hope of all, that arms having been taken up, they would not be laid down, until the Mormons had been exterminated, and the disappointment, and consequent rage when the order came to disband, without having effected anything towards the great object for which they had spent their time and money; we say, that without taking any of these circumstances into consideration the act may appear without justification. We trust however, that a generous public will not form too hastily, and upon a mere partial view of the subject so harsh a verdict. We hold it to be a self evident proposition, that the law of God and Nature is above the law of man. There is an uncontrollable impulse in the human bosom, which prompted every man to prefer his own safety and property before the law of the land. No one will brand a prisoner in custody for a high crime with having committed an immoral act, because he escapes from the jailor. True he violates the law of the land by so doing; but nature teaches every one, that he commits no crime by prefering his own safety, to its provisions. A man may take the life of his fellow man in self defence, and he is justified; and why? because the action of the law, if waited for, would be too tardy to afford protection. Therefore, nature says to every man, "protect thy self, when the law of the land cannot protect." What is true of individuals in relation to this matter is applicable to communities. We will therefore apply it to the case in point.

It is a well known fact, that Joe Smith had eluded every effort which had been made for the last four years to bring him to justice. Writs had been repeatedly issued for his apprehension, but, either through the connivance of officers, or by a sham legal process he managed in every case to screen himself from the just demands of law. He and his minions abused and insulted in countless instances our citizens some were beaten -- property was in numerous instances stolen -- the country was flooded with counterfeit coin, and no doubt existed as to the place of its manufacture, and yet for these injuries and insults no legal redredd could be obtained. The parties accused, were either released by a mock writ of Habeas Corpus, or if brought to trial, evidence could be, and was manufactured to an indefinite extent, to exculpate the accused. The Mormon community were leagued together, and jusding from their acts, it appeared to be a part of their religion to fleece, insult, and rob the Gentiles, as non-believers are by them called, and then to stand by and protect each other from legal punishment. Can any community long endure such a series of grievances and outrages on justice, and not become exasperated. No! the God of Nature has planted, even in the meanest reptile, the disposition to turn when trampled upon, Our grievances could not be passively endured; and hence resentment and animosity took possession of every bosom.

Such was the state of the community, before the late excitement commenced. The Prophet, by a long series of daring outrages which he had committed with impunity, became by degrees arrogant and presumptious. He had so long defied and trampled on the laws, that he no longer regarded them as worthy of respect. His vanity had become so inflated by the fondling of corrrupt politicians -- his presumption had grown so daring by long impunity -- his pride so lofty, and aspirations so mighty that he even imagined that in the city of which he was controller, he had all the powers and immunities of a Soverign State.

A felon who had offended against the law of the Union, found shelter and protection from his arm -- an act in itself affording a striking illustration of the extent of the power with which he deemed himself vested. The intense indignation of the public mind consequent upon this outrage, had scarcely began to subside, when another of a more aggravated character kindled the combustable elements of disaffection into a flame. It was not enough that he had defied and insulted the Nation -- he must strike at the palladium of liberty. Not satisfied with descecrating every thing sacred, either in the law of God or man, he must trample under foot the press, that had dared to rebuke him for his presumption and villainy. He did not evem stop here; but by threats of violence endeavored to silence those over whom his city had no jurisdiction.

Such presumption and arrogance, added to his despotic usurpations could not be endured. The law was resorted to, but as usual it was insulted and defied. As one man, this community then flew to arms to avenge the dignity of inculted law; but true to himself the tyrant congregated his followers, within his fortified city and in a tone of insulting defiance dared the officers of justice to attempt his arrest. But he could not stop even here. It was not enough that he had insulted and trampled on law, he even in a time of profound peace eradicated the Civil law within the city, and in lieu thereof established Military preeminence, which placed the lives and property of all who were in the city, or should visit it, at the disposal of his supreme will. Whilst the City of Nauvoo eas thus under Martial law, he had driven into it nearly all the cattle within a circuit of ten miles. He appropriated to his own use the property of those of his enemies who by his threats had previously been compelled to leave the city. Ne took into custody unoffending citizens, who were accused of no crime, and not content with refusing them the necessaries of life, he held them in torturing suspence, by giving them to understand that they were accused of acts which could only be atoned for by their blood. He refused egress to peaceable citizens unless they would take oath not to arm against his power, and that they were no enemies to him or his course. Such is a brief skeleton of the unparalleled outrage of this Heaven daring wretch. What community could endure this state of things, without becoming intoxicated with excitement and rage?

But this arm of the Executive was at last compelled to interpose; and the Prophet seeing the determined position of the Governor, suddenly began to feel that he was not unlimited in authority and that there was power to assert the majesty of insulted law. Immediately the haughty, proud, vain and self-sufficient despot, diffed his imperial robes and mantling himself, in hypercritical humility, he bowed seemingly to the dictates of the law. But could the law reach him? No! its arm was palsied, and to him it was nothing more than a spider's web.

Joe and Hiram Smith, at the time their lives were taken, were in the custody of the officers of the law; and it is asked by those who condemn the act, why the law was not first allowed to take its course before violence was resorted to? We answr that the course of law in the case of these wretches would have been a mere mockery; and such was the conviction of every sensible man.

It is a well ascertained fact, that the prisoners were well provided with fire arms and other weapons. Who is to be blamed for this, it is unnecessary for our present purpose to enquire. The fact however, is unquestionable. The jail is situated in the extreme outskirting of the town of Carthage -- having but one or two small buildings in its vicinity. The prisoners were confined in the jailor's parlor the windows of which were not bared, and the door was unfastened. They were only kept for confinement by the presence of seven guards, armed with muskets. Now, when we take into consideration the fact that the prisoners were athletic men, that they were four in number, that it was in their power to rush down stairs on the guard who were not prepared for a close encounter, at any time, it will appear self-evident to every reflecting mind that with the assistance of a few friends, they could easily by sacrificing the guards have affected an escape. Had one of the guards been shot down so as to call of the attention of his comrads for a moment the prisoners could have rushed upon them, attacked them in the rear and having all the advantages of weapons for a close encounter, could have instantly killed or overpowered their antagonists, and before aid from the town could have been procured would have effected their escape. Let the fact go forth to the world, that four prisoners, accused of the highest crimes known to our laws, who by their mere nod could at any moment command the services of hundreds of their followers, were placed for safe keeping in an isolated building on the prairie, not confined with either bars or bolts, but furnished with arms in abundance; and in such a place, to prevent the escape of such men, were stationed the mighty number of seven guards with muskets in their hands which would have been of no use to them in a close encounter. These are undeniably facts, and they will show to the world what chance the Anti-Mormon citizens of Hancock County had to obtain redress for long borne wrongs.

But besides all this, the fact has been ascertained, and the proof will soon be given to the world that a plan was maturing to release the prisoners, and had it not been for their death, they would have this moment been running at large, polluting by their presence the moral atmosphere around them. And had they escaped, they could have had nothing to fear after the next August election, as will be presently shown.

In the second place, let us suppose they would not have escaped but had stood their examination, and had been fully committed for trial. Could they have been convicted? To answer this question let us ask another. Can a felon ever be convicted of crime if he is allowed to select the grand jury that is to indict him, and the pettit jury before whom he is to be tried? Now let us examine the applicability of this question in reference to the case in hand. It is a well known fact that Joe Smith controlled a majority of the votes in this county. Last year he selected one of his miserable cat's paws for County Commissioner; at the next August election, he would have selected another, which would have given him the complete control of the County Commissioner's Court. This Court selects the Grant and Pettit Hurors; or in other words, Joe Smith would through them have chosen; first the men who could alone bring him to trial, and secondly, the jury before whom he would be arraigned. Will any man of common sense pretend to say, that under such circumstances the law could ever have been made to reach these guilty men? In no case, either in this State or elsewhere; had they ever in a single instance been brought to justice. Though guilty of almost every crime known to the laws, though they had followed robbery, swindling and counterfeiting for a livelihood -- though the seduction of innocence was with them a pastime; though blood was upon their skirts, yet the law had in every instance in which it had been tried, proved utterly ineffectual to bring these robbers, seducers and murderers to justice.

If we are to judge of the future by the past, what conclusion could we have come to, under the circumstances, other than that Joe and Hyrum Smith would although in the custody of the officer of the law, have escaped as in every instance heretofore. The fact was demonstrated -- the conviction was universal. Under such circumstances, what could have been done? Should we have laid quietly down, and suffer the tyrant to rivet the chains that had already galled us to madness. Should we have submitted passively to be robbed, and to see our fellow citizens robbed of property and liberty and knowing from the sad experience of the past, that there was no legal redress, spaniel like, licked the hand of our chastizer, and besought his forbearance? Such questions are insulting to few men. No man through whose veins courses one drop of that noble blood, which prompted our forefathers to throw off the yoke of British oppression, will ask his fellow freemen to kneel at the nod of any tyrant, not condemn him for asserting his liberty, even if in so doing he is obliged to commit a daring violation of law.

We claim, that the community in which we live, is a law abiding community, and that it will go as far to maintain the supremacy of the law as any other in the nation. Our citizens have regretted, and still regret the necessity that existed for taking the law in this particular instance, into their own hands; but that it would sooner or later have to be done, no one acquainted with the facts of the case, could deny. It was inevitable, and the only question was as to the proper time. In relation to this, we will remark, that Joe and Hirum Smith were regarded as the only individuals that could hold together the Mormon community. They were the instigators and authors of all our troubles. The only alternative then was, whether the guilty cause, should be removed and in the natural course of things suffer the evil to eradicate itself; or whether, we should have waited until renewed aggressions, had so far aroused a feeling of hostility, as to provoke the surrounding country to a general war of extermination. Either course, would have been a great violation of the law; but there was no other remedy; and the one or the other was inevitable.

Now we put the question to every generous man; is it not better that the blood of two guilty wretches, whose crimes had long awaited the vengeance of Heaven, has been shed and thus by cutting off the fountain head to dry up the stream of corruption; or would it have been better that they had escaped, as they inevitably would have done through the meshes of the law, and thus brought on a conflict, in which not only hundreds of valuable lives would have been lost, but the blood of the innocent mingled withthat of the guilty?

We have already extended this article to too great a length; neither space nor time will at present allow of an extended recital of facts. An address is however in course of preparation, at present, which if we do not mistake the hearts of a generous public, will produce a reaction as powerful, in our favor, from abroad as is the condemnation under which we at present rest.


Gentlemen: I have received your communication on behalf of the citizens of Warsaw, stating their unalterable determination to compel the Mormons of your county to leave the State or otherwise to abandon their homes, and evacuate the county & asking my interference and influence to assist you in procuring the removal of the Mormons.

I have no reply whatever to make to that part of the letter which treats of the history, character and offences of the Mormons. I deem this however, a fit occasion to remark somewhat upon the character of the events which have just transpired. These evebts present reasons for my determination which must be noticed.

When I came to your county I announced the policy by which I intended to be governed. The law was my guide; and this you well understood. I announcedthis determination in numerous public addresses, and uniformly in my private concersation. I successively obtained a vote to sustain me in this course from every troop stationed at Carthage or who was visiting there. From the detachment of your town, and vicinity, who visited Carthage the day after the surrender of the Smiths, I obtained a similar pledge. I met them on the prairie, before they arrived in town, and as they must testify, stated to them at length the reasons which ought to influence them to keep the peace, and abide the operation of the laws. They gave every demonstration of satisfaction, and signified with unanimous acclamation that they would stand by in taking a strictly legal course.

All the other portions of the Hancock forces under my command were repeatedly and deeply pledged to sustain me in the same course. Under the firm and confident assurance of support thus obtained I demanded the surrender of the Smiths, and promised them security. In doing so, I now acknowledge that I erred and erred greviously, in relying with too much confidence upon men with whom I was but little acquainted. The idea that men could be treacherous under such circumstances was abhorent to my nature and rejected with indignation. Whatever your hatred of the Smiths might be, I was too confident you would respect your honor -- the honor of your county and State and the rights of defenceless prisoners. I could not believe that so much stupidity and baseness as was necessary for such an enterprise as the murder of defenceless prisoners in jail could be mustered in Hancock. What aggravated the transaction, as a matter personal to my honor as well as your own, and that of the State; selected a time to commit the deed when you believed I was in Nauvoo, in the power of the Mormons, and would most probably be murdered by them, by a way of retaliation. Upon the whole I cannot too strongly express my indignation and abhorence of the base and profligate act which has disgraced the State and raised suspicions in the minds of many in regard to my conduct in this matter, of the most painful character to my feelings.

I am happy however, to learn that these denunciations apply only to a small portion of the people of Warsaw and Hancock county. All the most responsible inhabitants ought to be acquitted of any direct participation with the conspirators. If they are culpable at all it is for not using their influence against the act, and for not communicating to me information which would have enabled me to prevent it. The intention of the people must to some extent have been whispered about and understood, and ought to have been communicated to me as commander in chief.

Under these circumstances, I am in but a poor situation to use my influence with the Mormons, to procure their removal. Your own people have destroyed whatever influence I might have otherwise possessed in that quarter to serve you. Your own conduct has placed me in a painfully suspicious attitude; and I have no hopes that I could now have a more persuasive influence with the Mormons, than I had with the perpetrators of the horrid deed which I sought to prevent. Under these circumstances, I cannot ask the Mormons to confide in me.

It must appear to them that they have been betrayed by somebody, and they do not know by whom.

If you mean to request me to exercise a forcible influence to expel them from the State; I answer you as I have uniformly done, that the law is my guide; and that I know of no law authorizing their expulsion. From this determination I have not swerved for an instant, from the beginning until this time. I see nothing now requiring any deviation. And besides, if I were ever so much determined to drive them out, I believe such is the abborrence against the base deed which some of you have committed, that I could not obtain voluntary aid from the people. I suppose that you are aware that a call for volunteers is the only mode in which a force can be raised, and that the force when raised, must be provisioned by voluntary contribution.

You had better not make too loud a call upon your fellow citizens; you may want their aid for defence, and may yet be glad to receive aid for defence, rather than aggression. I know the apprehensions which you entertain of Mormon violence, I will not now say whether your fears are well or ill founded. A little time will develope what may be expected. Taking the law for my guide, I can assure you, that although some of you have treated me badly, in thwarting my policy and violating my honor, and have acted basely towards defenceless prisoners, yet you are entitled to and are assured of all the force of the State to prevent or avenge illegal violence towards any of you. An enquiry must be made concerning the murderers. They must for the honor and credit of the State be dealt with according to law.

You ask a small force to be stationed in your County as a protection against small parties. You have not probably, duly considered how large a force would be necessary for this purpose. A small force could protect but a few points of attack and must necessarily leave the residue of this County exposed. A large force cannot be stationed there permanently. Your best protection is the assurance that, upon the first aggression or well defined threats, an overpowering force is ready to march directly to the scene of action.

I am informed that a design is still entertained at Warsaw of attacking Nauvoo. In this you will not be sustained by myself or the people. It is a part of my policy that you shall remain quiet, and if you please, watchful, but structly on the defensive; and I now announce to you that I will not be thwarted in this policy with impunity.   I am most respectfully.
         Your obediant servant,
              THOMAS FORD.

                                    Carthage, June 30th, 1844.
To the editor of the Warsaw Signal.

Permit me to correct a few errors into which I perceive you have fallen in your notice of events at Carthage during the last week. There are several errors; but I shall only refer to such as are connected with the discharge of my official duties. In the exhibition of the Mssrs. Smiths to the McDonough troops I acted by the request of the Governor, who directed me by taking them upon my right and left to designate each to the different companies, to redeem his promise of gratifying their curiosity. The ceremony was far from being intended, or supposed by the Governor or myself, as a compliment to them. No order was ever given by me for disarming the Carthage Greys, or putting them under arrest; and I am well assured, it was not countermanded by the Governor. The order was issued by me for the other troops to take charge of the Carthage Greys. The action of the Greys was predicated upon misapprehension, and I was assured at that time, as since, that no disrespect was designed for me or the Governor.
                                    M. R. DEMING.


The Anti Mormons of each precinct are requested to hold meetings as soon as possible, and appoint delegates to attend a convention to be held at Carthage, on Saturday, the 20th inst. for the purpose of nominating candidates for County and State Offices, at the approaching election.

At a large meeting of the citizens of the town of Warsaw, held on Friday evening, July 5th, 1844, Mark Aldrich, Esq., was called to the chair and R. C. Gordon appointed Secretary.

William H. Roosevelt, Esq., after having briefly stated the object of the meeting, offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

RESOLVED, That the Citizens of that portion of Missouri and Iowa adjoining our borders, having with just promptitude met our call for assistance, on the night of the 27th of June, and the following days, are entitled to, and are hereby presented with the thanks and high considerations of the citizens of Warsaw.

Looking upon our wrongs in a just light, our friends in Missouri and Iowa, were willing to aid us to the utmost extent, and their conduct and sympathy on that memorable occasion shall ever be remembered by us. Their hospitality in receiving our families and the kind attention extended to them, are received with gratitude by that portion of our community, whose good feelings and kind regard are ever highly appreciated by the other sex.

RESOLVED, That the thanks of this meeting be presented to the citizens of Quincy, and Adams County, for the prompt manner in which they volunteered to aid the Governor and the citizens of Warsaw and Carthage while in iminent danger.

RESOLVED, That the thanks of this community be presented to the citizens of Quincy, for their hospitality in opening their doors to our families, when our town was in danger.

After which, the following resolution was offered and unanimously adopted:

RESOLVED, That we, the citizens of Hancock county, of both political parties, have to request politicians of both parties, not residents among us, that if they have any little business of their own to attend to at home, they will much oblige us by attending to it, at least until their services are required among us.

On motion,

RESOLVED, That the proceeding of the meeting be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and published in the Warsaw Signal, and as many other papers as will do us the kindness to publish the same,

On motion the meeting was adjourned.
                                  MARK ALDRICK, Chair'm.
R. C. Gordon, Secretary.

To the Public: Mormon Difficulties in Illinois.

The summary execution of two of the Mormon leaders, Joseph and Hiram Smith, at Carthage, on the 27th of June, has excited a deep unrest abroad as well as at home; and has brought upon us the severest invective of nearly the whole newspaper press, as far as we have yet heard...

We hold it to be a self evident proposition, that laws are enacted for the safety and protection of the rights, lives and property of those who are to be governed by them. We hold, moreover, that so long as those laws can afford such protection, it is the duty of every good citizen to abide by their direction and to uphold their supremacy; but that whenever, by a train of circumstances, which our legislators never could have anticipated, the law is rendered ineffectual and cheated out of its efficacy, there is an impulse planted by God and Nature in every bosom, which prompts men to throw themselves, for protection, on their reserved rights. The law owes us protection, in consideration of which we owe it allegiance. If it fails to perform its offices towards us, we are, to the extent of that failure, absolved from its requisitions....

The Mormons could not be expelled as a people without the cooperation of the Governor. True, he had no clearly expressed Constitutional right to drive them off; no one supposed such a right existed; yet the people thought the necessity of the case would justify it; and they still think so. But this could not be done. Joe and Hiram Smith, their acknowledged heads, were in the custody of the law -- so far all was well, they had the promise of the Governor's protection; this was not well, and we think was not generally known, until his Excellency proclaimed it after the catastrophe. But what satisfaction could it afford the old citizens of Hancock, to know that Joe was in jail? They know, and the world must know for reasons before given, that they never could be convicted of any crime. We had taken a great deal of trouble to assert and maintain the supremacy of the law, but if the matter rested here, justice might have despaired of his cause. It was this conviction that compressed their execution. Did they deserve death? There can be no doubt in the mind of any intelligent person acquainted with their history. -- Evidence enough to damn them forty times over has been published. Read the history of the Missouri investigation -- Bennet's, Harris', Howe's and Tucker's works... (under construction - not yet completed nor proofread)

Note 1: The final article's text is partly taken from a reprint.

Note 2: The text's list of anti-Mormon writers (Bennet, Harris, Howe and Tucker) is probably a misprint in the final name -- which should perhaps read Turner.


NS No. 22.                       Warsaw, Illinois, July 17, 1844.                       Whole 139.

Testimony of William W. Phelps a Post Master
in the County of Caldwell.

William W. Phelps a witness on the part of the State, produced, a sworn, and examined, deposeth and saith: That, as early as April last [at] a meeting in Far West of eight or twelve persons, Mr. Rigdon arose, and made an address to them, in which he spoke of having borne persecutions, and law-suits, and other privations, and did not intend to bear them any longer, that they meant to resist the law, and if a sheriff came after them with writs they would kill him, and if any body opposed them, they would take off their heads. George W. Harris, who was present, observed, You mean the head of their influence, I suppose? Rigdon answered, he meant that lump of flesh and bones called the skull, or scalp. Joseph Smith, Jr. followed Mr. Rigdon, approving his sentiments, and said that was what they intended to do. Both, in their remarks, observed, that they meant to have the words of the presidency to be as good and undisputed as the words of God; and that no one should speak against what they said. Hyrum Smith was not in Far West at the time, and I think he was not in the country. Some time in June, steps were taken to get myself and others out of the county of Caldwell, and efforts were made to get the Post Office from me, (being post master,) by a demand for it. I explained the law, which I then informed the second presidency of the church, by letter, that I was willing to do any thing that was right, and, if I had wronged any man, I would make satisfaction. I was then notified to attend a meeting. Sidney Rigdon, in an address, again brought up the subject of the post office. I told them if public opinion said I should give it up, I would do so; but they (would) have to await the decision of the post master General; which they agreed to do, with the understanding that a committee of three should inspect the letters written and sent by me, as well as those received by me. This committee, however, never made their appearance. After my case was disposed of, another man's was taken up; he attempted to speak in his defence, and said he was a republican. Several rushed up towards him, and stopped him, telling him if he had any thing to say in favor of the presidency, he might say it, and that was their republicanism. Joseph Smith, Jr., Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith, who compose the first presidency were there. It was observed in the meeting that, if the person spoke against the presidency, they would hand them over to the hands of the Brother of Gideon. -- I knew not, at the time, who or what it meant. Shortly after that I was at another meeting, where they were trying several -- the first presidency being present Sidney Rigdon was their chief spokesman. -- The object of the meeting seemed to be to make persons confess, and repent of their sins to God and the presidency; and arraigned them for giving false accounts of their money and effects they had on hand; and they said, whenever they found one guilty of these things, they were to be handed over, [[to the Brother of Gideon. Several were found guilty, and handed over]] as they said. I yet did not know what was meant by this expression, "the brother of Gideon." Not a great while after this, secret or private meetings were held; I endeavored to find out what they were; and I learned from John Corrill and others, that they were forming a secret society called Danites, formerly called the Brother of Gideon. In the meeting above referred to, in which I was present, one man arose to defend himself and he was ordered to leave the house, but commenced to speak; Avard then said, "Where are my ten men?" Thirty or more arose up; whereupon the man said he would leave the house. At this meeting I agreed to conform to the rules of the church in all things, knowing I had a good deal of Property in the county, and if I went off I should be obliged to leave it. For some time before and after this meeting an armed guard was kept in town and one of them at my house, during the night, as I supposed, to watch my person. In the fore part of July, I being one of the justice[s] of the county court, was forbid by Joseph Smith, jr., from issuing any process against him. I learned from the clerk of the circuit court that declarations had been filed against Smith, Rigdon, and others, by Johnston; and in reference to that case, Smith told Cleminson, the clerk that he could not issue a writ against him. I observed to Mr. Smith that there was a legal objection to issuing it; that the cost (meaning the clerk's fee) had not been paid. Smith replied, he did not care for that; he did not intend to have any writ issued against him in the county. These things, together with many others, alarmed me for the situation of our county; and at our next circuit court, I mentioned these things to the judge and several members of the bar. A few days before the 4th day of July last, I heard D. W. Patten, (known by the fictitious name of Captain Fearnaught) say that Rigdon was writing a declaration, to declare the church independent. I remarked to him, I thought such a thing treasonable -- to set up a government within a government. [[He answered, it would not be treasonable if they would maintain it, or fight till they died.]]

Demick Huntington, and some others, made about the same remark. Sidney Rigdon's 4th of July oration was the declaration referred to. Along through the summer and fall a storm appeared to be gathering; and, from time to time, I went out into Ray and Clay counties; saw and conversed with many gentlemen on the subject, who always assured me that they would use every exertion, that the law should be enforced; and I repeatedly made these things known in Caldwell county, and that there was no disposition among the people to raise mobs against them from these counties. I never was invited, nor did I attend any of their secret meetings. I was at the meeting the Monday before the last expedition to Daviess, having learned that steps would be taken there which might affect me. At this meeting the presidency, together with many others, were there, to the number of perhaps 200 or 300, or more. Joseph Smith, Jr., I think it was, who addressed the meeting, and said, in substance, that then they were about to go to war in Daviess county; that those persons who had not turned out their property should be taken to maintain the war. This was by formal resolution, and was not objected to by any present. A motion was then made by Sidney Rigdon, that the blood of those who were thus backward should first be spilled in the streets of Far West; a few said, Amen to this. But immediately Mr. Joseph Smith, Jr., before Rigdon's motion was put, rose and moved that they be taken out into Daviess county, and if they came to battle, they should be put on their horses with bayonets and pitchforks, and put in front: this passed without a dissenting voice. There was a short speech made then, by Joseph Smith, jr., about carrying on the war; in which he said it was necessary to have something to live on; and, when they went out to war, it was necessary to take spoils to live on. This was in reference to the dissenters, as well as to the people of Daviess, where they were going. In this speech he told the anecdote of the Dutchman's potatoes.

Finding I should have to go out, and not wishing to be put in front of the battle, I sought a situation, and went out with my wagon. This was the expedition in which Gallatin and Millport were burnt. I went on to Diahmon a few days after the Mormon troops had gone out. I went to the tavern, late at night, where I found Joseph Smith, jr., Hiram Smith, and others. I informed J. Smith that the Clay troops had returned home, some 40 or 50 in number; but told him that General Parks was in Far West and his troops just behind.

There was a conversation among them as to what they would do; and they came to the conclusion to send down to Lyman Wight, at his house, for him to send an express to General Parks that his troops were not needed. Some time before day I awoke, and found Lyman Wight and Captain Fearnaught in the house; he said he had an express to General Parks informing him that his militia was not needed. Wight asked J. Smith, twice if he had come to the point now to resist the law; that he wanted this matter now distinctly understood. He said he had succeeded in smoothing the matter over with Judge King, when he was out, and that he defied the United States to take him, but that he had submitted to be taken because he (Smith) had done so. This was in reference to the examination for the offence [for] which he and Smith had been brought before Judge King in Daviess. Smith replied the time had come when he should resist all law. In the fore part of the night after my arrival I heard a good deal of conversation about drawing out the mob from Daviess. I heard J. Smith remark there was a store at Gallatin, and grocery at Millport; and in the morning after the conversation between Smith and Wight about resisting the law, a plan of operations was agreed on, which was, that Capt. Fearnaught, who was present, should take a company of one hundred men, or more and go to Gallatin, and take it that day; to take the goods out of the store in Gallatin, bring them to Diahmon, and burn the store. Lyman Wight was to take a company and go to Millport [[on the same day; and Seymore Brunson was to take a company, and go to the Grindstone fork]] on the same day. This arrangement was made in the house, before day, while I was lying on the floor. When I arose in the morning, some of the companies were gone; but I saw Lyman Wight parade a horse company, and start off with it towards Millport. I also saw a foot company the same day go off.

On the same day and evening I saw both these companies return; the foot company had some plunder, which appeared to be beds and bed-clothing, &c. They passed on towards the bishop's store, but I know not what they did with the plunder. I remained in the camps one day and two nights at Diahmon, when I returned to Far West. The night before I started to Far West, an express was sent from Joseph Smith and Lyman Wight's to Rigdon at Far West; but what was the contents of the express I know not. When I returned to Far West, I had a message in reference to having wood and provisions provided for the families of those persons in Far West who were in Daviess; and for the purpose of giving that information, I was invited to a school house, where I was admitted. The men being paraded before the door when I arrived in number about 40 or 50. It was remarked that these were true men; and we all marched into the house. A guard was placed around the house, and one at the door.

Mr. Rigdon then commenced making covenants, with uplifted hands. The first was, that if any man attempted to move out of the county, or pack their things for that purpose, that any man then in the house, seeing this without saying anything to any other person, should kill him, and haul him into the brush, and that all the burial he should have should be in a turkey buzzard's guts, so that nothing [of him] should be left but his bones. That measure was carried in form of a covenant with uplifted hands. After the vote had passed, he said, now see if any one dare vote against it, and called for the negative vote, and there was none. The next covenant, that if any persons from the surrounding country came into their town, walking about -- no odds who he might be -- any one of that meeting should kill him, and throw him aside into the brush. This passed in a manner as the above had passed. The third covenant was [to] conceal all [these] things. Mr. Rigdon, then observed, that the kingdom of heaven had no secrets, that yesterday a man had slipped his wind, and was dragged into the hazel brush; and, said he, 'the man who lisps it shall die.'


In another column will be found an excellent article from the pen of G. T. M. Davis, Esq., one of the editors of the Alton Telegraph, in relation to the difficulties in our County. The people of Hancock, can scarcely find language sufficiently strong to express their gratitude to Mr. Davis, for his noble course in our behalf. He came amongst us and enquired into the real situation before he passed judgment upon our acts. Unlike his brethren of the press, he speaks from a knowledge of the facts; and does he speak? He reproves us but he reproves us mildly -- as though we had committed an error, but no crime. He extends to us the sympathy of his own generous heart, and he bespeaks for us the sympathies of the world.

We regret however, that his partner, Mr. Bailhache, has thought proper to join in with those (who, kike himself, are ignorant of our situation, and appear determined not to be convinced,) in bitter denunciation of those who were concerned in the late fatal tragedy. He is such a "scrupulously good man," that he will not consent that any community can, under any circumstances be excusable, not to say justified, in committing an illegal act; and in relation to the affair at Carthage he says, that "it is conspicuously at the head of the black lettered lists of public offences in the United States." Why this severe judgment?

Because 1st, the Mormon Prophet had given himself up, on the pledge of protection from the Governor. Let us enquire into the matter for a moment. The Governor pledged the safety of Smith, if he would submit to the writ then in the hands of the officer. He did submit, was examined on the charge contained in that writ, gave bail and was discharged. He was then again arrested, on another writ, for treason. If the Governor gave him a new guarantee under this arrest, we were not aware of it, nor were our people. He had the same right of protection that a criminal in any other case has, and no other. If the faith of the State was particularly pledged, the people did not know it.

2dly, Mr. Bailhache says, that there was a pledge of honor unanimously given, by the officers and men under Governor Ford's command, to sustain him in the pledge he had given. This is not true. The officers and men in the regiment stationed at Warsaw, never gave any such pledge to the Governor. They were at Carthage but once; and that was the day after Smith's surrender. Gov. Ford met a part of them on the prairie, near Carthage, he addressed them on the necessity of sustaining the supremacy of the law, and he was cheered; not however unanimously. This was all the pledge given by the regiment. The impression has gone out, that the deed was done by the militia under military command. It is false -- the men concerned, had been discharged, and acted in this affair as citizens, and not as soldiers.

3d. Mr. Bailhache says, that Smith "was powerless in the hands of his enemies; and if culpable, no reasonable doubt could exist of his conviction and ultimate punishment." Talk of a man being "powerless in the hands of his enemies," when by his mere nod he could have commanded the attendance of 400 armed men at a day's notice. But the latter part of the assertion "that if guilty, no reasonable doubt could exist of his conviction, and consequent punishment," we have scarcely patience to reply to. The fact is no reasonable man, acquainted with the facts, had the most distant shadow of an idea that he could either be convicted or punished. When your associate tells you under your very nose, that Smith had, or would have before he could be tried, the complete control of the county -- could through his cat paw County Commissioners select the Grand Jurors, who aline could bring him to trial -- and the pettit jurors, before whom he would be arraigned, and through his Sheriff, the talismen who are summoned after the panel is exhausted; and knowing as you do that the state could not remove the trial to another county, yet you persist in the assertion that there could be no reasonable doubt of his punishment, if guilty. He was tried and convicted -- not by a jury of twelve; but by a jury of thousands, who knew that he was guilty of crimes that should have hung him forty times over; and he was punished, in the only manner that punishment could ever have reached him.

Now friend Bailhache, not one averment on which you relied, to prove the pre-eminent atrocity of the late affair at Carthage, is sustained by the facts. What then becomes of your conclusions?

But we are not through yet. If we can convince you, that there may possibly arise one case, in which a resort to unlawful violence may be excusable, we shall not despair, of yet turning the tide of public sympathy in our favor. We will therefore put a plain case for your especial consideration.

First, then; we take it for granted that you admit that Joe Smith was an abandoned, and unprincipled villain; and that he would not scruple to use any means in his power, to rid himself of his enemies, or rob them of their property. If however, you need proof, we refer you to his whole history, from childhood up, and particularly to the testimony taken before the Courts of Missouri, as published by order of the Senate of the United States.

Secondly; we take it for granted that you will admit that Joe Smith could, and always did control the votes of his followers. His history for the past four years, as well as his course before he came amongst us, will convince you of this fact.

Thirdly; we take it for granted that you will admit that a large majority of the voters of Hancock County, were thus under the control of Joe Smith; and that through them, he could elect the County Commissioners and Sheriff.

Fourthly; we take it for granted, and we think that if you will examine the Missouri testimony above referred to, as all the testimony of respectable witnesses who have lately been amongst the Mormons, you will admit the fact, that Joe Smith had in his employ, a body of secret assassins, called "Danites," who were bound by oath "to execute all the commands of Smith, and to uphold him in all things, murder and treason not excepted.

Fifthly, we take it for granted, that you will admit, that judging from Joe Smith's character, and all the former actions of his life, that if he had complete control of the County Commissioners Court, he would select through them the grand jurors, who alone can bring men to trial, for offences committed in the County. Thus he would have the power on the one hand, to screen from punishment all his favorites, and on the other to oppress and harass all his enemies. You may at your leisure, reflect on the consequences of such power being concentrated in the hands of an unprincipled and unscrupulous villain, in a land where men are taught from their cradles that they possess rights.

Sixthly; As a natural deduction from the last, you will admit that Joe Smith could through the County Commissioner's Court and the Sheriff, select the petit jury, before whom offenders are arraigned, after indictment.

Seventhly; We take it for granted, that you will admit, that in criminal cases the venue cannot be changed to another county, without consent of the accused.

These facts being admitted, we will proceed to enquire what must be the result of such a state of affairs; for this, no man acquainted with the result of such a state of affairs; for this, no man acquainted with the facts will deny, would have been the position of things in Hancock County, after the next August election, had Joe and Hyrum Smith been permitted to live. Now friend Bailhache, to bring the matter home, we will present a plain case. Suppose you are a resident of Hancock County -- you have a cow stolen -- you go to Nauvoo, and there you find her -- you drive her home, but in a few days, a Mormon sues a writ of [Replevin], and takes the cow from you -- the matter comes to trial, and you bring a dozen of your neighbors to prove that the cow is yours, "and that they cannot be mistaken;" but the Mormon opponent brings twenty witnesses, who swear that the cow belongs to him, for they have known her from the time she was a calf. You cannot impeach these witnesses for they are not known out of Nauvoo. The jury is composed of Mormons, and of course your cow, which from her peculiar appearance, you cannot be mistaken in, is taken from you, by legal robbery. On the same principle you may be robbed of your whole stock. Precisely such cases as this, have occurred in Hancock County, and many of a far more aggravated character. Now sir, would you conceive that where such a state of things existed, the Law was any protection to your property? As a reasonable man, we presume you will say No! But let us go further; you feel wounded and vexed at this transaction, and in consequence thereof, you exercise a freeman's privilege; the freedom of speech. You talk loudly -- you are a man of influence in your neighborhood, and quite an axcitement is produced in consequence thereof, by this outrage of your rights. Soon you hear that holy Joe has threatened your life. Now, what is your legal remedy? You have him arrested, and compel him to give bonds to keep the peace. Well, this only aggravates the case, for it irritates him, and without violating a single condition of the bond he can send his hired assassins to take your life. But go further; threats from the minions of this man you hear every day, and you also hear that men have, in a very suspicious manner, stopped travellers at night on the prairie, on a road where you were expected to pass, and enquired for youl thus rendering it evident to your own mind at least, that your life was sought. Now sir, in a community where such a state of things exists, would you feel that the law was any protection to your life? As a reasonable man we are again compelled to come to the conclusion that you will answer No! Well sir, if the law can afford us no protection, to either our property or lives, we would like you to inform us who is to protect them? Would you have us, lay supinely on our backs, and suffer a gang of cut-throats to rob us of our property, and to murder all who, for exercising a freeman's privilege, have become obnoxious to them; and take no measures for our protection, because in so doing, we would be obliged to violate the law, (which had become a dead letter, so far as its protection to us was concerned,) or perchance, though we did not know it, blight the untarnished honor of the State, which will appear the brighter, the less it is scrutinized.

Now sir, it is unnecessary for you to attempt to avoid the force of these conclusions, by saying that you do not believe that this pictures our real situation; suffice it to say that the anti-mormon citizens of Hancock, who are quite as capable of judging of their own affairs, as persons living two hundred miles off are of judging for them, unanimously consider that they were surrounded by these circumstances, and that such results as we have depicted above, had, and would legitimately flow from them.

You say that no circumstances can exist, that will justify a resort to mob violence. We say and prove that after the next August election, Joe Smith could, through his hired assassins have the throat [cut?] of every man in this community, obnoxious to him; and that the law could not have been made to reach him or his minions. -- Now friend Bailhache, if you are so scrupulously good as to suffer a bloody villain to cut your own throat, or the throats of your friends, and for fear of violating the law will not consent to resort to the only means left you to prevent such a state of things, and, seize the only opportunity that probably ever would have been presented, to remove the wretches you would inevitably bring about all those evils, we can only say, that you are a better christian than we ever expect or desire to be.

(articles transcription in process)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 23.                       Warsaw, Illinois, July 24, 1844.                       Whole 140.


[lines missing] ... The civil officer summoned the posse commitatus, and Joe fortified himself in the city -- declared martial law and put himself in open defiance of the civil authority. The Governor was applied to -- the Military called out, headed by his Excellency in person -- at last resistance became hopeless and he yielded. Without standing a trial on the charge of riot, he gave bail to appear before the Circuit Court, which set that matter at rest, at least until the next term. He was then taken on a charge of treason, and was in the charge of the arresting officer awaiting his examination, at the time he was killed.

The Governor having, as is generally believed, done all he could constitutionally do, discharged nearly all the troops -- left the Smiths in charge of the officer and a guard in Carthage, and went to Nauvoo, with a small force as a body guard, to lecture the inhabits....[lines missing]

Joe Smith and his coadjutors surrendered on the night of the 24th, and entered Carthage under the protection of Col. Dunn, who had been to Nauvoo with a requisition for the State Arms. On the following day, on hearing this fact, many of the troops stationed at Warsaw, went to Carthage without orders, and quietly returned to Warsaw the same day. -- Their appearance there however, seems to have alarmed his Excellency the Governor. When he heard of their approach, he went out and met part of them some distance from town, and made to them a speech, in which he declared his purpose to maintain the Constitution and Laws of the State, at all hazards, and urged the troops to assist him in so noble an undertaking; to which, a large portion of them cheerfully responded. It was apparent at this time, that there was a mutual distrust between the Governor and General Deming and many of the troops. General Deming immediately gave orders for the Warsaw forces to march to Golden's Point on the 27th, where they would join the other troops assembled at Carthage, preparatory to marching into Nauvoo, in order of military attack -- the object of this order is not fully known. It was rumored however, that the Governor proposed searching the City for Bogus Dies and false coin; but the general impression among the troops was, that it was to intimidate the Mormons. On the morning the fatal deed was done, all the troops from the adjoining counties were disbanded, except Capt. Singleton and his company who had been sent to Nauvoo on the 26th to take military possession. -- Previous to this however, the Warsaw, Green Plains and Rocky Run troops, five companies in all, took up the line of march for Golden's Point, according to previous orders. While on the route, about 9 miles from Warsaw, they received orders to disband -- they were disbanded. Intelligence was at the same time received, that all the troops were disbanded except four small companies which would probably be discharged in a day or two.

It is certain that these troops were highly dissatisfied -- that they thought the Governor had trifled with them -- that they thought furthermore, that the evils under which they were laboring, had not been reached, and could only be removed in one of two ways; either by expelling the body of the mormons, or by cutting off their leaders.

[lines missing] ... Joe and Hirum Smith, their acknowledged heads, were in the custody of the law -- so far all was well, they had the promise of the Governor's protection; this was not well, and we think was not generally known, until his Excellency proclaimed it after the catastrophe.

[numerous lines missing]
... On the morning of the 26th June (which was the morning after the Smith's for their safety had been put into the County Jail) the counsel for the prosecution, wanted the prisoners brought before the Justice, for an examination, to which the counsel for the prisoners replied that they were committed, until discharged by due course of law. And that we could do nothing until the prisoners were legally before the court, when we would appear and defend, that the Justice, R. F. Smith, gave the Constable an order for the Jailor to deliver up the prisoners which the Jailor refused to do -- that. the Constable then repaired to the Jail with a company called the Carthage Greys, of whom the Justice, Smith, was Captain. but not then in command, and by intimidation and threats, forced the Jailor to give up the prisoners to the Constable, who took them before the Justice R. F. Smith, at the Court House, &c., &c., &c.

This I pronounce a false statement. The facts are as follows: -- On the morning of the 26th, Capt. Smith did not appear on parade, knowing that the Smith's would be brought before him on trial, (he being a justice of peace.) First Lieutenant, Williams, being also absent, at the time of parade, the command fell upon myself. I formed the company as usual and drilled them until about 9. o'clock, when Constable, David Bettisworth, came to me and said he wanted the Greys and part of the Union Dragoons, to go with him to the jail to guard the Smith's to the court house for trial. Capt. Dunn being at that time engaged Lieut. Woolsey of the Dragoons placed 15 or 20 men under my command, -- he taking station in file with his men -- there being about 40 men in all. I immediately formed them into a hollow square, and marched them to the Jail -- Constable Bettisworth at our head. I halted them before the jail door. Constable Bettisworth entered the jail, and immediately returned with the Smith's. He placed them in our centre, and took his station with them. I then marched to the Court house door, where the Smith's entered the court room -- I dismissing the guard, with the exception of six men, whom I stationed at the court room door, to keep off the crowd. In about an hour the Constable again called on me for a guard to take the, Smith's back to the jail, which I furnished, and marched back to the jail -- after which we marched to the public square where we were encamped -- (which is about 300 yards from the jail,) where I dismissed all the guard. Mr. Wood says the guard by "intimidation and threats, forced the jailor to give up the prisoners to the Constable." This cart of his communication I wish particularly to notice, and can prove it to be false by the Jailor (Mr. Stigal) himself. It will be supposed by the public that I (being the commanding officer) forced the jailor to give up the prisoners. This is far from being the fact. While at the jail, neither myself or any of the guard, addressed a word to the Jailor or to the Smith's, at that time or when we returned with them -- neither I or any of the guard entered the Jail. I halted the guard on the outside of the yard fence, about 20 feet from door of the jail. The Constable immediately entered the Jail, I soon after followed him as far as the stone step in front of the door, where I halted until he returned with the prisoners, which was in less than 5 minutes. I did not while standing there hear the Constable use any intimidating or threatening language to the Jailor or the prisoners.

The Jailor made no objection to the Smiths leaving the jail -- nor did I hear the Smiths themselves offer any opposition to going to the Court house -- although both they and the Jailor may have made objections, when the Constable went up into the room in which they were confined, (which by the way was the best and most comfortable room in the jail, and as good as any in the town of Carthage.) While there the Constable may have had some difficulty in getting the Jailor to deliver up the prisoners, but few words, however, could have passed between them, because he returned almost instantly with the prisoners. This I know nothing about. It was in a room up stairs, and the door closed -- I standing at the foot of the stairs outside, could not consequently hear any thing that was said. But I do know that no one in the guard addressed a word to the Jailor or prisoners while there. This I can prove by many witnesses to the fact. I would here ask Mr. Wood if he can prove by a single witness that the guard forced the Jailor to give up the prisoners, or if he himself will make oath that such was the fact. When the Constable called upon me for a guard, he said he wanted it to keep back the crowd from pressing upon the Smiths; and also to prevent them from escaping.

Even with a guard of 40 men I was obliged to command them to charge bayonets, to keep back the crowd, and even then we could scarcely force our way to the court house. At the door I halted the guard five or ten minutes while myself and six men with fixed bayonets, forced the crowd from the steps, leading to the court-room, so as to let the prisoners pass up. After they entered the room a guard of six men was placed at the door at the head of the stairs, to prevent the crowd from entering.

This Mr. Editor, is a plain statement of facts, which I do not assert because I know them to be such, but because I can prove everything I have here stated. .

Mr. H. T. Ried in the Nauvoo Neighbor, and Times and Seasons, of the same date, says: "Justice R. F. Smith, demanded the prisoners, but the Jailor could find no law authorizing a Justice of the Peace, to demand prisoners committed to his charge. He refused to give them up until discharged from his custody. Upon the refusal to give up the prisoners, the company of Carthage Greys marched to Jail -- by whose orders I know not, and compelled the Jailor, against his will and conviction of duty, to deliver the prisoners to the Constable," &c., &c., &c. This I pronounce false. What I have said in answer to Mr. Wood's communication, will also apply to the charge preferred by Mr. Ried. I wish the public after reading the following depositions, to judge of the truth of my statement, and of those. made by Messers. Wood and Ried.

State of Illinois, Sct.
Hancock County,

David Bettisworth, the Constable who held the writs for Joseph and Hyrum Smith, being duly sworn, deposed and says, that on the 26th of June, about 10 o'clock, A. M., the Justice (R. F. Smith) told him to bring the prisoners from the jail -- that he was then ready to proceed with the examination, and that he immediately proceeded to the jail, and that at the door he was met by the guard who refused to let him pass in. He told them that he was the officer who put them there and wished to take them before Justice Smith for examination. Joe being in the bed room (not in the present part) overheard the conversation, and came to the head of the stairs, and told the guard not to let him pass. He told Joe that he had come to take them before the Justice (Smith) at the court house for examination, Joe replied that he would not go -- that the Constable should have nothing to do with him -- that he intended coming out on a writ of habeas corpus -- and immediately he returned to the public square where the troops were then stationed, and ordered the officers of the Carthage Greys and Union Dragoons, to go with him to the jail, to assist in bringing the prisoners to the court house, which was immediately complied with, and under the command of F. A. Worrell, marched to the jail, but did not speak to Jailor or prisoners, nor use any intimidating or threatening language to them. Neither did they enter the jail, but halted outside the yard fence. Constable advanced and Jailor ordered guard at door to let him pass in -- and Jailor peaceably delivered said prisoners to Constable, which were then safely guarded to the court house by Carthage Greys and a part of Capt. Dunn's company, who used every possible means to protect them from violence.

And Justice says that such part of Messers. Wood and Ried's statement, in the Nauvoo Neighbor of 3rd July and Times and Seasons of 1st July, relative to the forcing of the prisoners from the Jailor by the Carthage Greys is a base falsehood.       D. BETTISWORTH.

Sworn to and subscribed before me an acting Justice of the Peace in and for said County.
                       R. F. Smith, J. P. (Seal.)

State of Illinois, Sct.

Hancock County,

George W. Stigal, Jailor of the County jail, at Carthage, Hancock County, Illinois, being duly sworn, deposeth and says, that on the 26th day of June, the Carthage Greys did not make any threats or use any intimidating language to him, to induce him to give up the prisoners -- (Joseph and Hyrum Smith) nor did they ever ask him to give them up -- neither did any of them enter the jail, or in any manner attempt to force him to give up the prisoners, as Messers. Wood and Ried state they did in the Nauvoo Neighbor of 3rd July and the Times and Seasons, of the 1st July -- that Constable Bettisworth came to the jail with a guard of Carthage Greys and Union Dragoons, and told him he wanted the prisoners -- that he told the guard at the door to let him pass in, and that he gave up the prisoners to him. And that no person spoke to him at that time, about the prisoners, but the Constable -- that the guard halted outside the jail fence, on the south side of the jail, until the Constable brought out the prisoners, and placed them in the centre of the guard. And that after the Constable had been at the jail the first time, when the prisoners returned to come -- that he (the Jailor) went to Gov. Ford, and asked him, if he (the Jailor) had authority to give up the prisoners to the Constable, and that the Governor told him, he (the Jailor) had -- that the prisoners were only placed in jail for safe keeping over night.
                                   G. W STIGAL.
Sworn to and subscribed before me, an acting Justice of Peace, within and for said County. R. F. Smith, J. P. (Seal.)

State of Illinois, Sct.
Hancock County,

I hereby certify that the foregoing affidavits were subscribed and sworn to, before me, a Justice of the Peace, for said county.
                                   R. F. SMITH, J. P. (Seal.)

Mr. Ried in conclusion remarks that one company was ordered to accompany the Governor to Nauvoo. "The Carthage Greys who had but two days before, been under arrest for insulting the commanding General, and whose conduct had been more hostile to the prisoners than that of any other company, were selected to guard the prisoners," &c., &c., &c. The part relating to the Carthage Greys being put under arrest, I pronounce utterly false; and to prove that I am correct, I will here give you a letter from Gen. Deming, to the editor of the Warsaw Signal, which was published in the number of that paper printed July 10th:

                                    Carthage, June 30th, 1844.
To the editor of the Warsaw Signal.

Permit me to correct a few errors into which I perceive you have fallen in your notice of events at Carthage during the last week. There are several errors; but I shall only refer to such as are connected with the discharge of my official duties. In the exhibition of the Messrs.. Smiths to the McDonough troops I acted by the request of the Governor, who directed me by taking them upon my right and left to designate each to the different companies, to redeem his promise of gratifying their curiosity. The ceremony was far from being intended, or supposed by the Governor or myself, as a compliment to them. No order was ever given by me for disarming the Carthage Greys, or putting them under arrest; and I am well assured, it was not countermanded by the Governor. The order was issued by me for the other troops to take charge of the Carthage Greys. The action of the Greys was predicated upon misapprehension, and I was assured at that time, as since, that no disrespect was designed for me or the Governor.
                                    M. R. DEMING.

Does not this letter clearly prove Mr. Ried's statement in regard to the Greys being out under arrest, to be utterly false. They were never put under arrest, neither was there any such order -- nor was there any attempt made to arrest them. Both Mr. Ried and Mr. Woods, states at the commencement of their communications that they make statements of such facts, as they have knowledge of, in relation to the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, at Carthage.

By the depositions above I have plainly proven that they have made statements, that are any thing else than facts, and such as they knew nothing at all about.

Both Mr. Ried and Mr. Wood, says that the Carthage Greys forced the Jailor by threats, to give up the prisoners to the Constable. The Jailor and the Constable have made oath that there were no such intimidating or threatening language used by the Greys, to get the prisoners, and they did not enter the jail, nor address the Jailor or the prisoners. I leave the public to judge whether the statement I have made, with the Deposition of the Jailor and Constable, and Gen. Deming's letter is correct, and that made by Messers. Wood and Ried is false, or whether those made by myself are correct or false.

Many such erroneous and false statements have gone abroad, respecting the late trouble in this County, from just such men as Mr. Ried and Mr. Wood, and not any nearer the truth than the statements they have made are -- which are calculated to injure the old citizens in the estimation of the public. When on the contrary, if a true statement of the facts as they really occurred, were laid before them -- they might probably not justify all that has lately been done in this County, neither would they condemn or denounce so hastily as they have done.

We wish the facts as they really exist to be placed before the public -- we ask nothing more.

In future I would advise Messers. Ried and Wood to be more cautious about making public statements, respecting what has occurred in this County. And asserting that which they said "come under their observation -- and were known to them to be facts." And more especially any false statements respecting the Carthage Greys as they have done.
                                            F. A. WORRELL.

P. S. Fort Madison and Burlington papers will please publish the above communication.

SLANDERS OF THE PRESS. -- There are some papers which exhibit such a malicious disposition towards the people of Hancock, that we are induced to believe, that they do not desire to see the truth, in relation to our late difficulties. Such the St. Louis Gazette and People's Organ. These papers have indulged in every species of vituperation towards us, and they let no opportunity pass, to prejudice the public mind against us as a community.

The last malicious slander of the Gazette, is worthy of notice/ It is that a Mormon was last week shot down in the streets of Warsaw without provocation. This is a false and malicious fabrication. The circumatance that gave rise to this slander, is simoly this. One of the patrols, while on watch, one night last week, discovered two men in the act of stealing horses, which belonged to Mr. A. Pinchback. The guard [challenged] one of them; but instead of answering, he started on a brisk pace for his companion. The guard again challenged, and the thief turned partially toward him, but made no answer. The guard then fired -- the thief uttered a shriek and fell. Not knowing what force might be in reserve the guard did not pursue, until he had found one of his companions. They then proceeded to the spot, but found no body.

We have since learned that a Mormon living about seven miles from town has. received a wound, (which he says was accidental) in that part of the body at which the guard the next morning said he aimed. This is all that is known in relation to the matter.


[text missing] ... We will now state our candid conviction to the world, that there is only one way to quiet Hancock County, and that is to remove one or the other of the two classes of population. We are now living in a perfect state of anarchy. A civil officer does not feel safe in going amongst the Mormons to execute process; and we are sure that a Mormon officer would not be in attempting the like with the old citizens. The one party cannot trust the other, and they will resist by force before they will submit to any attempt to bring them to trial before their deadly enemies... [text missing]

Now we put the question to every candid man, is it possible for the two classes of population, who regard each other with feeling[s] of the most venemous hostility, both individually and collectively, and who have no confidence in the disposition of the one, to render justice to the other, to remain in the same county quiet? We say that it is impossible! The remedy, and the only remedy [that?] is apparent -- one or the other must leave. Which shall it be?... [text missing]

(transcripts under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 24.                       Warsaw, Illinois, July 31, 1844.                       Whole 141.


I am continually informed of your preparations and threats to renew the war, and exterminate the Mormons. One might suppose that you ought to rest satisfied with what you have already done. The mormon leaders, if they resisted the law, have submitted to its authority. They have surrendered the public arms; and appeared to be ready to do any thing required, to make atonement for whatever wrong may have been done. Since the assassination of [their] two principal leaders, under circumstances well calculated to inflame their passions, and drive them to excesses for the purposes of revenge, they have been entirely peaceful and submissive; and have patiently awaited the slow operations of the laws to redress the wrongs of which they complain. There has been no retaliation; no revenge; and for any thing I can ascertain, there will be none. Those of your people, who are charged with being the most hostile to them, have lived, if they knew it, in perfect security from illegal violence. I am anxious for a pacification of your difficulties. You cannot drive out or exterminate the mormons. Such an effort would be madness, and would not be permitted by the people of the State. You cannot be sustained in it either by force or law. You are blinding yourselves to your weakness, and keeping an agitation which must fail of the purpose intended, and recoil with terrible energy upon your heads. I exhort you to reconsider your infatuated resolutions. Try your Mormon neighbors again, and if you cannot dwell together in amity, you may at least refrain from injuring each other. From the moderation of the mormons, under what they conceive to be the deepest injury, you might well hope that if they ever entertained designs inconsistent with your liberty and happiness, that those designs have been abandoned. They are also interested in preserving the peace. It is not natural to suppose that they, any more than yourselves, wish to live in continual alarm. They hope for quiet, and will be peaceful and submissive in order to enjoy it. But you are continually driving them to desperation by an insane course of threatening and hostility, and depriving yourselves of peace by the same means used to disquiet them.

If I have said any thing severe in this address, I pray you attribute it to my deep conviction that your course is improper and unwarrantable. Such is the opinion of the people at large in the State, and all over the country. From being right in the first instance, you have put yourselves in the wrong, and there are none to sustain you. As men of sense, you are bound to see, if you will open your eyes, you cannot effect your purposes. -- Nevertheless you are still training and drilling, and keeping together, and threatening a renewal of the war. -- I have said to you often that you cannot succeed; by this time you ought to see it for yourselves. What can your small force do against two thousand armed men, entrenched in a city, and defending themselves, their wives and children? -- Besides, if you are the aggressors, I am determined that all the power of the State shall be used to prevent your success. I can never agree that a set of infatuated and infuriated men shall barbarously attack a peaceful people, who have submitted to all the demands of the law; and when they had full power to do so, refrained from inflicting vengeance upon their enemies. -- You may count on my most determined opposition -- upon the opposition of the law and upon that of every peaceful law-abiding citizen of the country. This is not spoken in anger. God knows, I would do you no injury unless compelled to do so to sustain the laws. But mob violence must be put down. It is threatening the country with anarchy and ruin. It is menacing our fair form of government, and destroying the confidence of the patriot in the institutions of [this] country.

I have been informed that the Mormons about Lima and Macedonia, have been warned to leave the settlements. -- They have a right to remain and enjoy their property. As long as they are good citizens, they shall not be molested, and the sooner those misguided persons withdraw their warning and retrace their steps, the better it will be for them.
                                           THOMAS FORD.
July 25, 1844.

The above communication from Governor Ford, was received in the form of printed circulars, on Sunday evening last. It will be perceived, that all the maledictions of the Governor are centered on Warsaw. We are made not only to bear the whole blame of recent transactions, but are now held up to the world by his Excellency, as the only turbulent spirits in the country.

In commenting on this effusion, we wish to be respectful; although, if we were to give vent to the feelings which his unjust and unmerited insinuations and assertions have produced; we confess that we should use language and state facts, that would not be altogether palatable to his Excellency. Had the Governor taken the pains, to inform himself from Reputable sources, of the sure position of things, and had censured us for nothing more than we were guilty of, we should have held our peace. Such is our respect for the Chief Magistrate, that no matter how severe his reproofs, provided he had taken the pains to inform himself on the facts as they were, we would have bowed in silence; but when, as is evidently the fact, he has relied on idle rumor, or the misrepresentations of a pack of political demagogues, who would barter the blood of their fellow citizens for the spoils of office, as the basis of his public action, we feel that we should be compromising the rights of freemen, if we did not speak in our own defence.

The Governor sets out with the assertion, that he is "continually informed of our preparations and threats to renew the war, and exterminate the Mormons." -- Should not the Governor have ascertained to a certainty whether this information were correct, before making it a text for a denunciatory sermon? It is possible that His Excellency has been made to believe, that the Town of Warsaw, than cannot muster over 80 effective men, has serious designs of exterminating the Mormons from a fortified city, defended by 2000 well armed soldiers? If he meant to say that the Anti-Mormon population of Hancock had such designs, he should have directed his epistle to them, and not particularly to the little Town of Warsaw. We have already been made to bear a sufficient share of malediction, for acts that we to some extent did participate in, without veing made the scape goat on which to pack the sins of the whole county.

His Excellency, in the next place, goes on to say that "the Mormon leaders, if they ever resisted the law, have submitted to its authority." Now, one would suppose from the dubious import of that little word "if" that the Governor entertained serious doubts, whether the Mormons ever had resisted the law. We are sorry if his Excellency has changed his mind on this important point; but we are compelled to the conclusion, that whatever may be his opinions, he is evidently endeavoring to pacify the Mormons, (who have taken deep umbrage from some cause at him,) by pouring out the vials of his wrath on Warsaw. This is our opinion, and will not from delicacy even to His Excellency's feelings, wuthhold it from the public. We are strengthened in this opinion by the very next clause in the circular which reads thus. "They, (the Mormons,) have surrendered the public arms." Now is it possible Governor Ford does not know better than this. The fact is, the Mormons had, eight or nine hundred stand of State arms, of which they have surrendered less than three hundred. It would appear however, that the Governor is under the impression that they have surrendered the whole. But suppose they have surrendered the whole, they are nevertheless fully armed; and what matters it to us, whether, their arms belong to the State or to individuals.

As a further [apology] for the Mormons, His Excellency says, "Since the assassination of [their] two principal leaders, under circumstances well calculated to inflame their passions, and drive them to excesses for the purposes of revenge, they have remained entirely peaceful, and submissive." Now this convinces us, that the information of the Governor has been entirely of a one sided character. It is notorious hereabouts, that the Mormons have since the death of the Smiths, been continually threatening -- that Dr. Foster, who has a large interest in Nauvoo as any other man, was compelled to leave the city in disguise, to save himself from assassination -- that Judge Emmons was also vompelled to leave in consequence of their threats -- that C. A. Foster was last week driven out of the city, and many other similar outrages have been committed on the rights of individuals by those "peaceable people." The Governor can easily be furnished with proof of these facts, and also, that some of their principal men, have said, that no enemies should live in their midst. We think and feel, that the Governor before he ventured to censure us for what we were not guilty of, should at least have enquired from proper authority, whether there had been any thing censurable in the conduct of our enemies.

The Governor, says that those of us, "who are charged with being most hostile to the Mormons, have lived, if they knew it, in perfect security from illegal violence." Pray, how did His Excellency ascertain that fact? -- the Mormons have told him so, and he believes them. The Mormons, will also tell him if he will believe it, that the Book of Mormon and the Book of Doctrines and Covenants are true. We, who have lived long with the people, have learned enough to know, that duplicity and lying is a part of their creed. We do not rely on Mormon evidence, nor are we willing to be censured on such evidence. It is true, that we feel secure from Mormon violence; but we trust more to their fears, than to their promises.

The Governor assures us that he is anxious for a pacification of our Mormon difficulties. We assure him that we are equally anxious; but that there is but one mode in which it could be done; and that is, for one party or the other to leave the county. No man acquainted with the facts, can think of any other pacification ever being permanent. True, we might by perfect submission, to be robbed and trampled on, purchase an ignoble peace; but we assure His Excellency, that there is yet American blood in Hancock, and if it boils occasionally, when we see our dearest rights outraged, it is nothing more than such blood has always been in the habit of doing. This thing of resisting oppression, even by force, if necessary, is a failing that Americans have always displayed. They may be great fools for it, according to His Excellency's logic; for when they might have lived in quiet, by perfect submission ro the oppression, they have even preferred to live in alarm for years, that they might ultimately live free.

The Governor says, "from the moderation of the Mormons, under what they conceived to be the deepest injury, you might well hope that if they ever entertained designs inconsistent with your liberty and happiness, that those designs have been abandoned." If the Governor had said "from the of the Mormons, &c." we would have not objected; but we have trusted to their moderation long enough to be satisfied, that it is a poor stick to lean on. Here, again that little significant word "if" occurs; and in this sentence, as throughout the whole crcular, His Excellency displays great caution, least he should say something to wound the feelings of these cut-throats. "If they ever entertained designs inconsistent with your liberty and happiness." Well, we don't know about this' but we do know that they have frequently entertained designs inconsistent with the liberty of oor cattle, and to the prosperity of our corn fields and pototoe patches; and also, that they have sworn us out of more than they have ever stolen from us. We know that they have abused, villified, insulted, threatened, and even beat some of our citizens, and then screened themselves from legal punishment. True, we don't know exactly what they meant by it; and we are in the same fox in relation to His Excellency's circular.

His Excellency exhorts us "to reconsider our infatuated resolutions." We don't exactly know what resolutions he refers to; but if they are those passed early in June, we assure him that his exhortation comes too late. The object of those resolutions was to exterminate the Mormon leaders; the essential part has been executed, as to the balance, we are content to await the result of certain circumstances.

The Governor advises us to "Try our Mormon neighbors again, and if we cannot dwell together in amity, you can at least refrain from injuring each other." It is an old adage that "it is wasier to give advice than to follow it." If the conduct of His Excellency in a certain affair that transpired on Rock River, some years since, is correctly reported, we think, that, were he now a citizen of Hancock, he would be as loath to take this advice as any of us. We are anxious to try our Mormon neighbors again, but not in the manner that His Excellency proposes. -- We have not however, threatened it, nor are we preparing for it. There is no harm in feeling anxious to accomplish an object, though it may be impossible to carry our point. We cannot help feeling as we do, and we don't like to be censured for it, by those who have had no opportunity of knowing whether we have or have not had cause for these feelings.

The Governor says, "from being right in the first instance, you have put yourselves in the wrong, and there are none to sustain you." Now it will be recollected that "in the first instance," we passed those infatuated resolutions; if they were right, we have done nothing wrong; and we will venture to think, notwithstanding the Governor's assertion to the contrary, that there are some who sustain us; and if we are correctly informed, the bone and sinew of the surrounding country will give a demonstration of that fact, if particularly appealed to.

The Governor lectures us, "for drilling and keeping together." We will assure his excellency, that we do drill, and we intend to keep drilling, and to acquire all the Military Knowledge possible; and for the simple reason that we expect to have use for it. We are not slaves -- we are freemen, and we acknowledge the right of no man to upbraid us for exercising the priveliges of freemen. Probably, His Excellency's informants have not told him that the Mormons follow the same business; if they have not, we will now assure him, that the Mormons are still drilling; and we think that our conduct in this respect is no more censurable than theirs.

The Governor concludes with the averment that he has been "informed, that the Mormons about Lima and Macedonia had been warned to leave the settlements." We can come to no other conclusion, from the fact of his mentioning this matter in a letter particularly addressed to us, than that His Excellency has been informed, that the people of Warsaw had done this, and that he believes as a matter of course every thing said against us. Now we assure His Excellency, that not one citizen of Warsaw had any thing to do with warning the Mormons from near Lima; and as for the Warning from Macedonia, the first untimation we had that such a thing had been done, was received from His Escellency's letter. We have since learned however, that the people of McDonough have given this warning.

The balance of His Excellency's letter, is devoted to an argument showing us how utterly absurd the idea is of our little town attacking a fortified city, defended by 2000 armed men. Now what surprises us is that the Governor was ever made to believe, that we were such fools, as to think of such a thing. The Book of Mormon is not half as absurd, and we don't believe that he can swallow that.

In conclusion, we will state our candid conviction, that whenever the Governor, thinks it necessary to issue a proclamation or a circular, he should always be certain that he has got the facts, if they can possibly be procured. He should be exceedingly careful, for prima facia every thing emanating from the chief Magistrate isbelieved abroad; and he might possibly deeply injure the reputation of people who are innocent.


                                                      For the Warsaw Signal.
Hancock County, July 13, 1844.

MR. SHARP:-- In the Missouri Republican of the 5th inst., is to be found an article captioned "The Murders in Carthage," in which the editor is pleased to use the following language, "All our information tends to fix on the people concerned in the death of the Smiths, the odium of perfidious, black-hearted, cowardly murder -- so wanton as to be without any justification -- so inhuman and treacherous as to find no parallel in savage lifem under any circumstances." All this is done too, for the "information of his numerous readers abroad" -- holding up the Mormons at the same time as an innocent, injured and law abiding people.

Now, I would ask if it can be possible that an editor, brought by the facilities of intercommunication, into the very vicinity of Nauvoo, can be so ignorant of the character of that people who committed the act, as above, were without any shadow of justification.

Have not the daring outrages and diabolical acts of that people, wherever they have lived, been as well established as Holy writ? Yes, I affirm that they could not have been better established, or more notorious throughout the whole westr, if they had been written out in characters of sunshine upon the blue vault of heaven.

What were they in Ohio? What were they in that editor's own state? If he is not informed after so long a time, as to an important event in the history of hid own State, I would advise him to open a correspondence quickly with some of the best and most intelligent men of both political parties in Jackson, Clay, and Caldwell Counties, and I trust that if his eyes are not so blind, that he will not see, that the result will to him "a tale unfold." Then let him come to Hancock County, Ills., and select men in like manner, "but not go to Nauvoo to be stuffed with Mormon falsehood) and if they do not corroborate every thing he may have heard elsewhere, no matter how atrocious, then he may go and publish to his "numerous readers," and to the world "that the people of Hancock are a band of the most wanton cutthroats that are to be found, even in the most savage life," Yes! that they are far more savage than the Lybchers of Vicksburg, Miss., the regulators of White River, Arkansas, or forsooth the Negro Roasters of St. Louis.

As a law abiding citizen myself, I should not have troubled you with these strictures upon the article in question, if the editor had confined his denunciations to the act itself, in vindication of the supremacy of the laws. But when he comes out and attempts to excite sympathy in favor of a people upon whom the broad seal of condemnation has been indelibly stamped, as a lawless and turbulent community, wherever they have been known. I deem it a duty I owe to the editors "numerous readers," and to the world, to endeavor to show them that the information given them in that article, is not quite correct, particularly as to the peaceable disposition of that people, which I conclude needs no further illustration than the notorious fact, that unlike all honest communities, they have been unable to reside in any one of the four States, in which they have already resided, in harmony with their neighbors. I deprecate the manner of the deed, as much as any man, but yet, I cannot quite agree with the editor, that "it was the most outrageous murder upon record," even in civilized life. Though he should measure the atrocity of the crime by the greatness of the personages, together with the fact, that they were prisoners confined in jail. Yet I think the history of the world will furnish him with many cases a little more than parallel to this, at least in atrocity. In the murder of incarcerated kings, queens and infant princes, without the charge of crime itself. But I do not admit that a great man, especially if his greatness, consists alone [in] the magnitude of his crimes, is entitled to any more lenity in the eyes of the law, than a man whose name has not been trumpeted to fame as some great one.

"If I am correct in this position, I doubt not that if the editor would cast his eye backward a few years that he might find a parallel case in civilized St. Louis, viz: the roasting to a slow death a negro prisoner for the commission of a crime in comparison with the Smiths, as one to ten thousand.

If the parallel in the two cases should not be quite complete, it is because in the case of the negro, there was not a powerful army at his command, ready at any time to rescue him from the custody of the law, or if he should think proper to submit to the more tardy operation of the law, he had not Sheriffs, Jurors and Witnesses, cut and dried for the occasion, so that the results must inevitably be "Honorable Acquittal" or "Honorably discharged" which terms so often occur upon certain records in this county.

It is passing strange that the taste and judgment of these enlightened days will dignify a Bonapart who had murdered his millions, and roast a poor negro to death by slow degrees, who had committed but a single murder. Much parade was also made in that article about violated faith to the Governor.

I am not prepared to admit that any of those troops rendezvoused at Carthage, from whom the Governor received those "repeated pledges," were among the number of those persons that committed the deed.

As I remarked above, I object not to the editors or any body else, de[recating acts of violence unauthorized by any shadow of law, but I do object to the manner in which it is brought down by demagogues and caterers to public feeling. Showing most conclusively that many of this age, are so supremely selfish that they would stoop to any depth of degredation, in order to pluck up some material by which to manufacture a present benefit to themselves, or to sustain a favorable party or party measure. And I regret exceedingly to have to confess (claiming to belong to the Whig party as I do) that many Whig editors are most obnoxious to the charge.

I have observed with mortification for the last twelve months, that notwithstanding there has been one continual scene of excitement amongst the old citizens of this County, called forth by a series of the most unparalleled outrages, on the part of the Mormons, and one appeal after another had been sent forth to the world setting forth our grievances and sufferings in quick succession; yet very many of our most influencial journals on both sides of politics have been most cautiously silent. It is doubtless one of the cardinal duties of the public press, being the great medium of intelligence, to keep a vigilent eye to any attempt, let it come from whatever source it may, that tends to sap the very foundation of our moral and political institutions. When that silence is promoted by the fear that an atagonist might derive some political advantage, the principle sinks into utter contempt; and has been and will continue to be, the source of most of our troubles; for these bandits seeing the consequences acquired to themselves by these circumstances, are greatly emboldened in their lawless assumptions. And if such a policy is persisted in, must terminate in the destruction of many vakuable lives and the utter extermination or expulsion of that people from civilized society.
                                                      A CITIZEN OF HANCOCK.

                                                      HANCOCK COUNTY, July 23, 1844.
Mr. Editor: -- Every citizen feels some interest in being understood and justified in his actions; communities have the same desire of public approbation. There are men in this County, who, to bolster up their own doubtful characters, are constantly abusing and defaming the old citizens of Hancock. By such men and their co-adjurors abroad, we have suffered much injustice. I intend now barely to set before the public a synopsis of the true position of the people, and the causes which led to the recent action on their part, against the Mormon authorities, and the public can then judge, of the truth of the assertions of a race of political syncophants, who, for their own base purposes, are busy in gulling them by their false representations and calumnies.

The old citizens are charged by these men, with being open violates of the laws and advocates of mob violence. Is this charge true? Have they borne such a reputation heretofore? What have they done? They have set the laws at defiance and openly declared themselves above them. This, they have done by command of the constituted authorities of the State.

What was the cobdition of affairs in this County one month ago? A religious leader of some fifteen thousand persons bound to him by a blind and fanatical faith had raised himself to the zenith of dictatorial power. He had declared himself a law giver of Heaven; and his followers had acknowledged the Divinity of his code. He had but to issue his mandates, and there were thousands of disciples ready to execute. By this superstitious power, he had obtained uncontrolled influence over the minds of his followers; and by their superior numbers, and devotion to his interest, over the whole county. He was a tyrant by nature. In a series of actions he had evinced a fixed purpose of ruling by force, the community under his immediate control, and bt force, fear and favor, all over whom his influence and power extended. In the plenitude of his reign, he had become intolerable, insolent and tyranical beyond a parallel in modern times. There was not in his nature or character a semblance of religion, morality or decency. Revenge, oppression and cruelty were his ruling characteristics. With a Banditti of disciples at his heels, he had openly attacked our citizens, while in the discharge of their duty, and in pursuit of their business, with blows and curses. He had in numerous instances, rescued criminals from the custody of civil officers. He had attacked the liberty of speech, and deprived men of their liberty and property for expressing their opinions of him and his religion.

He had assailed the liberty of the press, and made a public bon fire of that palladium of liberty -- a fit occasion to glut a tyrant's craven appetite!

We had gone thus far, in his career of outrage unwhipped of hustice. The civil law as to him was ineffectual. It had been before applied to in vain. He had treated, in repeated instances, civil process with contempt, and with insolent impunity trampled the laws under his feet.

In this last instance, the civil law was again appealed to by the people; and again the same haughty contempt was exhibited by this miscreant. He refused to obey warrants issued for his arrest, and defied the people and the authorities of the State. In defence of himself, and fellow criminals against the laws; he armed and arrayed his military of some four thiusand men; and at their head as a military chieftain, this religious teacher and pretended Prophet, defied the people and the authorities of the State. Some of our citizens were coerced into his ranks; their property made common plunder, and a pass required from his authority to leave their own doors; and in some cases an oath of loyality required of them to his majesty's Government. In short he had established a military Government in his city and a portion of the county, and enforced his will with the rigor of Martial Law.

This is but an epitome of the outrages of this religious despot. Under these exciting circumstances, there was nothing more than a simultaneous mobement of the people in support and defence of the laws under which they lived. What man possessing any knowledge of human nature, and the spirit of Americanism, can but wonder at the humiliating endurence of the people! Had they risen in open revellion and with one stroke demolished the tyrant and his Government, could Americans have condemned them? Liberty is the price of blood the world over, and whenever it becomes necessary in defence of our civil rights, revellion itself is justified by the paramount Law of mankind.

No people abhor mob spirit more than the old citizens of Hancock; yet while this is the case, they will maintain the noble spirit which led to the American Revolution of '76, to the Irish Rebellion of '98, and to the more recent Revolution in Texas.

That individual vengence should have been visited upon the Smiths is not surprising when we reflect that there were many citizens of this State and of Missouri, who had suffered wrongs from them while in the glory of their reign, of the ,ost cruel and degraded character, and that too, without the possibility of legal redress. If there is a point beyond which endurance ceases to be a virtue, that point had arrived with us. I do not attempt to justify, in the strict sense, the act of killing the Smiths, but I ask the public to take a strict survey of cause and effect, and of the history of mankind down to the present time, and then wonder if they can, of the fate of these men.


The following letter was found in the bar-room of one of the Quincy taverns. It is doubtlessly a genuine production from one of that description of land pirates, who having failed in their selfish schemes doubt not, but that Joe Smith had a large number of just such applications; and that the majority of those about his person, were men of precisely such characters as is described below.

The Letter is directed on the back, to "Hon. Joseph Smith, Nauvoo Illinois," and is post-marked La Salle Illis.,

                                    CENTERVILLE, Ky., June 1st.
Honored Sir:-- A letter from one whom at first you consider an entire stranger, and of the character of this, may well excite surprise; but sir if it surprises you, I assure you it is with feelings of utmost regret -- that I am compelled to adopt this course of communication. I regreat it because I feel I address you necessarily with a seeming degree of impertnence and because it is somewhat humiliating to myself. But sir I will be brief and state what I wish to communicate for your consideration. You may probably remember my name, when I mention the circumstances under which you first heard it, at the time you purchased the Bank of Monroe -- while I was a Clerk in that institution. Since that time, I have been engaged in various operations, which the limits of this letter will not permit me to explain -- suffice, to say the last but not least in importance has been Financial and Political in Texas, and in which I have become familiar with men and measures in that country. A knowledge of which I am certain will be of service to you, and on which I am anxious to confer with you personally. I was on my way to your city, when an accident deprived me of the means of doing so; the accident to which I refer, was the sinking of the Buckeye and loss of all my money, except a small sum which I had in my pocket at the time. One word more, and I will throw myself entirely upon your kind charity which I am compelled to. I am by profession a physician, and have for some years prior to my going to Texas, in practice in Louisiana. That I am an ambitious person I will nor deny; but sir, I am also one whose ambitious schemes have met with disappointments, is equally true, and I am now anxious and determined to make it subservient to some more fortunate man. (Will you avail yourself of it,) I am but a young man of 29, and can long be of service to you. I have a good classic education, which perhaps may be made available. But all of these matters will and can be better understood when I shall have the pleasure of seeing you. And now my respected sir, if you will send me money enough to carry me to your place, I hope I shall be able to convince you that the small sum was not badly expended. Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shalt gather them after many days.

In the mean time I have the honor to be with feeling of the highest consideration.
Your obt. servant,
P. S. Should you condescend to reply to this please address.

CHAPMAN, of the Indiana State Sentinel, says that the Warsaw Signal has pursued a most hellish course towards the Mormons. Pray how do you know? We have never exchanged with you, nor do we desire to. If our course towards the Mormons has been hellish, what has been your course towards the Whigs?

The Sentinel also states, that the men engaged in the killing [of] the Smiths, have manufactured false stories to screen them from public indignation, and also that we had misrepresented the facts. Now to this we reply that no representations that have gone abroad, concerning the transaction, is as near the truth as that made by us. The stories told by the Quincy Whig and Herald, we do not hold ourselves responsible for. They were not true; but were made from the best evidence they could command at the time. And we speak by the card, when we say that the story first told by the Herald was not concocted by any person implicated in the business of killing the Smiths. We say this, because we know from whom the Herald received the statements. The story was honestly told, by an individual who had received it in detached parcels, and filled up the interstices with conjectures.

We have seen a great deal in the Newspapers about the "cold blooded" murder at Carthage. We were in the County during the whole of the late excitement, and we did not know or hear of much "cold blood" in it, and the little that there was, we are certain had nothing to do with killing Joe and Hirum.

READ THE DOCUMENTS. -- We this week publish on our last page the testimony of two witnesses, as given before the Courts of Missouri, which will clearly exhibit the conduct of the Mormons when in that State. We do this merely to show what outrages these people are capable of committing, as also for the purpose of preparing the public mind for a mass of evidence in relation to their conduct and schemes in this county, which will shortly be made public.

The Mormons while in Missouri, were more bold in their plundering expeditions than they have been here. There they had no city charter to protect them from the punishment they so justly deserved, and were therefore compelled to submit or make open resistence. It will be preceived however that the county of Caldwell was in very much the same situation in respect to the control of the courts as in this county. A Mormon could not there be indicted or punished for crime; the same will be the case here if they are not beaten in the coming election. Had not Joe Smith been killed at the time he was, he would have placed himself beyond a doubt on next Monday, above all law.

When a large body of men are bound together for the purpose of screening each other from legal punishment -- who have control of the courts -- who are taught that there is no harm in swearing falsely for the benefit of a brother in the church, it is [nonsense] to talk of reaching such men in a legal manner.

To show the world, that the People of Hancock are not the first who have complained of Mormon aggressions, we insert the following, which will speak for itself.

                                              RICHMOND Missouri, October 23, 1838.
"To the Governor of the State of Missouri:

"SIR:-- The alarming state of Daviess county, and the panic produced by the late movements of the Mormons in that county, have produced a degree of excitement and alarm here, that has not been heretofore witnessed. The latest accounts from Daviess county that have reached us, say that all the inhabitants of Daviess county have left, and sought refuge in Livingston or this county. The storehouse of Jacob Stollings in Gallatin, was robbed and burned by the Mormons, the post-office kept there was also destroyed, and we believe that the houses of five or six of the inhabitants of Daviess have been destroyed by fire, the property taken away, and the women and children obliged to flee. The arms of all the citizens in Daviess they could find, have been taken by them forcibly; they have also carried away the cannon from Livingston county, and have it now in their possession.

"The Mormons have robbed George Worthington, post-master, at Gallatin, of his notes and property to the amount of nearly $2,000. In short, the news from them reaches us hourly. that they are destroying the property of the citizens they cannot carry away, and all that they can carry away. they take. Blood and plunder appear to be their object, and those who do not join with them in their incindiary conduct, are banished from Caldwell, and all those of other counties who are opposed to them, are threatened. It is the desire of the citizens that his Excellency would visit this section of country, and call out a sufficient number of troops to put a stop to the further ravages of these fanatics. If some such measures are not taken shortly, the whole country will be overrun. We now firmly believe they are aggressors, and say they will indemnify themselves for losses in Jackson and Carroll. We are not alarmists, and have had no fears until lately, that these fanatics would have dared to behave as they have lately. There seems to be but one opinion here on the subject, and that shortly, they will destroy as far as they are able. We think it our duty to advise you of these things.
                                   "Very respectfully [Your Obt Servts.],

R. S. Mitchell,
John N. Hughs,
Thos. McKinney,
Jesse [Corner],
T.L.D.W. Shaw,
G. [Lenhart],
Jno C. Richardson.
M. P. Long,
James S. [Beell],
B. J. Brown, Sheriff,
[George] Woodward,
Lewis [S]. Jacobs,
Berry Hughs,
William Hudgins, P. M.

The following, from the Quincy Whig will exhibit the state of feeling among many of the people in the surrounding counties. They are extremely anxious that the old citizens if the county should remain, in order that we mat keep the Mormons from troubling them. They extend, therefore, to us their sympathy for our sufferings, and assure us of their kind feelings towards us, and their hatred of the Mormons; but we assure them, that their sympathy will never relieve us of the evils under which we labor. We have no legal remedy -- our only means of protection is by forcible resistance to aggression. Yet id we attempt to protect ourselves by forceible resistance to called mobocrats -- the Governor hurls his anathamas, and the press echoes that we are a pack of debased and brutal wretches.

We do not wish to misconscrue the feelings of the people of the surrounding counties. We do not believe that even a majority of them will ask the people of this county, to enjoy peace, by extending to our cut-throat neighbors the hand of friendship. It is asking too much of the old citizens of Hancock, to advise them to remain here in constant dread; their lives and property being in the power of an unprincipled band of devils, in order that they may keep trouble from our neighbors. It is especially ungenerous in you Mr. Whig, who but a few weeks since hurled your denunciations against the people of this county, for having taken the law into their own hands, when they were convinced that there was no other remedy. If you had simply condemned the act, as an outrage, we would not have murmured; but to denounce men, who thought that they were doing their God and their country a service, as a band of assassins and cold blooded murderers, when you knew, or should have known the provocation that existed, is to say the least of it, ungenerous. Mr. Whig, what good do you suppose your sympathy will do us, if you can denounce us whenever we commit, under the strongest provocation, a violation of the strict letter of the law, when you know that the law can furnish no remedy? We want something from our neighbors stronger than sympathy, or we will be compelled to leave them to the blessings of Mormon neighborhood.

Note: See also the Aug 14, 1844 issue of the Quincy Whig.

From the Quincy Whig.

The Mormon Difficulties.

We invite the attention of our readers to a communication under this head, on the first page of this paper. It is written by a gentleman who has a thorough knowledge of the subject of which he treats -- who has, in fact, bestowed much of his time and personal attention to an investigation of the recent difficulties, and their cause, in Hancock county. This communication should be read the more at this time, because, from the recent death of the Smiths, in a manner and by means, which no one can uphold -- a sympathy for the Mormons, as a people, seems to cloud the reason of many of our citizens and to draw their attention off from the question at issue between the mormons and the citizens of Hancock county. The fact is, the annoyance of which those people complain still exist. The death of the Smiths, has not the least, changed the ground of controversy between them, -- The Mormons have the same power to do mischief that they had before. They still have their charter, under which they enacted ordinances to destroy private property -- and who doubts that when numbers shall strengthen their hands, they will still further exercise their power to the annoyance of those who do not agree with them in their religious tenets? They are we notice by the "Times and Seasons," calling upon their followers to gather at Nauvoo -- they have too, as we learn by a gentleman who knows, procured a large number of stand[s] of arms, (bought in New Orleans,) to arm their legion -- The State arms having been taken from them. Now what does all this bode? It does not look like peace -- it does not look as though they were disposed to scatter abroad over the land, and live like other people. The issue still remains between the mormons and the anti-mormons of Hancock. Which shall leave the county? Both cannot remain any length of time in peace, and one or the other must eventually leave. Of the two, we think there can be but one opinion among candid men, wgich shall leave. The old settlers of Hancock have a pre-emptive right to the soil. They were the first there -- they were the pioneers to open the lands and cultivate them, and until the Mormons came among them, they were a people noted for their quiet and industrious habits and love of law and peace. Neither were the people of Hancock the first aggressors in the late outbreak, as the communication of our friend clearly shows -- and sorry would we be to see them leave a county which owes much of its wealth to their industry and enterprise. Another thing: what would be gained by such a suicidal policy on their part? They would not better their condition in all probability, and certainly not the condition of their friends they leave behind. Suppose they -- that is the old citizens of Hancock -- should leave the county, the Mormons of course, would crowd in, and make Hancock to the neighboring counties, what Nauvoo is now to Hancock county -- an annoyance and an eyesore, which would and must lead to trouble, civil war and blood-shed. This would be the inevitable consequence -- because it is abundantly demonstrated to be a matter of impossibility for a mass of people, of the character of the mormons, under the military, religious and civil administration of one or more unworthy men, with their peculiar notions regarding their own rights and privileges, to live in the same community, or the same State, with those who abide by our present laws, and who cannot but look upon the whole Mormon scheme of government and religion as a shallow imposition to delude the weak and credulous. What has been, will be again. And from what we know of the feelings of the Hancock people, we are satisfied the difficulties with the Mormons have hardly yet commenced. But we are running our article to a greater length than we intended -- we again invite public attention to the communication spoken of.

The New Era states that it is reported in St. Louis that Dr. Foster, had since the death of Joe Smith, asserted that he believed himself to be a true prophet, and had expressed his desire of returning to the church. We can not contradict this on authority, but we do know that the Doctor curses Joe as heartily as ever.

The St. Louis Gazette, which never lets any opportunity slip of casting odium on the old citizens of this county, insinuates that the weapons found in the Jail, after Smith's death, were left there by the mob. If the Gazette will believe nothing but Mormon testimony, we refer him to Richards' statement in the last Nauvoo Neighbor, in which it is admitted that Joe fired a revolving pistol at the crowd. The other pistol Taylor says is his. Richards also admits that they had two heavy walking sticks. Now Mr. Gazette, will you inform us how these weapons ever came into possession of the prisoners? These men were accused of the highest crime known to the law; but the Governor requested the Jailor not to confine them in their cells, but to suffer them to occupy a pleasant and commodious room, which had neither bars to the windows or bolts to the doors. Is it any wonder that the people became exasperated to madness, when they beheld such cut-throats treated with so much consideration? Is it any wonder they regarded the laws as too weak, when they beheld a man who could assemble an army of 4000 men with arms in their hands at a day's notice, confined in prison on a charge of treason and guarded by the mighty force of seven men?

The Gazette says, that the men that killed the Smiths were a pack of cowards. Now our view of the matter is, that instead of cowardice, they displayed foolhardy courage, for they must have known or thought, that they would bring down on themselves the vengeance of the Mormons. True, the act of an armed body going to the Jail and killing prisoners does appear at first view dastardly, but we look at it as though these men were the executioners of justice; and their act is no more cowardly than is the act of the hangman in stretching up a defenceless convict, who is incapable of resistance. If any other mode could have been devised, or any other time selected, it would have been better; but as we have heard others say, we are satisfied that it is done, and care not to philosophise on the modus operandi.

Affidavit of Thomas B. March.

"At the request of a committe of the citizens of Ray county, I make the following statement[s] in relation to the recent movement[s], plans, and intentions, of the Mormons, of the Mormons in the counties of Caldwell and Daviess: --

"Shortly after the settlement of the difficulties at De Witt, in Carroll county, a call was made by the Mormons at Far West, in Caldwell county, for volunteers to go to Daviess county to disperse the mob as they said. On the day before this, Joseph Smith, the Prophet, had preached, in which he said, that all the Mormons who refused to take up arms, if necessary, in difficulties with the citizens, should be shot, or otherwise put to death; and as I was there with my family, I thought it most prudent to go, and did go, with my wagon, as the driver. We marched to Adam-on-Diahmon, and found no troops or mob in Daviess county. Scouting parties frequently went out, and brought in intelligence that they had seen from three to five hundred men. We got to Diahmon on Tuesday evening, and on the next day a company of about eighty Mormons, commanded by a man fictitiously named Captain Fearnaught, marched to Gallatin. They returned, and said they had run off from Gallatin twenty or thirty men, and had taken Gallatin -- had taken one prisoner, and another had joined the company. I afterwards learned from the Mormons that they had burnt Gallatin, and that it was done by the aforesaid company that marched there.

The Mormons informed me that they had hauled away all the goods from the store in Gallatin, and deposited them at the Bishop’s storehouse at Diahmon. On the same day, Lyman Wight marched about eighty horsemen for Millport. He returned before night, and called for Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, to report to them, (said Hyrum being counsellor of said Joseph the Prophet,) and siad Wight reported that he had been in sight of Millport -- saw no one to fight -- but that the people generally had gone and left their houses and property. The Prophet, on hearing the property was left, commenced a reply, and said, 'We had better see to it,; when Wight stopped him by saying, 'Never mind, we will have a private council;' and Smith replied, 'Very well.' The private council I did not hear. The men were determined to go to their camps. The same evening, a number of footmen came up from the direction of Millport, laden with property, which I was informed consisted of beds, clocks, and other household furniture. The same night, I think, about three wagons were dispatched for about forty bee-gums, and the next day I saw several gums, when they were splitting them up, and taking the honey and burning the gums, in which business of taking out the honey, but few were engaged, for fear, as they said, they would be called on as witnesses against them. When Wight returned from Millport, and informed Smith that the people were gone and the property left, Smith asked him if they had left any of the negroes for them, and Wight replied, 'No;' upon which some one laughed, and said to Smith, 'You have lost your negro then.' During the same time, a company called the FUR COMPANY, were sent out to bring in fat hogs and cattle, calling the hogs BEARS, and the cattle BUFFALOES, (and the honey SWEET OIL Bear Meat, Buffalo, and Sweet Oil -- pretty good living!) They brought in at one time seven cattle, and at another time, four or five, belonging to the people of Daviess. Hogs were brought in dead, but I know not how many; I saw only two. They have among a company consiting of all that are considered true Mormons, called the DANITES, who have taken an oath to support the heads of the Church in all things, that they say or do, whether right or wrong. Many, however, of this band are much dissatisfied with this oath, as being against moral and religious principles. On Saturday last, I am informed by the Mormons that they had a meeting at Far West, at which they appointed a company of twelve, by the name of the DESTRUCTION COMPANY, for the purpose of burning and destroying; and that if the people of Buncombe came to do mischief upon the people of Caldwell, and committed depredations upon the Mormons, they were to burn Buncombe; and if the people of Clay and Ray made any movements against them, this destroying company were to burn Liberty and Richmond. This burning was to be done secretly, by going as incendiaries. At the same meeting, I was informed, they passed a decree that no Mormon dissenter should leave Caldwell county alive; and that such and that such as attempted to do it, should be shot down, and sent to tell their tale in eternity. In conversation between Dr. Avard and other Mormons, said Avard proposed to start a pestilence among the Gentiles, as he called them, by poisoning their corn, fruit, &c., and saying it was the work of the Lord; and said Avard advocated lying for the support of their religion, and said it was no harm to lie for the Lord!!! The plan of said Smith, the Prophet, is to take this State; and he professes to his people to intend taking the United States, and ultimately the whole world. This is the belief of the church, and my own opinion of the Prophet's plans and intentions. It is my opinion that neither said Joseph Smith, the Prophet, nor any one of the principal men, who is firm in the faith, could be indicted for any offence in the county of Caldwell. The Prophet inculcates the notion, and it is believed by every true Mormon that Smith's prophecies are superior to the law of the land. I have heard the Prophet say that he should yet tread down his enemies, and walk over their dead bodies; that if he was not let alone, he would be a second Mahomet to this generation, and that he would make it one gore of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean; that like Mahomet, whose motto, in treating for peace, was the 'Alcoran or the Sword,' so should it be eventually with us, Joseph Smith or the Sword! -- These last statments were made during the last summer. The number of armed men at Adam-on-diahmon was between three and four hundred.
                                              "THOMAS B. MARCH. [sic]
"Sworn to and subscribed )
before me, the day herein )
written.                         )

"Henry Jacobs, J. P.,
"Ray County, Missouri.
"Richmond, Missouri, October 24, 1838."

Testimony of John Cleminson, Clerk of the Circuit Court
of Caldwell County.

"John Cleminson, a witness, produced, sworn, and examined, in behalf of the State, deposeth and saith: Sometime in June I attended two or three of the Danite meetings; and it was taught there, as a part of the duty of the band, that they should support the presidency in all their [designs], right or wrong; that whatever they said was to be obeyed, and whoever opposed the presidency in what they said, or desired done, should be expelled from the county, or have their lives taken. The three composing the presidency was at one of the meetings, and, to satisfy the people, Dr.Avard called on Joseph Smith, Jr., who gave them a pledge, that if they led them into a difficulty, he would give them his head for a foot-ball, and that it was the will of God that these things should be so. The teacher and active agent of the society was Dr. Avard, and his teachings were approved of by the presidency. Dr. Avard further taught, as a part of their [obligation], that if any one betrayed the Ssecret designs of the society, they should be killed, and laid aside, and nothing said about it.

"I heard Sidney Rigdon's sermon, commonly called the 'salt sermon,' and its purport and design was about as other witnesses have stated before me. When process was filed against Joseph Smith, and others, in my office as clerk of Caldwell circuit court, for tresspass, Joseph Smith, jr., told me not to issue that writ; that he did no intend to submit to it; and that it was a vexatious thing, and I had a right to judge whether a suit was vexatious or not, and that he would see me out of it. Hiram Smith, (who was not a defendant in that suit,) also koined him in this promise, if I would not issue the writ. This was previous to the last term of the Cladwell circuit court. I considered myself not as a proper judge as to whether it was a vexatious suit or not. Joseph Smith, jr., said it was a vexatious thing and that he would not suffer it to be issued; and I felt myself intimidated and in danger, if I issued it, knowing the regulations of the Danite band.

"On the Monday prior to the last Daviess expedition, I heard Mr. Rigdon say that those who had heretofore been backward in taking up arms in defending themselves, ought to, or should, be put upon their horses, with bayoneta and pitchforks; and Smith said, forced into the front of the battle; and that the property of those who would not go into the war should be consecrated to the use of those who did. Mr. Smith said their beef corn, and potatoes, they would take.

"When we first went to Daviess, I understood the object to be, to drive out the mob, if one should be collected there; but when we got there we found none. I then learned the object was, from those who were actively engaged in the matter to drive out all the citizens of Daviess and get possession of their property. It was understood that they burnt Mormon houses, as well as the houses of the other citizens. The burning of the Mormon houses was to bring the Mormons into Diahmon, as I understood it. It was said by some that the Mormons were burning their own houses, and, by others, that the mob was burning them; and so much was said about it, that I did not know when I got the truth. I heard Demick B. Huntington one of the Mormon troops, say that the Missourians at Gallatin, had taken the goods out of Stolling's store, and piled them up and set fire to the storehouse, and had gone off for wagons to haul off the goods; but that our wagons had got there first, and had hauled them off. I understood that the goods were deposited with the bishop of the church at Diahmon, as consecrated property to the church. A great deal of other property was brought into the Mormon camps; but (I do not) know where it came from, but understood it to be consecrated property. It was frequently observed among the troops, that the time had come when the riches of the gentiles should be consecrated to the Saints."

Notes: (forthcoming)


S I G N A L, Extra.


We are this week compelled to omit the publication of our paper, on account of our having relied on getting some paper, belonging to the Nauvoo Expositor office; but have been disappointed... As we don't feel like relying further on the Holy City, we shall have a supply next week, from St. Louis and go it regularly.


Every thing passed off in this place on Monday, with the utmost regularity. There was scarcely a word of party character spoken and throughout the day the utmost quiet prevailed. Every feeling of partnership, seemed merged in the all absorbing local question, which was to show to the world the hopelessness of our situation. Well, we are beaten as a matter of course. Nauvoo as will be seen, voted for her own nominees -- men, who though they are not all Mormons in name, are yet so in heart. One of the representatives, Babbitt, is a Mormon. The Coroner is a Mormon, but had not the courage to say so, and as for the balance, we would sooner trust the Mormons than either of them -- men who in times like the present, will accept Mormon nominations against the will of the great body of their fellow citizens, have all the loathsome qualities necessary for Mormons, but none of the open and redeeming traits. They would in our opinion, barter blood for office. The jury is now under the control of the Mormon dictators.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


S I G N A L.


We this week send to our subscribers, each, one number of J. H. Jackson's Narrative, in place of our regular paper. We presume that the substitute will be highly acceptable to them, inasmuch as all are desirous of procuring this document, and it contains much more reading matter than a full number of the paper.

We have just issued in pamphlet form, from this office, 'A narrative of the Adventures and experiences of Joseph H. Jackson, in Nauvoo; disclosing the depths of Mormon villainy.' This narrative, although of an extraordinary character, is fully credited wherever Mr. Jackson is known; and besides this, nearly every fact, can be substantiated by collateral evidence. As black as is the record of Mr. Jackson, no one who has carefully examined the history of Mormonism, from its origin, will consider that there is anything in it improbable. In fact, it is but corroborative of what has been a hundred times told but never before in so palpable a shape. Mr. Jackson, took the only method by which it was possible to gain Joe's confidence, and thus ferret out his iniquity. Such was the capacity for secrecy, possessed by Joe, in Nauvoo, that no other plan ever could have been devised, by which the depths of Mormon villainy could have been fathomed.

Mr. Jackson's statements in relation to the Bogus operations, can be substantiated by the testimony of all the seceders, and by many persons not members of the church, who lived at the time in Nauvoo. His statements in relation to the spiritual wife iniquity, have already been proved by evidence from this same source, which was published to the world in the first No. of the Nauvoo Expositor. His statements in relation to plans for assassination, are proved by corroborative circumstances, that transpired at the time; and we have now in our possession proof of the truth of the story concerning the kidnapping of Richardson. All of this collateral proof if required, will be shortly given to the world.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 26.                       Warsaw, Illinois, August 21, 1844.                       Whole 142.


                                                           For the Warsaw Signal.
                      Continued from the 21st No.

In resuming my address to persons who are attached in the interests of Joseph Smith, &c., I shall confine my remarks mainly to a review of the doctrines peculiar to Mormonism, and practices consequent thereon. And, in the first place, it is useless to attempt to disguise the fact, that the unbounded ambition of this [man] aimed at nothing short of universal empire; see doct. and cov. page 136, "Wherefore he is possessor of all things, for all things are subject unto him, both in heaven and earth" -- that he, and all those who teach what is called the fulness of the gospel, that is, mormonism, claim that the Church of Latter Day Saints is clearly to be understood as the kingdom spoken of by Daniel the prophet, chapter 2, verse 44. And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever." The great image described in the 31st, 32nd, and 33rd, verses of the same chapter, represents the present existing governments of the world; and by the stone that was cut out without hands, and that smote the image, and broke it in pieces, and became itself 'a great mountain and filled the earth,' verse 33rd; we are to understand the mormon church, which is to 'break to pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver and the gold,' verse 45, by which we are to understand is represented the various forms of human government. All of which are doomed to destruction, while the inhabitants of the whole earth have the comfortable assurance of the government-consuming, wotld-conquering heroes, that mormonism will supply the place of the other systems of government; and Mahomedianism of the nineteenth century will assume the universal empire of the earth. If any one who is familiar with the doctrines taught by Joseph Smith, and his followers presumes to deny the truth of the above statement, it will only establish still more conclusively their entire disregard for truth. When Smith and his disciples first visited Independence in Mo., in search of a site for their future Zion, having made their selection in Jackson county, and being but few in number at that time, the Lord very prudently gave him, by revelation the following advice, to wit: 'Let no man break the laws of the land, for he that keepeth the laws of God, hath no need to break the laws of the land; wherefore be subject to the powers that be, until He reigns whose right it is to reign, and subdues all enemies under his feet. Behold the laws which ye have received from my hands, are the laws of the church: and in this light ye shall hold them forth. Behold here is wisdom,' page 137. The time had arrived in August, 1831, to 'break the laws of the land,' and they were therefore commanded to teach that the treasonous laws and regulations which they avowed, were only applicable to the church, and had no reference 'to the powers that be,' and by this deception they were taught to quiet the public mind, 'until he reigns whose right it is to reign'! 'Behold here is wisdom'!! It is worthy of notice, that throughout all the bungling compositions of this extraordinary writer whenever we find the last recited quotation, some secret design is intended -- and if the word 'wisdom' was erased, and 'villainy' substituted, I should not doubt the truth of the sentence. With this improvement of that significance and often repeated expression, the people of Mo., would have understood that the mormons were only bound to obey the laws of the land until he (Joseph Smith) should reign whose right it was to reign; and then they were to be a free people, -- and have no laws but his laws; for he says, 'I am your low-giver, and what can stay my hand?' page 119. While penning this address, and before we had reached many of the most important points to which our attention has been directed, we are checked in the course of our review of this subject, by the reported violent death of Joseph Smith, and his brother; hence we shall suspend the continuation of our remarks, for a short season. We shall however at no very distant day, again resume the subject, and redeem our pledge to the public, by proving that Mormonism is treason against all human governments, surmounted with a hypocritical affection of religion. It is true, that our language may appear in many instances harsh; but as we write what we practically know to be true, from painful experience; we will probably be excused for our neglect of diplomatic theorizing, to soft and unmeaning terms.     I. G.


Some weeks since, we wrote a lengthy article, directed to Friend Bailhache, of the Alton Telegraph, in relation to the late tragedy in Carthage. We endeavored to reason the matter calmly; but in his reply, instead of reviewing & refuting our positions and conclusions, he acts just as a man who feels himself worsted, and who has not the manliness to acknowledge [scorn], universally acts, i. e, reasserts his former statements, and denounces our denial, as the height of effrontry and presumption. Mr. Nailhache, re-affirms his opinion, that the affair at Carthage, is at the head of the black lettered list of public offences in the United States; and why? Because Gov. Ford, in his circular to the people of the State of Illinois, says that before he gave the pledge to the Smiths, he obtained a pledge of honor, by an unanimous vote, from the officers and men under his command, to sustain him in performing it.' In reply to this, we have only to say, that if his Excellency meant to convey the idea, that such ananimous pledge was given by all the officers and men in the county, under military command, we will venture to say, although we may surpass 'Loco Foco' effrontery in so doing, that it is false. There were 200 men stationed in Warsaw, who never gave any such pledge. The only thing that could be construed into a pledge from them, was, that about 50 of their number was addressed by Gov. Ford, on the necessity of supporting the laws, and they cheered him. This was however, only intended as a compliment to his Excellency, and nothing more. Now Friend Bailhache, we assure you, that we have, and always shall have about us, that peculiar species of effrontery, that will cause us to assertwhat we know to be true, and to deny what we know to be false, even though in so doing, we should contradict the highest officer in the State. We can prove what we say on this subject, by the testimony of scores of witnesses, whose character for truth and veracity, will compare favorably with any men in the State.

But let us enquire, whether this affair at Carthage, is really at the head of the black lettered list of public offences in the United States? A few years ago, there was a certain man by the name of Lovejoy, who published a paper of a peculiar character, in the city of Alton. The constitution, which is of the highest authority, pledged to him the honor of the State, that he should not be molested in the free publication of his opinions through the medium of his journal, he being alone, responsible to the laws, for any abuse of this privilege. Notwithstanding the honor of the State was thus solemnly pledged, a mob arose, and after committing other deeds of violence, shot the said Lovejoy, whose only offence was the exercising of a constitutional privilege. In this case if the law had been violated there was a legal remedy -- in the case in this county, there was none. Lovejoy, was either a thief, murderer, seducer, or impostor -- Smith was all of these, and yet was above the law, and had set it repeatedly at defiance. Lovejoy, had made no threats against the lives of his enemies-- Smith had, and the character and power of the man, warranted the belief that if opportunity presented, he would execute them. Lovejoy's only crime, was that he preached in an unpopular way; while Smith, was guilty of more crimes than any other man on the continent. -- Lovejoy, neither endangered the lives or property of any citizen of Alton -- Smith did endanger our citizens, and this every man not numbered amongst his friends firmly believed. Lovejoy, was murdered to gratify personal hatred -- whereas the men who killed Smith, did so, from a conviction that they were doing the only thing that would protect them and their fellow citizens from his villainy and revenge. Yet, if we are properly informed, Friend Bailhache appologized for the murder of Lovejoy; at any rate, he failed to condemn it; but now he denounces the murder of Smith, which was done under much stronger provocation and from far purer motives, as a most hellish crime. Now, Friend Bailhache, we have men in this county, who have quite as keen a sense of right and wrong, and are quite as sensible in common matters as yourself; yet they don't condemn, knowing all the facts, the murder of Smith, as an enormous crime. Some, it is true, do not justify it, but they don't denounce it as criminal. Yet in Alton, where Lovejoy was murdered, there were some who knowing all the facts, condemned it strongly; as for instance, your then partner, Mr. Park, who left the office because you refused to denounce the murderers. Are we right; let Mr. Parks Answer?

Now, Friend Bailhache, before you throw any more of your gall at us, suppose you review a little chapter in your own history -- it may teach you charity.

A Correspondent writes to us, that it is rumored that General Deming pledged himself to the Mormons, that if they would elect him Sheriff, he would cause certain men to be arrested, even if his whole Brigade should be necessary to effect that object. We have heard this rumor, but cannot vouch for its correctness. It is of very little importance however, for it has become a common thing for corrupt politicians, to give pledges to the Mormons before the election, which they never dream of redeeming afterward. If however, it be true as rumored, and the General would like to see a little fun, he had better call out that Brigade of his, and ascertain their feelings, -- first towards himself, and secondly towards the [mobbers]. We think, if our information is correct, he will soon learn to his sorrow, which stands highest in public estimation.


Official documents give weight to history; we therefore, publish the following letter from General Deming, to Gov. Ford, written two days after Joe's death, in order that our compilation of official papers, issued during the late disturbances may be complete.

Our readers may be assurred that there are no typographical errors in the letter, for we will read proof by copy. Go it while you'r young.

      Gov. Ford.                   June 20th.

      [Carthage] and its vicinity is solitary. There are not men enough for guard service. I have addressed a communication by Dr. Richards express of last night forewarning them of the inevitable consequences of any hostile demonstrations towards the old citizens. I have this morning issued the accompanying proclamation to the citizens of our county. I do not apprehend any aggressive operation to the citizens of our county. I do not apprehend any aggressive operation from the Mormons. I want you here. I am unwilling to assume the authority in enforcing martial law, that public safety now unquestionably demands. I am without a staff officer. Smiths and Mormons are immortalized, The execrations of the world are upon our own citizens, and that in justice for the hellish murder. I think the guards were not accessory, tho doubtless there were some in Carthage privy to it. You will be every way safe here. Let me suggest you had better call a small force from the US Service, than make any draft upon the militia in general. I had rather have five hundred drawn from the service, than ten thousand militia. I do not want one of the militia, You and I may be seriously implicated in this affair for gross neglect or conivance at the atrocious crime.
                  M. R. DEMING.
                  Brigadier General.
P. S. Mr. Taylor's recovery is doubtful.

We had the pleasure, yesterday morning, of shaking hands, in our sanctum, with 'Friend Sharp,' of the Warsaw Signal -- perhaps he didn't talk about Mormon matters! Seriously, he appears to be grounded in his opinions with regard to the fatal necessity, which is urged in defence of that deep act of violence, denounced by all. Were we sufferers by Mormon violence, as our up river friends have been, we, doubtless, should sympathize more with them, inasmuch as that an excitement of the blood will prejudice judgment. Yet, our friend Sharp must not think we are devoid of charity, or even that our charity is one sided. We condemn Smith as we denounce his slaughter; and we can do [the] latter, even, without being deaf to evidence of public phrenzy, which renders the charge of 'malice' and 'cold blood' ridiculous. We are glad to hear of the present calm, and have every hope that future measures will be guided by a wiser and calmer spirit. -- Reville.

We think friend Field, judging from the cut of your head, that had you suffered from Mormon aggressions as our citizens have, you would do something more than sympathize.

In another column we publish the official returns of the late election in this county. The world will now see the utter impossibility of any enemy of the mormons obtaining justice in this county. The County Commissioners Court is now under their control -- they can select their own jury, and if the old citizens will peaceably submit to the law, they can murder them all with impunity. No Mormon can be taken out of the county for trial, and he cannot be convicted in it. Well, well, the old citizens will abide their time; but the world might as well know at once that we will not submit to oppression, because our enemies have the power to oppress us, according to law.

We intend in a few weeks, to publish a brief history of the late disturbances in our county, in which we will embody all official documents issued during the time. This we think will be highly valued by our readers, as a momento for future reference.

THE QUINCY WHIG; -- Some weeks since, we took occasion to make some remarks in relation to the course of the Quincy Whig towards the old citizens of our county. For this, the editor takes us to task, and asks us to point out the exceptionable passages in his paper. -- We have not a file of the Whig, to which to refer, bit our recollection was, that it joined in with the general cry of denunciation against us. If however, we were mistaken, and it appears we were, we ask pardon of the Whig, for what we have said, and assure the editor, that we will be more careful in future of our blows.

JACKS. -- There are some men in this county, called 'Jack-Mormons,' who are so utterly beneath contempt, that we have forborne heretofore to notice them. They are called Jack Mormons, because like the Jackass in the fable, although covered with the skin of a lion, the length of their ears discloses their real character. They say to strangers that they are not Mormons, but believe that the Mormons are honest, and persecuted. -- Such men, would be perfectly harmless, if they were as well known abroad, as they are at home; but as it is, they do the old citizens infinite injury. They possess in fact all the odious traits of Mormons -- they have all the rascality, knavery and impudence of that animal, without the moral courage to call themselves by their proper name. They profess to have no fellowship with the Mormons, while all the time they act as spies on the conduct of the old citizens, and report to Head Quarters. They will do any manner of dirty work for a dirty gang, for the sake of a few political crumbs. Having no characters at home to lose, they seek to gain consequence abroad by railing out against the old citizens of the county, the meanest of whom are infinitely superior to them, in every moral and manly trait. They are men who would disgrace any party, and who could never succeed in their amnitious views, if it were not, that their unscrupulousness gains them the favor of the Mormons. Poor, loathsome despised wretches, scorned and insulted -- the condition of the Mormons is tolerable to theirs.

WHAT NEXT. -- The editor of the Quincy Herald says that the Democratic county ticket in Hancock, is elected by about 700 majority. We did not know that there was a Democratic ticket run in this county. The Mormons nominated a ticket which was composed of Mormons, and Jack Mormons, and elected. This ticket had on it, two whigs -- one, the County Commissioner, is a Mormon, and the other, the Coroner, is a Jack. -- The balance of the ticket, profess to be Democrats, but any party that owns them will disgrace itself. We profess to be as good a Democrat as is our friend Thompson, but as strongly attached as we are to Democracy, we would see it rooted out of the State, before we would contaminate its honor by a coalition with Mormonism.


Daniel Spencer, has been elected Mayor, pro tem.

Geo. Miller and Whitney, have been elected Trustees in trust for the church property. Under their management, the funds being hinestly appropriated, and not embezzled as in Joe's time, the Temple is progressing rapidly.

Sidney Rigdon, who claimed the leadership of the church, on the ground of his being the only survivor of the first Presidency, and also, on the ground of his having been named by Joe at one time, as his successor, has had his claims rejected by the Twelve, who have decided not to have any one man for leader, but that the church shall be governed by them collectively.

Samuel H. Smith, died in Nauvoo, about two weeks since, William is now the only surviving brother of the Prophet.

'An authentic account of the massacre of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, and Hyrum Smith, his brother, together with a brief history of the rise and progress of Mormonism, and all the circumstances which led to their death, by G. T. M. Davis, Esq., of Alton.' This work has just been issued in pamphlet form from the press in this city. The well known character of the author, Mr. D., the fact that he was on the ground or in the vicinity where the principal transactions transpired -- that he was personally acquainted with all the principal persons concerned [in] it -- and his well known abilities ob observation, must commend it to the public as the most accurate and interesting account of that affair which has been written. The whole transaction is of so singular a character, that its history and the causes which [led] to it must enlist the attention of every one. -- Rep.

(under construction)

Note: The Warsaw Signal's quotations from of the first unfriendly article from the Quincy Whig have not yet been transcribed. Despite Thomas C. Sharp's admission that he may have been "mistaken," he probably recalled an article published in the Whig on July 24, 1844. A follow-up was evidently published in the Whig on Aug 14, 1844.


NS No. 27.                       Warsaw, Illinois, August 28, 1844.                       Whole 143.


GONE CRAZY. -- It is reported that William Smith, the only surviving brother of the Prophet, has lately become deranged.

LATEST FROM NAUVOO. -- We have intelligence direct from Nauvoo, that Lyman Wight has raised a company of two hundred men, ostensibly for the purpose of emigrating to the pine country; but the general impression amongst those who have a chance of knowing, is that the real design is to attack Carthage and Warsaw.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 28.                       Warsaw, Illinois, September 4, 1844.                       Whole 144.


We learn from Nauvoo, that last Friday Lyman Wight started for the pine region on board the Maid of Iowa, with about two hundred followers, comprising the most reckless portion of the Mormon community. We presume he has given up the idea of working a miracle in this county.

Sidney Rigdon, we learn has left for Pittsburgh. It is said that a large number of the English will soon follow him.

There is great dissension amongst the Mormon Leaders, which, notwithstanding the attempts to conceal it, is evidently undermining the whole fabric of Mormonism. There is considerable disaffection on the account of the conduct of Emma, in relation to the property belonging to the church, but held in the Prophet's name. Some of this property it is said, she will not transfer. She is accused of being weak in the faith, and is thought will soon leave the city. It is further rumored that she has purchased property at Hampton, where Law and most of the Seceders reside. We know not whether this latter rumor has any foundation.

Brigham Young preached in Nauvoo last Sunday, and in the course of his sermon avowed his belief in the spiritual wife doctrine, and said that he wished that he had one hundred spiritual wives. Thus it appears that what the seceders said in relation to this matter, is now openly admitted.

The Temple is going ahead with astonishing rapidity, the greater part of the population being engaged on the work, and all other improvement nearly suspended. The leaders have told the people, that when the Temple is finished, Joe will appear and in propia persona consecrate and dedicate it to the Lord. Of course the poor fanatics are exerting themselves to the utmost, that they may thus hasten the time for the reappearance of the Prophet.

There are many leaving Nauvoo, and if the could dispose of their property many more would leave. On Bear Creek where there is a heavy Mormon settlement, it is said, that the Mormons held a meeting on Friday last, and resolved to quit the country.

Gen. John C. Bennett passed up the river yesterday morning bound for Hampton.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 29.                       Warsaw, Illinois, September 11, 1844.                       Whole 145.


By the last Nauvoo Neighbor, we preceive that the hand of fellowship has been withdrawn from Wlders Rigdon, James Emmiy, and Zachariah Wilson. It is also rumored that on Sunday last, nineteen of the leading Mormons were ejected from the church, and amongst these was John A. Forges, and Emma Smith the widow of the Prophet. There appears to be great dissention amongst the brethren -- something of importance is brewing, but persons who live in the city, seem entirely ignorant of what is really in contemplation. Many honest Mormons are disaffected, and are removing from the city.

The Temple is still going ahead, with surprising rapidity -- the third tier of windows being ready to receive their capitals. Above them, is to be a belt course of stone, and then six feet of plain cut stone work, will finish the walls. Nearly the whole population seems to receive support from their labor on the Temple; only about half a dozen private houses now being under way. If the contributions to the Temple should cease, the population would soon starve out, for there are no factories of any account in the city, to give employment to the inhabitants. Confidence being destroyed by the death of Smith, private enterprise in the city is checked, and the people have no recourse but to work for a scanty subsistance on the Temple. The Leaders are well aware that their only hope of keeping the mass together, is to find them employment; hence, their exertions on this structure. Property has fallen in Nauvoo, to about one third of its value, previous to the death of Joe. This is the legtimate consequence of the anxiety of so many persons to get away from the city.

Sidney Rigdon had not started for Pittsburg, as we stated last week; but now since he is disfellowshipped, we may expect his influence to create a considerable rupture in the church. He has some influence, and is very determined, and there is no doubt but that he will be troublesome.

On Bear Creek, there have been some tall doings during the last week, some twenty five families of Mormons have left the settlement, but they tok care to provide well for themselves before they left, at the expense of the gentiles. Several horses valued at about $700, were stolen on the night of their departure, and also many head of cattle are amongst the missing. The thieves are known, but they have retired to Nauvoo, and of course are safe from process of law.

The Mormons are leaving Morley's settlement, about twelve miles south of this place, but we have not heard of any thefts in this neighborhood as yet.

P. S. We conversed with a gentleman last evening, direct from Nauvoo, who corroborates the statement above made in relation to the dissentions amongst the Mormons, their leaving the City, the progress of the Temple and the suspension of nearly all improvement.

Sidney Rigdon passed down the river yesterday, on the steamboat Osprey, on his way to Pittsburg. He has in Nauvoo about four hundred followers, who admit his claims to the leadership, and deny the right of the Twelve to govern.

This makes two strong factions in the church, and meetings are held daily, by each, to discuss the relative claims of Rigdon and the Twelve. Rigdon, numbers amongst his followers, some of the most wealthy and respectable men of the church -- amongst whom are Edward Hunter and Robert Pierce.

John P. Green, Marshall of the City of Nauvoo, died yesterday morning.

(Deming letter to Gov. Ford, etc. -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 30.                       Warsaw, Illinois, September 18, 1844.                       Whole 146.


A correspondent writes us from Nauvoo, that there was no design to reject Sidney Rigdon, as first President of the church, until he declared his settled termination to purge it of its abominations -- such as the spiritual wife doctrine, false swearing, bogus making, thieving, &c. This declaration aroused the ire of the Twelve, who were too stromgly attached to their idols, and could not consent to give them up. Our correspondent further says, that all the most respectable of the Mormon Church, and those who have any regard for decency and virtue, are secretly, if not openly, the friends of Rigdon.

We have heard it from various authentic sources, during the past week, that Rigdon threatened before he left Nauvoo, to expose all the villainous practices that have disgraced the church; and we see by the St. Louis papers, that he has expressed his determination to start a paper in Pittsburg, which we suppose, he intends for that purpose.

The Mormons are still leaving the country. The Osprey took a considerable load down stream yesterday, and many leave in wagons. It is said by persons who have an opportunity of knowing, that about two hundred a week leave the county. The Mormons offer their property so low, that a great inducement is offered for other citizens to come in and buy improvements.

Sidney Rigdon has recently written a letter to the St. Louis Organ, in which he gives the Twelve Apostles a peculiar blessing for their rsacality. We received it at too late an hour for insertion in to-day's paper.


We stated last week that several horses had been stolen from the neighborhood of Bear Creek, but we had not then ascertained who were the sufferers. We have since learned that Mahon Fell, lost two horses, Edward Daw two, Mr. Shepherd one, Truman Kinny one, George Walker one, and R. Gilham one. The Latter day Saints, not content with fleecing the Gentiles, commenced on each other. Sidney Knowlton had a yoke of cattle stolen by a brother Mormon in whom he placed the utmost confidence.

The northern part of the county, the complaints of the thieving operations of the Mormons are more numerous than ever. Every description of loose property, such as Bee gums, plows, harness, &c., unless closely guarded is taken away. We have heard within the past week of other horse thieving operations, but do not know the particulars.

In view of the fact, that no man appears to be safe in his property within the county, we conceive that it is the duty of the citizens to take active measures to prevent future depredations. Let there at least be an organization for the purpose of ferreting out offenders.

There is a certain class of politicians who affirm that the killing of the Smiths has disgraced the State, while these same men are endeavoring to form a political league between their party and a gang of thieves; but we wonder not at it, for the old adage says,

"Birds of a feather, &c."

(article on Mr. Bailhache of Alton, etc. -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 31.                       Warsaw, Illinois, September 25, 1844.                       Whole 147.

To the Members of the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter Day Saints.

It becomes an imperative obligation devolving upon the friends and adherants of Pres. Sydney Rigdon, to make an explicit and candid statement of the causes, which have led to their disunion and disfellowship with the adherents of the Twelve in their illegal and unwarrentable assumption of the authority of their first Presidency.

It is well known to every well informed member of the Church, that the law, organization, and government of said Church is contained in the book of Doctrine and Covenants, as received through Joseph Smith by revelation. By reference to that book we find that the church is governed by the Presidents of the High Priesthood, appointed by revelation, whose duty is to preside over the whole church, the Twelve being subordinate to that authority and acting under its direction.

The melancholy catastrophe of the murder of Joseph Smith, the presiding President and Hyrum, his brother, resulted in having one individual only known to the church as pointed out by repeated revelations, as holding the Presidency and Keys of this last Kingdom, as Prophet, Seer and Revelator for the Church, viz: Sydney Rigdon.

President Rigdon, who was then in Pittsburg, received instruction from the Lord to repair to this place and present himself to the Church, for their acceptancere or rejection; which actually did result in his rejection, and the appointment of the Twelve (by a large majority) of the Church to the Presidency of the Church and its entire control.

Verily believing as we do, that this was a vital departure from the order of Heaven, and a rejection of the only man who sustained the legal relation of a Revelator to the Church, and who was competent to reorganize the first Presidency, we dissented and lifted our voices against such proceedings, and manifested our adherence to President Rigdon.

In consequence of this rejection, President Rigdon has received a commandment to reorganize the church; and for this reason the Twelve and their adherents have assiduously studied and striven to misrepresent the character and designs of President Rigdon and his friends, and have not scrupled to ascribe to them motives and designs the most base and dishonorable.

We do declare that President Rigdon is above all malevolent aspersions of his reputation, and is known to us as a worthy law-abiding citizen, and a gentleman of unblemished character.

We do, moreover, declare our sincere conviction, that, in rejecting Sidney Rigdon, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints does no longer exist, except in connexion with him; and that God has given no authority for an organization of the church, differing from that contained in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants.

Heretofore the accused has had the privilege of a trial and an opportunity to reply to the charges brought against them; but on the memorable 8th of September, 1844, this privilege was denied in open and flagrant violation of all the laws and rules of the church; thus manifesting clearly that the course they pursued towards us is one unsanctioned by law and unallowed by justice.

Samuel James,
Leonard Soby,
J. B. Bosworth,
George W. Crouse,
Lewis James,
G. W. Robinson,
J. H. Newton,
Briggs Aldcn,
Elijah Reed,
John Evans,
William Richards,
George Soby,
Samuel Bennett,
J. A. Forgeous,
G. Bentley,
William Coltien,
T. J. Lanyon,
David Scott,
Thomas Crompton,
J. Hatch, Jr., and many others.

                   NAUVOO, September 8, 1844.

Just as our paper was going to press this morning, a man came into our office, and said that he had a writ for me. Well, sir, let me see it. He produced the paper, which proved to be a warrant for the murder of Joe and Hyrum Smith, issued by Aaron Johnson, Justice of the Peace in Nauvoo. After reading, I told the officer that if my friends said go, I would go, if not, I would stand fast. Accordingly I went out, and conversed with the citizens, and unanimously they said don't go. I then told the officer that he could return and report progress, but I could not go with him, for I was not to be singled out as the sole object of Mormon vengeance. Now, gentle reader, I did not help to kill Joe Smith, for I did not go to the jail, with those who killed him. If my influence helped to produce the state of feeling that resulted in his death, why I am in common with some hundred others, guilty -- not of murder, but of an extra judicial execution. I have the most satisfactory proof that Joe Smith threatened my life, and sought to take it; if I had, therefore, killed him I should only have acted in self-defence. The writ only included Col. Williams and myself. Thus it will appear that it is not the guilty, but those most obnoxious to the Latter Day Saints, who are to be selected as victims. The officer, who is deputy Sheriff, says that his orders are to arrest and return the prisoners to the Sheriff, in Carthage, from thence I suppose I am to be taken to Nauvoo; but I will not go to Nauvoo unless my fellow citizens say so. I did not resist the officer, but my friends asvised me not to go, and the officer did not call on any of the citizens to aid him in taking me. After I told him I would not go, he troubled me no further.

Fellow-citizens, shall we submit?
                                                    THOMAS C. SHARP.

HONEY FUGGLING THE MORMONS. -- A citizen of Mason county, Illinois. who came down on the Dove to-day, reports that Gov. Ford had ordered out 100 militia from that county, and directed them to rendezvous at Macomb, in McDonough county. The pretext for the proceeding was that the Governor had received information that the citizens of Warsaw and Hancock county, have appointed the 25th day of September to have a grand wolf hunt, and it was learned that in that hunt they might do some injury to Gov. Ford's saints at Nauvoo. The Boreas reports everything peaceable at Nauvoo and Warsaw, there being neither disturbanc, excitement nor alarm. The ordering out of the military will surprise them very much. This military movement of [the] Governor is said to be the subject of laughter and ridicule in Illinois.

Gov. Ford must be haunted by Joe Smith's ghost, to lead him on to such proceedings. These troops will add a few thousand more to the heavy debt of Illinois, but we scracely suppose that they will shed any blood. The citizens of Warsaw and Hancock have a perfect right to have a wolf hunt, or a military parade if they choose to do so, and it is ridiculous for Gov. Ford to call out the militia of many counties, in order to prevent them from engaging in wolf hunting. It will give to Gov. Ford an additional claim to the gratitude, votes and influence of the Mormons. But the Governor will reap a very small harvest of glory from his Mormon wars. -- NewEra.

Letter of Sidney Rigdon, Esq.

To the Editor of the People's Organ.

(view original article in St.Louis paper)

(under construction)

Note: The an extract from the "To the Members of the Church" notice was published in several newspapers under the title "Mormon Church Extinct." See the Dec., 1844 issue of Rev. Alexander Campbell's Millennial Harbinger for one such reprint.


NS No. 32.                       Warsaw, Illinois, October 2, 1844.                       Whole 148. [sic]


==> In the absence of the Editor, and the difficulty of keeping hands constantly in the office 'in these piping times of peace,' compwl us to wait on pur subscribers with a 'seven by nine.' We promise them a full sheet next week.

==> By a gentleman who arrived last night on the Die Vernon from Quincy we learn that Messrs. Sharp and Williams had the freedom of the city, and were in good spirits. It was supposed their examination would commence to-day.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 33.                       Warsaw, Illinois, October 9, 1844.                       Whole 148.

                           From the Cincinnati Times.

LETTER FROM NAUVOO. -- The following is the letter refferred to by us yesterday, written by a gentleman of this City, to his family here.

                                                                  Nauvoo, Sept. 9th, 1844.
I mentioned in my last that there was a good deal of hard feeling between Sidney Rigdon and the Twelve, which has greatly increased since I wrote. They have disfellowshipped him, and I expect will cut him off from the church. He threatens to come out and expose the whole of them, not omitting Joseph. Sidney professes to have had a vision in which it was shown him all that would transpire in the winding up scene. He says he has received the keys of David, spoken of in the 3d chapter of the Revelations, which shutteth and no man openeth and no man shutteth.

It has been shown to him that the temple will not be finished, and in less than 4 years there will be blood-shed about this time; the saints will fight the first great battle at Chambersburg, in Pennsylvania -- battle the second at Harrisburg -- 3d at Philadelphia -- 4th at Baltimore -- 5th at Washington -- 6th at Richmond -- 7th at New York -- 8th at Boston -- 9th on the Hudson -- 10th and last on this continent, at Monmouth, New Jersey, in which they will defeat the forces of Queen Victoria -- take the shipping that brought over her army, and pass over in divisions to England, France and Spain, and finally complete the conquest of the World, and fight the battles of Gog and Magog at Jerusalem, when the Saviour will appear, which will be in about eleven years from this time. Sidney says the keys he holds are above those held by Joseph. He has ordained several prophets, who are not to leave Nauvoo at present, but that a sign will be given them when to leave, so that they may assemble and take command of the Army. Several have joined him, among whom is brother Forges, whom you know. He stopped with us one night, and said he had money to carry up to Joseph. He says he has had a testimony from God, that Sidney's visions are true Emma and President Marks are in favor of Sidney, but he is bittery opposed by the Twelve. It caused a great deal [of] stir, and every body is talking about it. Edward Hunter and several of the West Chester people, are in favor of it.

                                                                  Monday, Sept. 9.
We had a Conference today to try Sidney, and he with several others, were cut off from the church. You will see him (Sidney) soon, as he leaves to-morrow for Pittsburgh.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 34.                       Warsaw, Illinois, October 16, 1844.                       Whole 149.


The St. Louis Reveille says, that the Smith killers are about to have a barbeque [at] Warsaw, and have secured Ford for a roast. We assure the Reveille, that the people up this way have delicate tastes, and are by no means partial to corned meat.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 36.                       Warsaw, Illinois, October 30, 1844.                       Whole 151.


LATER. -- Intelligence from Carthage states that a body of two or three hundred Mormons are encamped, a la Military, a mile or two north of the town, for what purpose is as yet unknown. Several citizens have been to the camp; and, although no arms are visible, it is fully believed that they have arms concealed and are there for no good.

Whether they expect to imitate the Court, or the citizens in the exercise of their rights, is unknown; the attempt to do either, they must know, will be visited on their heads with the most summary vengeance. One rumor is, that they were ordered there -- by whom, we know not. Another is, that they are composed of witnesses, and others, having business at Court, encamping there for the sake of cheapness, and to prevent being molested in town.

Another rumor is, that there is an encampment of Indians in the north part of the County -- but who they are, or what they are there for, is not yet ascertained. We think the more reasonable conclusion is, that they are a part of some emigrating tribe, passing through to a new settlement.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 37.                       Warsaw, Illinois, November 13, 1844.                       Whole 152.


HANCOCK COUNTY RETURNS. -- So little interest has been manifested by the people of this county in the result of the late elections that it was with difficulty we could gain any information of the result. The Mormon vote in Nauvoo is only 720 being about 600 less than in August. The majority for Polk in the county is reported at 652. We expect to give the official returns in our next.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 38.                       Warsaw, Illinois, November 20, 1844.                       Whole 153.


==> The State Register in its rascally efforts to prove the Whig and Anti-Mormon party identical, has made frequent allusion to the Anti-Mormon movement being instigated by Whigs. Now we suppose that every man who is indicted for the killing of the Smiths, will be regarded as an Anti-Mormon; and it turns out that six out of the nine are Democrats, and vote regularly the Democratic ticket.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 39.                       Warsaw, Illinois, November 27, 1844.                       Whole 154.


Agreeable to an announcement in the papers, Elder Winchester, one of Sidney Rigdon's men, addressed a meeting of the Mormons of this city, last evening, in their hall, corner of Hudson and Canal streets. The attendance was very slim, only about thirty persons being present, two-thirds of whom were females.

After a long rambling, and rather incoherent narration, descriptive of the early part of Joe Smith's carrer at Nauvoo, the Elder went on to speak of a "vision" which Joe had ten days before his death. He and Hiram went out, he said, to the prairie to call on the name of the Lord, and then Joe beheld in vision the tragical scene in which he was soon to take a part at Carthage jail. From that moment Joe was an altered man -- he lost all spirit, and as the elder said, "his countenance fell" from that moment. The Elder went on to argue that Joe's death was ordained of the Lord, on account of Joe's transgressions, that he did not apostatize, but he "wrought abominations," and was therefore deemed unfit to direct "The Kingdom," and share in its triumphs. -- The transgression was in introducing the "spiritual wife system." On this subject it was expected that "the Elder" would have gone into the details and expose it fully. But he contented himself with a general denunciation of it -- said that it was universally prevalent at Nauvoo -- and that it was to free "the church" from that evil, that Sidney Rigdon had taken a separate stand. Elder Winchester called on the faithful to come out and separate themselves at once from their corrupt brethren at Nauvoo, which was, he said, doomed to destruction, and was fast falling into decay on account of its iniquities.

Altogether the Elder's speech was rather tame, and did not present any point of novelty or especial interest. It is quite evident that the death of Joe Smith has given a fatal blow to this delusion. -- N. Y. Herald,

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 40.                       Warsaw, Illinois, December 4, 1844.                       Whole 155.


The rumor which we published last week, in relation to the fate of Lyman Wight's Band is confirmed, at least as far as the four men being killed in the attack on the store. It appears that Wight's band were suffering for the want of provisions, but he would not let them disperse over the country to find employment. In order to relieve them, he went to the traders and finding that they had flour, he tried to get some on credit; but was refused. He then took thirty men, and told the traders that if they did not let him have the flour he would take it. He was defied, and made the attack on the store. The French and Indians fired on his men and killed four on the spot, and it is supposed that nearly all fell in the retreat.

ANOTHER YOUNG PROPHET. -- Sister Emma gave birth to a fine boy about three weeks ago.

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 42.                       Warsaw, Illinois, December 18, 1844.                       Whole 157.


==> We hear a story of a Farmer of McDonough county, who brought a load of pork to Nauvoo, and sold it readily for the hard cash. He had not got out of town, however, before he found that his cash was all Bogus. Hastening back, he found his pork had just taken passage over to the new State of Iowa.

==> A meeting of the Anti-Mormons of La Harpe was to have come off on Saturday last. Will not our friends send us the proceedings?

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS No. 43.                       Warsaw, Illinois, December 25, 1844.                       Whole 158.

Mormon Stealings.

... About a week since, a meeting was called in Nauvoo, to take into consideration the poor of the city. At this meeting it was stated that many in the city were suffering for the want of the necessaries of life; and in view of that fact, it was resolved, that there were enough provisions in the country to feed all, and that the Earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof; therefore the Lord's people sho'd at all hazzards take enough of the Lord's provisions for their own subsistence. The old citizens may therefore look out for sights during the winter.

Latter-Brethren have lately carried on their Bogus operations extensively. Not less than a dozen farmers who have taken their pork to Nauvoo, have been paid in spurious coin, or counterfeit bills...

(under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

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