(Newspapers of Illinois)

Madison County, Illinois

The Alton Telegraph
1845-49 Articles

Town of Alton, Madison Co., Illinois, late 1840s

1836-1842  |  1843-1844   |  1845 -1849  |  1850s - Alton papers

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Mar 14 '46 |  Aug 10 '49

(under construction)

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Vol. 10.                              Alton, Illinois, Saturday, January 18, 1845.                             No. 3.

Illinois  Legislature.


                    Springfield, Jan. 11, 1845.

Six weeks of the session have elapsed, and, to the shame of the majority of the Legislature, be it spoken, not a single act of any importance has been passed...

Since the date of my last letter, but very little of either local or general interest has been done in either branch of the Legislature... The committee on Banks and Corporations, through Mr. Anderson, their Chairman, reported back in the House on to-day, the Senate bill, repealing unconditionally the Mormon charters, and recommended its passage. This gave rise to a great deal of angry and somewhat personal discussion, in which the Mormons were handled without mittens. They were defended by Babbitt, the Mormon, Mr. Ross, and brother Wollard, of Bond. This last named person made a most violent Mormon speech, and gave the House to understand that he should go against an entire repeal of their charters. Mr. Backenstos, the Jack-Mormon Representative, has lately changed his seat, so as to get next to brother Wollard; and whether it is the influence of this Jack-Mormon that has induced Mr. Wollard to pursue a course at direct variance with the wishes of his constituents, or whether the fact that he has a brother-in-law who is a Mormon preacher, I am unable to say. His course, however, during this session, has been such as to give his county her old name -- "the widow Bond." Mr. Ross passed a high eulogy, in his own estimation, upon the Mormons; and to please them made charges of improper motives against the committee who reported back the bill. For this he had the lie flung in his teeth several times, and the members of that committee all successfully repelled the imputations cast upon them. Mr. Anderson remarked, that, instead of being true, that he had gone too far; he feared his constituents would accuse him of dereliction of duty in not going farther than he had -- that the citizens of Lawrence and Richland counties, without distinction of party, looked upon the Mormons in the same light as the Florida Indians were regarded by the General Government -- and that he considered the Mormons were no better. The whole subject, however, was finally referred to the committee of the whole House, and made the order of the day for Wednesday afternoon next. The canel men go in, very strong, for the Mormons and it is now a matter of a great deal of doubt whether a majority of the House will unconditionally repeal their charters...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                              Alton, Illinois, Saturday, January 25, 1845.                             No. 4.

Illinois  Legislature.


                    Springfield, Jan. 20?, 1845.

... For several afternoons past, and to-day, the House has been occupied in the discussion of the Senate bill, providing for the repeal of the Mormon charters. Great interest has been exhibited during the progress of this debate; and the galleries of the Hall have been crowded to suffocation, including among the mass a large number of ladies. Very able speeches have been made by Messrs. Benedict, Yates, Morrison, and Boyakin, in favor of repeal; while the most miserable Mormon slang has been indulged in, by Mr. Babbitt, the Mormon, and Messrs. Loft and Ross, in efforts to clothe the Mormons with just enough power in the nature of a charter, to allow them to continue their outrages upon the old citizens of Hancock, and the surrounding counties. During the able speech made by Mr. Benedict, he read, by permission of Mr. Babbitt, the Mormon representative, an official communication from the "Council of Twelve," to Babbitt, and which Babbitt had laid before the committee of Banks and Corporations, to influence, if not intimidate, their action upon the Senate bill repealing their charters. From this communication, a copy of which I have procured, I take the following extracts as evidence of their disposition to lord it over not only the people but the Legislature of the State. After detailing numerous blessings as a people they have showered upon Illinois, since their residence among us, and discussing to their satisfaction the unconstititionality of any act of the Legislature repealing their charters, the "Council of the Twelve" thus discourse:

"And the sin be upon their own heads." (the members of the Legislature) "and the heads of their abettors, if they will do it. The Lord is our light, whom shall we fear? Therefore let us be as bold and steadfast as Daniel; peradventure the fury of the lions will be stayed until their fangs rest upon our ungodly enemies! Should the Legislature repeal our charters, we shall be obliged in self-defense to spread the details of our unprecendeted wrongs to the extremities of the nation and the world, and then into the ears of the Lord of Saboath. But we will not believe that they will do it. The injustice, cruelty and barbarity of such an act, is too appaling for us to entertain such a thought concerning them. Surely, before they take such a step, they will wipe away the murdered blood that cleaves to the violated faith of the State! *  *  *  *   What more could a bloody mob ask of a State, then they will have done when they take away our charters. Oh Illinois! art thou such a Nero or Caligula!! Oh Brutus! it it thou, that friend that gave us hearty welcome and liberal charters!! So changed. Oh blush at the thought! From the very day of such an act let no chaplain invoke the benignity of the Heavens upon you henceforth. Let the day itself be blotted from your State journals, as a day of delirium and insanity, when the broad current of reason, humanity, and justice, were stayed in their natural channels. But if thou wilt do the unnatural deed to thy fond and loyal child, and still claim the attributes of humanity and justice, then rest assured, as the Lord God of Israel sits upon his eternal throne, the GALLOWS PREPARED FOR MORDECAI SHALL ONE DAY BY THY OWN!!"

Such is the insolent language of a body of Mormons to the Representatives of a free people. Threatening them, that if they repeal the charters, under which they have so flagrantly abused their powers, that those members who thus vote to repeal them, "the gallows prepared for Mordecai shall one day be their own." This celebrated production of the "Council of Twelve," closes with the wholesome admonition to the Mormon Representative:

"Now, Brother Babbitt, the house of Israel have made you their watchman! therefore give the trump a certain sound." (What that "certain sound" is, the Council of Twelve do not explain.) "Fear not them that can kill the body only, but rather fear Him that can cast both soul and body into hell! Dear Brother, see to it that thy skirts are [clean]. And we are persuaded better things of you, though we thus write. Therefore, let us have a whole, unaltered charter."

The debate will be continued on Monday afternoon -- Mr. Manning of Knox, being entitled to the floor, who will advocate Mormonism -- and how much longer no human foresight can predict, as there are some fifteen or twenty members, that are pregnant with speeches, and must be delivered. The committee on Public Accounts and Expenditures, have claims before them growing out of the late Mormon difficulties amounting already upwards to twenty-four thousand dollars, notwithstanding the assertion of honest! Tom Ford, in his special message to the Legislature, that the amount was some eight or nine thousand dollars. If the repeal of these charters is secured through the House, the country will be indebted entirely to the independence of the Southern Democrats, who thus far have refused to be governed by the Executive dictation in a matter deeply involving the interest of all citizens of the State, and in the disposition of which the people without distinction of party feel so much solicitude...

                                                                              Springfield, Jan. 21, 1845.

... Mr. Backenstos introduced a bill, making the counties liable for all costs in criminal cases, where the same cannot be collected from the defendants... The bill after passing through two readings, was referred to the committee on the Judiciary....

The House have just taken a vote upon the Mormon Charters, after being annoyed all afternoon with two Mormon sermons' one from Backenstos, who fleeced the Altonians of no small sum. known as the leading Jack Mormon, and the other from Babbitt, the Mormon. The vote was then taken, and the House repealed the Charters by a vote of 76 to 36; only FORTY MAJORITY. When it came Wollard's turn to vote, he got up , and attempted to excuse himself for voting for repeal, by asserting that Judge Logan's speech had changed his opinion; and alluded to my showing him up in his real colors, by saying that it was an attack that could not injure him, considering from whence it came. He condoled with his brother Jack Mormon, Backenstos, in separating from him, and then voted for repeal. Mr. Wollard will find that he will not only have to explain his Mormon votes to his constituents, but that he will also have to give some satisfactory reason to them why he was one of the twenty-five members in the House that voted to have the State swindled out of Ten Thousand Dollars in the Binding contract. I shall continue to expose all such infamous conduct, let it emanate from Mr. Wollard. his chosen companion, Backenstos, the Jack Mormon, or any one else...

Note 1: The written counsel of the Quorum of the Twelve to Representative Almon W. Babbitt, in 1845, echoes the "blood atonement" sentiments previously expressed in the fervid hymn published in their Nauvoo Times and Seasons, following the assassination of Joseph and Hyrum Smith: "Praise to his [Smith's] mem'ry, he died as a martyr... Long shall his blood, which was shed by assassins, stain Illinois while the earth lauds his fame." In subsequent years, the sanguine anticipation of requisite divine retribution (as well as the Saints' individual desires for revenge) against the leaders and people of Illinois was one which crept into personal patriarchal blessings and into the temple endowment ceremonies, as performed in Great Salt Lake City and elsewhere among the fugitive western Mormons. Many a LDS elder in Utah during the second half of the nineteenth century, lived in anticipation of seeing his church's vengeance soon fall upon the "ungodly enemies" that church had left behind in Illinois -- enemies who had caused the "murdered blood" of the prophet to smoke forth from the ground, and who had expelled his followers from their "City Beautiful" on the banks of the Mississippi.

Note 2: Whether or not the LDS leadership pressed their "gallows" intimidations upon the Illinois legislators any more forcibly than through the message expressed in the Twelve's letter to Babbitt, remains unknown at this late date. Babbitt's inability to halt the repeal of the Nauvoo Charters did not end his political career with the Saints -- although his various failures among the Mormons, were credited by some commentators as the ultimate cause of Babbitt's bloody murder, ten years later. See the notes and comments relating to Babbitt, appended to his brother-in-law's letter, published in the May 20, 1850 issue of the Cincinnati Daily Commercial, as well as Patriarch William Smith's pertinent comments, as reprinted in the Jan. 11, 1850 issue of the Liberty Tribune.


Vol. 10.                              Alton, Illinois, Saturday, February 15, 1845.                            No. 7.

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, February 22, 1845.                             No. 8.

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, March 1, 1845.                             No. 9.


(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, March 8, 1845.                             No. 10.


(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, March 15, 1845.                             No. 11.

(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, April 5, 1845.                             No. 14.


(under construction)


Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, April 12, 1845.                             No. 15.


The Jack-Mormon Representative from Hancock county, has been called upon, by the Carthage Greys in a body, and requested to leave the county within a week; so says a correspondent of the last State Register. The cause for this movement, on the part of the Carthage Greys, is not disclosed; but we presume -- if the information contained in the Register is correct -- that it has its foundations in a base, cowardly, and villainous attack made upon that body of citizens by Backenstos, in a speech made by him during the late session of the Legislature. He doubtless supposed he was protected from answering for his libels and calumnies upon the old citizens of Hancock, by the fact of his being a member of the Legislature; and hence, indulged in a strain of falsehood and abuse, that he would not dare to utter, as a private citizen. This is the same scamp that made the brutal attack in debate upon Dr. Singleton. he is, however, about receiving an appointment from the General Government, to which event the citizens of Hancock will get rid of him; and the Legislature of this State be relieved from the disgrace his presence inflicts upon it.

Wm. Smith, brother of Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, and late a member of the Legislature of this State, has been arrested and held to bail in Philadelphia at the suit of Benjamin Winchester, for an alleged libel. If Bill's lawyers have any gumption about them, they can easily acquit him. He can prove without difficulty, by hundreds of witnesses in Hancock county, that he is "non compos mentis."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, May 3, 1845.                             No. 18.


During the last few weeks, the columns of the Nauvoo Neighbor --the official organ of Mormonism -- have teamed with articles openly recommending a resistance of the laws by the Mormons. We have not heretofore deemed it necessary to allude to this renewed outrage on the part of this Sodom of the West, from the fact that ever since the Mormons received their Acts of Incorporation from the Legislature, they have, time and time again, trampled with impunity on the laws of this state. The Neighbor of the 23rd ultimo., however, contains an article of so infamous a character that we feel it a duty we owe to the community at large to call their attention to the same. We give below the entire article, directing the attention of the reader to the last paragraph.

Sugarteating the Gentiles. -- It is said, says the Missouri Reporter, 'that Orson Hyde has assumed the post of prophet and head of the Mormon Church. That we believe in the station to which Sidney Rigdon aspired; but which was pronounced Anti-Mormon by the Apostles. We have not learned by what process Orson Hyde has silenced the Twelve. The division among Mormons will probably cause this delusion soon to pass away, as the thousand others which preceded it, have done.'

O Dear! the delusion passes away! O dear! doctor, can you tell what will cure a sick generation? Yes; I think I can: --

'Feed them with judgments.' O dear! an Editor talk about prophets who does not know a prophet's voice from the bray of an ass; how wise! 'The delusion will pass away as others preceding have done!' Well, Mr. Pence, you have touched the inspired harp, and foretold the end of the delusion, now hang on, lest some of the bob-tailed believers taunt you with a false Prophet! But hearken to wisdom. May God who never errs, sprinkle upon every man and city, that belies the Saints, as upon Pittsburgh, now and then, a hot drop.

The city of Pittsburgh, it will be recollected, was the residence of Sidney Rigdon, who was the editor of the paper that was exposing the iniquities of Mormonism. It will also be recollected that Pittsburgh once or twice since the late dreadful conflagration, has had attempts made upon it by some dastardly incendiaries, to set fire to the residue of the city that was spared. It will be further noticed that in all principal cities in the Union, incendiaries without number exist, and that attempts are almost daily or nightly made to destroy some portion of them by fire. All we ask is for the authorities to read the last paragraph in the above article published in the Mormon paper in this state, and draw their own conclusions.

The leaders of this sect are capable of any crime under the canopy of heaven. Their paper recommends an open resistance to the laws, and every outrage is committed by them in the name of religion.

They should be narrowly watched in every community where they reside.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, May 10, 1845.                             No. 19.


==> The late high handed conduct of Gov. Ford's pets -- THE MORMONS -- in openly recommending a resistence to the laws of the land, has forced from the State Register, a half-way condemnation of their course. To the support this band of miscreants has received through the columns of that paper, for political purposes, more than any other cause, is to be attributed the scenes of violence, that have so frequently disgraced this State in the persons of the Mormons. They have, however, now gone so far, and excited to so great an extent the indignation of the public, that even the Register is compelled to withdraw the light of its countenance from them.

Note: Following the repeal of the Nauvoo Charters, by the Illinois Legislature in January, 1845, the majority of the Illinois Democrats gradually withdrew their support from the Hancock county Mormons. By that time it was widely believed that the Saints would soon leave the state and their value, as political allies, was rapidly fading. Stephen A. Douglass and other prominent leaders within the Democratic party in Illinois began to distance themselves from the unpopular religious group. A notable exception to this shift in allegiance might be credited to John Wentworth, a mayor of Chicago, a six-term Democratic congressman, and, besides that, the Editor of the influential Chicago Democrat. Wentworth and a small number of Illinois Democrats continued to support the Mormon political cause, both in the midwest and in Washington, D. C., for several years after the Saints' departure from Nauvoo.


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, May 24, 1845.                             No. 21.

(article on Miller & Leise murders by Mormons from Nauvoo
under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, May 31, 1845.                             No. 22.


It appears, by the last accounts, that one of the Germans, whose supposed murder was announced in our last, although dangerously wounded by his assailants, was not killed; and hopes are now entertained for his recovery. The Lee County Democrat, in a notice of the outrage, says that the Mormon authorities at Nauvoo -- where two of the persons charged with the perpetration of the crime have been apprehended -- used every [execution] in their power "to further the ends of justice," and it is alleged that neither they, nor their accomplices, now are, or ever have been Mormons. Two of the supposed murderers are still at large.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, June 14, 1845.                             No. 24.


From an Editorial in the last Warsaw Signal, we learn that the trial of the five persons indicted in Hancock County for the murder of Joseph Smith, nearly one year since, was brought to a close on the afternoon of the 30th ult., by a general verdict of 'Not Guilty" and the consequent discharge of the prisoners. Thirteen witnesses were examined for the prosecution; but the evidence of three only -- whose credibility was successfully impeached by the testimony for the defense -- sustained the charges set forth in the indictment. The arguments of counsel, on both sides, are said to have been very able, and occupied two full days. A second indictment is still pending against the persons acquitted as above [mentioned?] for the alleged murder of Hyrum Smith; which [was?] held for the [same purpose?] on the 20th of the present month.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, June 21, 1845.                             No. 25.

More Mormon Outrages.

One day last week, the iron on a portion of the railroad between Jacksonville and Meredasia was stripped from the rails and stolen. The Governor immediately issued handbills, offering a reward of two hundred and fifty dollars for the detection and conviction of the perpetrators. Mr. Hunt, the jailor at Jacksonville, had, however, previously started in pursuit of the thief. He succeeded in finding him beyond Carthage, in Hancock county, with his wagon standing before his door loaded with a portion of the iron that had been stripped from the railroad. The person implicated is Charles Chrisman, a Mormon Elder, and formerly a resident of Morgan county. He had taken altogether three loads, weighing in the aggregate about 4,500 pounds. Chrisman sold it to a blacksmith in his neighborhood, at four cents per pound. He was brought back to Morgan county, where the theft was committed, and safely lodged in jail for trial, which it was expected would take place sometime this week. Chrisman is of a respectable family, and is said to be a man of property. He deserves to be punished to the very extent of the law.

The Mormons have forwarded a petition, which was presented to the Legislature of Connecticuit, on the 31st ultimo, asking for an Asylum in Connecticut, or for aid in obtaining one elsewhere. We certainly do not desire that any other state should be scouraged by the location of this wickedly depraved set among them, but we at the same time most fervently hope that they may take up their line of march from Illinois as speedily as possible. A greater clan of imposition and rascality never were herded together before in any part of the civilized world.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, June 28, 1845.                             No. 26.


William and Stephen Hodges, indicted for the murder of John Miller, were tried last week at Burlington and found guilty of murder. On the Monday night following, another, Hodges, the brother of the above, and who had testified against [sic] them, WAS MURDERED IN NAUVOO!! This is the city of peace and order, that politicians boast so much about.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, July 5, 1845.                             No. 27.


==> The Nauvoo Neighbor, the Mormon organ, says "that, at a recent council in Springfield," the Democrats have determined "not to run a Democratic candidate for the next Governor, unless a law-abiding man, and one --> WHO IS WORTHY OF THE MORMON VOTES." <-- The last Sangamo Journal very properly heads this announcement -- "RE-ANNEXATION OF THE MORMONS."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, July 12, 1845.                             No. 28.


The last Warsaw Signal says that, owing to the failure of the prosecuting Attorneys to attend the special session of the Hancock county Circuit Court, called for the purpose of trying the persons indicted for the murder of Hyrum Smith, and which was held a few days since, the judge ordered the case to be dismissed; observing that, under the circumstanxes "he did not feel justified in appointing a prosecutor, pro tem." Whether the matter will be permitted to rest here, or not, we shall not undertake to say.

(notice of murder of Col. Davenport -- under construction)

The execution of the two Hodges took place in Burlington, Iowa on Tuesday of last week, 15th inst., in conformity with their sentence. At least ten thousand persons had assembled to gratify their unnatural curiosity, and in the expectation of hearing a confession from the murderers. In this, however, they were disappointed, through the influence of the elder Hodges, who insisted that, if any confession was made by them, the rest of their family would not be permitted to live another week.

Note: The Hodges brothers were hung on Tuesday July 15, 1845. Thus, the article in the Alton Telegraph, that reports their having been executed "on Tuesday of last week," probably appeared in the July 19th issue of the newspaper. The exact date of the article has yet to be confirmed, however, and it may have been published in the July 26th number.


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, July 19, 1845.                             No. 29.


Of Col. Davenport, is one of the most striking commentaries upon the depravity of the present age that has ever come under observation. For thirty years he was a resident of the West; during the greater part of which time, as Indian Agent he was surrounded by thousands of the untutored and uncivilized savages. While thus situated, he was frequently in possession of large sums of money belonging to the Government of the United States, which fact was well known to the Indians; yet no attempt was ever made by them to deprive him of the money or take his life. But no sooner are the savages driven from our soil, and the place that once knew them filled with civilized men, than a most brutal and shocking murder is committed upon the person of Mr. Davenport, at noon day, in a densely populated community, for the purpose of securing the paltry sum of six hundred dollars! Surely, this does not indicate much, in favor of civilization? On the contrary, it clearly demonstrates that there is far more safety, as well as honesty, among the red man of the forest, than in the midst of civilization, under the boasted protection of the laws.


The barbarous murder of Col. George Davenport of Rock Island, in his own house and in the blaze of the noon-day, by three unknown ruffians -- who, we regret to say, are still at large -- while his family were participating in the festivities of the late National Anniversary, was briefly announced in our last number. It is now our painful duty to record another, and if possible, still more fearful tragedy, enacted a few days afterwards, on the river Des Moines, Iowa Territory, at no great distance from the place where Col. Davenport was killed. -- From the accounts which have reached us, it appears that a family of imigrants from Pennsylvania, consisting of a man, his wife, and three children, lately settled on the stream above named, a few miles above Keosauqua...

The remedy -- supposing above views to be substantially correct, is obvious. Let the punishment of the murderer be changed; and, instead of affording him the opportunity of playing the part of a Hero, or a Saint, on the gallows -- as [is] now usually done, to the great injury in our decided and long-entertained opinion, of public morals -- let him expiate his offense of solitary confinement, in the cell of a Penitentiary, where alone with his conscious, he may reflect on his past life...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, July 26, 1845.                             No. 30.


The persons concerned in the recent murder of Col. Davenport, at Rock Island, had not been apprehended at the last accounts; and his son, Mr. George L. Davenport offers a reward of $1500 for their arrest and conviction, or $500 for either of them. One of the ruffians is represented as a small, close-set man, dressed in a blue coat, white pantaloons, and cloth cap. The second is tall and spare; and the third short and thick. It is thought they were accompanied by two or three others; and that the Colonel was shot by the person first described.

Note: The above report evidently came from the July 26th issue of the Telegraph; its exact date has yet to be confirmed, however.


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, August 23, 1845.                             No. 34.

                                                              Warsaw, Ill., Aug. 15, 1845.

To the Editors:

You will perceive, by the vote which I send you, that the old citizens of Hancock county feel themselves entirely deprived of one of the dearest rights they ever possessed -- the Elective Franchise.

In an election for County Commissioner, &c. on Monday of last week, Robert Miller, a very popular man and good citizen, received but 90 votes for that office; while the candidate of the Mormons received over 2,300 -- 1,900 of which were at Nauvoo.

And on Monday last, at a special election for Sheriff, to fill the office rendered vacant by the resignation of Minor R. Deming, another good citizen, Major Scott, of this place, failed to call out more than 300 or 400 votes, against that notorious Jack, J. B. Backenstos, who outrageously traduced the people of this county on the floor of the last Legislature.

The returns are not all in, but without doubt this man is elected to fill the place which good men have filled in times gone by. I do not envy him his place. Such men as he suit the Mormons better than those of their own stripe. They are ever found willing to do all the little dirty work up cleaner, than even the lowest and meanest of the "brethren," and take their pay in the various little offices the Mormons are able to dispense to them. I generally aim to be moderate in my feelings; but if there is a despicable being on earth, and one who deserves to be most cordially hated and loathed by his fellow men, it is that being called a Jack-Mormon!   Yours,   X.

Note: The term "Jack," during the 19th century, stood for an underling or minor associate, who was not openly beholding to his master or benefactor. Thus, a "Jack Mason" was a non-member of the Freemasons, who nevertheless did their bidding -- a "Jack Mormon" was a friend of the LDS, who had not been baptized into the church, etc. Politicians and other socially active persons, who might at any time come under close public scrutiny, no doubt found a measure of personal security in secretly employing their "jacks" or "knaves" to perform certain, necessary tasks, the outcomes of which might not easily be traced back to the real instigators. After the Saints moved west, the notion of a "Jack Mormon" did not fit their new monopolistic situation in the Great Basin, and "Jack Mormons" were thenceforth designated as inactive, unfaithful, or disobedient members of the LDS Church.


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, Sept. 13, 1845.                             No. 37.


We observe that the "Warsaw Signal," has just been enlarged, and otherwise much improved in appearance, and now nearly equals in size and neatness any paper published in this State. It is still continued by Thos. C. Sharp. Esq., with his customary ability and spirit; and continues to lash the Mormons and the "Jacks," with unsparing severity. Price, One Dollar and Seventy-five cents per annum, in advance...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, Sept. 20, 1845.                             No. 38.


==> Minor R. Deming, late Sheriff of Hancock county, died at Carthage, of congestive fever, on Wednesday of last week. At the time of his death he was under indictment for the murder of Dr. Marshall, two or three months since.


We regret to state that new difficulties, which may lead to deplorable results have again broken out in Hancock county. According to the accounts which have reached us, it seems that a meeting of the "Old Citizens" was held at a School-house in Rocky Run Precinct, on Tuesday of last week, for the purpose of consulting upon the measures necessary to protect their property from the depredations of the Mormons. While thus assembled, a number of persons, supposed to be of the class last mentioned, approached the building under cover of the woods and bushes, fired one round, completely riddling the door and windows, but fortunately injuring no one, and immediately retreated. The occupants, much alarmed, made a precipiate escape, and returned to their respective homes. On Wednesday, having mustered all the force they could collect, the "Old Citizens" proceeded to a Mormon settlement called "Morley's," near Lima; and after giving the inhabitants a brief warning to leave their dwellings, they deliberately set fire to them, and burned them down. The same course was pursued on the succeeding days; and it is estimated, that, up to last Sunday evening, about sixty Mormon houses; in different parts of Hancock county had been destroyed. No personal violence, however, had been offered to any one; no had any injury been designedly done to any other kind of property. Those actively engaged in the work of destruction, are said to be few in number; but they are protected by about 300 men, well armed and determined, according to report, to persevere until every Mormon in Hancock shall be driven into Nauvoo. A body of the latter, also well armed, but inferior in numbers, were, at the last accounts, encamped at no great distance, apparently watching the movement of their enemies.

An attempt was made, on Saturday last, to put an end to the excitement by a compromise -- the Mormons having sent a committee of three persons, with a flag, to the "Old Citizens," offering to sell to the latter their deeded lands and improvements, "as low as could be reasonably expected" -- reserving to themselves the crops now on the premises -- and to take various kinds of personal property in exchange. But as they would not agree to remove from Hancock, or to state in what part of the county they intended to settle, the proposition was declined. Mr. Backenstos, the Sheriff of the county, has issued his proclamation, commanding all the rioters and peace-breakers to desist, and return home immediately, under the penalty of the law; and calling upon all good citizens promptly to give their united aid in the suppression of the disturbance. He at the same time gives notice that it is a part of his policy for the people of Nauvoo to remain quiet, and take no part whatever in the business until it shall "be manifest that the law and order citizens [sic] out of the City will not have force sufficient to suppress the rioters," and he intimates that he has "2000 effective men *  *  *  * in readiness to march at a moment's warning to any point in Hancock county." -- Should he find it necessary to call out "the Legion" -- which does not appear improbable -- the loss of many lives may reasonably be expected.

P. S. Since the above was written, we have received the Quincy Courier of Wednesday, which states that the excitement was then on the increase; and that the Anti-Mormons were flocking from all quarters to aid their friends in the total expulsion of the Mormons from Hancock county. It notices a report that a fight had taken place between the hostile factions on Monday evening, in which several persons were wounded on both sides, two or three of whom had since died. The Sheriff, Mr. Backenstos, was using every exertion in his power to suppress the disturbance; and intended, as a last resort, to lead out a force from Nauvoo for that purpose -- in which event bloody work was anticipated. He had been forcibly driven out of Carthage; and it was feared that he would fall a martyr to his zeal. Some citizens of Quincy, in view of the possibility of such a result, had gone out to remove his family to that City. The above paper also states, in a postscript, that a Mr. Franklin Worrell, of Carthage, had been shot dead, between that place and Warsaw, by the Sheriff, but whether in necessary self-defense or not, is not mentioned. -- Intelligence from the disturbed region will of course be looked for with deep anxiety; and should anything farther reach us before our present number is sent to press, it will be given in a postscript.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, Sept. 27, 1845.                             No. 39.


==> An extra of the Quincy Whig, dated the 20th inst., states that Mr. Babbitt, the Mormon Representative, has proclaimed that the war has now assumed a political aspect; and that both Judge Douglass and Judge Ralston had pledged themselves to him that the Mormons should be sustained! How far this statement is correct, we shall not undertake to say.


Since our last publication, we have received, from various sources, sundry items of intelligence in relation to the progress of the difficulties in Hancock county. But the reports are so numerous, and at the same time so vague and contradictory, that it is almost impracticable to ascertain the real facts. As our readers, however, will naturally expect some news from that quarter, we shall endeavor to lay before them, in as few words as possible, all the information on that subject which has hitherto reached us, and which we have reason to believe substantially correct. And, in the first place, we shall submit to their inspection the following letter from an intelligent citizen of Warsaw, who, although a decided Anti-Mormon, we deem wholly incapable of willfully or knowingly misrepresenting or distorting the events of which he speaks.

                                                      Warsaw, Ill., Sept. 29, 1845.
                                                               5 o'clock P. M.
To the Editors:

You have, doubtless, expected to hear something from me before this, concerning the difficulties in this county; but all has been such confusion, that I have been unable to write.

You have heard of much of the proceedings -- how the school-house was fired upon in Green Plains; how, the next day, and a few days thereafter, the Old Citizens commenced burning the houses of their Mormon neighbors, and driving out the occupants; and how the Sheriff, at the head of a Mormon posse, with the notorious O. P. Rockwell for one of his leading men, is endeavoring to arrest the offenders and put a stop to their progress.

You have also heard, that on Tuesday, about noon, Mr. Franklin Worrell, a worthy young man, and citizen of Carthage, who will be recollected as having been the Captain of the Guard when Joe and Hyrum Smith were killed, was shot, either by Sheriff Backenstos, or the said Rockwell.

On Tuesday night, the Sheriff, at the head of a large Mormon force, marched into Carthage, and took Mrs. Backenstos and her goods and family away to Nauvoo. This he did, because he was held in such detestation by the people, that he was afraid to go without a sufficient force to protect him.

On Wednesday, the Sheriff, with his Mormon posse, charged suddenly upon a company of some 15 or 20 men, who, report says, were in the act of burning a house, and wounded one and killed another. This was in the region of Bear Creek, some four or five miles from the scene of the first disturbances, and eight or nine from Warsaw. The man killed belonged to Warsaw, and was brought in the next day by men who went in search of him. He was shot while on horseback, with several balls; and after he fell he was cut and slashed in a most barbarous manner with swords and knives. Report says that this was done while he was on his knees begging for mercy; and that Backenstos stated to some of our citizens that he intended to have had a body of men to watch the body of the murdered man, as he lay in the prairie, and cut off all who came to seek him.

On Friday night, (last night) the Mormons had possession of Carthage -- some 400 to 600 having taken possession, under Sheriff Backenstos and General Bishop Miller. They occupied till morning, and then left for Warsaw, as the Sheriff declared, for the purpose of making arrests of the "mobbers." On Friday evening, an express brought a message in from him that he required the State arms in possession of the inhabitants to be given up, together with the leaders of the mob, who were supposed to be in and about Warsaw. This, of course, was refused, and treated with contempt.

The Sheriff has issued three proclamations, in which he has made some of the most false and malicious charges against the Old Citizens that were ever uttered. One of these is, that when he brought his force into Carthage, on Tuesday night, the citizens attempted to set fire to their own houses, and it was only by his ordering them to be put to the sword if they did not desist, that it was prevented. This statement is wholly and basely false, from beginning to end. I have been assured by a man who stood guard that night, and who professes to be a friend to Backenstos, that nothing of the kind occurred in any particular.

Another statement in his proclamation is that he took his force to Carthage for the purpose of rescuing his wife and family from the mob, who had surrounded his house, and were threatening and abusing her. This equally false. Nobody had molested his wife, but two or three compassionate ladies, who had called to console her in her fright and alarm when she heard that her husband murdered one of their best citizens, Mr. Worrell. And when she was forced into the Mormon wagons, and surrounded and driven off in the middle of the night by Mormon troops, she left town in screams and terror.

So with many others of his official statements. They are entitled to no confidence from the people abroad, whom they are intended to mislead. There has been no murder committed but by the "by authority" party; no plundering, but by the legal plunderers. Plundering has, in fact, now become the order. On Tuesday night, from ten to fourteen horses were driven from the farm of the Barnes family, three miles north of Carthage, before the eyes of one of the owners; and several other instances of the kind have occurred in the other parts of the country. Where it will end, God only knows. The Mormon power is completely in the ascendant; and Mormon law and Mormon vengeance are carrying all before them. Some of the citizens in counties adjoining seem to prefer to have Mormons for their neighbors; and if so, we have no remedy but to leave them to the enjoyment of all the benefits they may derive from the relation. Most of the Old Citizens in this section of the country have fled from their homes and taken refuge in Missouri and Iowa.   Yours, &c.   X. Y. Z.

P. S. -- While I write, Backenstos, with a body of 400 Mormons, is marching into town. He has been sending word for a day or two, that he was coming on with a force to make arrests. His only object must be to make a demonstration of force. The army, after parading the streets a short time, has retired to camp, and now (at 9 o'clock) all is quiet. The boat has not yet arrived; and if any thing occurs, I will add it below.

The above, it will be observed, furnishes nothing later than the evening of the 20th -- our correspondent, owing, probably, to the want of a suitable opportunity, having failed to give us any additional information. It does not appear , however, that any thing of much importance has since occurred. Sheriff Backenstos, with his posse of 500 men, was, at the latest accounts, in full and undisputed possession of the county, though his whereabouts was not precisely known, and it did not seem, from his movements, that he was particularly anxious to court danger, notwithstanding the desperate valor exhibited in his proclamation. In fact, it might be imagined that both parties had arrived at the sage conclusion, that

       "He who fights, then runs away,
       May live to fight another day;
       But he who is in battle slain
       Can never rise to fight again."

We cannot learn that any lives have been lost, except those mentioned by our correspondent; or that the Mormons have, thus far, either burned or otherwise injured the dwellings of the old citizens. They are, however, said to have driven off the horses and cattle of those they consider their enemies, and that much valuable property will be destroyed, or lost to the owners, in consequence of this deplorable affair, cannot be doubted. A report was brought here on Tuesday evening, by a leading Locofoco of Morgan county, that Carthage had been burned down, and Mr. Sharp, Editor of the Warsaw Signal, and a number of others, killed in a fight with the Mormons. But, whether the narrator intended it as a hoax or not, this piece of intelligence was so evidently absurd that none but very "green ones" were taken in by it, or gave it the least credence.

The Governor. on the 20th inst., issued a proclamation, stating in grandiloquous language, that an insurrection actually exists in the county of Hancock; and calling "upon the brave and public-spirited militia of the counties of Sangamon, Menard, Cass, Scott, Pike, Morgan and Greene, for five hundred volunteers," in order to suppress it. We are informed, however, that but little notice has been paid to the call -- owing to the prevailing impression that this force was intended to aid the Mormons, rather than to restore the public tranquillity. -- A meeting was to be held in Quincy on Monday evening, in order to "take into consideration to disturbances in Hancock county," But as the proceedings have not reached us, we are unable to state whether any thing was done or attempted on that occasion.

What will be the final result of this disgraceful outbreak, we cannot, at this distance from the scene, and with the limited information we possess, even attempt to conjecture. At the present moment, the Mormons appear to have the upper hand. But it does not seem reasonable to suppose that their opponents, conscious, as they must be, of their own numerical inferiority, would have attempted to expel them from the country, by burning down their dwellings, unless well assured of support from abroad. Whether this assistance has been, or will be rendered -- whether, in this event, it will prove effectual -- whether the Mormons will be expelled, or dispersed -- or whether the existing feud will be reconciled, and how -- are points which time alone can reveal, and which it would be useless to discuss. Should any farther information reach us before our paper goes to press, it will be given in a postscript.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, October 4, 1845.                             No. 40.


==> A man by the name of Fox, has been arrested at Centreville, Ind., as one of the murderers of Col. Davenport, of Rock Island, in this State. It is said that he has given the names of two others concerned with him in the same diabolical deed, and has designed the place where they may be found.

==> The last State Register acknowledges that the calls of the Governor have entirely failed. At this we are not surprised. The people of this State have suffered enough by these Mormons, without doing any thing more to perpetuate their stay among us,

==> Gov. Ford's proclamation, calling upon the "patriotic young men of Sangamon county," to meet at Springfield on Tuesday of last week, to aid the Mormons, was answered by one man. The Governor called the spirits from the vasty deep; but they didn't come. Wonder if he has heard of another battle, in which "18 Anti-Mormons and 3 Mormons were killed!!"

==> The St. Louis Evening Gazette, of Wednesday, states, on the authority of a steamboat passenger, that seven persons were apprehended a few days since on suspicion of having been concerned in the murder of Col. Davenport, of Rock Island, on the 4th of July last. Among these are two brothers named Redman, resigning on the Iowa side, near the scene of blood, in whose possession were found a gun and pistol taken from Col. D. by his murderers. The persons apprehended are all said to be Mormons.


No direct information from Hancock county, has reached us since our last publication. We have received, however, sundry accounts of public meetings, proclamations, steamboat intelligence, and flying reports, more or less authentic, which may be summed up substantially as follows: --

On the 22 ult. a general meeting of the people of Adams county was held at Quincy, at which a preamble and resolutions were adopted, setting forth the serious difficulties which have taken place between the Mormons and the "Old Citizens" of Hancock; and expressing the opinion that the safety of Nauvoo, and the best interests of the State, require that the Mormons should either remove to some country, in which their peculiar organization will not endanger the public peace; or abandon their present system, and amalgamate with the other inhabitants of the State. The people of the adjoining counties were likewise invited to hold public meetings, and exercise their opinions on the same subject; and a committee of five gentlemen was appointed to proceed to Nauvoo, and communicate the proceedings to the Mormon authorities, in order to ascertain how far they were disposed to comply with the suggestions of the meetings. -- On the 23d, the committee accordingly repaired to the City, and laid the resolutions before the Council, to which they requested a written reply. This was returned on the 24th, and was to the effect, that it was, and ever had been, the desire of the Mormons to live in peace with all men, so far as they could without sacrificing the rights of conscience -- that, although repeatedly driven from their peaceful homes, and subjected to all manner of hardships, even death itself, and to the destruction of their dwellings, they had offered no resistance to the late outrages until compelled to do so by the county authorities -- that, as a farther evidence of their love of peace, and in order to allay the existing excitement, they were willing to leave the county next Spring, and remove to some point where there need be no difficulties between the people and themselves, provided their enemies agree to desist from farther molesting them, and they are allowed the necessary aid and facilities for disposing of, or renting their property, or exchanging the same on equitable terms, &c. Whether any action has been taken on these propositions, we are unable to say. -- Meetings, similar to that held at Quincy, and at which the same opinions were substantially expressed, have been also holden in several of the adjoining counties.

Sheriff Backenstos, of Hancock, has issued Sunday additional proclamations, in his usual inflated style -- in the last of which, dated at Carthage, Sept. 25, he says, there is a continuance of peace throughout the county -- states that the Mormons have stolen no cattle from the people, but only attempted to gather their own, and remove their other property to Nauvoo -- bitterly denounces the "Old Citizens," and especially "that infamous, black-hearted and murderous scoundrel, Thomas C. Sharp, Editor of that treasonable paper, the Warsaw Signal" -- pronounces the proclamation of the Governor, issued on the 21st, to be "a base fraud," unworthy of confidence, and "one of Sharp's latest acts of rascality" -- and declares that he is ready to be tried by the laws of his country for the killing of Worrell. He left Carthage with his posse on the 26th, and returned to Nauvoo.

As to the movements of the troops, we have but little information which can be relied upon. It is, however, ascertained that Gen. John J. Hardin, the late distinguished member of Congress from the Springfield district, left Jacksonville on the 25th ult. with a small body of men, and accompanied by Attorney General McDougall, fully impowered by the Governor to use such measures as he may deem necessary for the restitution of the public tranquillity. He is said to have reached Carthage on the 27th, then occupied by an inconsiderable body of Mormons, left there by Sheriff Backenstos, compelled them to give up their arms, and to march back to Nauvoo, in double quick time. He then proceeded to Warsaw, of which he took peaceable possession; and, at the last accounts, was on his way to Nauvoo, at the head of about 300 men. Whether his object is to mediate between the hostile factions, to persuade the Mormons to leave the country, or to take possession of the city in the name of the State, we know not. But all which unremitting activity, patriotic zeal, and dauntless energy can effect, towards the suppression of the lamentable disorders which have disgraced Hancock county for some weeks past, may be confidently be expected of him. Although a whole-souled Whig, he deservedly enjoys the confidence of all; and if the means placed at his disposal are sufficient to insure the restoration of the public peace, it will be done. Col. Singleton, of Brown county, was said to be at Augusta, with a large force, some days since; but whether he is acting in concert with Gen. H. or not, we are unable to say.

==> A meeting of the citizens of McDonough County, was holden on the 23d ultimo, to take into consideration the disturbances now existing in Hancock. It was composed of persons of both political parties; and the meeting unanimously adopted the following, among other resolutions:

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with the old, or Anti-Mormon citizens of Hancock county; and, from the best information we can obtain, after sending a committee to inquire, we believe that, under the ostensible authority of law, a sheriff actuated by a malignant hate towards individuals, ordered or sanctioned wanton and inhuman butcheries of individuals, peaceably and lawfully traveling on the highways, and allowed their bodies to be subjected to the grossest outrages.

Resolved, That we, the people of McDonough county, will not harbor, protect, countenance, nor permit the Mormons, commonly called "Latter Day Saints," to settle or locate within the borders of this county.

Resolved, That it cannot be expected that the people of Hancock should accede to the proposition of the Mormons to purchase their property at Nauvoo.

Resolved, That the people cannot submit to be searched by the Mormons, under the direction of the sheriff of Hancock, and be compelled to accept a pass from them while on their lawful business, trading from this county to Warsaw.

Resolved, That from the knowledge we have of the Mormons, we believe they cannot reside in the same community in peace, with their neighbors, and that their doctrines, so far as we are acquainted with them, are subversive of our free institutions.

Resolved, That we call upon the citizens of this county to raise a force of three hundred men, or more, to be in readiness at a moment's warning, to march to any part of Hancock County, to co-operate with the neighboring counties, should it become necessary, in order to suppress Mormon depredation.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, October 18, 1845.                             No. 42.


Young, and the two Longs, three of the seven prisoners charged with the murder of Col. Davenport, were tried last week at Rock Island, found guilty, and sentenced to be hung on the 29th of this month. Burch made a full confession of his guilt, as also that of his accomplices. Baxter and the two Redings had made application for a change of venue, which at our last advices had not been determined upon by the Court.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, October 25, 1845.                             No. 43.


Bill Smith, the only surviving brother of Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, and who claims to be the only true leader of Mormonism, is out with a manifesto against the removal of the Mormons to California in the spring. From the Missouri Reporter of the 21st inst. We learn that prophet Bill is in the city of St. Louis, whither he had been compelled to fly, as he states, to avoid losing his life at the hands of Brigham Young and his associates. Thus has another witness come out from among this den of corrupt and vicious men, to testify against their evil deeds and total depravity of heart.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 10.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, November 8, 1845.                             No. 45.


John Long, Aaron Long, and Granville Young -- three of the persons recently convicted of the murder of Col. Davenport on the fourth of July last -- were executed at Rock Island, pursuant to their sentence, on Wednesday of last week. The Mississippian Extra states that John Long acknowledged his guilt, but asserted the innocence of his fellow sufferers. The wretched men severally addressed the spectators before the close of the fatal scene; "and the whole business was conducted with the utmost decorum." John Baxter -- whose conviction for the same crime was briefly announced in our last -- has been sentenced to be executed on Tuesday the 18th of this month. The trial of Birch and the two Reddings also implicated in the murder, either as principals or accessories -- has not yet taken place; and Fox, a supposed accomplice, is still at large.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                             Alton, Illinois, Saturday, March 14, 1846.                             No. 11.


... If every child, under a claim founded upon the supposed rights of conscience, were allowed to carry into effect every decision of its immature judgment, where is this to end? Shall it be allowed under this pretense, to violate the law of God? to repudiate the Christian religion to become a Jew or a Mahomedan? -- Or, retaining the Christian name, shall it be allowed to mingle with the battle-axe community, who make it a matter of conscience to disregard the holy institution of marriage? -- Or, upon this pretense, shall the beloved daughter of a Christian parent, in a moment of delusion, and in the tender years of her minority, be allowed to become one of the secret wives of the Mormon Prophet...


                                                  Warsaw, Ill., March 2, 1846.
To the Editors: You have learned ere this that the Mormon Exode has commenced. During the early part of the last month, the pioneer bands of Mormons, destined for the Western wilderness, commenced crossing the Mississippi, and proceeded to form an encampment in Lee County, Iowa, about mid-way between the Mississippi and the Des Moines rivers, about 6 or 7 miles from Nauvoo. They continued crossing for several days as fast as the Ferry boats could carry them, until the 13th, when snow fell to the depth of six inches, and the weather since that time has been so piercing cold, as to put an end to all further progress. They still remain encamped at their former position -- and the sufferings of the women and children, and even of the men themselves, must be very great. They have, however, as favorable a position as could be found in the country -- being in a deep creek bottom, about one fourth of a mile wide, and heavily grown with tall timber. They are completely shielded from the winds -- but even then, the weather must be very cold -- and they have no better shelter than tents. It is unfortunate, both for themselves and the Gentiles, that they made so early a start -- as, I am fearful that it will cause many to decline a pilgrimage in the wilderness, which has so much suffering at its commencement.

The Strang party are using all their influence to draw off the followers of the Twelve from the enterprise -- and it is said that many have already declined going -- one of the Twelve is among the number. They intend, it is said, to emigrate to Voree, Wisconsin, where their prophet resides -- and where he is publishing a small paper -- having, after the fashion of his "illustrious predecessor," dug up some plates, with which to gull the gullible.   X. Y. Z.

Note 1: The basic content of the "Parental Rights" article was also published, under a slightly different title, in the Oct. 20, 1842 issue of the Canton Ohio Repository.

Note 2: The modern student of Mormonism may find it rather perplexing to notice such very early (1842) references to Joseph Smith's polygamy in the public press, on one hand, and then, on the other hand, to encounter large numbers of Reorganized LDS who claim that such "secret wives" were unknown among the Nauvoo Saints, until Brigham Young led them to Utah, and there supposedly concocted Mormon polygamy. Accusations of polygamy among the Mormons and/or their top leaders, were evidently common enough as early as 1835, so as to merit a mention in the Kirtland edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. By 1842, pious writers were lecturing readers in the popular prints, not to let their young daughters be seduced into the harem of Joe Smith in his kingdom on the Mississippi.


Vol. XIV.                             Alton, Illinois, Friday, August 10, 1849.                             No. 32.


The Beaver Islands, ten in number, lie in the bosom of Lake Michigan, in about latitude 45 deg., 50 min, -- are beginning to attract considerable attention, both on account of the healthfulness of their climate, and the extent of their fisheries, and of the Zion or land of promise, of a considerable body of Mormons; the followers of Mr. Strang. Big Beaver Island, the principal one of the group, is thirteen miles in length, by seven in breadth, containing about 50,000 acres of timbered and fertile lands. -- Paradise Bay forms the principal harbor and is the seat of an extensive trade in fish, wood, &c. It is easily accessible, perfectly land locked, and sufficiently capacious for all craft on the Lakes.

Around the bay, the Mormons are making their settlements. There are two wood yards and three stores in operation, a steam saw mill is going up, and improvements are commenced on all the lands within four miles, besides various commencements in other locations. There are now employed in the fisheries some two hundred boats, and 500 or 600 fishermen; but the opening of the farms, the building of the mills, and the establishment of all the various branches, always found in a settlement of free and enterprising population, will soon leave this branch of business of comparative non-importance. Good stocks of cows have been brought on by the Mormons, who are intending to devote much attention to agriculture, with every prospect of success. Notwithstanding the high latitude, all of the fine grains flourish, and the prospect is that the grazing will be of the first quality. In case they shall succeed, they will be able to furnish supplies to the Lake trade, at a point where there is no competition within 200 miles, and where the demand must always be great.

The Mormons have already established a school, at which they furnish gratuitous instruction to the children of the Indians residing in the vicinity. In about six weeks they will commence the publication of a weekly paper, the press and materials for which are already purchased. Their numbers on the island, are now about three hundred; but it is expected that before the close of the season they will be increased to one thousand in number.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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