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Vol. XXI.                           Fredonia, NY, Wed., June 23, 1841.                          No. 15.

==> A train of wagons, ten in number, and filled with Dunkers, Mormons, or some similar infatuated creatures, passed our office this morning on their way to Nauvoo, or some other newly discovered paradise. They did not take shipping, but intend to travel the whole distance, some 800 miles, in their vehicles.
                          Buffalo Com. of Saturday.

The same party passed through this village on Sunday evening, a little after six o'clock, which shows that they had traveled all day on the Sabbath.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXI.                           Fredonia, NY, Wed., July 21, 1841.                          No. 19.

Mormonism. -- The Galena (Ill.) Budget cautions its readers against believing the stories circulated in the newspapers with regard to the Mormons at the West, and their hostile preparations. It says that at the rate Jo Smith's strength increases, it will be about a million of years before he will be able to cope with the power of the State. -- Tribune.

We do not know how many millions of men it will take to cope with the People of Illinois, but this we do know, if the Mormons travel on all the main roads as much as they do on the one which passes through this village, Jo Smith will soon have some twenty or thirty thousand able bodied men at his command. Within the last six weeks there has passed through this village from forty to fifty wagon loads of them on their way to join the Mormons. We learned from a party of them which passed here about ten days ago, that they expected above fifty families from the interior of this State to join them before fall. An account was published a short time since stating that a company of six hundred Mormons had arrived from England, and the same account said that the Mormon preachers had been much more successful there than they had in this country.

According to the latest accounts from Nauvoo the settlement must now contain some fifteen hundred or two thousand, and if they continue to migrate for a few years longer in the same ratio with this year, we venture to say that the number will be increased to twenty thousand.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                           Buffalo, April 14, 1842                           No. 89.


==> Mormonism is spreading to the east as well as the west. In the vicinity of Boston there are several regularly ordained preachers whose circuit embraces Chelsea, Salem, Medfield, Medway, Peterboro, Gibson, &c. In some of these towns fifty of their followers have been baptised in a day, with a view of joining their brethren in the west at some future day.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                           Buffalo, May 27, 1842.                           No. ?


==> JOE SMITH the Mormon prophet, has applied for the benefits of the Bankrupt Act. His debts he states are $100,000. Sidney Rigdon and Hiram Smith, the other Mormon leaders, have also petitioned.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, May 28, 1842.                               No. ?


==> The increase of Mormonism is one of the most singular phenomena of the day. To those acquainted with the origin of this delusion it is almost inconceivable that it could ever have made any progress, but human nature is after all pretty much the same in all ages and conditions in life. The Mormons can now be estimated by their tens of thousands, scattered all over the Union, and they are rapidly adding to their numbers not only in this country but in the old world.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, July 11, 1842.                               No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- With whatever feeling we may regard the religious delusion under which the Mormons labor, if we can believe the western papers, it is no longer safe to treat the movements of that sect with contempt. Their peculiar organization is an anomaly and demands attention. It has in it most dangerous elements. Their city of Nauvoo has several thousand inhabitants who constitute an imperium in imperio, nominally recognizing the civil authority of the state and nation, but in reality exercising some of the highest attributes of sovereignty. They have a alrge and highly developed military force, and their whole moral and physical power is swayed by one mind with tremendous effect. It is easy to see that with such an organization the Mormons may become a mighty engine of ill. It is charged in some of the western papers that they have among them a band, called Danites, selected on account of their blind, fiery zeal and fanaticism, who are sworn to do the bidding of their prophet, Joe Smith, and are the ready instruments of his vengeance. It is more than insinuated that the recent attempt to assassinate ex-Governor Boggs, of Missouri, was the work of some members of this band. We copy the following from the Sangamo (Illinois) Journal, one of the most respectable papers published in the western country:

There are individuals in his flock, possessed of talents and disposition to use them for the benefit of their sect and country. Among these individuals we reckon General Bennett, Sidney Rigdon, Esq., Mr. George Robinson, and others. But the Prophet will scarcely permit them to think or act except in entire subservience to his wishes. It is now understood, that, within a few days past, Smith has made a desperate, blackguard, and abusive public attack on Gen. Bennett, Mr. Rigdon, and Mr. Robinson -- and reports, and we place great reliance upon them, go so far as to say that the life of the former has been threatened, and that orders have been issued to the Danite Band to murder him in a clandestine manner on the first opportunity. Indeed, the report goes farther, and states that two of the Danites have been in hot pursuit of Gen. Bennett for several days, in order to accomplish the nefarious purpose, and thus prevent a public exposition of the corruptions of the great impostor.

We call upon the people of our State to have an eye upon this matter -- and, if either of the individuals mentioned should be missing, -- that there shall be no hesitation in placing the responsibility of the act upon its proper authors, and in making them feel in their own persons that murder shall be avenged.

We take no pleasure in placing these remarks upon paper. If a secret band of assassins shall prowl about among this community, who is safe? The fate of Gov. Boggs is an event not to be unheeded. But we should be unworthy of our position should we fail to meet this matter as it deserves. And we now call upon General Bennett, if the rumors we have stated have just foundation, to "take his life into his hands," if that be required, and with the true spirit of a soldier and a patriot, expose the crimes, if such exist, of the heaven-daring impostor. We call upon Gen. Bennett to come out now. We appeal to him to do this in behalf of his fellow-citizens, who claim this of him, by all the considerations which can be presented to him as a lover of his species and as the servant of his God. Such an exposure may save life -- may expose corruption -- may avert consequences which no man can contemplate without fearful apprehensions. We call upon Gen. Bennett to produce documentary evidence, that the public may form opinions that cannot be gainsayed -- that they may understand the entire character, as it stands naked before his God, of a long successful religious impostor.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, July 18, 1842.                               No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- We have copied into another column the Mormon disclosures of Gen. Bennett. The Sangamo Journal, in a postscript, says:

We have another communication from General Bennett. Its disclosures are horrible. We shall publish it in an extra as soon as possible.

Gen. B. evidently writes under high excitement, but there is much in his communication that deserves attention. He shows up, as we believe, in its true colors one of the most stupendous schemes of villainy and religious fraud and imposture that the world ever saw. "Errors of opinion," said Jefferson, "may be safely tolerated, so long as reason is left to combat them." The remark is true in its general sense, but the Mormons form an exception. Their errors of opinion may be tolerated, but to their religious errors they have superadded a military and political organization dangerous in the extreme, when wielded as it is by one so unscrupulous as Joe Smith. It is scarcely too much to say that they hold the balance of political power in Illinois in their hands. We will tomorrow publish some startling facts respecting the civil and military powers granted the Mormons by the Legislature of Illinois.

(Bennett's lengthy letter to the Sangamo Journal follows)

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, July 19, 1842.                               No. ?


We alluded yesterday to the extraordinary power and privileges granted to the Mormons by the Legislature of Illinois. They are such as have never been granted to any other sect in this country, and, taken in connection with the fact that the whole moral and physical force of the Mormons is in effect wielded by the self styled prophet, Joe Smith, are well calculated to excite surprise, and indeed alarm for the future peace and welfare of the Prairie state.

By the 10th section of the act incorporating the Nauvoo House Association with ground whereon to build, "said Smith and his heirs shall hold by perpetual succession a suite of rooms in said House, to be set apart, and conveyed in due form of law." Here we have a perpetual entail created for the benefit of Joe Smith by Loco Focos whose loudest war cries are "no special privileges!" "down with monopolies!" -- How would the Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians or other orthodox sects fare that should venture to ask for such privileges in behalf of one of their leaders? The whole land would ring with denunciations of the attempt.

An Act incorporating the city of Nauvoo, provides for the establishment of a University, conferring upon its officers legislative powers equal to those possessed by the Legislature itself. Section 25 of the same Act provides for the establishment of a military force, to the officers of which is given the "Law making power," with no restriction except the Constitution of the United States and of Illinois. The entire rection reads as follows:

"The City Council may organize the inhabitants of said city subject to military duty, into a body of independent military men, to be called the "Nauvoo Legion," the Court Martial of which shall be composed of the commissioned officers of said Legion, and constitute the law-making department, with full power and authority to make, ordain, establish, and execute all such laws and ordinances as may be considered necessary for the benefit, government, and regulation of said Legion; provided said Court Martial shall pass no law or act, repugnant to, or inconsistent with, the constitution of the United States, or of this State; and provided also that the officers of the Legion shall be commissioned by the Governor of the State. The said Legion shall perform the same amount of military duty as is now, or may be hereafter required of the regular militia of the State, and shall be at the disposal of the Mayor in executing the laws and ordinances of the city corporation, and the laws of the State, and at the disposal of the Governor for the public defence, and the execution of the laws of the State or of the United States, and shall be entitled to their proportion of the public arms; and provided also, that said Legion shall be exempt from all other military duty."

It is under this section, says the Sangamo Journal, that Joe Smith has been made Lieutenant General -- an office never before held but by one individual in this country -- Washington -- and under which appointment Joe Smith claims that in time of war, he is the head of the army of the United States! -- It will be seen also that this section does not require the officers or the troops composing the Mormon military force to make oath to supporting the Constitution of the United States!

Section 27 of the same act gives the City Council power to punish those guilty of violating its ordinances "by imprisonment in the city jail in all cases, when such offenders shall fail or refuse to pay the fines and forfeitures which may be recovered against them." The power here granted is without qualification or limitation, as a man howsoever convicted of the slightest infraction of even an absurd ordinance may, through inability to pay the fine imposed, be imprisoned for life. What is the character of the ordinances, for a breach of which such penalities may be enforced, can be inferred from the first one passed by this extraordinary corporation. That ordinance provides in the first section that "if any person be guilty of ridiculing, abusing, or otherwise depreciating another in consequence of his religion, or of disturbing or interrupting any religious meeting within the limits of this city, he shall on conviction thereof, before the Mayor or Municipal Court, be considered a disturber of the public power, and fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion of said Mayor or Court."

And by section 2d "it is made the duty of all municipal officers to notice and report to the Mayor, any breach or violation of this, or any other ordinances of this city that may come within the knowledge, or of which they may be advised, and any officer aforesaid is hereby fully authorized to arrest all such violators of rule, law and order either with or without process."

It will be seen by this that it behoves any person passing through Nauvoo to be careful how he speaks of "Holy Joe," if he wishes to avoid arrest and six months imprisonment or the payment of the hundred dollars fine. It will be seen, too, that it makes by law Smith's despotism complete. No resident of Nauvoo can open his mouth in the hearing of one of his spies without incuring the risk of being instantaneously arrested and thrown into prison. Under the guise of toleration to all religions, the Inquisition in the time of Torquemada, ubder Philip II of Spain, had not greater power than the Loco Focos of Illinois have conferred upon Joe Smith.

Does any one suppose that such powers would be granted to any ordinary civic corporation? ... There are other facts connected with the Mormons not less extraordinary than those we have detailed, but we must defer a notice of them to another day.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, July 21, 1842.                               No. ?


THE MORMONS. -- We have received the second number of Gen. Bennett's disclosures. It fully confirms all that the Sangamo Journal said of it. Such a mass of villainy of every kind made thick and slab with lust, was never before disclosed to the public. Gen. B. supports all his statements by reference to well-known persons and dates and by the affidavits of respectable people, and if the half of it is true, Joe Smith is one of the greatest scoundrals unhanged. We wish the Loco Focos much joy of such an ally.

Notes: (forthcoming)


NS. Vol IV.                               Buffalo, July 23, 1842.                               No. ?


We almost owe an apology to our readers for recurring so frequently to this miserable sect of fanatics, but as a faithful chronicler of the times we are bound to notice some of their atrocious doings as reported in the Illinois papers. We copy the following from the Kaskaskia Republican:



One of the most horrid and atrocious murders was committed on the person of my brother, John Stephenson in Jackson county, Illinois, on the 2d day of June, 1842, perhaps in the whole catalogue or annals of crime. All that is known of the circumstances attending the perpetration of the dark and hellish deed is that my brother was ploughing in the field -- his wife from home and no person being at the house, the foul fiend entered the house, broke open his trunk in search of money, as is supposed, but as my brother had but four or five days previously been to the land office and purchased land, there was but three dollars in the trunk. The wretch then took the gun of the deceased, and from every appearance, concealed himself near the fence and awaited the approach of the deceased, and as he was coming round, shot him down with his own gun.

The deceased was as harmless and quiet a man as ever lived -- it is not known or believed that he had an enemy upon the earth.

Myself and deceased brother joined the Mormons some two years since. -- On the 27th day of May, 1842, six days before my brother was murdered, Brown and Abbot, two Mormons, called upon us for contributions of property and money to aid in building the Temple at Nauvoo; and upon our refusal to give up to them the amount demanded, the said two Mormons by way of threatening us said, "we might think ourselves well off if we had our property long," They, the said Mormons, further told us, that they had stock to drive, and had but one dollar and twenty-five cents, and money they must have, let it come from where it would; and they did not take care where it came from;" they also said if we would take our money to Crow's, in the six mile prairie in Perry county, on the Saturday following, they would receive it, and all should be right.

It is impossible for suspicion to attach to any person but a Mormon in the neighborhood as being concerned with this horrid deed; and it is believed from all the circumstances, that the said two Mormons are connected with the bloody and foul transaction.

The gun taken is a rifle, with a plain walnut stock, iron guard and thimbles; no other mounting; the shot sling is of wolf skin, and the powder horn had the name of Stephenson cut on it. There was a large butcher knife in the scabbard attached to the strap of the shot sling. This gun carries about sixty-five balls to the pound. The murderers took from the trunk a large morocco pocket book with three dollars in specie -- one Mexican dollar, which had been tried at the land office with aqua fortis, and which made a black spot on the impress of the head, the rest of the money was in bits and quarters, with a hole in each piece.

A reward of two hundred dollars will be given for the apprehension of the murderer or murderers.

All papers friendly to the cause of right and justice please give the above one insertion in their columns.
                                                EDWARD STEPHENSON.
Jackson County, Ill., June 4, 1842.

The Sangamo Journal, in a notice of this matter says:

We understand from individuals from the South part of the State, that the murder in Jackson Co., is producing great excitement in all that region. The particulars, as given by the brother of the murdered man, in a subsequent column, for the Kaskaskia Republican, are fully confirmed by them. It is believed that the murder was the work of some of the Danites, who were sent about to make collections from the Mormons for the building of the temple at Nauvoo.

Gen. Bennett has published a third letter in the Journal, exposing still farther the unmitigated rascality of Joe Smith, in his pecuniary transactions, He shows that just previous to Joe's application for the benefit of the bankrupt act hw made over to his children and others more than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of property. If the facia can be substantiated, as Bennett alleges, it is a chance if the Prophet does not have an opportunity of preaching in the penitentiary at Alton, if perchance he is not given up on the requisition of the Governor of Missouri, to which State Bennett had gone.

The Journal of the 15th says:

We have late information from Nauvoo. Joe Smith anticipates a requisition upon Gov. Carlin from Governor Reynolds of Missouri, for his person; and is determined not to be given up. He has all the State Arms, -- some twenty or thirty cannon -- a large number of muskets, daggers, pistols, and cutlasses -- all belonging to the State, which he is prepared to use against the State authorities if they shall attempt to deliver him to Gov. Reynolds. Joe reiterates that he will not be given up -- and the Mormons say that the Prophet shall not be taken while any of them are left to defend him!

A pretty pass truly! Joe Smith, in possession of the State Arms, and defies the authorities of the State! We are informed that an application was made to the proper authorities of this State, before the Arms were taken to Nauvoo, for a portion of them to arm a military company of Macuopin County, but the application was refused!

There is great excitement in Illinois on the subject of the Mormons, and matters appear to be rapidly hastening toward a crisis. With the sincerest desire that Joe Smith may receive the punishment so justly due his imposture and crimes, we hope there will be good sense enough in Illinois to avoid that indiscriminate persecution and bloody denouement so disgraceful to Missouri.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol ?                               Buffalo, August 5, 1842.                               No. ?


==> BENNETT, the late Mormon general and mayor of the holy city of Nauvoo, in disclosing the revelations of the "prophet" Smith, winds up one of his chapters with the following morceau:

"If Jo Smith is not destined for the devil, all I can say is, that the duties of a devil have not been clearly understood!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol ?                               Buffalo, August 11, 1842.                               No. ?


A VISIT TO JOE SMITH. -- We present the following extract from a letter received, a few days ago, from a clergyman now in Illinois:

"I went by stage from Burlington to Nauvoo. I spent the night in the city of the 'Latter-Day Saints.' In the morning I visited the lions of the place. The stone [building] which they are building under Joe Smith's direction is situated about half a mile back from the river, on the bluff. The basement is built; dimensions, one hundred feet or thereabouts by sixty or seventy. It is to be a very imposing building. Nauvoo contains a population variously estimated at from five to ten thousand. Probably there are six or seven thousand people there. It is a beautiful location. The city is laid out in acre lots, each lot having a house, generally of one story; it extends from three to four miles along the river, and runs back about the same distance, and this space is all built on. I called to see the Prophet, and had a short but very pleasant interview with him. He was quite communicative. I asked him about the gold plates which he professes to have dug up and translated into the Book of Mormon. He said, 'Those plates are not now in this country; they were exhibited to a few at first, for the sake of obtaining their testimony -- no others have ever seen them, and they will never be exhibited again.' He showed me some specimens of hieroglyphics, such as he says were on the plates. I told him I had heard some pretty hard stories about him and the Mormons, and had come to see if they were true. -- 'Well, you have come to the right place,' he replied. 'Are you a clergyman?' he says. 'Yes, a Unitarian clergyman.' 'Well, I should like to sit down and have a long talk with you.' 'So should I with you, Mr. Smith.' 'What is the fundamental doctrine of your faith?' 'The unity of God -- one God in one person.' 'We don't agree with you. We believe in three Gods. There are three personages in Heaven -- all equal in power and glory, but they are not one God.' I suppose, from what I heard, that Smith makes it a point not to agree with any one in regard to his religious opinions, and adapts himself to the person with whom he happens to be talking for the time being. He was about going to ride in his carriage which stood waiting at the door, and I was about coming away from the town, so that I saw him only about ten minutes.

As I came out of his house, I saw two cannon mounted in the yard of this Prophet. Can this be a Prophet of God thought I, who must have cannon for his guard, and must convert all his followers into soldiers, and excite in them a warlike spirit? It is certainly strange that this man, of ordinary ability, should exert such an influence as he does, and that converts are flocking into the miscalled Zion by hundreds. But so it is. The simple religion of Jesus is not sufficient, but men must have something outward and visible, and with this show they are satisfied. I know not how this great body of men are to subsist in this city. An acre of ground to a family gives not much for support." -- Lowell Courier.

Note: The Lowell (Massachusetts) Courier and the Lowell Journal both appear to have reacted to John C. Bennett's summer of 1842 news blitz by publishing original articles on the Mormons. Perhaps the clergymen of that area felt particularly imposed upon by Mormon missionaries -- or, perhaps the appearance of original articles on the Mormons in the newspapers of that place newspapers at this time was simply a coincidence.


Vol ?                               Buffalo, August 12, 1842.                               No. ?


==> A Mormon paper has been started in Baltimore. S. C. Brown, one of the preachers of that sect and a believer of Joe Smith, is its editor.

Note: Elder Samuel C. Brown's 1842-43 Mormon Expositor was a rare and very obscure LDS publication, not officially sanctioned by the Church. At a regional Church Conference held in New York City, on Oct. 19th, 1842, a resolution was passed, denouncing Brown's Baltimore newspaper, because it was considered "detrimental to the cause of the church of Christ" -- see "Journal History of the Church," 1842 & 1843. Elder Brown was excommunicated in 1844 -- see Donald Cannon, ed., "The Far West Record," p. 228.


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, May 19, 1843.                                   Whole 400.


FROM NAUVOO. -- Joseph Smith, (the prophet,) Mayor of the city of Nauvoo, has published a proclamation in the Nauvoo Wasp, addressed to the citizens of the holy city, stating that there exists, up and down the Mississippi, and round about the city of Nauvoo, a band of desperadoes bound by oaths of secrecy, under severe penalties and that he understands some of the members, who have, through falsehood and deceit, been drawn into their snares, are through fear of the execution of said penalties on their persons, prevented from divulging their secret plans and depredations; the prophet mayor, therefore, grants and ensures protection against all personal violence to each and every citizen of the holy city, who will freely and voluntarily come forward and truly make known the names of all such abominable characters. The invitation will doubtless be generally responded to by the pious Nauvooans. -- St. Louis Repub.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, June 14, 1843.                                   No. 4??


NAUVOO. -- A writer in the St. Louis Gazette, who lately visited Nauvoo, says he was informed by the Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, that Nauvoo contained 16,000 souls. The Temple has advanced about 17 or 20 feet above ground, and will take several years to finish it. It is estimated to cost from $300,000 to $400,000. The Nauvoo House, a splendid building intended for a hotel, is in progress of erection.

Seventy Mormons with their teams and traps passed through Cleveland on Saturday morning.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, July 15, 1843.                                   No. 4??


JO SMITH. -- It is stated in the St. Louis Republican of the 31st ult., that this notorious impostor has been arrested and committed to jail in Ottowa, Illinois, about 200 miles above St. Louis; and further, that as soon as the news reached Nauvoo, the Mormons chartered a steamboat and despatched 350 armed men to rescue him.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, July 20, 1843.                                   No. 452.


From the Springfield (Ill.) State Register, July 7.

JO SMITH. -- More of the late arrest. -- Our city was visited this week by the agent of Missouri and his counsel, and also by Mr. Walker, counsel of Joseph Smith. An application has been made to Gov. Ford for a military force to retake Smith, which, we learn, is now under consideration. We proceed to give the facts, as we have learned them. of the proceedings under the arrest thus far:

Joseph Reynolds, the agent of Missouri, after leaving this place, with a writ, proceeded to Nauvoo, to arrest Smith. On his arrival he ascertained that Smith was at Dixon, in Lee county. Reynolds, in company with a constable of Hancock, proceeded to Lee, and arrested Smith at Palestine Grove, near Dixon. All in company then returned to Dixon. Cyrus Walker (the Whig candidate for Congress) was at Grand du Tour, only six miles off, and was immediately retained by Smith. Under the management of Walker as his lawyer, Smith sued out a capias against Reynolds and the constable for damages in arresting him, and they were immediately arrested by the Sheriff of Lee county.

Smith, Reynolds, and the constable, all obtained writs of habeas corpus, and proceeded towards Quincy for the purpose of having a trial before Judge Young: Smith being in the custody of Reynolds, and Reynolds and the constable being in the custody of the sheriff of Lee county.

They all proceeded towards Quincy together, Smith being attended by his counsel, Cyrus Walker, who broke all his appointments in the district, where he was to have addressed the people; and Reynolds was attended by his counsel, Mr. Mason, of Dixon.

The whole party made some stop at Nauvoo, where the Missouri agent says he was forced to go against his will. Smith and Walker then sued out a writ of habeas corpus from the Municipal Court of Nauvoo. The case of Smith, was brought before that court, which, after hearing a very able speech from Mr. Walker three hours long, and very loud in favor of Smith, that Court discharged him from imprisonment. Thus the matter now stands, The Executive of Illinois has so far performed the duty required by the Constitution and laws, and he will doubtless persevere in that course without deviation.

Note: Smith's charges against Mr. Reynolds and Constable Wilson, for "damages in arresting him," may have something to do with Smith's disgrace and dishevelment in being chased and caught by the two men -- see Thomas Gregg's telling of the story in his 1890 book, The Prophet of Palmyra.


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, July 26, 1843.                                   No. 457.


MORMONISM, MARGARET BISHOPISM, &c. -- It has been the practice of some of our clergymen, laterly, to take turns in preaching from the Custom House steps, on Saturday evenings, to such congregations as have no house made "with hands." -- On the last occasion, we understand, this commendable practice was rendered somewhat abortive by the running of opposition lines, by an unshaved disciple of Joe Smith's, on the one part, and Margaret Bishop, a feminine yet stalwart apostle of some new-light... retiring to her perch, she soon drew the Mormon's hearers to herself, and belabored the latter day saints in a perfect broomstick volley of oratory, that soon drove him from the field...

Note: (forthcoming)


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, September 2, 1843.                                   No. 490.


PRISPECT OF ANOTHER MORMON WAR. -- The St. Louis New Era, of the 16th inst., says:

"We learn from a gentleman from Warsaw, that a meeting of the people of Hancock county to be held at Carthage, was called for to-day, to take into consideration their relations with the Mormons. It is said that a good deal of excitement exists against them, apprehensions of a serious riot and outbreak was entertained. The people of that section of the State are as heartily tired of the Mormons as ever the citizens of Missouri were, but they have suffered them to obtain so strong a foothold that no power exists which can deprive them of their possessions, or induce them to abandon their present residence."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol II.                                   Buffalo, September 19, 1843.                                   No. 504.


THE MORMONS. -- Joe Smith's new batch of parsons are traversing the whole state. It seems they are not altogether unsuccessful in their Missionary labors. Recently at Bunkum, a small place on the road to Danville, three of these preachers persuaded as many females to leave their liege lords and go with them to that city of delights and terrestrial paradise, the holy city of Nauvoo. What arguments the pious fathers made use of we have not ascertained, nor whether their success were owing to personal attractions -- a fine head of hair, a handsome hand, &c., matters which have been to the full as effective with the ladies in the pulpit as out of it. The husbands of the three Bunkham ladies were respectively a landlord, a tailor and a blacksmith. The son of Vulcan swore lustily that he would overhaul the saints and give them a sound drubbing. From what we hear we conclude that the others were but too glad to get rid of those who should have been but were not their better halves. -- Chicago Express.

Note: The above has some of the earmarks of a "twice-told tale," but, considering the courtship with a married woman and associated events which led to the demise of Apostle Parley P. Pratt, some years later, there may be a grain of truth in this "three missionaries" story.


Vol ?                               Buffalo, May 24, 1844.                               No. ?


John E. Page, a Mormon elder, of Pittsburgh, after blowing up, in a letter to an editor, "scoundrels and blackguards" who address letters to him without signature and unpaid, says: "There is two things I know. 1st, I know that the faith of the Latter Day Saints is of the true God, and will eventually fill the earth with knowledge of God. 2d, I know the devil is mad about it, and I shall not try to please him." This is decidedly the best thing we have seen from any follower of the idiot creed.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, June 5, 1844.                                   No. 713.


SCHISM AMONG THE MORMONS. -- The last Warsaw Signal states that a rupture has taken place among the Mormons -- a respectable number of the most intelligent members of that body having seceeded, under the guidance of William Law, and set up for themselves. It does not appear that the religious views of the seceders have undergone any material change. They profess to believe that Joseph Smith was once a true prophet; but contend that he has now fallen from grace, and no longer worhy to remain at the head of the Church. The above intelligence, in its most essential features, is confirmed by information through other sources.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, June 15, 1844.                                   No. 722.


THE MORMONS. -- One of the first things which arrests the eye, Mr. Editor, on approaching the "Mansion House" of General Joseph Smith, is a large sign board, on the left side of the door, on which in large characters is painted -- "Ancient Records" -- "Egyptian Mummies." What this singular announcement might chance to mean, I at first could not divine; and, although prepared to be amazed at nothing I might behold within the corporate limits of the New Jerusalem, and especially within the precincts of the Prophet's own abode, I must confess myself to have been not a little posed. My curiosity was still alive on the matter, when, after a conversation of some length with the Prophet, I casually alluded to what I had seen, and inquired its meaning. On this inquiry I was immediately conducted by mine host into an apartment opposite the public parlor, in which we found several females variously engaged. Two of these were young and had some pretensions to personal comeliness -- or at least to gracefulness of figure; while, to another, who seemed well stricken in years, I was presented, as the Prophet's mother. A single syllable touching "the antiquities" started off the old lady in a strain of volubility quite marvelous to hear from one so old. -- This, with her was plainly a favorite topic, if it was not the only one on which she had expended time or thought, or either had an opinion, or could express one. Throwing open the doors of a piece of furniture somewhat like a Press, or Wardrobe, which stood in a corner of the room, what should I behold but the blackened and ghastly relics of four Egyptian Mummies, from which emanated that aroma peculiar to embalmment, but which is hardly so agreeable as the frankincense and the myrrh, and all manner of secret drugs, through the agency of which, the process which rendered "mortality immortal," was performed. There they stood -- the dry and shriveled tabernacles of those, who, perhaps four thousand years ago walked about on the sands of Egypt -- dwellers of the ancient cities of the Nile! Two of these are quite perfect in the preservation they have retained; the other two are badly mutilated. One has the skull fractured, and the other has a portion of the chest torn away. The cause of these injuries was this: The remains were sent to an illiterate man in New York city by a relative who was a soldier in the East. On receiving the box, the consignee thought he should be compensated by its contents, at least for the charges he had paid; but on opening it, and finding nothing but the shriveled and blackened carcases of human beings, he was so enraged, that, in his wrath, he would have utterly demolished them from head to heel, had not his violence been arrested by one who better understood their value. How they fell into the hands of the Mormon Prophet, or how they reached their present location, I do not well know. I think, however, that they were sent to the erudite author of the Book of Mormon, in order that he might translate the hieroglyphics on the bundles of papyri which were found, as [usual], to accompany the mummies. And translate them, he verily did! At all events, his venerable old mother -- poor woman -- exhibits half a dozen sheets of papyri, and from a large octavo, of which her [prophet] son is author, reads an interpretation, so called, of the mysterious hieroglyphics, which those ancient records are declared to contain! Important and highly interesting incidents in the lives of Patriarchs of Israel and the monarchs of Hebrew History are read from these "Egyptian records" -- the absurdity of such chronicles being deposited with the Pharaohs for safe keeping, never seeming to have occurred to any concerned. -- Of course all this is an imposture of the rankest kind; but there is no Champollion, or Denon among the Mormons of Nauvoo to convict their Prophet of fraud, and this wild and ridiculous tale has its thousands of undoubting believers!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, June 21, 1844.                               No. 3007.


==> The Warsaw (Illinois) Signal states that the U. S. Marshal had succeeded in arresting Jeremiah Smith, at Nauvoo, and had priceeded with him down the river. Joe showed fight at first, but afterwards concluded that discretion was the better part of valor. Had Joe persisted, the military would have been called on to enforce the law.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, June 24, 1844.                               No. 3009.


AFFAIRS AT NAUVOO. -- We have information a few hours later from the Mormon country in Illinois. Great excitement was produced at Warsaw by the news of the destruction of the office of the "Nauvoo Expositor," and a handbill was issued inviting an appeal to arms. At a later hour, writs were procured at Carthage, the county seat of Hancock county, and officers despatched to Nauvoo to arrest the persons concerned in the outrage. But this, remarks the St. Louis Republican, we venture to say, will not be done. A rumor prevailed at Warsaw that Joe Smith was arresting every man at Nauvoo, who was opposed to, or would not justify his proceedings.

The Expositor was a Mormon paper, but not friendly to Joe Smith, and so vigorously did it carry on the war against the arch impostor, that, on the 10th inst. the City Council, which is completely under Joe's influence, declared the Expositor a nuisance, and the City Marshal, at the head of the police in the evening, took the press, materials and paper into the street and burned them. Nothing can be more anomalous than the power exercised by the Mormon leaders at Nauvoo. The Legislature of Illinois by the act incorporating the city of Nauvoo, have conferred upon Joe Smith and his coadjutors powers which of right only appertain to a sovereign state, and we confess to the ultimate result. These powers are wielded with express reference to the protection and advancement of the Mormon imposture, and cannot fail ere long to come in direct and violent conflict with those laws and institutions under which other citizens live. -- Joe Smith, ignorant as he is, has unbounded ambition. He exercises supreme control over his deluded followers, and has already succeeded in gathering more to his standard than Mahomet did in a like number of years. He boasts that he can control more than five thousand votes, and the boast is probably true. It is certain that he holds in his hands the balance of political power in Illinois -- This fact gives him impunity. He brooks no opposition nor questioning of his pretensions, and any one hardy enough to attempt either, as we have seen. is not safe in person or property. If the authorities of Illinois have the slightest regard for the welfare of their state, they will immediately revoke the charter conferring the extraordinary privileges enjoyed by the Mormons, and place them upon the same footing as other citizens.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, June 25, 1844.                                   No. 730.


TROUBLE AT NAUVOO. -- It seems that a portion of Joe Smith's followers have rebelled against his authority, and have established a paper called the "Nauvoo Expositor," the first number of which commenced a series of essays to prove that the Prophet was guilty of all the most heinous crimes in the calendar. We learn from the Cincinnati Commercial that on the 10th inst., this paper was declared by the authorities of the city a nuisance, and the city marshal, at the head of the police, in the evening took the press, materials, and paper into the street and burnt them.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, June 26, 1844.                               No. 3011.

Correspondence of the Missouri Republican.

                                              Warsaw, (Ill.,) June 13 - 8 A. M.
After the destruction of the printing office in Nauvoo, threats of summary vengeance were also made against the office of the Signal, in this place, and the life of its editor was to pay the forfeit of his publishing any thing farther concerning the Mormons or Joe Smith. During the evening of Tuesday last, and after this news had been received, a meeting of the citizens was called to take measures of self-defence; and after considerable discussion, the meeting adjourned until yesterday at 2 o'clock. -- At the hour appointed, a large number of citizens met, and a preamble and resolutions were passed, setting forth the grievances of the old citizens of the county, and resolving to arm themselves forthwith, and commence a course which will result in the riddance of the county of the Mormons, even to their utter extermination, if other means fail. Co-operation of the counties adjoining is also asked to aid in carrying out the objects of the meeting. A committee of vigilance was appointed for the purpose of ordering out of the township all the Mormons who still adhere to Joe Smith, and of inspecting all persons who may be suspected of acting as his spies.

While I write, this resolution is being carried into effect with regard to some of the most obnoxious Mormons in the town, and a number of suspicious individuals have been ordered to leave. Although this may appear to persons at a distance a harsh proceeding, yet here it is rendered absolutely necessary; for, with the threats that have been made, both against the lives and property of the citizens, and with a large body of Mormons in our midst, who make the implicit obedience of Joe's commands part of their religion, no other course could possibly have been adopted that would have secured us against the midnight torch and the unerring rifle of these Latter Day Saints.

Today, Capt. Glover, of the Warsaw Cadets, leaves for Quincy, for the purpose of getting a stand of arms now out of use in that city; and when he returns, every citizen who is capable of bearing arms, will enroll himself.

A county convention is to be held today at Carthage, for the purpose of having concert of action throughout the county. I shall advise you of its doings as soon as made public.

Whatever may be the result of these proceedings, a few days will determine; but of one thing you may rest assured, the Mormons will be compelled to leave, if strong arms and still stronger determinations can effect that object; and the old citizens of the county are as willing that it should commence now as at any other time.

As for the Mormons at Nauvoo, they seem as equally bent upon destruction; they appear mad, and evince no spirit of concession or conciliation, but wildly rush on from one act of aggression to another, until the law-abiding citizens of the county are lost in amazement at their daring acts of villainy.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, June 29, 1844.                                   No. 733.


MORMON DIFFICULTIES. -- We learn from the Warsaw (Illinois) Signal that the greatest excitement prevails among the People in that vicinity, in consequence of the recent destruction of the Press of the Nauvoo Expositor -- a paper got up in the Holy City by some of the seceding saints -- and of threats to destroy the Signal and take the life of its Editor, Mr. Sharp. From the latest accounts, which are to the 13th, it is not improbable that ere this, blood has been shed. It seems that writs were issued at Carthage and officers despatched to Nauvoo to arrest the perpetrators of the outrage. In the mean time an ordinance was passed by the Nauvoo City Council declaring "that if any officer or officers should attempt to arrest any person engaged in the destruction of the Expositor press and take him out of Nauvoo for trial, he should be imprisoned."

This greatly exasperated the people and at a large meeting held at Warsaw, they passed resolutions to the effect that the time had arrived when the law had ceased to be a protection to life or property and that to seek redress in the ordinary mode would be utterly ineffectual -- they therefore would take the law in their own hands and exterminate the Mormons if necessary to their security.

A Committee of five were appointed forthwith to notify all Mormons to leave the town immediately on pain of instant vengeance. The following are among the resolutions passed by the meeting:

Resolved, That the time, in our opinion, has arrived, when the adherents of Smith as a body should be driven from the surrounding settlements into Nauvoo. That the prophet and his miscreant adherents should then be demanded at their hands, and if not surrendered, a war of extermination should be waged to their entire destruction, if necessary for our protection, of his adherents.

Resolved, that every citizen arm himself, to be prepared to sustain the resolutions herein contained.

Additional to the above, we learn that the Capt. of the Warsaw Cadets left Quincy on Wednesday, to procure a stand of arms now at that City, which arms were to be placed in the hands of the citizens of Warsaw.

This looks quite warlike.

P. S. The St. Louis Republican of a meeting at Carthage, Ill., on the 13th, which we shall allude to to-morrow.

FRIDAY, June 14, 8 o'clock, P. M. -- We are informed by gentlemen direct from Carthage that the citizens are ordered to assemble at their various places of rendezvous, on Wednesday.

A gentleman from Nauvoo, who arrived in Carthage to-day, reports that about 200 persons, including nearly all Joe's enemies in Nauvoo, have left the city, with their moveables -- being in fear of their lives.

Preparations are making throughout the country for the coming contest.

The Hiberian brings information to St. Louis that the people, who are rapidly concentrating for that purpose, would move to an attack upon Nauvoo on Wednesday next. A patrol was kept at Warsaw, and all suspicious persons arrested.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, June 29, 1844.                               No. 3014.


MORE FROM THE MORMONS. -- Our latest advices from the Mormon region were to the effect that on the 13th inst. the citizens of Hancock county, assembled in mass meeting at Carthage, had resolved that the adherents of Joe Smith should be driven in a body from Nauvoo, that Joe should be demanded at their hands, and if not surrendered a war of extermination should be waged against them. The formal adoption of such resolutions by a large meeting shows the intensity of popular feeling, and by the St. Louis Republican we learn that the citizens of Hancock co., had been ordered to assemble at their various places of rendezvous, on Wednesday the 19th.

A gentleman from Nauvoo, who arrived in Carthage on the 14th, reports that about 200 persons, including nearly all Joe's enemies in Nauvoo, have left the city, with their moveables -- being in fear of their lives.

Preparations are making throughout the country, for the coming contest.

The Hibernian says the Republican, brings information, that the people, who are rapidly concentrating for that purpose, would move to an attack upon Nauvoo on the 19th. A patrol was kept at Warsaw, and all suspicious persons arrested.

This is a sad state of things to record of any portion of our country.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 1, 1844.                                   No. 734.


The Editor of the Expositor speaks of the Prophet Joe Smith, as follows: --

* * * "A man notorious for villainy -- a man, whose crimes are too dark to be recorded, whose character is stained with deeds that would blacken the bottomless pit. We mean all we say, in relation to this monster. Facts have recently been developed which fully substantiate the position. -- It is a fact too well known to be disputed or denied, that Joe did employ Rockwell and others to shoot ex-Governor Boggs, of Missouri, and by J. H. Jackson's statement, tried to hire him to go to Missouri and rescue Rockwell and perpetrate the same diabolical deed, if he had an opportunity. -- Dr. R. D. Foster has made affidavit, also, which is now on file, that he offered him $300 to pay his expenses in going to Missouri and shooting Boggs, stating, it was the will of God, and must be done and would reward him handsomely.

It is a lamentable fact, that he has ensnared scores of credulous and superstitious females (both married and single,) in his seductive met, under pretence of Divine authority, thereby involving families and individuals in disgrace and infamy; and after gratifying his most hellish lust, has, to clear himself, thrown down the lie upon them, adding the blackest insult to the foulest injury.

It is a fact, generally known, that he has been prominently engaged in the manufacture of bogus money and counterfeiting.

It is a fact, he now stands indicted before the Hancock Circuit Court, for perjury, fornication and adultery.

It is a fact that he has used his office and assumed power of the city Charter, in protecting and shielding fugitives from justice, charged with high misdemeanors.

It is a fact that he lives upon the spoils of his dupes in splendor, while thousands are in a state of starvation. And last, though not least, it is an act that has capped the climax of his outrages by authorizing the destruction of a public press. Not satisfied with personal injury, he resorts to open contempt and violation of one of the most sacred features of American institutions -- the liberty of the Press.

We repeat it, history affords no parallel to the iniquities and enormities of this tyrant who, dressed in a little brief authority perpetrates deeds at which Heaven weeps and human nature falls back ashamed of her own depravity."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, July 3, 1844.                               No. 3017.


FROM THE MORMONS. -- An extra Warsaw Signal dated the 18th ult. states that newspapers have been despatched to Gov. Tod [sic, Ford?] acquainting him with the movements both at Nauvoo and Warsaw. If they fail to procure his interference, a general rally, as a posse, is to be made forthwith. The inhabitants of Warsaw appear to count with confidence on the assistance of their neighbors in Iowa and Missouri.

LATER. -- St. Louis dates of the 25th ult. inform us that Gov. Tod had arrived at Carthage approved of present operations to further which he had ordered out 2,500 men.

Joe Smith had about 2,300 men under arms on the 20th and was ready for defensive operations. -- At Warsaw and Carthage 3,000 men were under arms to enforce the service of the writs and an additional force of 1,000 men was looked for.

Joe, in a proclamation, justifies the course of his people in destroying the Expositor press, on the ground that the conductors were a set of blacklegs, counterfeitors and debauchees and that it was their duty to rid themselves of such characters.

It is supposed that by this time active operations have commenced. -- Albany Daily Advertiser.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 4, 1844.                                   No. 737.


We have received little farther direct information from Nauvoo since Saturday. A correspondent of the St. Louis Republican writes thus:

                                  Warsaw, June 16, P. M.
"Nothing of any importance has transpired since my last, in relation to the Mormon difficulties. -- Yesterday the constable of this township summoned the entire force of the township to hold themselves in readiness to assist the officers who have the writs for the capture of the Mormons engaged in the destruction of the printing office. They will rendezvous here to-morrow (Monday) for the purpose of drill, and will be joined by the posse of two townships below this -- part of the force will be armed with muskets and part with their own trusty rifles; they will probably move to Carthage on Tuesday or Wednesday to co-operate with the balance of the County.

We have no intercourse at all with Nauvoo at present, but learn that numbers of the Mormons are leaving; an ordinance has been passed by the City Council preventing persons from going out of the city, by which means several merchants who designed leaving, have been prevented."

The St. Louis New Era of the 20th says:

The steamer Osprey arrived to-day from the upper Mississippi. She left Nauvoo yesterday. -- Things in the Holy City were pretty much the same condition as previously reported. We are informed by the officers of the boat that martial law was proclaimed by the city council on last sunday, and that since then the Mormon legion has been under arms, patrolling the streets night and day; another edict has also been issued by the same body prohibiting any one from leaving the city under a severe penalty.

Several Mormons arrived here to-day from Nauvoo; Sidney Rigdon, the Prophet's principal advisor, was of the number. He is on his way to Pittsburg, in the vicinity of which he has been ordered to reside, in pursuance of one of Jo Smith's convenient revelations.

The steamer Di Vernon took from St. Louis to the Mormon country a liberal supply of arms and ammunition on Monday last.

As one of the curiosities of the day, the St. Louis Republican publishes an official copy of the resolution adopted by the Council declaring the "Expositor" a nuisance, and the orders consequent thereon. The Nauvoo Neighbor gives a long and particular history of the investigation had before the Council, concerning the Expositor, and the character and conduct of the owners and publishers. Mayor Smith figures largely in the proceedings. His statements are sworn to -- and upon his suggestion the Council declare the establishment a nuisance. It is apparent from this investigation, if the statements are true, that the morality of the high men of the church is very questionable, and chastity rather an obsolete idea, at least in practice. The principal charges against the Laws, Dr. Foster and their associates, are seductions and debaucheries, all of which appear to be of old standing, and long known in the Church. We strongly suspect (says the Republican) that the Mormons concerned in getting up and publishing the Expositor, in character and honesty, are about on a par with the Mormons opposed to them.

The Proclamation of Joe, embraced in the documents alluded to by the Republican, is a paper of a very stringent character. The concluding portion of it reads as follows:

"Our city is infested with a set of blacklegs, counterfeiters and debauchees, and that the proprietors of this press were of that class, the minutes of the Municipal Court fully testify, and in ridding our young and flourishing city of such characters we are abused by not only villainous demagogues, but by some who, from their station and influence in society, ought rather to raise than repress the standard of human excellence. We have no disturbance or excitement among us, save what is made by the thousand and one idle rumors afloat in the country. Everyone is protected in his person and property, and but few cities of a population of twenty thousand people, in the United States, hath less of dissipation or vice of any kind than the city of Nauvoo.

Of the correctness of our conduct in this affair, we appeal to every high court in the State, and to its ordeal we are willing to appear at any time that His Excellency, Governor Ford, shall please call us before it. I. therefore, in behalf of the Municipal Court of Nauvoo, warn the lawless not to be precipitate in any interference in our affairs, for as sure as there is a God in Israel, we shall ride triumphant over all oppressions.
                                        JOSEPH SMITH, Mayor."

We yesterday received a number of "The Nauvoo Expositor," the paper which was denounced as a nuisance. It is quite the most intelligent and respectable printed affair that has emanated from the 'Holy City.'

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 8, 1844.                                   No. 739.


Intelligence was received last evening by the Steamboat Harrison, Capt. Atwood, of the death of Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, and his brother Hyram. The particulars as near as we could learn were these. Joe Smith and his brother Hyram, having been charged with various crimes and indicted, were arrested, taken to Carthage and committed to jail to await their trial. An attempt at rescue having been threatened, was expected, and a strong guard placed round the jail to prevent it. The Mormons gathered in force to effect the release of their leaders, marched to Carthage, and made an attack upon the guard. The latter finding themselves too weak to defend their charge and beat off their opponents, and bring withal wrought up to the highest pitch of exasperation, entered the jail and shot both the Prophet and his brother as the only means of preventing their escape. The Prophet was pierced with four balls, and killed instantly, as also was his brother.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol X.                               Buffalo, July 8, 1844.                               No. 3020.

Arrest and Death of the Prophet.

We have by the last mails from the west, startling news from the Mormon country. At the date of our last previous advices, it was evident that a crisis was approaching, and this morning we have the consummation. The destruction of the Expositor Press and other high-handed measures of the Mormons rendered it necessary effectually to assert and vindicate the laws of the State, or concede to the Mormons full and absolute sovereignty within the limits of their territory. Gov. Ford appears to have met the emergency with much decision and energy. He repaired to Carthage and opened a correspondence with the authorities of Nauvoo, and informed them that they must submit to the State laws in all respects, and in the particular case of outrage in destroying the Expositor press, they must permit an arrest of the accused persons. A constable was sent to arrest them, but they could not be found. Gov. Ford then sent word to Smith that unless the accused were delivered up, he would maje a search with the military for them. Gov. Ford also demanded the State Arms deposited at Nauvoo, and took command of all the militia and volunteers assembled to bring the Mormons to terms.

On the evening of the 23d ult., four of the accused came into Carthage, and surrendered themselves. A request was then made for an escort for Smith which was refused. The next morning Capt. Dunn, who, with his troops, was despatched to Nauvoo to demand the artillery and public arms there, met Smith about four miles out on the prairie, going to Carthage. He surrendered himself, and endorsed the order for the arms. About midnight, together with his council, he arrived at Carthage, where the excitement against him was very great. A crowd collected around the house where he was quartered, but dispersed on the assurances of Gov. Ford, that they should see Smith the next day. In the morning Joe and his brother Hiram were passed in review before the troops. -- After the review, the Carthage Greys marched to the house where Smith was staying, and raised such shouts and groans that it is stated Jo fainted. The farther scenes in this tragedy are thus related:

From the Quincy Herald.


                    Friday Morning -- 3 o'clock.
The steamer Boreas just in from Warsaw, brings shocking intelligence from the scene of the Mormon war. The following slip from the Warsaw Signal explains the dreadful tragedy:

"Joe and Hiram Smith are dead -- shot this afternoon. An attack from the Mormons is expected every hour. Will not the surrounding counties rush instantly to our rescue?
                                  Warsaw, June 27."

It seems that the circumstances attending the killing of the Mormon Prophet and his brother Hiram are as follows: Yesterday, Gov. Ford left Carthage with about 120 soldiers, for the purpose of taking possession of the "Nauvoo Legion" and their arms. They arrived at Nauvoo about noon, and called for the assembling of the Legion.

About 2000 men with arms immediately responded to its call. These troops were put under the command of Col. Singleton, of Brown county, who accompanied Gov. Ford to Nauvoo.

The Governor, finding all quiet, left Nauvoo about 5 o'clock, P. M. with a company of 60 men for the purpose of encamping about seven miles from the city.

At about the same time that Governor Ford left Nauvoo, the Prophet and his brother were killed at Carthage, under the following circumstances, as near as we can ascertain them:

Joe and Hiram were both confined in the debtor's room of the Carthage jail, awaiting their trial on a charge of treason. The jail was strongly guarded by soldiers and anti-mormons who had been placed there by the Governor.

A Mormon attempted to rush by the guard for the purpose of forcing his way into jail. He was opposed by the guard, and fired a pistol at one of the guard, giving him a slight wound.

A general confusion ensued in the crowd around the jail. Joe and his Mormon fellow prisoners it seems had provided themselves with pistols, and commenced firing upon the guard within. He then attempted to escape from the window, when a hundred balls entered his body, and he fell a lifeless corpse.

His brother Hiram shared the same fate. Richards, a leading Mormon, was badly wounded. There our intelligence ends -- what took place after this, God only knows. Mormons immediately left for Nauvoo to carry the news of the death of the Prophet. It is feared that the Mormons at Nauvoo will be so exasperated as to exterminate the governor and his small force.

The Boreas brought down most of the women and children from Warsaw. It is feared their town is in the ashes before this.

Our citizens were aroused this morning by the ringing of bells and a call to arms. Our three independent companies are already in marching order. Major Flood has ordered out the militia of the regiment, and the steamer Boreas is waiting to convey them to the scene of action.

There is no knowing where this dreadful affair will end. Many have expressed fears that our city is in danger, because most of the Warsaw families have taken refuge here -- but we believe there is no danger, we are too far from the scene of action.

Messengers have just left for Hannibal and the towns below for the purpose of arousing the Missourians. The excitement in our city is intense and the anxiety to hear the fate of Gov. Ford and his men is very great.

There seems no room to doubt the correctness of this account, and we shall look for farther details with much anxiety. The position of Gov. Ford is perilous in the extreme, and we should not be surprised to hear that the Mormons in their desperation and under the influence of highly exasperated feelings, had taken a terrible revenge. The death of Smith is much to be deplored. We have no doubt he was a great villain, stained with every vice, but he wielded a mighty influence over his deluded followers, and it was every way desirable that his villainies, frauds and impostures should be calmly investigated and fully made known to the world by judicial process. He would then be proved a humbug, and some hopes might reasonably be entertained that the enormous delusion and infatuation under which his followers labor, would be dissipated. We now fear that such a result is far distant. The man who, while living was a humbug and a sham, now that he has died a bloody death, will become a reality in the hearts of thousands, and will be honored as a martyr. No founder of a religious sect ever met with greater success in the same space of time. That a man like Jo Smith, ignorant and comparatively unlettered, should be in these times, in these United States, in the face of our boasted diffusion of moral and intellectual light, among a people so eminently practical, shrewd and worldly as our own, and in spite of a universal press, have successfully propagated a delusion so gross as that of Mormonism, is one of the great moral phenomena of the age. The fact should somewhat humble that tone of pitying superiority with which we are accustomed to speak of similar delusions of past, and, as we style them, dark ages. The rise, progress and fall of Mormonism will afford an instructive chapter to some future historian and moral philosopher.

There is a political bearing in the events above related, which cannot yet, in the absence of more full information, be precisely estimated; but it is by no means unlikely they will essentially affect the vote of Illinois.

Later Intelligence.

The following, says the Cincinnati Chronicle, is derived from a person who was at Carthage at the time of the slaughter. It will be seen that it places the affair in a different light.

Jo and Hiram Smith were confined in the debtor's apartment of the Carthage Jail, and had been guarded by 50 or 60 soldiers, but all being quiet, the Governor, previous to going to Nauvoo, dismissed all except 8 or 10 of the guard.

There was no attempt made by any of the Mormons to rescue the prisoners, nor did Jo or his brother use or have any arms. The mob, consisting of sixty men all disguised, rushed in through the guard, and first fired through the door of the jail, wounding Jo, as is supposed, through the leg; whereupon he and his brother rushed for the window, and were in the act of jumping out, when Jo received three balls thro' his body, and fell out of the window upon the ground, when one of the mob immediately stabbed him two or three times with a sword. Hiram, who fell inside of the building, received twelve or fifteen balls through his body.

Jo's body was taken to Nauvoo. The Mormons were exasperated, but were kept back in subjection by the leaders, and more particularly by Jo's mother, who seemed to have the most influence.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 11, 1844.                                   No. 742.


==> A letter from on board the steamer Boreas, the Louisville Journal dated June 27, gives still another and probably more accurate account of the killing of Joe and Hyrum Smith. We insert it:

"Yesterday, the 26th, Gov. Ford having prevailed upon Joseph Smith and several other principal Mormons, to resign them into the hands of the officers of justice at Carthage to be tried by due process of law, five, and I believe only five, viz. Joseph and Hyrum, a Doctor Richards, and two others, were incarcerated in the Hancock county jail, and guarded by the Governor's troops, until this morning, when Gov. Ford discharged the troops, except sixty already stationed at Nauvoo, to detect and annihilate the bogus factory, leaving the prisoners in the safe and efficient keeping of seven of the Carthage Greys. Shortly after disbanding the McDonough troops, and the Governor's departure for Nauvoo, a large body of militia, say two hundred, resolved to wait on the prisoners in their room. Here was the beginning of the trouble.

"The faithful Greys could not consistently admit visitors to prisoners excused of treason and other felonies. The militia took efficient means to convince the guard of their impotence, and the opposing forces joined issue. At a charge of the militia the Greys fired, evincing a valor not surpassed nor even equaled by the renowned heroes of Thermopylae. Here two hundred men were incompetent to intimidate these valorous seven, who, true to their trust, discharged their pieces with deadly aim. The militia soon ascertained, either by roll-call or particular inspection and inquiry, that none were either killed or wounded, and bethinking themselves that cartridge paper without ball therein as harmless, the militia formed seven parties of seven men each, and thus arranged, each division seized one of the guard, and thus the [valpourous] seven were overcome; and yet a few militia, say 150, were at leisure to enter and pay their respects to the prisoners. The door was forced, and Joe shot the foremost, named Willis through the wrist.

A general melee ensued in which pistols spoke eloquently and forcibly. Five of the militia were wounded, though slightly. Joe Smith, endeavoring to escape, precipitated himself from the window, receiving while between heaven and earth, some half a dozen shots, and five thereafter, Hyrum, I am told, and three others were killed within the prison. This tragedy was enacted between four and five this afternoon, and I heard the announcement of the courier in Warsaw at eight.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 13, 1844.                                   No. 744.


MORE MORMON NEWS. From passengers and officers of the steamboat Dove, we learn that on yesterday a messenger from Governor Ford arrived at Rushville, calling on the militia to march speedily to Carthage to resist an attack apprehended from the Mormons. He stated that about 4 o'clock on the 27th, a mob of two hundred men armed, painted, and disguised, came to Carthage, demanded the key of the jail and took out Joe Smith, Hyrum Smith, and Wm. Richards, and shot them forthwith. They were fearful that the Mormons would retaliate this murder, by burning Carthage and Warsaw. Several hundred of the militia were about to march for Schuyler county when the Dove left. The Governor's message arrived at Rushville about 1twelve o'clock. Those who came down on the boat consider this news as authentic. If true, it is both alarming and disgraceful. It was cruel and cowardly to murder the unarmed prisoners when they had surrendered themselves, and were in the custody of the laws; the word of the Governor and the faith of the State were pledged to protect them from mobs, and to procure them a fair trial.

From the Cleveland Herald.

L A T E R.

The editor of the St. Louis Republican writes from Quincy, the 30th ult., that Gov. Ford had arrived there, and established his head quarters. -- He removed to Quincy in consequence of want of confidence in the people in the immediate vicinity of the excitement, being afraid to trust either the troops or the citizens around Carthage or Warsaw. The Governor deputed a commission of two persons to visit Nauvoo, to enquire particularly into the situation of the Mormons, and to give them such instructions or orders as they may deem necessary. The same commission is authorized to disband the troops at Warsaw and Carthage, if thought advisable.

At Warsaw, Mr. Jones one of the Commissioners made a speech, in which he assured the people of the Governor's intention, at all hazards, to prevent further aggression on either side. The speech was well received.

Gov. Ford had issued an address to the people of Illinois, of which the following is a part:

On the morning of the day the deed was committed, we had proposed to march the army under my command into Nauvoo. I had, however, discovered the evening before, that nothing but utter destruction of the city would satisfy a portion of the troops; and that if we marched into the city, pretexts would not be wanting for commencing hostilities. The Mormons had done everything required or which ought to have been required of them. Offensive operations on our part would have been impolitic, in the present critical season of the year, the harvest, and the crops. For these reasons I decided, in a council of officers, to disband the army, except three companies, two of which were reserved as a guard for the jail. With the other company I marched into Nauvoo, to address the inhabitants there, and tell them what they might expect in case they designedly or imprudently provoked a war. I performed this duty, as I think plainly and emphatically, and then set out to return to Carthage. I hastened on to that place. The guard, it is said, did their duty, but were overpowered. Many of the inhabitants of Carthage had fled with their families. I apprehended danger to the settlements from the sudden fury and passion of the Mormons, and sanctioned the movement.

General Deming volunteered to remain with a few troops, to observe the progress of events, to defend property against small numbers, and with orders to retreat if menaced by a superior force. I decided to proceed immediately to Quincy, to prepare a force sufficient to suppress disorders, in case it should ensue from the foregoing transactions or from any other cause. I have hopes that the Mormons will make no further difficulties. In this I may be mistaken. The other party may not be satisfied. They may recommence aggression. I am determined to preserve the peace against all breakers of the same, at all hazards. I think present circumstances warrant the precautions, of having a competent force at my disposal, in readiness to march at a moment's warning. My position at Quincy will enable me to get the earliest intelligence, and to communicate orders with greater celerity.

I have decided to issue the following general orders:-

                    Head Quarters,
                    Quincy, June 29, 1844.
It is ordered that the commandants of regiment[s] in the counties of Adams. Marquette, Pike, Brown, Schuyler, Morgan, Scott, Cass, Fulton, and M'Donough, and the Regiments composing General Stapp's Brigade, will call their respective Regiments and Battalions together immediately upon the receipt of this order, and proceed by voluntary enlistment to enrol as many men, as can be armed in their respective regiments. They will make arrangements for a campaign of twelve days and provide themselves with arms, ammunition, and provisions accordingly, and hold themselves in readiness immediately to march upon the receipt of farther orders.

The independent companies of Riflemen, Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery in the above-named counties, and in the county of Sangamon will hold themselves in readiness in like manner.
                              THOMAS FORD.
                    Governor and Commander in Chief.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 18, 1844.                                   No. 746.


We have news from Nauvoo as late as the 2d of July, at which time the neighborhood was orderly and quiet.

Messrs. Jonas and Fellows, deputation from Gov. Ford, returned to Quincy on the steamboat Osprey. The boat waited at Warsaw for these gentleman to address the people, where many evidences of excited feeling still prevail, the inhabitants seeming bent upon the point that either themselves or the Mormons must leave the country. -- The editors of the St. Louis Republican and Reveille left the Osprey at Quincy, to wait upon Gov. Ford, and to communicate with the committees from Warsaw.

The extra from the Mormon newspaper indulges in many lamentations for the death of the Prophet and his brother, and narrates how the deed was accomplished. The murder was committed about six o'clock in the evening, by an armed mob, of 150 to 200 men, painted red, black and yellow, who surrounded the jail, forced it, and poured a shower of bullets into the room where the men were confined. Each of the victims received four balls in his body, and John Taylor, editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, was shot in four places, but not seriously injured. About three o'clock the next day, the bodies of "the noble martyrs" were received at Nauvoo. They were met, the paper says --

"By a great assemblage of people, east of the Temple on Mulholland street, under the direction of the city marshal, followed by Samuel H. Smith, the brother of the deceased, Dr. Richards and Mr. Hamilton, of Carthage. The wagons were guarded by eight men. The procession that followed in Nauvoo, was the City Council, the Lieutenant General's Staff, the Major General and Staff, the Brigadier and Staff, commanders and officers of the Legion, and citizens generally, numbering about several thousands, amid the most solemn lamentations and wailings that ever ascended into the ears of the Lord of Hosts to be avenged of our enemies!

"When the procession arrived the bodies were both taken into the 'Nauvoo Mansion.' The scene at the Mansion cannot be described: the audience was addressed by Dr. Richards, Judge Phelps, Woods and Messrs. Wood and Reed of Iowa, and Col. Markham. It was a vast assemblage of some 8 or 10,000 persons, and with one united voice resolved to trust to the law for a remedy of such a high handed assassination, and when that failed to call upon God to avenge us of our wrongs,

"Thus perishes the hope of law; thus vanishes the plighted faith of the State; thus the blood of innocence stains the constituted authorities of the United States, and thus have two among the most noble martyrs since the slaughter of Abel, sealed the truth of their divine mission, by being shot, by a mob for their religion!

At a meeting of the city council, the following resolutions, among others, were adopted:

"Resolved, For the purpose of ensuring peace, and promoting the welfare of the county of Hancock, and surrounding country, that we will rightly sustain the laws and the Governor of the State, so long as they, and he, sustain us in all our constitutional rights.

"Resolved, secondly, That to carry the foregoing resolution into complete effect, inasmuch as the Governor has taken from us the public arms, that we solicit of him to do the same with all the rest of the public arms of the state.

"Resolved, thirdly, To further secure the peace, friendship and happiness of the people, and allay the excitement which now exists, we will reprobate private revenge on the assassinators of General Joseph Smith, and General Hiram Smith, by any of the Latter day Saints. That instead of "an appeal to arms," we appeal to the majesty of the law, and will be content with whatever judgment it shall award; and should the law fail, we leave the matter with God."

The public meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, the resolutions were responded to and a vote of thanks passed to the Governor's agents, Wood and Reid, the council for the Generals Smith, and Messrs. Chambers and Field, for their honorable course of coming to Nauvoo for facts, instead of spreading rumors concerning the Latter-Day Saints. They also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Conyers, Mayor and ex-Mayor of Quincy.

Capt. Anderson, of the Osprey, arrived at St. Louis on the 3d inst., states that he stopped his boat at Warsaw, whilst Mr. Janes, the State Commissioner, addressed the citizens of that place. -- He appealed to them to aid the Governor in his efforts to preserve the public peace, but no approving response was made. "On the contrary, one gentleman stepped from the crows and stated that the committee of citizens were in communication with the Governor on the subject, and that their determination was that either the Mormons must be compelled to quit the country, or they would." We trust that Gov. Ford will act decisively with the turbulent spirits at Warsaw. Their conduct, if correctly represented, is a disgrace to their town and to the State.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 22, 1844.                                   No. 749.


LATEST FROM THE MORMONS. -- We have news from Nauvoo to the 4th inst. Every thing remained quiet, although fears were still entertained of farther violence. Gov. Ford had taken the strongest measures to preserve the peace, and had written a letter in which he states that upon the first appearance of hostility on the part of the Mormons an exterminating force would be sent against them. It is said that Joe Smith, in his revelation left with his widow, has appointed his son, a lad of twelve years old, Prophet in his place. The Mormons were many of them leaving Nauvoo, and it is somewhat probable that their city will be eventually abandoned and the tribe removed entirely from the State. The Mormon difficulties have already run the State of Illinois in debt some $20,000, which in her present impoverished condition she will find it extremely difficult to pay.

Dr. Foster, one of the seceding Mormons, has rendered himself peculiarly obnoxious to the tribe; and, on his way down from Burlington to Quincy he narrowly escaped with his life. Should they capture him and kill him -- and they threaten loudly one event shall quickly follow the other -- the soldiery will be let loose upon them, and they will be slain by hundreds. Altogether it is a sad and melancholy business, and will leave a dark spot, side by side, with the records of the Philadelphia riots, in the history of these times. -- N. Y. Tribune.

THE WAR AT AN END. -- By the arrival of the Boreas, this morning, we learn that she passed Warsaw late night before last. All was quiet, the troops had been disbanded, and there were no persons under arms. At Quincy the excitement had subsided, and no signs of war or military preparations were to be seen. Gov. Ford was still at that place. What he was doing or what he intended to do no one, it seems, could tell. Foster, one of the publishers of the Expositor, was on a visit to his Excellency. He went to Nauvoo two or three days since on board the steamer Monona, for the purpose of seeing to some property which he is the owner of. During his stay there he was compelled to keep on board the boat, as the most bitter threats of personal violence were made by the Mormons against him. They told him in very plain terms that on the boat he was safe from harm, but should he attempt to set foot again upon the soil of the Holy City, that moment would be his last. He returned on board the Monona to Quincy for the purpose of obtaining an interview with the Governor, who, he said, had promised to assist him in settling his business at Nauvoo. His property there is said to have cost between ten and fifteen thousand dollars. -- St. Louis New Era, July 6.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 26, 1844.                                   No. 753.


THE MORMONS. -- Through St. Louis dates of the 14th we have the latest dates from Quincy. -- No outbreaks had ocurred with the Mormons with the exception that while an anti-Mormon was harvesting in his wheat field, he was shot at by some person unknown and wounded. It is the impression at Quincy, that the anti-Mormons are secretly preparing to make an attack upon the Mormons in their city, when they shall have procured sufficient force. They still think it impossible for Mormons and anti-Mormons to live in one county. A paper at Warsaw, under date of the 10th inst., has a long article justifying the late violence! -- Cin. Com.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, July 29, 1844.                                   No. 755.


THE MORMONS. -- Gov. Ford of Illinois has made a requisition on the U. S. Government for 500 troops to be stationed in the neighborhood of Nauvoo, to prevent any bloodshed by the anti-Mormons or the Mormons.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, August 30, 1844.                                   No. 783.


FROM NAUVOO. -- We have intelligence from Nauvoo to the 5th inst. All was quiet. It appears that the reports of the appearance of Joe Smith and the appointment of his son are false, and originated in a desire to injure the Mormons abroad. Sidney Rigdon had returned to Nauvoo from Pittsburg, and preached to the people on the 4th ult. In consequence of the death of Samuel Smith, Joe's brother, since the death of the prophet, Sidney Rigdon will be chosen Patriarch of the Mormon flock. He is their master spirit, and will make a shrewd and energetic leader. There are five widows of the Smith family now living in Nauvoo; the mother of all, and the late wives of Joe, Hyrum, and their two brothers. Accessions to the Mormon strength continue to be quite large. In Nauvoo the usual activity is apparent, and the Temple is steadily going up in its unique form and shape. Its style of architecture is of the pure Mormon order. -- St. Louis Organ.

THE MORMON DISTRICT. -- Brig. Gen. Jno. J. Hardin has been ordered by the Governor to take command of such a militia force as may be necessary to suppress disturbances in Hancock county, if any further disturbances should take place during the short absence of the Governor at the Nashville Convention. -- Illinois Register, Aug 16.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, December 19, 1844.                                   No. 877.


MORMON DIFFICULTIES. -- The Quincy (Illinois) Whig of the 4th inst. says, on the authority of a gentleman from Warsaw, that "on the Thursday evening previous, Gen. Deming, the Sheriff of Hancock, came to Warsaw, with writs for the purpose of apprehending Messrs. Sharpe, Grover, Williams, Aldrich, and others against whom the indictments were found at the late terms of the Hancock Court, for killing the Smiths. The accused, however, kept out of the way of the officers, and the arrest[s] were not made. During the night of Thursday, while Deming was in town, some 30 or 40 Mormons were observed in Warsaw, it is believed with the private understanding of Deming, to aid him in making the arrests. Deming left the next morning, with the intention, as he declared, or returning with sufficient force to search every house in Warsaw. It is supposed if he attempts to carry his threat into execution, the consequences will be serious."

It is said that the movements are in violation of a distinct pledge on the part of the Attorney General of the State, that these men should not be deprived of their liberty before the next term of the Court. We find the following in the Cincinnati Gazette of Dec. 10:

SENATOR DAVIS, OF IILLINOIS. -- This gentleman was 'attempted to be arrested' for the murder of the Smiths last week while on his way to Springfield. It created much excitement -- though regarded a mere political move. A bill was found against him; he applied for a trial; the State refused. But fearing the exposure Senator Davis might make in the Senate, Gov. Ford determined to prevent his taking a seat by arresting him. When will the people of Illinois open their eyes to the base perversion of every interest by her base political hacks. She will have no character at home or abroad, until she does, for if the Judiciary may be thus perverted to political ends, there can be neither safety to persons nor property in the State.

RUMORED MASSACRE OF MORMONS. -- The Warsaw Signal of November 27 gives a report, as from Nauvoo, that a party of Mormons under one Lyman Wight having attacked a trading station about ninety miles from Prairie du Chien, were overcome by the French and Indians and all put to death.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, December 28, 1844.                                   No. 883.


MORMON AND I NDIAN OUTRAGE. -- The Warsaw Signal of the 4th inst. confirms a rumor, put forth the week previous, in relation to the [tact] of Lyman Wight and his band of Mormons, in a fight at a trading station, about ninety miles above Prairie du Chein. It appears that Wright's [sic] band were suffering from want of provisions, but he would not let them disperse over the country to find employment. In order to relieve them, he went to the traders, and finding that they had flour he tried to get some on credit; but was refused. He then took thirty men, and told the traders that if they did not let him have the flour, he would take it. He was defied, and made the attack on the store. The French and Indians fired on his men, and killed four on the spot, and it is supposed that nearly all fell in the retreat.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol III.                                   Buffalo, May 3, 1845.                                   No. 989.


MORMON DISTURBANCE. -- The Mormon settlement in Iowa county in the State of Iowa, was a few days ago in arms, and divided into two parties, threatening each other with destruction. The Sheriff levied a posse to go and rectify the matter if possible. The difficulty is said to have originated in the personal approbation of the money and effects of the company, made by the leader, who had chosen and armed a body guard for his defence.

THE MORMONS. -- It is feared, from present appearances, that there will be a serious disturbance between the Mormons and their enemies before long. It appears that the Governor of Illinois, has received intelligence from two authentic sources that some anti-Mormon forged an order, in the name of Gen. Deming, for a piece of artillery in McDonough county, and that the same has been conveyed, on the authority of this forgery, to the "Carthage Greys," in whose possession it now is. We learn also, that the Gov. has sent an agent to Carthage, to take possession of all the State arms in the hands of these incipient rioters.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol IV.                                   Buffalo, May 5, 1845.                                   No. 990.


THE MORMONS. -- The Warsaw Signal of the 10th inst. contains more "Mormon outrages."

Mr. Madison, a printer and a gentleman, was last week driven from Nauvoo, by a band of ruffians with knives in their hands. Their mode of proceeding was to whistle, hoot, threaten and dog him wherever he went.

Master Foster, a lad whose only crime is that he is the brother of Dr. Foster, was last week taken by force from the residence of C. Ivens, by a band of villains, and escorted from the city -- they kicking and cuffing him occasionally for amusement, in addition to their usually insulting and menacing proceedings.

Mr. Wm. Marks visited Nauvoo from Fort Madison, on business, (having a large amount of property in the city; he was called on instanter by a mob, and threatened that if he did not leave by night he should be tarred and feathered.

Last week, Dr. Charles whose character and respectability will be vouched for by many citizens of Quincy, was ordered to leave Nauvoo, and grossly abused for not leaving.

These are but the proceedings of one week, in Nauvoo, and are of a class with hundreds of others which we have published.

A correspondent of the Tribune, writing from Nauvoo, says -- "Mormonism, instead of exploding, as it was supposed it would, upon the death of the Prophet, Joe Smith, has continued as flourishing as ever. They are fast increasing in power and strength, and they talk openly of defending themselves against every thing that does not suit their notions. Every house has arms in it, and there is scarcely a man who does not carry arms on his person. They permit no process of law to be executed upon the inhabitants of the holy city unless it suits them. No man is permitted to express any opinion here derogatory to the character and standing of the people. If he does so, he is immediately driven out of the city by a Mormon mob."

FROM NAUVOO. -- The Mormons have recently held a "Conference" at Nauvoo, at which it was unanimously decided to continue and sustain the Twelve as the highest authorities in the Church of Latter Day Saints, and the duty of fulfilling the revelations in regard to building the Temple and the Nauvoo House was especially urged. -- Part of a new revolution was submitted on the subject of "blotting out apostates." It was decided to call Nauvoo hereafter the City of Joseph.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol IV.                                   Buffalo, May 8, 1845.                                   No. 993.


==> The colony of Mormons who left Nauvoo and settled far up on the Iowa river, were nearly starved out last winter. One of them went down to Iowa city, 150 miles, and entered a complaint, on behalf of himself and some others, against the leaders of the colony, for unlawfully detaining their property, and for various other crimes, and procured a writ, by virtue of which the Sheriff summoned a posse of seventy men, who armed themselves and proceeded up the river for the Mormon encampment. They had not returned on the 19th April.

Note: This was Mormon leader George M. Hinkle's splinter group. Hinkle's The Ensign was published in Buffalo, Scott Co., Iowa, in 1844-45. Part of his group apparently settled, for a while at least, northwest of Iowa City. See the article in the May 3, 1845 issue of the Courier.


Vol IV.                                   Buffalo, May 12, 1845.                                   No. 996.


==> The anti-Mormon outrages in Hancock county, Ill., continue with such frequency as to keep the citizens in a state of continual anxiety and alarm. J. B. Backenstos, a representative from Hancock, in the last legislature, has been driven from the county by the anti-Mormons, on account of words spoken in debate, and the house of Isaac C. Howe, a justice of the peace in Pilot Grove, was mobbed on Sunday, the 13th ult., because he had openly condemned their illegal proceedings. The outrages are principally committed, says the Illinois State Register, by a band of about 80 men, who have among themselves a perfect organization as lynching committees.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol IV.                                   Buffalo, May 30, 1845.                                   No. 1012.


==> The City of Joseph, Nauvoo, was surrounded at last advices by an excited populace, in consequence of the Mormon elders refusing to deliver up three murderers, one of them an elder, who had taken refuge in the "Holy City."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol IV.                                   Buffalo, June 5, 1845.                                   No. 1017.


==> The Mormons at Nauvoo have sent a memorial to Gov. Owsley of Kentucky, praying him to furnish them an asylum in that state, or if not, to exert his influence to establish them as a people in their civil and religious rights, where they now are, or in some other part of the United States, or "some place remote therefrom." Gov. O. is decidedly in favor of the last named location, but declines to call an extra session of the Kentucky Legislature at present.

FROM HANCOCK COUNTY. -- On the 19th the five persons indicted for killing Joe and Hiram Smith, appeared in court, Judge Young on the bench. They severally entered into their own recognizance, of one thousand dollars each, for their appearance on the 21st, when it was expected that the trial would proceed.

The prosecution is to be conducted by J. G. Lamborn, formerly of St. Louis, now of Jacksonville, Col. W. A. Richardson, of Schuyler county, and speaker of the last House of Representatives, is counsel for the defence.

It was expected that the Mormons would make some disturbances and perhapps interrupt the proceedings of the court, but as they did not appear in much force, if they were inclined, they could effect nothing.

It is thought that the Mormons will not make a very vigorous prosecution, although they have witnesses who are ready to swear to the actual participation of some of the defendants in the death of the Smiths. -- Chicago Journal.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol XI.                                   Buffalo, July ?, 1845.                                   No. ?


It may interest your readers to know the Indian tradition of the origin and consequences of the war between the Five (afterwards "Six") Nations and the powerful nation of "Eries," who inhabited this region of country, before its subjugation by the combined forces of the "Iroquois," and of the stirring scenes which have been enacted on the spot where Buffalo now stands.

The Eries were the most powerful and warlike of all the Indian tribes. They resided at the foot of the great Lake, (Erie,) where now stands the city of Buffalo, the Indian name for which was 'Tu-shu-way.'

When the Eries heard of the confederation which was formed between the Mohawks, who resided in the valley of that name, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, who resided, for the most part, upon the shores and the outlets of the Lakes bearing their names respectively, (called by the French the Iroquois nation,) they imagined it must be for some mischievous purpose. Although confident of their superiority over any one of the tribes inhabiting the countries within the bounds of their knowledge, they dreaded the power of such combined forces. In order to satisfy themselves in regard to the character, disposition, and power, of those they considered their natural enemies, the Eries resorted to the following means.

They sent a friendly message to the Senecas, who were their nearest neighbors, inviting them to select one hundred of their most active, athletic young men, to play a game of ball, against the same number to be selected by the Eries, for a wager which should be considered worthy the occasion, and the character of the great nation, in whose behalf the offer was made.

The message was received and entertained in the most respectful manner. A council of the "Five Nations" was called, and the proposition full discussed, and a messenger in due time dispatched with the decision of the council, respectfully declining the challenge. This emboldened the Eries, and the next year the offer was renewed, and, after being again considered, again formally declined. This was far from satisfying the proud lords of the "Great Lake," and the challenge was renewed the third time. The blood of the young Iroquois could no longer be restrained. They importuned the old men to allow them to accept the challenge. The wise councils which had hitherto prevailed, at last gave way, and the challenge was accepted.

Nothing could exceed the enthusiasm with which each tribe sent forth its chosen champions for the contest. The only difficulty seemed to be, to make a selection, where all were so worthy. After much delay, one hundred of the flower of all the tribes were finally designated, and the day for their departure was fixed. An experience chief was chosen as the leader of the party, whose orders the young men were strictly enjoined to obey. A grand council was called, and in the presence of the assembled multitude, the party was charged, in the most solemn manner, to observe a pacific course of conduct towards their competitors, and the nation whose guests they were to become, and to allow no provocation, however great, to be resented by any act of aggression on their part, but in all respects to acquit themselves worthy the representatives of a great and powerful people, anxious to cultivate peace and friendship with their neighbors.

Under these solemn injunctions, the party took up its line of march for "Tu-shu-way". When the chosen band had arrived in the vicinity of the point of their destination, a messenger was sent forward to notify the Eries of their arrival, and the next day was set apart for their grand entree.

The elegant and athletic forms, the tasteful, yet not cumbrous dress, the dignified, noble bearing of their chief, and more than all, the modest demeanor of the young warriors of the Iroquois party, won the admiration of all beholders. They brought no arms. Each one bore a bat, used to throw or strike a ball, tastefully ornamented, being a hickory stick about five feet long, bent over at the end, and a thong netting wove into the bow. After a day of repose and refreshment, all things were arranged for the contest. The chief of the Iroquois brought forward and deposited upon the ground, a large pile of elegantly wrought belts of wampum, costly jewels, silver bands, beautifully ornamented moccasins, an other articles of great value in the eyes of the sons of the forest, as the stake, or wager on the part of his people. These were carefully matched by the Eries with articles of equal value -- article by article, tied together and again deposited on the pile.

The game began, and although contested with desperation and great skill by the Eries, was won by the Iroquois, and they bore off the prize in triumph -- thus ended the first day.

The Iroquois having now accomplished the object of their visit, proposed to take their leave, but the chief of the Eries, addressing himself to their leader, said their young men, though fairly beaten in the game of ball, would not be satisfied unless they could have a foot race, and proposed to match ten of their number, against an equal number of the Iroquois, which was assented to, and the Iroquois were again victorious. The "Kaukwas," who resided on the Eighteen Mile Creek, being present as friends and allies of the Eries, now invited the Iroquois party to visit them, before they returned home, and thither the whole party repaired. The chief of the Eries, as a last trial of the courage and prowess of his guests, proposed to select ten men, to be matched by an equal number of the Iroquois party, to wrestle -- and that the victor should despatch his adversary on the spot, by braining him with a tomahawk, and bearing off his scalp as a trophy.

This sanguinary proposition was not at all pleasing to the Iroquois. They however concluded to accept the challenge, with a determination, should they be victorious, not to execute the bloody part of the proposition. The champions were accordingly chosen -- a Seneca was the first to step into the ring, and threw his adversary, amid the shouts of the multitude. He stepped back, and declined to execute his victim who lay passive at his feet. As quick as thought, the chief of the Eries seized the tomahawk, and at a single blow scattered the brains of his vanquished warrior over the ground. His body was dragged away, and another champion of the Eries presented himself; he was as quickly thrown by his more powerful antagonist of the Iroquois party, and as quickly dispatched by the infuriated chief. A third met the same fate.

The chief of the Iroquois party, seeing the terrible excitement which agitated the multitude, gave a signal to retreat. Every man obeyed the signal, and in an instant they were out of sight.

In two hours they arrived in Tu-shu-way, gathered up the trophies of their victories, and were on their way home.

This visit of the hundred warriors of the five nations, and its result, only served to increase the jealousy of the Eries, and to convince them that they had powerful rivals to contend with. It was no part of their policy, to cultivate friendship and strengthen their own power of cultivating peace with other tribes.

They knew of no mode of securing peace to themselves, but by exterminating all who might oppose them; but the combination of several powerful tribes, any of whom might be almost an equal match for them, and of whose personal prowess they had seen such an exhibition, inspired the Eries with the most anxious forebodings. To cope with them collectively they saw was impossible. Their only hope, therefore, was in being able, by a vigorous and sudden movement, to destroyed them in detail. With this view, a powerful war party was immediately organized to attack the Senecas, who resided at the foot of Seneca Lake (the present site of Geneva,) and along the banks of the Seneca river. It happened that at this period, there resided among the Eries a Seneca woman, who in early life had been taken prisoner, and had married a husband of the Erie tribe. He died and left her a widow without children, a stranger among strangers. Seeing the terrible note of preparation for a bloody onslaught upon her kindred and friends, she formed the resolution of appraising them of their danger. As soon as night set in, taking the course of the Niagara river she traveled all night, and early next morning reached the shore of Lake Ontario. She jumped into a canoe, which she found fastened to a tree, and boldly pushed into the open lake.

Coasting down the lake, she arrived at the mouth of the Oswego river in the night, where a large settlement of the nation resided.

She directed her steps to the house of the head chief, and disclosed the object of her journey. She was secreted by the chief, and runners were dispatched to all the tribes, summoning them immediately to meet in Council, which was held at Onondaga Hollow.

When all were convened the chief arose, and in the most solemn manner rehearsed a vision, in which he said a beautiful bird appeared to him and told him that a great war party of the Eries, was preparing to make a secret and sudden descent upon them and destroy them; that nothing could save them, but an immediate rally of all warriors of the five nations, to meet the enemy before they could be able to strike the blow. These solemn announcements were heard in breathless silence. -- When the chief had finished and sat down, there arose one immense yell of menacing madness. The earth shook, when the mighty mass brandished high in the air their war clubs, and stamped the ground like furious beasts.

No time was to be lost; a body of five thousand warriors was organized, and a corps of reserve consisting of one thousand young men, who had never been in battle. The bravest chiefs from all the tribes were put in command, and spies immediately sent out in search of the enemy, the whole body taking up a line of march in the direction from whence they expected the attack.

The advance of the war party was continued for several days, passing through successively the settlements of their friends, the Onondagas, the Cayugas and the Senecas; but had scarcely passed the last wigwam, near the foot of Ca-an-da-gua (Canandaigua) Lake, when their scouts brought in intelligence of the advance of the Eries, who had already crossed the Ce-nis-se-u -- (Genesee) River in great force. The Eries had not the slightest intimation of the approach of their enemies. They relied upon the secrecy and celerity of their movements to surprise and subdue the Senecas almost without resistance.

The two parties met, at a point about half way between the foot of Canandiagua Lake and the Genesee River and near the outlet of two small lakes, near the foot of one of which (the Honeoye,) the battle was fought. When the two parties came in sight of each other, the outlet of the lakes only intervened between them.

The entire force of the five confederate tribes was not in view of the Eries. The reserve corps of one thousand young men had not been allowed to advance in sight of the enemy. Nothing could resist the impetuosity of the Eries, at first sight of an opposing force on the other side of the stream. They rushed through it, and fell upon them with tremendous fury. The undaunted courage and determined bravery of the Iroquois could not avail against such a terrible onslaught, and they were compelled to yield the ground on the bank of the stream. The whole force of the combined tribes, except the corps of reserve, now became engaged; they fought hand to hand and foot to foot; the battle raged horribly. No quarter was asked or given on either side.

As the fight thickened and became more desperate, the Eries, for the first time, became sensible of their true situation. What they had long anticipated had become a fearful reality. Their enemies had combined for their destruction, and they now found themselves engaged suddenly and unexpectedly in a struggle involving not only the glory but perhaps the very existence of their nation.

They were proud, and had hitherto been victorious over all their enemies. Their superiority was felt and acknowledged by all the tribes; they knew how to conquer, but not to yield. All these considerations flashed upon the minds of the bold Eries, and nerved every arm with almost superhuman power. On the other hand, the united forces of the weaker tribes, now made strong by union, fired with a spirit of emulation, excited to the highest pitch among the warriors of the different tribes, brought for the first time to act in concert, inspired with zeal and confidence by the counsels of the wisest chiefs, and led on by the most experienced warriors of all the tribes, the Iroquois were invincible.

Though staggered by the first desperate rush of their opponents, they rallied at once, and stood their ground. And now the din of battle rises higher, the war-club, the tomahawk, the scalping knife, wielded by herculean hands, do terrible deeds of death. During the hottest of the battle, which was fierce and long, the corps of reserve, consisting of one thousand young men, were, by a skillful movement under their experienced chief, placed in the rear of the Eries, on the opposite side of the stream, in ambush.

The Eries had been driven seven times across the stream, and had as often regained their ground, but the eighth time, at a given signal, from their chief, the corps of young warriors in ambush, rushed upon the almost exhausted Eries, with a tremendous yell, and at once decided the fortunes of the day. Hundreds, disdaining to fly, were struck down by the war-clubs of the vigorous young warriors, whose thirst for the blood of the enemy knew no bounds. A few of the vanquished Eries escaped, to carry the news of the terrible overthrow to their wives and children, and their old men, who remained at home. But the victors did not allow them a moment's repose, but pursued them in their flight, killing without discrimination all who fell into their hands. The pursuit was continued for many weeks, and it was five months before the victorious war party of the Five Nations returned to their friends, to join in celebrating the victory over their last and most powerful enemy, the Eries.

Tradition adds, that many years after, a powerful war party of the descendants of the Eries came from beyond the Mississippi, ascended the Ohio, crossed the country, and attacked the Senecas who had settled in the seat of their fathers at "Tu-shu-way." A great battle was fought near the present site of the Indian Mission House, in which the Eries were again defeated, and slain to a man, and their bones lie bleaching in the sun to the present day, a monument at once of the indomitable courage of the "terrible Eries," and their brave conquerors, the Senecas.

[...This story's] accuracy may be implicitly relied upon, every detail having been taken from the lips of Blacksnake, and other venerable chiefs of the Senecas and Tonawandas, who still cherish the traditions of their fathers. Near the Mission House, on the Reservation adjoining this city, can be seen a small mound, evidently artificial, that is said to contain the remains of the unfortunate Eries, slain in their last great battle. The Indians hereabouts believe that a small remnant of the Eries still exist beyond the Mississippi. The small tribe known as the Qua paws in that region, are also believed to be remains of the Kauk-was, the allies of the Eries.

Note 1: The exact date of the above article has not yet been determined. The text is taken from a reprint which appeared in the Anglo American of Oct 18, 1845.

Note 2: The Commercial Advertiser's article on the "Destruction of the Eries" was reprinted in Charles Whittlesey's 1867 book, The Early History of Cleveland. There Whittlesey adds the following comment: "Blacksnake was living in 1860, and resided upon the Allegheny river above Warren, in Pennsylvania. He was then more than a century and a quarter old. His form was scarcely human; shrivelled, bent and helpless; but he was able to converse intelligibly, his memory reaching back the days when the French first descended that river to the Ohio. His narrative possesses that exquisite interest of which history is capable, when it is written fresh from the lips of those who form a part of it."

Note 3: From the Commercial Advertiser the story of the destruction of the Erie nation passed into several local historical publications, including the 1879 Historical Album of Orleans County, New York, and William Brothers' 1878 History of Ashtabula County, Ohio, where it appears among the Rev. S. D. Peet's contributions telling of "The Indians of Ashtabula County," in Chapter 7.

Note 4: Who Ki-eu-wa-nah was, or how the Seneca tradition came to be recorded in English idiom, history does not record. Governor Blacksnake was a relative and contemporary of Cornplanter, another Seneca leader who related numerous Indian traditions for the non-Indian audience. Governor Blacksnake died at the end of 1859 and was at least a decade beyond 100 years in age at the time of his passing. Thus, the 1845 Commercial Advertiser version of the "Destruction of the Eries" may have been first set down in English prose even before the dawning of the 19th century -- just as some of Cornplanter's published accounts date back to that early day. The legend passed on by "Ki-eu-wa-nah" (possibly Benjamin Williams, a literate Seneca who acted as scribe for Blacksnake during the 1840s) contains a number of interesting similarities, in theme and phraseology, with the known writings of Solomon Spalding, and with some sections of the Book of Mormon. It is not beyond the pale of possibility that Spalding himself was its author -- though when, where and how he might have written such a story remains to be accounted for. A related discussion regarding Spalding and ancient Indians may be found on "The Conneaut Giants" web-page. For more on Iroquois legends, see David Cusik's 1827 book.

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